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1.
Nutrients ; 16(12)2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38931175

RESUMO

Cancer therapy, from malignant tumor inhibition to cellular eradication treatment, remains a challenge, especially regarding reduced side effects and low energy consumption during treatment. Hence, phytochemicals as cytotoxic sensitizers or photosensitizers deserve special attention. The dark and photo-response of Yemenite 'Etrog' leaf extracts applied to prostate PC3 cancer cells is reported here. An XTT cell viability assay along with light microscope observations revealed pronounced cytotoxic activity of the extract for long exposure times of 72 h upon concentrations of 175 µg/mL and 87.5 µg/mL, while phototoxic effect was obtained even at low concentration of 10.93 µg/mL and a short introduction period of 1.5 h. For the longest time incubation of 72 h and for the highest extract concentration of 175 µg/mL, relative cell survival decreased by up to 60% (below the IC50). In combined phyto-photodynamic therapy, a reduction of 63% compared to unirradiated controls was obtained. The concentration of extract in cells versus the accumulation time was inversely related to fluorescence emission intensity readings. Extracellular ROS production was also shown. Based on an ATR-FTIR analysis of the powdered leaves and their liquid ethanolic extract, biochemical fingerprints of both polar and non-polar phyto-constituents were identified, thereby suggesting their implementation as phyto-medicine and phyto-photomedicine.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência Celular , Fotoquimioterapia , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Folhas de Planta/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Células PC-3 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Iêmen , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia
2.
Parasitol Res ; 123(6): 256, 2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38935203

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a neglected tropical disease, is a major public health concern in Yemen, with Leishmania tropica identified as the main causative agent. This study aims to investigate the occurrence and distribution of Leishmania parasites in domestic and wild animals in CL endemic areas in the western highlands of Yemen. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Utmah District of western Yemen. Blood and skin scraping specimens were collected from 122 domestic and wild animals and tested for the Leishmania DNA using internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) nested polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on 20 L. tropica sequences obtained from animals in this study and 34 sequences from human isolates (collected concurrently from the same study area) retrieved from the GenBank. Overall, L. tropica was detected in 16.4% (20/122) of the examined animals, including 11 goats, two dogs, two bulls, one cow, one donkey, one rabbit, one rat and one bat. None of the examined cats and sheep was positive. The animal sequences were segregated into four different L. tropica haplotypes, with the majority of the animal (15/20) and human (32/34) sequences composed of one dominant haplotype/genotype. These findings represent the first confirmed evidence of natural L. tropica infections in different kinds of domestic and wild animals in western Yemen, suggesting these animals potentially have a role in the transmission of CL in Yemen. Therefore, a One Health approach is required for the effective prevention and control of this devastating disease among endemic populations.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Leishmania tropica , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Saúde Única , Filogenia , Animais , Leishmania tropica/genética , Leishmania tropica/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania tropica/classificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/veterinária , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Iêmen/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/veterinária , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Masculino
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(7): 1467-1471, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38916721

RESUMO

We detected malaria vector Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes in the Al Hudaydah governorate in Yemen by using DNA sequencing. We report 2 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I haplotypes, 1 previously found in Ethiopia, Somalia, Djibouti, and Yemen. These findings provide insight into invasive An. stephensi mosquitoes in Yemen and their connection to East Africa.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Anopheles/parasitologia , Anopheles/classificação , Iêmen , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Humanos , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Haplótipos , Malária/transmissão , Malária/epidemiologia , Filogenia
4.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304209, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838036

RESUMO

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a hematological malignancy that requires effective pharmacotherapy for optimal management. There is limited information regarding Yemeni clinicians' knowledge and practice of NHL pharmacotherapy. This study aims to assess the knowledge and practice of physicians and nurses in Yemen regarding pharmacotherapy of NHL. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Sana'a, Yemen, from January 1, 2022, to January 31, 2023. Two self-administrated and validated questionnaires were distributed to 99 physicians and 164 nurses involved in pharmacotherapy for NHL in different oncology centers and units across Yemen. Convenience samples were used to recruit participants. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with nurses' and physicians' knowledge and practice. The correlation coefficient was used to examine the relationship between knowledge and practice. A total of 77 physicians and 105 nurses completed the questionnaires. The results showed that 54.3% of nurses and 66.2% of physicians had poor knowledge of NHL pharmacotherapy. In terms of practice, 83.8% of nurses and 75.3% of physicians exhibited poor practice regarding NHL pharmacotherapy. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified that nurses who received sufficient information about chemotherapy displayed a significant association with good knowledge, while nurses working in the chemotherapy administration department were significant predictors of good practice. Among physicians, those working in the National Oncology Center (NOC) in Sana'a demonstrated good practice. Correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between nurses' knowledge and their practice. The study's results confirm deficiencies in knowledge and practice of pharmacotherapy for NHL among physicians and nurses in Yemen. Efforts should be made to enhance their understanding of treatment guidelines and to improve patient care. Improvement in educational programs and training opportunities may contribute to improving patient outcomes in the management of NHL.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Linfoma não Hodgkin , Humanos , Iêmen , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Competência Clínica , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 422, 2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the most effective ways to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality is to improve mother and newborn health via the provision of appropriate postnatal care services by qualified healthcare providers. However, there is limited information on the use of postnatal care services in Yemen. This study aimed to determine the utilisation of postnatal care services among mothers in Yemen. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the Maeen District of Sana'a City, Yemen from December 2022 to January 2023. Convenience sampling was employed to recruit 321 participants. Semi-structured questionnaires were applied as the study tool in the face-to-face survey. RESULT: Less than half (45.2%) of the study participants utilised postnatal care services in this study. The mode of delivery, place of delivery, and receiving information about postnatal care during antenatal visits were significantly associated with postnatal care service utilisation. CONCLUSION: Less than half of the study participants were informed about postnatal care services, contributing to their low utilisation. Thus, it is vital to strengthen the provision of information, education, and communication with regard to postnatal care services among pregnant mothers visiting antenatal clinics.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Humanos , Iêmen , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Gravidez , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12662, 2024 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830983

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a neglected tropical disease (NTD), is a major public health problem in Yemen with widespread distribution in rural areas. Evaluating the knowledge and understanding of people's beliefs towards the disease is essential to the implementation of effective control measures. This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices (KAP) and treatment-seeking behaviour concerning CL among rural populations in the western highlands of Yemen. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 289 household heads in four rural areas of the Utmah District. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. All the participants had heard about the disease; however, only 9.3% attributed it to sandflies. Nearly half (48.1%) of the participants could not mention any preventive measures for CL, and nearly two-thirds (65.4%) could not do so for sandflies. The overall 'good' knowledge about CL was found to be 51.2%, and it was 33.9% for sandflies. The participants' attitude and prevention practices towards CL were not satisfactory, as only 38.1% and 16.3% had a positive attitude and good CL-related prevention practices, respectively. Moreover, 45.7% believed CL to be a stigmatising disease, and 50% had used traditional remedies to treat suspected CL lesions. Multivariate analyses showed that age, sex, presence of CL-confirmed cases in the same household, residency, occupation and monthly household income were the significant predictors associated with KAP concerning CL among the participants. The findings support an urgent need for integrated health education and community mobilisation interventions to improve awareness of these vulnerable populations about this devastating disease.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Leishmaniose Cutânea , População Rural , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/psicologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/prevenção & controle , Iêmen/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Doenças Endêmicas
7.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 20(1): 62, 2024 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38898489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The traditional knowledge in southern Yemen is rich in wild medicinal and food plants, which has been documented in our previous studies. In addition, other significant and general traditional usage for the daily livelihood requirements of local people (beyond medicinal and food plant uses) has not been studied before and needs urgent documentation. METHODS: Ethnobotanical data on of wild plants used by local people in southern Yemen were collected by oral questionnaire interviews. Most informants (n = 1020) were local elderly from 15 different localities in southern Yemen. The local names and non-medicinal and non-food uses of plants were identified and analyzed. RESULTS: The ethnobotanical data resulted various traditional uses of 73 plant species distributed in 28 families. The most represented families were Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Malvaceae. The most growth forms were trees and shrubs. Seven main and common categories of traditional uses were determined and classified as handicraft, health aids, livestock husbandry and beekeeping, economic and commercial plant products, agriculture tools, construction timber and fuel. The most cited species were identified for Ziziphus spina-christi, Vachellia tortilis, Vachellia nilotica, Anisotes trisulcus, Dracaena hanningtonii (Sansevieria ehrenbergii) and Aerva javanica, which have multi-purpose values of traditional usage. Nine major traditional uses of local wild plants were recorded: handicraft, agriculture tools, products aid general health, economic products, construction timber, livestock husbandry, bee keeping, fuel and ornamental. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the challenges on local traditional knowledge of wild plants, it still requested vital to many usages of traditional life and still have an economic value and heritage required of develop the daily livelihood level of the local people especially in rural areas. This includes the traditional uses of wild plants in handicraft skills, tools of agriculture, constructions. The importance of the continuity of traditional industries and their transmission to generations lies in the local population's reliance on local natural resources without relying on external resources in situations such as wars. This is the first study that contributes to documenting and analyzing the indigenous knowledge on traditional general usage of wild plants in southern Yemen.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Plantas Medicinais , Iêmen , Humanos , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Masculino , Feminino , Plantas Comestíveis , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Adulto , Conhecimento , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 695, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer (CxCa), although preventable, is still among the most prevalent cancers in women. Mortality from this cancer is high, especially in low-income countries where preventive strategies are often lacking. We studied the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding CxCa among Yemeni women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2019 among 399 women in five major hospitals in Sanaa, the capital city of Yemen. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using structured questionnaires. We used logistic regression models to analyze the likelihood of hearing about CxCa, believing that CxCa is treatable and preventable, awareness of the Pap smear test, and ever having this test, in relation to participant's age, education level, working outside the household, and family history of CxCa. RESULTS: Only 66.7% of the women had heard of CxCa. Women with higher education, working outside the household, and with a family history of CxCa were more likely to be aware of CxCa. Working outside the household was the only variable related to a higher likelihood of knowing that CxCa is a treatable and preventable. Furthermore, women with a family history of CxCa were more likely to have knowledge about Pap smear test and were more likely to have Pap smear test in the past. CONCLUSION: This study identified a low awareness of CxCa and its prevention among Yemeni women. In order to reduce the burden of CxCa in Yemen and save women's lives, it is necessary to raise women's awareness of this disease, especially among those with lower education and those not involved in work outside their homes.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Iêmen/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Papanicolaou , Adulto Jovem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Esfregaço Vaginal/psicologia , Idoso
9.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 18(4): 579-586, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728636

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae cause a significant global health challenge. We aimed to determine nasopharyngeal carriage, serotypes distribution, and antimicrobial profile of pneumococci among the children of Aden. METHODOLOGY: A total of 385 children, aged 2-17 years, were included. Asymptomatic samples were randomly collected from children in selected schools and vaccination centers. Symptomatic samples were obtained from selected pediatric clinics. The nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for pneumococci using culture and real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Serotyping was done with a pneumotest-latex kit and antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disc diffusion and Epsilometer test. RESULTS: The total pneumococcal carriage was 44.4% and 57.1% by culture and RT-PCR, respectively. There was a statistically significant association between carriage rate and living in single room (OR = 7.9; p = 0.00001), sharing a sleeping space (OR = 15.1; p = 0.00001), and low monthly income (OR = 2.02; p = 0.007). The common serotypes were 19, 1, 4, 5, 2, and 23. The proportion of non-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (non-PCV13) serotypes was 24%. Pneumococci were resistant to penicillin (96.5%), cefepime (15.8%), ceftriaxone (16.4%), and amoxicillin-clavulanate (0%). Erythromycin, azithromycin, and doxycycline had resistance rates of 48%, 31%, and 53.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A high pneumococcal carriage rate was observed in Yemeni children, particularly in low-income households and shared living conditions. There was significant penicillin resistance at meningitis breakpoint. Furthermore, non-PCV13 serotypes were gradually replacing PCV13 serotypes. The findings underscore the urgent need for enhanced surveillance and stewardship to improve vaccination and antibiotic policies in Yemen.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio , Nasofaringe , Infecções Pneumocócicas , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Sorogrupo , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vacinas Conjugadas , Humanos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Iêmen/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sorotipagem
11.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 962, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current cancer epidemiological profile in Yemen suffers from a lack of locally representative data and resources, posing a challenge in determining the real incidence, prevalence, survival and mortality rates, particularly data extracted from national hospitals. This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the cancer burden and trends in Yemen for 2020, including incidence and mortality rates. METHODS: The current study provides cancer statistics and their trends in Yemen, including incidence and mortality, in 2020 by using descriptive statistics. The data was obtained using the Global Cancer Observatory (GCO) 2020 online database. RESULTS: According to the (GCP) database in 2020, the crude incidence rate (CIR) of all cancers in Yemen was 55.2 per 100.000. The age-standardized rate (ASR) was 97.0 per 100.000, and the cumulative risk (0-74) was 22.0 per 100.000. The age-standardized rate (ASR) was 76.5 per 100.000, and the cumulative risk (0-74) was 19.6 per 100.000. Furthermore, the crude mortality rate (CIR) of all cancers was 40.6 per 100.000. Breast cancer was most prevalent in Yemen across all age groups and genders (31.1%), followed by colorectal cancer (7.7%) and leukemia (5.7%). Breast cancer also ranked as the primary cause of mortality at an estimated percentage of 13.5%, followed by colorectal cancer (8.8%) and stomach cancer (7.1%). CONCLUSION: Cancer has become a significant life-threatening illness in Yemen with an increase in the disease burden of breast cancer in women. Furthermore, leukemia in children and colorectal cancer in both sexes have experienced a more significant burden as well. Therefore, it is imperative for initiatives for cancer control and prevention to be prioritised at national and regional levels.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Colorretais , Leucemia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Incidência , Sistema de Registros , Iêmen/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso
12.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301417, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578732

RESUMO

Medication therapy management (MTM) refers to the activities provided by pharmacists that patients recognize as evidence of care being provided. It encompasses the services that patients value and consider valuable. Many developing nations like Yemen have had poor implementation of MTM services. Thus, this research assessed the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) of Yemen pharmacists regarding MTM. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire among pharmacists in Sana'a, Yemen. They were recruited through convenience sampling. The alpha level of 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Four hundred and sixty-one (461) pharmacists completed the questionnaire. About 70% were working in community pharmacies and 57.3% had (1-5) years of experience in pharmacy practice. The younger pharmacists had a higher level of knowledge than pharmacists with older age with median and IQR of 1.2(1.2-1.4) and 1.2(1-1.4) respectively (p < 0.001). Yemen pharmacists have positive attitudes toward MTM indicating a moderated level of attitudes with a median and IQR of 3.8(3.5-4). Hospital pharmacists expressed more positive attitudes toward MTM (P < 0.001) than pharmacists from other areas of practice. Only 11% of sampled pharmacists frequently offered MTM services. The top MTM service reported by Yemen pharmacists was "Performing or obtaining necessary assessments of the patient's health status". However, "Formulating a medication treatment plan" received the least provided MTM service among Yemen pharmacists. Even though MTM services are not commonly utilized in pharmacy practice, Yemeni pharmacists have positive attitudes concerning MTM. Efforts are needed to enhance their MTM knowledge and the value of providing MTM services as well as to develop a culture of continuing pharmacy education about MTM among pharmacists.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso , Humanos , Farmacêuticos , Estudos Transversais , Iêmen , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 321, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreaks of circulating Vaccine Derived Polio Viruses (cVDPVs) have emerged as a major challenge for the final stage of polio eradication. In Yemen, an explosive outbreak of cVDPV2 was reported from August 2021 to December 2022. This study aims to compare the patterns of cVDPV2 outbreak, response measures taken by health authorities, and impacts in southern and northern governorates. METHOD: A retrospective descriptive study of confirmed cases of VDPV2 was performed. The data related to cVDPV2 as well as stool specimens and environmental samples that were shipped to WHO-accredited labs were collected by staff of surveillance. Frequencies and percentages were used to characterize and compare the confirmed cases from the southern and northern governorates. The average delayed time as a difference in days between the date of sample collection and lab confirmation was calculated. RESULTS: The cVDPV2 was isolated from 227 AFP cases reported from 19/23 Yemeni governorates and from 83% (39/47) of environmental samples with an average of 7 months delayed from sample collection. However, the non-polio AFP (NPAFP) and adequate stool specimen rates in the north were 6.7 and 87% compared to 6.4 and 87% in the south, 86% (195) and 14%(32) out of the total 227 confirmed cases were detected from northern and southern governorates, respectively. The first and second cases of genetically linked isolates experienced paralysis onset on 30 August and 1st September 2021. They respectively were from Taiz and Marib governorates ruled by southern authorities that started vaccination campaigns as a response in February 2022. Thus, in contrast to 2021, the detected cases in 2022 from the total cases detected in the south were lower accounting for 22% (7 of 32) of compared to 79% (155 of 195) of the total cases the north. CONCLUSION: A new emerging cVDPV2 was confirmed in Yemen. The result of this study highlighted the impact of vaccination campaigns in containing the cVDPV2 outbreak. Maintaining a high level of immunization coverage and switching to nOPV2 instead of tOPV and mOPV2 in campaigns are recommended and environmental surveillance should be expanded in such a risky country.


Assuntos
Poliomielite , Poliovirus , Humanos , Iêmen/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , alfa-Fetoproteínas , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vacina Antipólio Oral , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7536, 2024 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553516

RESUMO

The stool antigen test (SAT) and the serum Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) IgG antibody assays exhibit significant utility in the clinical diagnosis of H. pylori infection and in distinguishing between acute and chronic infections. The main objective of the current study was to identify the diagnostic value of serum H. pylori IgG antibody and SAT in the detection of H. pylori infections among chronic H. pylori-infected patients residing in Ibb Governorate, Yemen. 200 patients with H. pylori infection, confirmed through positive results in the serum immunochromatographic antibody test, were selected for H. pylori infection confirmation using serum H. pylori IgG antibodies and SAT across diverse hospitals, gastroenterology, and Hepatology clinics in Ibb Governorate. After the selection of patients, blood and stool specimens were obtained from all participants and underwent analysis via the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The prevalence of H. pylori infection demonstrated variability based on the confirmatory tests, with rates of 54% for SAT and 78.5% for serum H. pylori IgG antibody, contrasting with a 100% prevalence observed in the screening serum immunochromatographic antibody test. Clinically, the study categorized H. pylori infections into four stages, whereby a significant proportion of patients (40.5%) exhibited positivity for both serum H. pylori IgG antibody and SAT, indicative of active chronic infections. The majority of positive cases only manifested serum H. pylori IgG antibody presence (chronic infections) at 38%, whereas 13.5% exclusively tested positive for SAT, corresponding to acute infections. Moreover, 88% of patients did not have either serum H. pylori IgG antibody or SAT (absence of infections) during confirmatory tests. Noteworthy is the study's approach employing multiple tests for H. pylori infection detection, focusing predominantly on chronic infections-prevailing types caused by H. pylori. The results revealed a significant association between serum levels of H. pylori IgG antibody and SAT results with the presence of diverse gastrointestinal symptoms among patients, which increased with long H. pylori infection durations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G , Iêmen/epidemiologia , Infecção Persistente , Testes Sorológicos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Antígenos de Bactérias/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
J Affect Disord ; 352: 366-370, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical students may experience mental health disorders like anxiety and depression during medical school, which can negatively impact their productivity, education, and overall quality of life. Currently, there are no studies examining the mental health of medical students in Yemen. Our study aimed to estimate prevalence of depression and anxiety among Yemeni medical students. METHODS: The study utilized a cross-sectional design. A survey was conducted using validated psychometric tests: the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for depression and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) for anxiety. A survey of medical students from 10 Yemeni medical schools took place from June 6 to July 20, 2023. It included only actively enrolled students in the 7-year undergraduate program. RESULTS: A total of 706 responses were collected. The prevalence of depression was 48.4 % for cases classified as moderate, moderately severe, and severe, while it was 20 % for cases categorized as moderately severe and severe. The rate of suicide ideation was 14.7 %. Anxiety was found to have a prevalence of 34.8 % for cases categorized as moderate and severe. Furthermore, both depression and anxiety were higher among females, and in earlier academic years; all of these associations had a p-value <0.05. Conversely, age, living status, income stability, and displacement risk all showed no significant association with depression or anxiety. CONCLUSION: Our study highlighted the prevalence of depression and anxiety among Yemeni medical students. Tailored interventions are imperative to address these challenges. Future research needs to examine the root causes that might contribute to these disorders.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Iêmen/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia
16.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 18(1): 66-74, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377087

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The emergence of cholera in 2016 in Yemen, worsened the morbidity and mortality of diarrheal diseases, particularly among children under five. Multiple outbreaks in Yemen are triggered by years of conflict and the collapse of basic infrastructure including water supply and sanitation systems. This study aims to assess factors associated with the cholera outbreak, in a cholera-prone region, in Al-Mahweet, Yemen. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a multivariate analysis of the data collected through a household survey of 384 households in Al-Mahweet, Yemen. RESULTS: Families with children under five years, large households, and those living in Al Mahweet district were associated with a higher incidence of cholera. Water treatment by boiling, filtering, and chlorination as a protective practice against cholera showed a borderline significance, while other WASH practices including regular hand washing, open defection, safe water source, and improved sanitation facilities were statistically insignificant. Community awareness of cholera transmission and prevention measures showed no association with cholera incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that living conditions, including large households and lack of access to treated water, increase the risk of cholera. Interventions to increase access to treated water and improve the hygienic conditions of large households are of central importance. Affected communities must receive effective educational campaigns that are adjusted to change hygienic practices and improve knowledge of cholera transmission and protection measures.


Assuntos
Cólera , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Iêmen/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Saneamento , Abastecimento de Água
17.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298603, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When the COVID-19 pandemic was declared, Yemen, a country facing years of conflict had only one laboratory with PCR testing capacity. In this article, we describe the outcome of the implementation of molecular based diagnostics platform in Yemen and highlight the key milestones the country went through to increase access to testing for its populations residing in a geographically vast and politically divided country. METHODS: A retrospective assessment of COVID-19 laboratory response activities was done detailing the needs assessment process, timelines, geographical coverage, and outcomes of the activities. Laboratory data was analyzed to construct the geographical locations of COVID-19 testing laboratories and the numbers of tests performed in each facility to highlight the demands of testing for travelers. Finally, we discuss the impact these activities had in enabling the movement of people across international borders for economic gains and in delivery of critical humanitarian aid. OUTCOME: PCR testing capacities in Yemen significantly improved, from one laboratory in Sanaa in April 2020 to 18 facilities across the country by June 2022. In addition, the number of functional Real-Time PCR thermocyclers increased from one to 32, the PCR tests output per day improved from 192 to 6144 tests per day. Results from analysis of laboratory data showed there were four peaks of COVID-19 in Yemen as October 2022. The majority of laboratory tests were performed for travelers than for medical or public health reasons. Demand for laboratory testing in Yemen was generally low and waned over time as the perceived risk of COVID-19 declined, in parallel with rollout of the COVID-19 vaccines. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: The successful expansion of laboratory testing capacity was instrumental in the control and management of COVID-19 cases and critical in the implementation of public response strategies, including restrictions on gathering. Laboratory testing also facilitated the movement of humanitarian agencies and delivery of aid and enabled hundreds of thousands of Yemeni nationals to travel internationally. By virtue of these outcomes, the impact of laboratory strengthening activities was thus felt in the health sector and beyond.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , Iêmen/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Laboratórios , Emergências , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1005, 2024 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38200206

RESUMO

The development of erythrocyte alloantibodies complicates transfusion therapy in ß thalassemia major patients. These antibodies increase the need for blood and intensify transfusion complications. Data on erythrocyte alloimmunization is scarce in Yemeni thalassemia patients. We studied the frequency of alloimmunization in multitransfused ß-thalassemia major patients and investigated risk factors that affect antibody formation. Blood samples were taken from 100 ß thalassemia major patients who received multitransfused leukodepleted packed red-blood cells. Antibody screening and identification were performed by indirect antiglobulin test using the gel column technique. All patients were tested for autoantibodies using autocontrol and direct antiglobulin test. No adsorption test was done as no autoantibodies were detected in any patient. In our study of 100 ß-thalassemia patients, 50 were male and 50 were female with ages ranging from 1 to 30 years. Alloantibodies were present in 6% of patients, while no autoantibodies were detected. Of the 17 alloantibodies identified, the majority were directed against Kell (41.2%) and Rh (29.4%) blood groups. Alloimmunization was significantly associated with age group and sex (p = 0.013, p = 0.030), respectively in ß thalassemia major patients. The development of alloantibodies was not significantly associated with duration, total number of transfusions and splenectomy (P = 0.445, P = 0.125, P = 0.647). No autoantibodies found in patients with ß thalassemia major. The study found low rates of erythrocyte alloimmunization in multitransfused ß-thalassemia major patients, but significant alloantibodies were produced primarily from Kell and Rh blood groups, suggesting the need for providing phenotypically matched cells for selective antigens to improve transfusion efficiency.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , Talassemia beta , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Talassemia beta/terapia , Iêmen , Isoanticorpos , Eritrócitos , Autoanticorpos
19.
Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol ; 34(2): 995-1002, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37828298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tibial shaft fractures are common injuries that can be treated with various methods, including interlocked intramedullary nail (IMN). However, there is limited data on the clinical outcomes of IMN for tibial shaft fractures in Yemen. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of primary IMN for tibial shaft fractures in Yemen. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 134 patients who underwent primary IMN for tibial shaft fractures et al.-Thawra Modern General Hospital in Sana'a, Yemen, between June 2016 and June 2020. The patients were between 18 and 70 years old, and the fractures were classified according to the AO classification system. The fractures were treated with IMN using a standard technique. The patients were followed up for a minimum of 2 years. The outcome measures included union time, complications, and functional scores. RESULTS: The mean union time was 17 weeks. The overall complication rate was 18.7%. The most common complications were infection (8.2%), delayed union (6.7%), and nonunion (3.7%). The mean functional scores at the final follow-up were 91.4 for the Knee Society Score and 90.2 for the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Score. CONCLUSION: Primary IMN is an effective and reliable method for treating tibial shaft fractures in Yemen, with acceptable union time, complication rate, and functional outcomes.


Assuntos
Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas , Fraturas da Tíbia , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos Prospectivos , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/efeitos adversos , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/métodos , Iêmen , Consolidação da Fratura , Pinos Ortopédicos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Int Orthop ; 48(4): 923-930, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38036693

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sickle cell patients presented with progressive hip pain and limitation of daily activities, as evidenced by low preoperative hip scores and failed conservative therapy. Management of femoral head avascular necrosis (AVN) using total hip replacement (THR) in sickle cell disease (SCD) is widespread in developed countries, but it is still in its initiation stage in developing countries. The outcome of using cementless THR among SCD patients is still unknown with lack of published studies from regional countries. This study aimed to evaluate the outcome of using cementless primary THR among patients with sickle cell disease with end-stage hip avascular necrosis in Yemen. METHODS: Thirty cementless primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) were performed for AVN of the femoral head in 27 sickle cell patients, at Al.-Thawra Modern General Hospital-Sana'a, Yemen, from January 2018 to December 2022. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 27 ± five years (ranged 18-37 years) with a male to female ratio was 3:1. Steinberg staging for hip AVN was stage IV, one patient (3%); stage VI, thirteen patients (45%); and stage V, sixteen patients (51%). THR was on right side 14 (52%), left side 10 (37%), and bilateral 3 (11%). The implant used was ceramic on polyethylene acetabular liner. All patients showed improvement in Harris hip score from preoperative mean hip score was 25 ± 8 points to postoperative mean hip score was 88 ± 6 points at the last follow-up. Mean of the length of stay in hospital was 12.7 ± eight days (ranged from 4 to 32 days); the mean operating time was 107 ± 23 min. Three cases had superficial wound infection; four patients had five intraoperative fractures; two cases had pulmonary complications; one case had abdominal crisis. All patients had postoperative leg length discrepancy less than 2 cm. None had deep infection, nerve injury, wound hematoma, aseptic loosing, dislocation, DVT, heterotopic ossification, or death. CONCLUSION: THR in SCD has a good outcome using cementless THA with a low rate of complication in Yemen, a developing country.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Artroplastia de Quadril , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur , Prótese de Quadril , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Iêmen/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/cirurgia , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/cirurgia , Seguimentos , Estudos Retrospectivos
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