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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 300, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laser-assisted hatching (LAH) stands as the predominant technique for removing the zona pellucida (ZP) in embryos, primarily consisting of two methods: drilling laser-assisted hatching (D-LAH) and thinning laser-assisted hatching (T-LAH). Presently, both methods have limitations, and their comparative efficacy for embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy remains uncertain. AIM: Evaluate the impact of D-LAH and T-LAH on clinical pregnancy rates within assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS: We systematically searched electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library until July 20, 2022. This study encompassed observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A 95% confidence interval (CI) was utilized for assessing the risk ratio (RR) of pregnancy outcomes. The level of heterogeneity was measured using I2 statistics, considering a value exceeding 50% as indicative of substantial heterogeneity. RESULTS: The meta-analysis scrutinized 9 studies involving 2405 clinical pregnancies from D-LAH and 2239 from T-LAH. Findings suggested no considerable variation in the clinical pregnancy rates between the two techniques (RR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.79-1.10, I2 = 71%, P = 0.41). Subgroup analyses also revealed no substantial differences. However, D-LAH exhibited a notably higher occurrence of singleton pregnancies compared to T-LAH (RR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.08-4.82, I2 = 89%, P = 0.03). There were no noteworthy distinctions observed in other secondary outcomes encompassing implantation rate, multiple pregnancies, ongoing pregnancy, miscarriage, premature birth, and live birth. CONCLUSION: Both the primary findings and subgroup analyses showed no marked variance in clinical pregnancy rates between D-LAH and T-LAH. Therefore, patients with varying conditions should select their preferred LAH technique after assessing their individual situation. However, due to the restricted number of studies involved, accurately gauging the influence of these laser techniques on clinical outcomes is challenging, necessitating further RCTs and high-quality studies to enhance the success rate of ART. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: CRD42022347066.


Assuntos
Taxa de Gravidez , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Zona Pelúcida , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Lasers , Implantação do Embrião , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado da Gravidez , Transferência Embrionária/métodos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(8)2024 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673927

RESUMO

Domestic cat blastocysts cultured without the zona pellucida exhibit reduced implantation capacity. However, the protein expression profile has not been evaluated in these embryos. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protein expression profile of domestic cat blastocysts cultured without the zona pellucida. Two experimental groups were generated: (1) domestic cat embryos generated by IVF and cultured in vitro (zona intact, (ZI)) and (2) domestic cat embryos cultured in vitro without the zona pellucida (zona-free (ZF group)). The cleavage, morula, and blastocyst rates were estimated at days 2, 5 and 7, respectively. Day 7 blastocysts and their culture media were subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The UniProt Felis catus database was used to identify the standard proteome. No significant differences were found in the cleavage, morula, or blastocyst rates between the ZI and ZF groups (p > 0.05). Proteomic analysis revealed 22 upregulated and 20 downregulated proteins in the ZF blastocysts. Furthermore, 14 proteins involved in embryo development and implantation were present exclusively in the culture medium of the ZI blastocysts. In conclusion, embryo culture without the zona pellucida did not affect in vitro development, but altered the protein expression profile and release of domestic cat blastocysts.


Assuntos
Blastocisto , Proteômica , Zona Pelúcida , Animais , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Gatos , Proteômica/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Secretoma/metabolismo , Feminino , Fertilização in vitro , Proteoma/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida
3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 11(18): e2306901, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447155

RESUMO

Eggs and embryo manipulation is an important biotechnological challenge to enable positioning, entrapment, and selection of reproductive cells to advance into a new era of nature-like assisted reproductive technologies. Oviductin (OVGP1) is an abundant protein in the oviduct that binds reversibly to the zona pellucida, an extracellular matrix that surrounds eggs and embryos. Here, the study reports a new method coupling OVGP1 to magnetic nanoparticles (NP) forming a complex (NPOv). NPOv specifically surrounds eggs and embryos in a reversible manner. Eggs/embryos bound to NPOv can be moved or retained when subjected to a magnetic force, and interestingly only mature-competent eggs are attracted. This procedure is compatible with normal development following gametes function, in vitro fertilization, embryo development and resulting in the birth of healthy offspring. The results provide in vitro proof-of-concept that eggs and embryos can be precisely guided in the absence of physical contact by the use of magnets.


Assuntos
Zona Pelúcida , Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Embrião de Mamíferos , Fertilização in vitro/métodos , Óvulo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida
4.
Theriogenology ; 219: 167-179, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437767

RESUMO

Porcine seminal plasma (SP) is loaded with a heterogeneous population of extracellular vesicles (sEVs) that modulate several reproductive-related processes. This study investigated the effect of two sEV subsets, small (S-sEVs) and large (L-sEVs), on porcine in vitro fertilization (IVF). The sEVs were isolated from nine SP pools (five ejaculates/pool) using a size-exclusion chromatography-based procedure and characterized for quantity (total protein), morphology (cryogenic electron microscopy), size distribution (dynamic light scattering), purity and EV-protein markers (flow cytometry; albumin, CD81, HSP90ß). The characterization confirmed the existence of two subsets of high purity (low albumin content) sEVs that differed in size (S- and L-sEVs). In vitro fertilization was performed with in vitro matured oocytes and frozen-thawed spermatozoa and the IVF medium was supplemented during gamete coincubation (1 h at 38.5 °C, 5 % CO2 in a humidified atmosphere) with three different concentrations of each sEV subset: 0 (control, without sEVs), 0.1, and 0.2 mg/mL. The first experiment showed that sEVs, regardless of subset and concentration, decreased penetration rates and total IVF efficiency (P < 0.0001). In a subsequent experiment, it was shown that sEVs, regardless of subset and concentration, impaired the ability of spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida of oocytes (P < 0.0001). The following experiment showed that sEVs, regardless of the subset, bound to frozen-thawed sperm but not to in vitro matured oocytes, indicating that sEVs would affect sperm functionality but not oocyte functionality. The lack of effect on oocytes was confirmed by incubating sEVs with oocytes prior to IVF, achieving sperm-zona pellucida binding results similar to those of control. In the last experiment, conducted under IVF conditions, sperm functionality was analyzed in terms of tyrosine phosphorylation, acrosome integrity and metabolism. The sEVs, regardless of the subset, did not affect sperm tyrosine phosphorylation or acrosome integrity, but did influence sperm metabolism by decreasing sperm ATP production under capacitating conditions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the presence of sEVs on IVF medium impairs IVF outcomes, most likely by altering sperm metabolism.


Assuntos
Sêmen , Interações Espermatozoide-Óvulo , Masculino , Suínos , Animais , Fertilização in vitro/veterinária , Fertilização in vitro/métodos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Oócitos , Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Albuminas/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo
5.
Cell ; 187(6): 1440-1459.e24, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490181

RESUMO

Following the fertilization of an egg by a single sperm, the egg coat or zona pellucida (ZP) hardens and polyspermy is irreversibly blocked. These events are associated with the cleavage of the N-terminal region (NTR) of glycoprotein ZP2, a major subunit of ZP filaments. ZP2 processing is thought to inactivate sperm binding to the ZP, but its molecular consequences and connection with ZP hardening are unknown. Biochemical and structural studies show that cleavage of ZP2 triggers its oligomerization. Moreover, the structure of a native vertebrate egg coat filament, combined with AlphaFold predictions of human ZP polymers, reveals that two protofilaments consisting of type I (ZP3) and type II (ZP1/ZP2/ZP4) components interlock into a left-handed double helix from which the NTRs of type II subunits protrude. Together, these data suggest that oligomerization of cleaved ZP2 NTRs extensively cross-links ZP filaments, rigidifying the egg coat and making it physically impenetrable to sperm.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas da Zona Pelúcida , Humanos , Masculino , Sêmen , Espermatozoides/química , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Zona Pelúcida/química , Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas da Zona Pelúcida/química , Glicoproteínas da Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Óvulo/química , Óvulo/metabolismo , Feminino
6.
Mol Ecol ; 33(5): e17263, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38318732

RESUMO

The absence of robust interspecific isolation barriers among pantherines, including the iconic South American jaguar (Panthera onca), led us to study molecular evolution of typically rapidly evolving reproductive proteins within this subfamily and related groups. In this study, we delved into the evolutionary forces acting on the zona pellucida (ZP) gamete interaction protein family and the sperm-oocyte fusion protein pair IZUMO1-JUNO across the Carnivora order, distinguishing between Caniformia and Feliformia suborders and anticipating few significant diversifying changes in the Pantherinae subfamily. A chromosome-resolved jaguar genome assembly facilitated coding sequences, enabling the reconstruction of protein evolutionary histories. Examining sequence variability across more than 30 Carnivora species revealed that Feliformia exhibited significantly lower diversity compared to its sister taxa, Caniformia. Molecular evolution analyses of ZP2 and ZP3, subunits directly involved in sperm-recognition, unveiled diversifying positive selection in Feliformia, Caniformia and Pantherinae, although no significant changes were linked to sperm binding. Structural cross-linking ZP subunits, ZP4 and ZP1 exhibited lower levels or complete absence of positive selection. Notably, the fusion protein IZUMO1 displayed prominent positive selection signatures and sites in basal lineages of both Caniformia and Feliformia, extending along the Caniformia subtree but absent in Pantherinae. Conversely, JUNO did not exhibit any positive selection signatures across tested lineages and clades. Eight Caniformia-specific positive selected sites in IZUMO1 were detected within two JUNO-interaction clusters. Our findings provide for the first time insights into the evolutionary trajectories of ZP proteins and the IZUMO1-JUNO gamete interaction pair within the Carnivora order.


Assuntos
Caniformia , Carnívoros , Panthera , Animais , Masculino , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Proteínas do Ovo/genética , Proteínas do Ovo/química , Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Sêmen/metabolismo , Interações Espermatozoide-Óvulo/genética , Carnívoros/genética , Caniformia/metabolismo , Feliformes/metabolismo , Panthera/metabolismo , Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo
7.
Am J Mens Health ; 18(1): 15579883241228236, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38279800

RESUMO

The objective was to investigate the embryo morphokinitics using a time-lapse monitoring (TLM) system and assessment of clinical outcomes following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with zona pellucida (ZP)-bound sperm selection and conventional methods. A total of 371 metaphase II (MII) oocytes from 50 ICSI cycles were studied. Sibling oocytes were randomly divided into control (n = 199) and ZP-bound group (n = 172). All resulting zygotes were cultured and monitored in the TLM system up to Day 3 after ICSI. Fertilization rate, early embryo development, and clinical outcomes were evaluated. No significant differences were found in fertilization rate, time-lapse qualitative and quantitative measures, pronuclear fading time (PNF) t2, t3, t4, t5, t6, and t7 (times of cleavage to 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 cells), respectively. However, the t8 (time of cleavage to eight cells) and cc3 (duration of third cell cycle) revealed a significant difference between control and ZP-bound groups (p < .05). A significant difference between the two groups (p < .05) in the rates of Grade A embryos (according to Basile algorithm), chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, and implantation was observed. Sperm selection using biological materials, such as ZP, improved both embryo quality and pregnancy outcomes, despite not affecting the early embryo development and morphokinetic parameters up to t8. This prospective randomized sibling oocyte trial was registered in October 2020 to January 2022 (IRCT20200705048021N1).


Assuntos
Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas , Zona Pelúcida , Gravidez , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sêmen , Oócitos , Espermatozoides
8.
Lasers Med Sci ; 39(1): 51, 2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38285329

RESUMO

Laser-assisted hatching (LAH) is a widely used and unavoidable technique in assisted reproductive technology after frozen embryo transfer (FET). We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of completely ZP (zona pellucida) removed by an assisted laser group compared to an intact group after FET. This retrospective study involved 320 SVBT  single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfers of 213 patients who underwent clomiphene citrate (CC) based minimal stimulation protocol. This study compared 160 SVBT with ZP that were completely removed using laser-assisted (laser beams of 10-15, a wavelength of 1.48 µm, and duration of 1.8-2.2 ms) to 160 cases of intact SVBT. Fisher's exact test, chi-squared test, and logistic regression are used for statistical analysis. The women's age, cause of infertility, BMI, transferred embryo day, insemination methods, and blastocyst grade were not significantly different between two groups. The implantation rate (66.2% vs. 51.2%, P < 0.01), the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR, 52.5% vs. 39.3%, P = 0.01), and the live birth rate (LBR, 43.7% vs. 29.3%, P < 0.01) were significantly higher in the completely ZP removed than the intact group. In logistic regression analysis, the laser-assisted hatching group showed about 2 times higher implantation rate and CPR and LBR than the control group. But miscarriage, gestational weeks, gender, birth weight, and twin births were insignificant between two groups. Our study suggests ZP free embryo transfer by assisted laser is more effective and safer than intact embryo transfer.


Assuntos
Transferência Embrionária , Zona Pelúcida , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Implantação do Embrião , Lasers
9.
Vet Res Commun ; 48(2): 1135-1147, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38191818

RESUMO

The polyspermy occurrence is considerably lower under in vivo compared to in vitro embryo culture conditions, suggesting that the presence of some factors in the maternal environment is responsible for this. The α-L-fucosidase (FUCA) is a natural glycosidase present in the oviductal fluid, therefore, this study aimed at investigating the effect of adding FUCA to the hardening of the zona pellucida (ZP), polyspermy control, and embryonic yield and quality of bovine blastocysts produced in vitro. In the first experiment, the effect of FUCA (0.125 U/mL) was evaluated during the entire in vitro fertilization (IVF). However, it was demonstrated to be embryotoxic by completely inhibiting the blastocyst formation. In the second experiment, the FUCA (0.125 U/mL) was tested as short-term incubation before IVF (pre-fertilization step) for 30 min or 2 h, which demonstrated that FUCA treatment for 30 min resulted in ZP hardening. In the third experiment, a pre-fertilization FUCA treatment (1 h) at different concentrations (0, 0.0625, and 0.125 U/mL) showed that FUCA (0.0625 U/mL) improved pre-fertilization ZP hardening and tended to increase monospermic fertilization rates but did not improve embryo yield and quality. Together, it has been demonstrated that FUCA can induce oocyte pre-fertilization ZP hardening and might improve monospermic fertilization performance, and this effect is dependent on both variables (protein concentration and incubation time).


Assuntos
Zona Pelúcida , alfa-L-Fucosidase , Bovinos , Animais , alfa-L-Fucosidase/farmacologia , Oócitos , Fertilização in vitro/veterinária , Fertilização in vitro/métodos , Fertilização
10.
Zygote ; 32(1): 7-13, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38018399

RESUMO

Abnormalities in the zona pellucida (ZP) adversely affect oocyte maturation, embryo development and pregnancy outcomes. However, the assessment of severity is challenging. To evaluate the effects of different degrees of ZP abnormalities on embryo development and clinical outcomes, in total, 590 retrieval cycles were scored and divided into four categories (control, mild, moderate and severe) based on three parameters: perivitelline space, percentage of immature oocytes and percentage of oocytes with abnormal morphology. As the severity of abnormal ZP increased, both the number of retrieved oocytes and mature oocytes decreased. The fertilization rate did not differ significantly among groups. The rates of embryo cleavage and day-3 high-quality embryos in the mild group and the moderate group did not vary significantly between the two groups but were significantly higher than those in the severe group. The blastulation rates of the abnormal ZP groups were similar; however, they were lower than those of the control group. Moreover, the cycle cancellation rate of the severe abnormal ZP group was as high as 66.20%, which was significantly higher than that of the other three groups. Although the rates of cumulative clinical pregnancy and live births were lower than those in the control group, they were comparable among the abnormal ZP groups. There were no differences in the neonatal outcomes of the different groups. Together, ZP abnormalities show various degrees of severity, and in all patients regardless of the degree of ZP abnormalities who achieve available embryos, there will be an opportunity to eventually give birth.


Assuntos
Fertilização in vitro , Zona Pelúcida , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Oócitos , Resultado da Gravidez , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas
11.
Theriogenology ; 215: 95-102, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38016306

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of ellagic acid, a type of polyphenol that does not have a glycan and is composed of four hydroxyl groups and two lactone functional groups, on porcine in vitro fertilization (IVF) by focusing on its anti-hyaluronidase activity. A comparative analysis of ellagic acid and apigenin, which is commonly used as a hyaluronidase inhibitor, was performed. It compared the effects of ellagic acid and apigenin on hyaluronidase activity at different concentrations. The results showed that 10, 20, and 40 µM ellagic acid strongly reduced hyaluronidase activity (P < 0.05). The addition of 20 µM ellagic acid, but not apigenin, to porcine IVF medium effectively reduced polyspermy without decreasing sperm penetration or the formation rates of male pronuclei in cumulus-free oocytes. However, neither ellagic acid nor apigenin affected the number of sperm that bound to zona pellucida (ZP) or the induction of zona hardening and protease resistance. The percentage of acrosome-reacting sperm that bound to the ZP was markedly lower in the presence of 20 µM ellagic acid than in the untreated and apigenin-treated groups, even though the antioxidant capacity of ellagic acid was weaker than that of apigenin. Furthermore, a markedly higher percentage of embryos developed to the blastocyst stage in the ellagic acid-treated group, and the apoptotic indexes of expanded blastocysts produced by the ellagic acid treatment during IVF were significantly low. Therefore, the anti-hyaluronidase effect of ellagic acid markedly suppressed the induction of the acrosome reaction in sperm that bound to the ZP, resulting in a marked decrease in polyspermy under conditions that maintained high sperm penetrability during IVF and sustainment of the developmental potency in porcine oocytes.


Assuntos
Ácido Elágico , Hialuronoglucosaminidase , Suínos , Masculino , Animais , Ácido Elágico/farmacologia , Ácido Elágico/metabolismo , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/farmacologia , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Apigenina/metabolismo , Apigenina/farmacologia , Sêmen , Fertilização in vitro/veterinária , Fertilização in vitro/métodos , Oócitos , Zona Pelúcida , Interações Espermatozoide-Óvulo , Espermatozoides , Fertilização
12.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 36(3): NULL, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38096792

RESUMO

CONTEXT: In pigs, in vitro fertilisation (IVF) is associated with high polyspermy rates, and for this reason, in vitro embryo production (IVP) is still an inefficient biotechnology. Coculture with somatic cells is an alternative to improve suboptimal in vitro maturation (IVM) conditions. AIM: This study was conducted to test a coculture system of porcine luteal cells (PLC) and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) to improve oocyte metabolism. METHODS: COC were matured in vitro with PLC. Oocyte lipid content, mitochondrial activity, zona pellucida (ZP) digestibility and pore size, cortical reaction and in vitro embryo development were assessed. KEY RESULTS: Coculture reduced cytoplasmic lipid content in the oocyte cytoplasm without increasing mitochondrial activity. Although ZP digestibility and ZP pore number were not different between culture systems, ZP pores were smaller in the coculture. Coculture impacted the distribution of cortical granules as they were found immediately under the oolemma, and more of them had released their content in the ZP. Coculture with porcine luteal cells during IVM increased monospermic penetration and embryo development after IVF. CONCLUSIONS: The coculture of COC with PLC affects the metabolism of the oocyte and benefits monospermic penetration and embryo development. IMPLICATIONS: The coculture system with PLC could be an alternative for the conventional maturation medium in pigs.


Assuntos
Células Lúteas , Zona Pelúcida , Feminino , Animais , Suínos , Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Oócitos/metabolismo , Fertilização in vitro/veterinária , Lipídeos/análise
13.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1251102, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38149097

RESUMO

Background: The average age of childbearing has increased over the years contributing to infertility, miscarriages, and chromosomal abnormalities largely invoked by an age-related decline in oocyte quality. In this study, we investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) insufficiency and protein nitration in oocyte chronological aging. Methods: Mouse oocytes were retrieved from young breeders (YB, 8-14 weeks [w]), retired breeders (RB, 48-52w) and old animals (OA, 80-84w) at 13.5 and 17 hours after ovulation trigger. They were assessed for zona pellucida dissolution time (ZPDT); ooplasmic microtubule dynamics (OMD); cortical granule (CG) status and spindle morphology (SM), as markers of oocyte quality. Sibling oocytes from RB were exposed to NO supplementation and assessed for aging phenomena (AP). All oocyte cumulus complexes were subjected to fluorescence nitrotyrosine (NT) immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy to assess morphology and protein nitration. Results: At 13.5 h from hCG trigger, oocytes from RB compared to YB had significantly increased ZPDT (37.8 ± 11.9 vs 22.1 ± 4.1 seconds [s]), OMD (46.9 vs 0%), CG loss (39.4 vs 0%), and decreased normal SM (30.3 vs 81.3%), indicating premature AP that worsened among oocytes from RB at 17 hours post-hCG trigger. When exposed to SNAP, RB AP significantly decreased (ZPDT: 35.1 ± 5.5 vs 46.3 ± 8.9s, OMD: 13.3 vs 75.0% and CG loss: 50.0 vs 93.3%) and SM improved (80.0 vs 14.3%). The incidence of NT positivity was significantly higher in cumulus cells (13.5 h, 46.7 ± 4.5 vs 3.4 ± 0.7%; 17 h, 82.2 ± 2.9 vs 23.3 ± 3.6%) and oocytes (13.5 h, 57.1 vs 0%; 17 h, 100.0 vs 55.5%) from RB compared to YB. Oocytes retrieved decreased with advancing age (29.8 ± 4.1 per animal in the YB group compared to 10.2 ± 2.1 in RB and 4.0 ± 1.6 in OA). Oocytes from OA displayed increased ZPDT, major CG loss, increased OMD and spindle abnormalities, as well as pronuclear formation, confirming spontaneous meiosis to interphase transition. Conclusions: Oocytes undergo zona pellucida hardening, altered spindle and ooplasmic microtubules, and premature cortical granule release, indicative of spontaneous meiosis-interphase transition, as a function of chronological aging. These changes are also associated with NO insufficiency and protein nitration and may be alleviated through supplementation with an NO-donor.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Oócitos , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo
14.
Biomolecules ; 13(11)2023 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38002318

RESUMO

Mammalian fertilization is a species-selective event that involves a series of interactions between sperm proteins and the oocyte's zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins. Bovine ZP consists of three glycoproteins: bZP2, bZP3, and bZP4. In our previous study, we demonstrated that bovine sperm binds to plastic wells coated with recombinant bZP4 and identified that the N-terminal domain and the middle region of bZP4 are critical for sperm-binding activity. Here, we investigated the sperm-binding site in the middle region (residues 290 to 340) of bZP4, which includes the hinge region. We showed that bovine sperm binds to bZP4's middle region in a species-selective manner. We mapped the function of bZP4's middle region to its N-glycosylation site at Asn-314 using several recombinant mutated proteins. Moreover, we showed that mutations of the N-glycosylation sites at Asn-314 close to the hinge region and Asn-146 of the hinge region of bZP4 and bZP3, respectively, reduced the sperm-binding activity of the complex of the bZP3 (from 32 to 178) and bZP4 (from 136 to 464) fragments. Together, these results suggest that ZP's middle regions of bZP3 and bZP4 form one of the sperm-binding sites of bovine ZP.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas de Membrana , Receptores de Superfície Celular , Masculino , Bovinos , Animais , Glicoproteínas da Zona Pelúcida/genética , Glicoproteínas da Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas do Ovo/genética , Proteínas do Ovo/química , Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Sêmen/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo
15.
Mol Hum Reprod ; 29(11)2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37930049

RESUMO

In oocyte biology, the zona pellucida has long been known to operate three extracellular functions downstream of the secretory pathway, namely, encasing the oocytes in ovarian follicles, mediating sperm-oocyte interaction, and preventing premature embryo contact with oviductal epithelium. The present study uncovers a fourth function that is fundamentally distinct from the other three, being critical for embryonic cell survival in mice. Intriguingly, the three proteins of the mouse zona pellucida (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3) were found abundantly present also inside the embryo 4 days after fertilization, as shown by mass spectrometry, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence. Contrary to current understanding of the roles of ZP proteins, ZP3 was associated more with the cytoskeleton than with secretory vesicles in the subcortical region of metaphase II oocytes and zygotes, and was excluded from regions of cell-cell contact in cleavage-stage embryos. Trim-away-mediated knockdown of ZP3 in fertilized oocytes hampered the first zygotic cleavage, while ZP3 overexpression supported blastocyst formation. Transcriptome analysis of ZP3-knockdown embryos pointed at defects of cytoplasmic translation in the context of embryonic genome activation. This conclusion was supported by reduced protein synthesis in the ZP3-knockdown and by the lack of cleavage arrest when Trim-away was postponed from the one-cell to the late two-cell stage. These data place constraints on the notion that zona proteins only operate in the extracellular space, revealing also a role during the oocyte-to-embryo transition. Ultimately, these data recruit ZP3 into the family of maternal factors that contribute to developmental competence of mouse oocytes.


Assuntos
Sêmen , Zona Pelúcida , Feminino , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Sêmen/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas da Zona Pelúcida/genética , Glicoproteínas da Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo
16.
Nanoscale ; 15(44): 17972-17986, 2023 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37905731

RESUMO

The intriguing capability of branched glycoprotein filaments to change their hierarchical organization, mediated by external biophysical stimuli, continues to expand understanding of self-assembling strategies that can dynamically rearrange networks at long range. Previous research has explored the corresponding biological, physiological and genetic mechanisms, focusing on protein assemblies within a limited range of nanometric units. Using direct microscopy bio-imaging, we have determined the morpho-structural changes of self-assembled filament networks of the zona pellucida, revealing controlled levels of structured organizations to join distinct evolved stages of the oocyte (Immature, Mature, and Fertilized). This natural soft network reorganizes its corresponding hierarchical network to generate symmetric, asymmetric, and ultimately a state with the lowest asymmetry of the outer surface roughness, and internal pores reversibly changed from elliptical to circular configurations at the corresponding stages. These elusive morpho-structural changes are regulated by the nanostructured polymorphisms of the branched filaments by self-extension/-contraction/-bending processes, modulated by determinate theoretical angles among repetitive filament units. Controlling the nanoscale self-assembling properties by delivering a minimum number of activation bio-signals may be triggered by these specific nanostructured polymorphic organizations. Finally, this research aims to guide this soft biomaterial into a desired state to protect oocytes, eggs, and embryos during development, to favour/prevent the fertilization/polyspermy processes and eventually to impact interactions with bacteria/virus at multiscale levels.


Assuntos
Oócitos , Zona Pelúcida , Oócitos/metabolismo , Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Fertilização , Citoesqueleto , Glicoproteínas
17.
Mol Reprod Dev ; 90(12): 824-834, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37811876

RESUMO

Independent cell volume regulation is first acquired by the oocyte in two steps that occur during meiotic maturation: (1) activation of the glycine transporter GLYT1 (Slc6a9) that mediates the intracellular accumulation of glycine to provide osmotic support in the mature egg and early preimplantation embryo, and (2) release of the oocyte from the strong attachment to its rigid extracellular matrix shell, the zona pellucida (ZP). It was recently shown that oocyte-ZP detachment requires metallopeptidase activity that is proposed to cleave transmembrane ZP proteins connecting the oocyte to the ZP. It is unknown, however, how GLYT1 is activated. We hypothesized that oocyte-ZP detachment precedes and may be required for GLYT1 activation. In identically treated pools of oocytes, oocyte-ZP detachment occurred ~20 min before GLYT1 activation. In individual oocytes, GLYT1 activity was detected only in those that were mostly or fully detached. Blocking detachment using previously validated small molecule metallopeptidase inhibitors partly suppressed GLYT1 activation. However, removal of the ZP did not accelerate GLYT1 activation. This indicates that oocyte-ZP detachment or cleavage of transmembrane ZP proteins may be required for GLYT1 to become fully activated, or alternatively that metallopeptidase activity independently affects both detachment and GLYT1 activation.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Glicina , Zona Pelúcida , Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Glicina/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas da Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Tamanho Celular
18.
Elife ; 122023 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37872795

RESUMO

Membrane expansion integrates multiple forces to mediate precise tube growth and network formation. Defects lead to deformations, as found in diseases such as polycystic kidney diseases, aortic aneurysms, stenosis, and tortuosity. We identified a mechanism of sensing and responding to the membrane-driven expansion of tracheal tubes. The apical membrane is anchored to the apical extracellular matrix (aECM) and causes expansion forces that elongate the tracheal tubes. The aECM provides a mechanical tension that balances the resulting expansion forces, with Dumpy being an elastic molecule that modulates the mechanical stress on the matrix during tracheal tube expansion. We show in Drosophila that the zona pellucida (ZP) domain protein Piopio interacts and cooperates with the ZP protein Dumpy at tracheal cells. To resist shear stresses which arise during tube expansion, Piopio undergoes ectodomain shedding by the Matriptase homolog Notopleural, which releases Piopio-Dumpy-mediated linkages between membranes and extracellular matrix. Failure of this process leads to deformations of the apical membrane, tears the apical matrix, and impairs tubular network function. We also show conserved ectodomain shedding of the human TGFß type III receptor by Notopleural and the human Matriptase, providing novel findings for in-depth analysis of diseases caused by cell and tube shape changes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila , Animais , Humanos , Drosophila/metabolismo , Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas da Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteólise , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Estruturas da Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Traqueia/metabolismo
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 698, 2023 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37770819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies looked into the connections between pregnancy and the Zona Pellucida (ZP) thickness and Zona Pellucida Thickness Variation (ZPTV), as well as the embryo's radius, circumference, perimeter and global symmetry. However, no research has linked embryo implantation and pregnancy to the percentage of ZP thinning, the reduction in ooplasm volume, and the increase in perivitelline space (PVS) volume. Our objective is to correlate the percentage of ZP thinning, the percentage of ooplasm volume shrinkage and the percentage of PVS increase to the implantation. These data will be used for embryo selection as well as it can be put into a software that will assist embryo selection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study included 281 patients, all of them had 2 embryos transferred, 149 patients got pregnant with two gestation sacs and 132 patients did not get pregnant. All of the transferred embryos had the ZP thickness measured several times from time of ICSI till Embryo Transfer (ET), the ooplasm volume was calculated from time of ICSI till two Pronuclei (2PN) fading and the PVS was calculated from the ICSI time till the 2PN fading. RESULTS: The first characteristic is the change in the average ZP thickness that decreased by 32.7% + 5.3% at 70 h for the implanted embryos (Group 1) versus 23.6% + 4.8% for non-implanted embryos (Group 2) p = 0.000. The second characteristic is the average reduction in the volume of the ooplasm which is 20.5% + 4.3% in Group 1 versus 15.1% + 5.2% in Group 2, p = 0.000. The third characteristic is the increase in the volume of the PVS which was 38.1% + 7.6% in Group 1 versus 31.6% + 9.7% in Group 2 p = 0.000. CONCLUSION: The implanted embryos showed higher percent of ZP thinning, higher percent of ooplasm reduction and higher percent of PVS increase.


Assuntos
Implantação do Embrião , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas/métodos , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Zona Pelúcida
20.
Zygote ; 31(6): 544-556, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37724015

RESUMO

The in vitro culture of domestic cat embryos without the zona pellucida affects their implantation capacity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have an important role in embryo-maternal communication and implantation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of specific miRNAs in domestic cat blastocysts cultured without the zona pellucida. Two experimental groups were done: (1) domestic cat embryos cultured with the zona pellucida (zona intact control group, ZI); and (2) cultured without the zona pellucida (zona free group, ZF). The cleavage, morula and blastocyst rates were evaluated. The blastocysts and their spent medium were used for miRNA expression analysis using RT-qPCR (miR-21, miR-24, mi25, miR-29, miR-96, miR-98, miR-103, miR-191, miR-196, miR-199, miR-130, miR-155 and miR-302). The pre-mature microRNAs (pre-miRNAs) and miRNAs were evaluated in the blastocysts and only miRNAs were evaluated in the spent medium. No differences were observed in the cleavage, morula and blastocyst rates between the ZF and ZI groups (P > 0.05). For miRNAs analysis, miR-103 and miR-191 had the most stable expression and were selected as internal controls. ZF blastocysts had a higher expression of miR-21, miR-25, miR-29 and miR-199 and a lower expression of miR-96 than their ZI counterparts (P < 0.05). Furthermore, higher levels of miR-21, miR-25 and miR-98 were detected in the spent medium of ZF blastocysts (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in vitro culture of domestic cat embryos without the zona pellucida modifies the expression of miR-21, miR-25, miR-29, miR-199 and miR-96 at the blastocyst stage and the release of miR-21, miR-25 and miR-98.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Zona Pelúcida , Gatos , Animais , MicroRNAs/genética , Blastocisto , Implantação do Embrião , Embrião de Mamíferos
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