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2.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 23(2): 23-28, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306128

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing–remitting disease with a multifactorial etiology involving epidermal barrier and immunologic dysfunction. Topical therapies form the mainstay of AD treatment, but options are limited by adverse effects and restrictions on application site, duration, and extent of use. Tapinarof (VTAMA; Dermavant Sciences, Inc.) is a first-in-class, non-steroidal, topical aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist approved for the treatment of plaque psoriasis. AhR is a ligand-dependent transcription factor with wide-ranging roles, including regulation of homeostasis and immune response in skin cells. AhR expression and signaling are altered in many inflammatory skin diseases, and clinical trials with tapinarof have validated AhR as a therapeutic target capable of delivering significant efficacy. Tapinarof cream 1% once daily demonstrated efficacy versus vehicle in adults and adolescents with AD and is being investigated in the ADORING trials for the treatment of AD in adults and children down to 2 years of age. J Drugs Dermatol. 2024;23(2):23-28.  doi:10.36849/JDD.8026.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Estilbenos , Adulto , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/agonistas , Pele , Resorcinóis
3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 902, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326347

RESUMO

GPR34 is a recently identified G-protein coupled receptor, which has an immunomodulatory role and recognizes lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) as a putative ligand. Here, we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of human GPR34-Gi complex bound with one of two ligands bound: either the LysoPS analogue S3E-LysoPS, or M1, a derivative of S3E-LysoPS in which oleic acid is substituted with a metabolically stable aromatic fatty acid surrogate. The ligand-binding pocket is laterally open toward the membrane, allowing lateral entry of lipidic agonists into the cavity. The amine and carboxylate groups of the serine moiety are recognized by the charged residue cluster. The acyl chain of S3E-LysoPS is bent and fits into the L-shaped hydrophobic pocket in TM4-5 gap, and the aromatic fatty acid surrogate of M1 fits more appropriately. Molecular dynamics simulations further account for the LysoPS-regioselectivity of GPR34. Thus, using a series of structural and physiological experiments, we provide evidence that chemically unstable 2-acyl LysoPS is the physiological ligand for GPR34. Overall, we anticipate the present structures will pave the way for development of novel anticancer drugs that specifically target GPR34.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Lisofosfolipídeos , Humanos , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ligantes , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Receptores de Lisofosfolipídeos/agonistas , Receptores de Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo
4.
N Engl J Med ; 390(6): 497-509, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive liver disease with no approved treatment. Resmetirom is an oral, liver-directed, thyroid hormone receptor beta-selective agonist in development for the treatment of NASH with liver fibrosis. METHODS: We are conducting an ongoing phase 3 trial involving adults with biopsy-confirmed NASH and a fibrosis stage of F1B, F2, or F3 (stages range from F0 [no fibrosis] to F4 [cirrhosis]). Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive once-daily resmetirom at a dose of 80 mg or 100 mg or placebo. The two primary end points at week 52 were NASH resolution (including a reduction in the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD] activity score by ≥2 points; scores range from 0 to 8, with higher scores indicating more severe disease) with no worsening of fibrosis, and an improvement (reduction) in fibrosis by at least one stage with no worsening of the NAFLD activity score. RESULTS: Overall, 966 patients formed the primary analysis population (322 in the 80-mg resmetirom group, 323 in the 100-mg resmetirom group, and 321 in the placebo group). NASH resolution with no worsening of fibrosis was achieved in 25.9% of the patients in the 80-mg resmetirom group and 29.9% of those in the 100-mg resmetirom group, as compared with 9.7% of those in the placebo group (P<0.001 for both comparisons with placebo). Fibrosis improvement by at least one stage with no worsening of the NAFLD activity score was achieved in 24.2% of the patients in the 80-mg resmetirom group and 25.9% of those in the 100-mg resmetirom group, as compared with 14.2% of those in the placebo group (P<0.001 for both comparisons with placebo). The change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels from baseline to week 24 was -13.6% in the 80-mg resmetirom group and -16.3% in the 100-mg resmetirom group, as compared with 0.1% in the placebo group (P<0.001 for both comparisons with placebo). Diarrhea and nausea were more frequent with resmetirom than with placebo. The incidence of serious adverse events was similar across trial groups: 10.9% in the 80-mg resmetirom group, 12.7% in the 100-mg resmetirom group, and 11.5% in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Both the 80-mg dose and the 100-mg dose of resmetirom were superior to placebo with respect to NASH resolution and improvement in liver fibrosis by at least one stage. (Funded by Madrigal Pharmaceuticals; MAESTRO-NASH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03900429.).


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Piridazinas , Uracila , Adulto , Humanos , Método Duplo-Cego , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Receptores beta dos Hormônios Tireóideos/agonistas , Biópsia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
5.
Sci Adv ; 10(6): eadk5184, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335293

RESUMO

The prostacyclin (PGI2) receptor (IP) is a Gs-coupled receptor associated with blood pressure regulation, allergy, and inflammatory response. It is a main therapeutic target for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and several other diseases. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of the human IP-Gs complex bound with two anti-PAH drugs, treprostinil and MRE-269 (active form of selexipag), at global resolutions of 2.56 and 2.41 angstrom, respectively. These structures revealed distinct features governing IP ligand binding, receptor activation, and G protein coupling. Moreover, comparison of the activated IP structures uncovered the mechanism and key residues that determine the superior selectivity of MRE-269 over treprostinil. Combined with molecular docking and functional studies, our structures provide insight into agonist selectivity, ligand recognition, receptor activation, and G protein coupling. Our results provide a structural template for further improving IP-targeting drugs to reduce off-target activation of prostanoid receptors and adverse effects.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Anti-Hipertensivos , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP , Pirazinas , Humanos , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Epoprostenol/agonistas , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339133

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis stands out as one of the leading causes of global mortality. The inflammatory response against vascular wall components plays a pivotal role in the atherogenic process. The initiation of this process is notably driven by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and a range of pro-inflammatory cytokines, with interleukin-1ß (Il-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) emerging as particularly significant in the early stages of atherosclerotic plaque formation. In recent years, researchers worldwide have been diligently exploring innovative therapeutic approaches for metabolic diseases, recognizing their impact on the atherogenesis process. Our study aimed to investigate the influence of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) on cytokine concentrations associated with the initiation of atherosclerotic plaque formation in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. The study encompassed 50 subjects aged 41-81 (mean: 60.7), all diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and confirmed atherosclerosis based on B-mode ultrasound. Following a 180-day treatment with dulaglutide or semaglutide, we observed a statistically significant reduction in biochemical markers (oxLDL, TNFα and Il-1ß) associated with the initiation of the atherosclerotic process (p < 0.001) within our study group. In addition to the already acknowledged positive effects of GLP-1RA on the metabolic parameters of treated patients, these drugs demonstrated a notable reduction in proinflammatory cytokine concentrations and may constitute an important element of therapy aimed at reducing cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dislipidemias , Placa Aterosclerótica , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Aterosclerótica/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Citocinas/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Interleucina-1beta/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico
7.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 15(4): 854-867, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345920

RESUMO

Novel synthetic opioids (NSOs), including both fentanyl and non-fentanyl analogs that act as µ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists, are associated with serious intoxication and fatal overdose. Previous studies proposed that G-protein-biased MOR agonists are safer pain medications, while other evidence indicates that low intrinsic efficacy at MOR better explains the reduced opioid side effects. Here, we characterized the in vitro functional profiles of various NSOs at the MOR using adenylate cyclase inhibition and ß-arrestin2 recruitment assays, in conjunction with the application of the receptor depletion approach. By fitting the concentration-response data to the operational model of agonism, we deduced the intrinsic efficacy and affinity for each opioid in the Gi protein signaling and ß-arrestin2 recruitment pathways. Compared to the reference agonist [d-Ala2,N-MePhe4,Gly-ol5]enkephalin, we found that several fentanyl analogs were more efficacious at inhibiting cAMP production, whereas all fentanyl analogs were less efficacious at recruiting ß-arrestin2. In contrast, the non-fentanyl 2-benzylbenzimidazole (i.e., nitazene) analogs were highly efficacious and potent in both the cAMP and ß-arrestin2 assays. Our findings suggest that the high intrinsic efficacy of the NSOs in Gi protein signaling is a common property that may underlie their high risk of intoxication and overdose, highlighting the limitation of using in vitro functional bias to predict the adverse effects of opioids. In addition, the extremely high potency of many NSOs now infiltrating illicit drug markets further contributes to the danger posed to public health.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Fentanila , Fentanila/farmacologia , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Receptores Opioides mu/agonistas , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Encefalinas/farmacologia , Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(5)-Encefalina/farmacologia
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(4): e032463, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research suggests clinical effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) are mediated by changes in glycated hemoglobin, body weight, systolic blood pressure, hematocrit, and urine albumin-creatinine ratio. We aimed to confirm these findings using a meta-analytic approach. METHODS AND RESULTS: We updated a systematic review of 9 GLP-1RA and 13 SGLT2i trials and summarized longitudinal mediator data. We obtained hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular, renal, and mortality outcomes. We performed linear mixed-effects modeling of LogHRs versus changes in potential mediators and investigated differences in meta-regression associations among drug classes using interaction terms. HRs generally became more protective with greater glycated hemoglobin reduction among GLP-1RA trials, with average HR improvements of 20% to 30%, reaching statistical significance for major adverse cardiovascular events (ΔHR, 23%; P=0.02). Among SGLT2i trials, associations with HRs were not significant and differed from GLP1-RA trials for major adverse cardiovascular events (Pinteraction=0.04). HRs for major adverse cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, and stroke became less efficacious (ΔHR, -15% to -34%), with more weight loss for SGLT2i but not for GLP-1RA trials (ΔHR, 4%-7%; Pinteraction<0.05). Among 5 SGLT2i trials with available data, HRs for stroke became less efficacious with larger increases in hematocrit (ΔHR, 123%; P=0.09). No changes in HRs by systolic blood pressure (ΔHR, -11% to 9%) and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ΔHR, -1% to 4%) were found for any outcome. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed increased efficacy findings for major adverse cardiovascular events with reduction in glycated hemoglobin for GLP1-RAs. Further research is needed on the potential loss of cardiovascular benefits with increased weight loss and hematocrit for SGLT2i.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Albuminas/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Creatinina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Redução de Peso
9.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 234, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) is a member of the nuclear receptor family. It is involved in the regulation of adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, vascular homeostasis and inflammation. In addition, PPARG agonists, known as thiazolidinediones, are well established in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PPARGs role in cancer is a matter of debate, as pro- and anti-tumour properties have been described in various tumour entities. Currently, the specific role of PPARG in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is not fully understood. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The prognostic impact of PPARG expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in a case-control study using a matched pair selection of CRC tumours (n = 246) with either distant metastases to the liver (n = 82), lung (n = 82) or without distant metastases (n = 82). Its effect on proliferation as well as the sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was examined after activation, inhibition, and transient gene knockdown of PPARG in the CRC cell lines SW403 and HT29. RESULTS: High PPARG expression was significantly associated with pulmonary metastasis (p = 0.019). Patients without distant metastases had a significantly longer overall survival with low PPARG expression in their tumours compared to patients with high PPARG expression (p = 0.045). In the pulmonary metastasis cohort instead, a trend towards longer survival was observed for patients with high PPARG expression in their tumour (p = 0.059). Activation of PPARG by pioglitazone and rosiglitazone resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in proliferation of CRC cell lines. Inhibition of PPARG by its specific inhibitor GW9662 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of PPARG significantly decreased proliferation. Activating PPARG significantly increased the CRC cell lines sensitivity to 5-FU while its inhibition decreased it. CONCLUSION: The prognostic effect of PPARG expression depends on the metastasis localization in advanced CRC patients. Activation of PPARG increased malignancy associated traits such as proliferation in CRC cell lines but also increases sensitivity towards the chemotherapeutic agent 5-FU. Based on this finding, a combination therapy of PPARG agonists and 5-FU-based chemotherapy constitutes a promising strategy which should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , PPAR gama/agonistas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica
10.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 100: 117630, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330849

RESUMO

Tirzepatide, the first approved dual GLP-1/GIP receptor agonist (RA), has achieved better clinical outcomes than other GLP-1RAs. However, it is an imbalanced dual GIP/GLP-1 RA, and it remains unclear whether the degree of imbalance is optimal. Here, we present a novel long-acting dual GLP-1/GIP RA that exhibits better activity than tirzepatide toward GLP-1R. A candidate conjugate, D314, identified via peptide design, synthesis, conjugation, and experimentation, was evaluated using chronic studies in db/db and diet induced obese (DIO) mice. D314 achieved favorable blood glucose and body weight-lowering effects, equal to those of tirzepatide. Its half-life in dogs (T1/2: 78.3 ± 14.01 h) reveals its suitability for once-weekly administration in humans. This preclinical study suggests the potential role of D314 as an effective agent for treating T2DM and obesity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Camundongos , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/agonistas , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/agonistas , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico
11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(7): 8403-8416, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334116

RESUMO

Cancer immunotherapy is expected to achieve tumor treatment mainly by stimulating the patient's own immune system to kill tumor cells. However, the low immunogenicity of the tumor and the poor efficiency of tumor antigen presentation result in a variety of solid tumors that do not respond to immunotherapy. Herein, we designed a proton-gradient-driven porphyrin-based liposome (PBL) with highly efficient Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist (imiquimod, R837) encapsulation (R837@PBL). R837@PBL rapidly released R837 in the acid microenvironment to activate the TLR in the endosome inner membrane to promote bone-marrow-derived dendritic cell maturation and enhance antigen presentation. R837@PBL upon laser irradiation triggered immunogenic cell death of tumor cells and tumor-associated antigen release after subcutaneous injection, activated TLR7, formed in situ tumor nanoadjuvants, and enhanced the antigen presentation efficiency. Photoimmunotherapy promoted the infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes into tumor tissues, inhibited the growth of the treated and abscopal tumors, and exerted highly effective photoimmunotherapeutic effects. Hence, our designed in situ tumor nanoadjuvants are expected to be an effective treatment for treated and abscopal tumors, providing a novel approach for synergistic photoimmunotherapy of tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Porfirinas , Humanos , Imiquimode/farmacologia , Lipossomos/farmacologia , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/agonistas , Prótons , Porfirinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Imunoterapia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Microambiente Tumoral , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
12.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 23(1): 72, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2022 Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) cardiorenal guideline provided clinical recommendations on sodium-glucose co-transport 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) use. Since then, additional trials of relevance for SGLT2i have been published. This update re-evaluates the clinical recommendations for using SGLTi and their indirect comparison with existing evidence on GLP-1RA as compared to the standard of care to reduce cardiorenal morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We updated our existing search and screening of the literature from September 2021 to April 2023 for randomized controlled trials of SGLT2i and GLP-1RA with placebo control. We conducted risk of bias assessment, data extraction and updated our meta-analysis of studies with similar interventions and components. The certainty of the evidence was determined using GRADE. RESULTS: Evidence from three new trials and additional results from an updated existing trial on SGLT2i met our inclusion criteria after an updated search. Across all the included studies, the total sample size was 151,023 adults, with 90,943 in SGLT2i trials and 60,080 in GLP-1 RA trials. The mean age ranged from 59.9 to 68.4 years. Compared with standard care, the use of SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA showed significant reductions in the outcomes of cardiovascular (CV) mortality (14% & 13%), any-cause mortality (12% & 12%), major adverse CV events (MACE) (11% & 14%), heart failure (HF) hospitalization (30% & 9%), CV death or HF hospitalization (23% & 11%), and kidney composite outcome (32% & 22%). In participants with T2D, both classes demonstrated significant cardiorenal protection. But, only GLP-1RA showed a reduction in non-fatal stroke (16%) and only SGLT2i showed a reduction in HF hospitalization (30%) in this population of people living with T2D. CONCLUSIONS: This updated and comprehensive meta-analysis substantiates and strengthens the clinical recommendations of the CCS cardiorenal guidelines.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemiantes , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Canadá , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
13.
Cell Commun Signal ; 22(1): 125, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360670

RESUMO

The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ has been extensively shown to attenuate inflammatory responses in conditions such as asthma, acute lung injury, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, as demonstrated in animal studies. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying these inhibitory effects remain largely unknown. The upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been shown to confer protective effects, including antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo. PPARγ is highly expressed not only in adipose tissues but also in various other tissues, including the pulmonary system. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are highly selective agonists for PPARγ and are used as antihyperglycemic medications. These observations suggest that PPARγ agonists could modulate metabolism and inflammation. Several studies have indicated that PPARγ agonists may serve as potential therapeutic candidates in inflammation-related diseases by upregulating HO-1, which in turn modulates inflammatory responses. In the respiratory system, exposure to external insults triggers the expression of inflammatory molecules, such as cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinases, and reactive oxygen species, leading to the development of pulmonary inflammatory diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that the upregulation of HO-1 protects tissues and cells from external insults, indicating that the induction of HO-1 by PPARγ agonists could exert protective effects by inhibiting inflammatory signaling pathways and attenuating the development of pulmonary inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying TZD-induced HO-1 expression are not well understood. This review aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms through which PPARγ agonists induce the expression of HO-1 and explore how they protect against inflammatory and oxidative responses.


Assuntos
Heme Oxigenase-1 , PPAR gama , Pneumonia , Rosiglitazona , Animais , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , PPAR gama/agonistas , Rosiglitazona/farmacologia , Rosiglitazona/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico
14.
J Diabetes Res ; 2024: 5880589, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38223524

RESUMO

Recently, the development of once-weekly incretin-based injections dulaglutide and semaglutide has drawn a great deal of attention. This study is aimed at comparing the efficacy of once-weekly GLP-1 receptor activator (GLP-1RA) dulaglutide and semaglutide on glycemic control and several metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We compared various clinical parameters between before and after switching from dulaglutide to semaglutide in "study 1" (pre-post comparison) and set the control group using propensity score matching method in "study 2." In "study 1," six months after the switching, HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.2% to 7.6% and body mass index was also decreased from 30.4 kg/m2 to 30.0 kg/m2. Such effects were more pronounced in subjects whose glycemic control was poor. In "study 2," after 1 : 1 propensity score matching, glycemic control and body weight management were improved in the switching group compared with the dulaglutide continuation group. In this study including obese subjects with poor glycemic control, switching dulaglutide to semaglutide showed more beneficial effects on both glycemic and weight control irrespective of age, body weight, and diabetes duration. Therefore, we should bear in mind that it would be better to start using a relatively new once-weekly GLP-1RA semaglutide in clinical practice, especially in obese subjects with poor glycemic control with other GLP-1RAs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Controle Glicêmico , Peso Corporal , Obesidade , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas
15.
Sci Signal ; 17(819): eadn9627, 2024 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38227685
16.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 103(1): e14426, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38230775

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative disorders, which affect millions worldwide, are marked by a steady decline of neurons that are selectively susceptible. Due to the complex pathological processes underlying neurodegeneration, at present, there is no viable therapy available for neurodegenerative disorders. Consequently, the establishment of a novel therapeutic approach for such conditions is a clinical void that remains. The potential significance of various peptides as neuroprotective interventions for neurodegenerative disorders is gaining increasing attention. In the past few years, there has been growing scientific interest in glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists due to their claimed neuroprotective effects. Exendin-4 is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist that is known to possess anti-diabetic effects and does not degrade for hours, making it a superior candidate for such disorders. Moreover, exendin-4's neuroprotective effects have been reported in several preclinical studies. Exendin-4's diverse therapeutic targets suggest its potential therapeutic uses in neurodegenerative ailments like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease and have garnered an increasing amount of attention. Given the substantial body of evidence supporting the neuroprotective potential of exendin-4 in various research models, this article is dedicated to exploring the promising role of exendin-4 as a therapeutic agent for the treatment and management of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. This review draws insights from the findings of numerous preclinical and clinical studies to highlight the collective neuroprotective advantages of exendin-4 and the potential mechanisms that underlie its neuroprotective effects.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Exenatida/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/agonistas , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Eur J Med Chem ; 265: 116125, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38185055

RESUMO

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play a major role in regulating inflammatory processes, and dual or pan-PPAR agonists with PPARγ partial activation have been recognised to be useful to manage both metabolic syndrome and metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Previous works have demonstrated the capacity of 2-prenylated benzopyrans as PPAR ligands. Herein, we have replaced the isoprenoid bond by hydrazone, a highly attractive functional group in medicinal chemistry. In an attempt to discover novel and safety PPAR activators, we efficiently prepared benzopyran hydrazone/hydrazine derivatives containing benzothiazole (series 1) or 5-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridine moiety (series 2) with a 3- or 7-carbon side chain at the 2-position of the benzopyran nucleus. Benzopyran hydrazones 4 and 5 showed dual hPPARα/γ agonism, while hydrazone 14 exerted dual hPPARα/δ agonism. These three hydrazones greatly attenuated inflammatory markers such as IL-6 and MCP-1 on the THP-1 macrophages via NF-κB activation. Therefore, we have discovered novel hits (4, 5 and 14), containing a hydrazone framework with dual PPARα/γ or PPARα/δ partial agonism, depending on the length of the side chain. Benzopyran hydrazones emerge as potential lead compounds which could be useful for treating metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos , PPAR alfa , Humanos , PPAR alfa/agonistas , Benzopiranos/química , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes , PPAR gama/agonistas , Anti-Inflamatórios
18.
Theranostics ; 14(2): 496-509, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38169605

RESUMO

Background: Selective TNFR2 activation can be used to treat immune pathologies by activating and expanding regulatory T-cells (Tregs) but may also restore anti-tumour immunity by co-stimulating CD8+ T-cells. Oligomerized TNFR2-specific TNF mutants or anti-TNFR2 antibodies can activate TNFR2 but suffer either from poor production and pharmacokinetics or in the case of anti-TNFR2 antibodies typically from the need of FcγR binding to elicit maximal agonistic activity. Methods: To identify the major factor(s) determining FcγR-independent agonism of anti-TNFR2 antibodies, we systematically investigated a comprehensive panel of anti-TNFR2 antibodies and antibody-based constructs differing in the characteristics of their TNFR2 binding domains but also in the number and positioning of the latter. Results: We identified the domain architecture of the constructs as the pivotal factor enabling FcγR-independent, thus intrinsic TNFR2-agonism. Anti-TNFR2 antibody formats with either TNFR2 binding sites on opposing sites of the antibody scaffold or six or more TNFR2 binding sites in similar orientation regularly showed strong FcγR-independent agonism. The affinity of the TNFR2 binding domain and the epitope recognized in TNFR2, however, were found to be of only secondary importance for agonistic activity. Conclusion: Generic design principles enable the generation of highly active bona fide TNFR2 agonists from nearly any TNFR2-specific antibody.


Assuntos
Receptores de IgG , Receptores Tipo II do Fator de Necrose Tumoral , Receptores Tipo II do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/agonistas , Receptores Tipo II do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Diabetes Care ; 47(2): 184-192, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38241493

RESUMO

We present a methodological framework for conducting and interpreting subgroup meta-analyses. Methodological steps comprised evaluation of clinical heterogeneity regarding the definition of subpopulations, credibility assessment of subgroup meta-analysis, and translation of relative into absolute treatment effects. We used subgroup data from type 2 diabetes cardiovascular outcomes trials (CVOTs) with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for patients with established cardiovascular disease and those at high cardiovascular risk without manifest cardiovascular disease. First, we evaluated the variability in definitions of the subpopulations across CVOTs using major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) incidence in the placebo arm as a proxy for baseline cardiovascular risk. As baseline risk did not differ considerably across CVOTs, we conducted subgroup meta-analyses of hazard ratios (HRs) for MACE and assessed the credibility of a potential effect modification. Results suggested using the same overall relative effect for each of the two subpopulations (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.80-0.90, for GLP-1 receptor agonists and HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.97, for SGLT2 inhibitors). Finally, we calculated 5-year absolute treatment effects (number of fewer patients with event per 1,000 patients). Treatment with GLP-1 receptor agonists resulted in 30 fewer patients with event in the subpopulation with established cardiovascular disease and 14 fewer patients with event in patients without manifest cardiovascular disease. For SGLT2 inhibitors, the respective absolute effects were 18 and 8 fewer patients with event per 1,000 patients. This framework can be applied to subgroup meta-analyses regardless of outcomes or modification variables.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos
20.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 15(3): 685-698, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38265210

RESUMO

Structure-activity relationship studies led to the discovery of PIPE-3297, a fully efficacious and selective kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist. PIPE-3297, a potent activator of G-protein signaling (GTPγS EC50 = 1.1 nM, 91% Emax), did not elicit a ß-arrestin-2 recruitment functional response (Emax < 10%). Receptor occupancy experiments performed with the novel KOR radiotracer [3H]-PIPE-3113 revealed that subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of PIPE-3297 at 30 mg/kg in mice achieved 90% occupancy of the KOR in the CNS 1 h post dose. A single subcutaneous dose of PIPE-3297 in healthy mice produced a statistically significant increase of mature oligodendrocytes (P < 0.0001) in the KOR-enriched striatum, an effect that was not observed in animals predosed with the selective KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine. An equivalent dose given to mice in an open-field activity-monitoring system revealed a small KOR-independent decrease in total locomotor activity versus vehicle measured between 60 and 75 min post dose. Daily doses of PIPE-3297 at both 3 and 30 mg/kg s.c. reduced the disease score in the mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. Visually evoked potential (VEP) N1 latencies were also significantly improved versus vehicle in both dose groups, and latencies matched those of untreated animals. Taken together, these findings highlight the potential therapeutic value of functionally selective G-protein KOR agonists in demyelinating disease, which may avoid the sedating side effects typically associated with classical nonbiased KOR agonists.


Assuntos
Receptores Opioides kappa , Transdução de Sinais , Camundongos , Animais , beta-Arrestina 2/farmacologia , Receptores Opioides kappa/agonistas , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia
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