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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253613, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345548

RESUMO

Abstract Soybean meal is an inexpensive plant origin protein which has been used in practical diets as a replacement of animal protein such as fish meal or chicken meal, due to the uneconomical price of animal protein diets. Consequently, a research study was conducted on some commercial species of Indian major carps i.e. Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) and Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822) to estimate optimum dietary protein requirement of soy bean meal in diet in an intensive polyculture. Three different diets (SBM I, SBM II and SBM III) were formulated by 80%, 50% and 20% replacement of fish meal with soybean meal from a 45% fish meal diet (control).Highest monthly mean weight gain was obtained by SBM II (with 35% CP and about 50% substitution of fish meal), while SBM III (45% Crude Protein and about 20% substitution of fish meal) was stood second. All tested diets respond enormously by producing high yield as compare to control diet, though SBM II generated highest yield among all. On the bases of the following research, it was revealed that the SBM can surrogate even50% fish meal without any augmentation of other amino acids in the diet of Indian major carps.


Resumo O farelo de soja é uma proteína de origem vegetal de baixo custo que tem sido usada em dietas práticas como um substituto da proteína animal, como farinha de peixe ou farinha de frango, devido ao preço não econômico das dietas com proteína animal. Consequentemente, um estudo/pesquisa foi realizado com algumas espécies comerciais de carpas principais indianas, ou seja, Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) e Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822), para estimar a necessidade ideal de proteína dietética de farelo de soja na dieta em uma policultura intensiva. Três dietas diferentes (SBM I, SBM II e SBM III) foram formuladas por 80%, 50% e 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe por farelo de soja de uma dieta de 45% de farinha de peixe (controle). O maior ganho de peso médio mensal foi obtido por SBM II (com 35% PB e cerca de 50% de substituição de farinha de peixe), enquanto SBM III (45% de proteína bruta e cerca de 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe) ficou em segundo lugar. Todas as dietas testadas respondem enormemente produzindo alto rendimento em comparação com a dieta controle, embora SBM II tenha gerado o maior rendimento entre todas. Com base na pesquisa a seguir, foi revelado que o SBM pode substituir até 50% da farinha de peixe sem qualquer aumento de outros aminoácidos na dieta das carpas principais indianas.


Assuntos
Animais , Carpas , Cyprinidae , Soja , Alimentos Marinhos , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250916, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345552

RESUMO

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.


Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis ​​por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Ciclídeos , Moringa , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Folhas de Planta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250517, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355859

RESUMO

Abstract Lactobacilli are probiotics with Aflatoxin (AF) detoxification ability, found in fermented products, GIT of animals and environment. Purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of broiler isolates of Lactobacillus against Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). For this purpose, 5 isolates of Lactobacillus from broiler gut were incubated with 100 ppb AFB1 in aqueous environment and effect of different parameters (cell fractions, time, temperature, pH) on detoxification was determined by HPLC. The ameliorative effect of Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) against AFB1 was studied in broiler. The results revealed that LS (CR. 4) showed the best results (in vitro) as compared to other isolates (L. salivarius (CR. 3, CR, 4), L. agilis (CE. 2.1, CE. 3.1) and L. crispatus (CE. 28). Cell debris of CR. 4 showed significantly higher detoxification (P<0.05). Maximum amount of AFB1 was detoxified at 30°C (97%), pH 4.0 (99%) and 6 h (99.97%). In vivo study showed that AFB1 decreased weight gain (1,269 ± 0.04 gm/ bird), feed consumed (2,161 ± 0.08 gm/ bird), serum total protein (2.42 ± 0.34 gm/ dl), serum albumin (0.5 ± 0.2 2 gm/dl) and antibody titer (4.2 ± 0.83). Liver function enzymes were found (alanine transaminase (ALT): 32 ± 10.7 U/L) and aspartate transaminase (AST): 314.8 ± 27 U/L) elevated in AFB1 fed broilers. Treatment with 1% LS not only decreased the toxic effects of AFB1 (group D) but also improved the overall health of broilers due to its probiotic effects (p<0.05) as compared to control negative (group A). The detoxification ability of LS was better than commercial binder (CB) (0.2% Protmyc). It was concluded that detoxification of AFB1 by Lactobacillus was strain, temperature, pH and time dependent. LS has detoxification ability against AFB1 in vivo.


Resumo Os lactobacilos são probióticos com capacidade de desintoxicação da Aflatoxina (AF), encontrados em produtos fermentados, TGI de animais e meio ambiente. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a capacidade de isolados de frango de corte de Lactobacillus contra a Aflatoxina B1 (AFB1). Para tanto, 5 isolados de Lactobacillus de intestino de frango foram incubados com 100 ppb AFB1 em meio aquoso, e o efeito de diferentes parâmetros (frações celulares, tempo, temperatura, pH) na desintoxicação foi determinado por CLAE. O efeito melhorador de Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) contra AFB1 foi estudado em frangos de corte. Os resultados revelaram que LS (CR. 4) apresentou os melhores resultados (in vitro) em comparação com outros isolados [L. salivarius (CR. 3, CR. 4), L. agilis (CE. 2.1, CE. 3.1) e L. crispatus (CE. 28)]. Detritos celulares de CR. 4 mostraram desintoxicação significativamente maior (P < 0.05). A quantidade máxima de AFB1 foi desintoxicada a 30 °C (97%), pH 4.0 (99%) e 6 h (99,97%). O estudo in vivo mostrou que AFB1 diminuiu o ganho de peso (1,269 ± 0.04 g / ave), alimento consumido (2,161 ± 0.08 g / ave), proteína total sérica (2.42 ± 0.34 g / dl), albumina sérica (0.5 ± 0.22 gm / dl) e título de anticorpo (4.2 ± 0.83). As enzimas da função hepática foram encontradas (alanina transaminase (ALT): 32 ± 10.7 U / L) e aspartato transaminase (AST): 314.8 ± 27 U / L) elevadas em AFB1 alimentados com frangos. O tratamento com 1% LS não só diminuiu os efeitos tóxicos de AFB1 (grupo D), mas também melhorou a saúde geral dos frangos devido aos seus efeitos probióticos (p < 0.05) em comparação com o controle negativo (grupo A). A capacidade de desintoxicação do LS foi melhor do que o aglutinante comercial (CB) (0.2% Protmyc). Concluiu-se que a desintoxicação de AFB1 por Lactobacillus foi dependente da cepa, temperatura, pH e tempo. LS tem capacidade de desintoxicação contra AFB1 in vivo.


Assuntos
Animais , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Probióticos , Galinhas , Lactobacillus , Ração Animal/análise
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252471, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355868

RESUMO

Abstract Smog has become the fifth season of Pakistan especially in Lahore city. Increased level of air pollutants (primary and secondary) are thought to be responsible for the formation of smog in Lahore. Therefore, the current study was carried out for the evaluation of air pollutants (primary and secondary) of smog in Wagah border particularly and other sites (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. For this purpose, baseline data on winter smog from March to December on primary and secondary air pollutants and meteorological parameters was collected from Environmental Protection Department and Pakistan Meteorological Department respectively. Devices being used in both departments for analysis of parameters were also studied. Collected data was further statistically analyzed to determine the correlation of parameters with meteorological conditions and was subjected to air quality index. According to results, PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found very high above the NEQS. NOx concentrations were also high above the permissible limits whereas SO2 and O3 were found below the NEQS thus have no roles in smog formation. Air Quality Index (AQI) of pollutants was PM 2.5(86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) and SO2 (10-95). AQI of PM 2.5 remained between moderate to very unhealthy levels. AQI of PM 10 remained between good to hazardous levels. AQI of NOx remained between good to unhealthy for sensitive groups' levels. AQI of O3 and SO2 remained between good to moderate levels. Pearson correlation showed that every pollutant has a different relation with different or same parameters in different areas. It is concluded from the present study that particulate matter was much more responsible for smog formation. Although NOx also played role in smog formation. So there is need to reduce sources of particulate matter and NOx specifically in order to reduce smog formation in Lahore.


Resumo Smog tornou-se a quinta estação do Paquistão, especialmente na cidade de Lahore. Acredita-se que o aumento do nível de poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) seja responsável pela formação de poluição atmosférica em Lahore. Portanto, o presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação dos poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) do smog na fronteira de Wagah em particular e em outros locais (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. Para este propósito, os dados de referência sobre a poluição atmosférica de inverno de março a dezembro sobre poluentes atmosféricos primários e secundários e parâmetros meteorológicos foram coletados do Departamento de Proteção Ambiental e do Departamento Meteorológico do Paquistão, respectivamente. Dispositivos sendo usados ​​em ambos os departamentos para análise de parâmetros também foram estudados. Os dados coletados foram posteriormente analisados ​​estatisticamente para determinar a correlação dos parâmetros com as condições meteorológicas e foram submetidos ao índice de qualidade do ar. De acordo com os resultados, PM 10 e PM 2,5 foram encontrados muito acima do NEQS. As concentrações de NOx também estavam muito acima dos limites permitidos, enquanto SO2 e O3 foram encontrados abaixo do NEQS, portanto, não têm papéis na formação de smog. O índice de qualidade do ar (AQI) de poluentes foi PM 2,5 (86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) e SO2 (10-95). O AQI de PM 2,5 permaneceu entre níveis moderados a muito prejudiciais à saúde. O AQI de PM 10 permaneceu entre níveis bons e perigosos. AQI de NOx permaneceu entre bom e não saudável para os níveis de grupos sensíveis. O AQI de O3 e SO2 permaneceu entre níveis bons a moderados. A correlação de Pearson mostrou que cada poluente tem uma relação diferente com parâmetros diferentes ou iguais em áreas diferentes. Conclui-se do presente estudo que o material particulado foi muito mais responsável pela formação de smog. Embora o NOx também tenha desempenhado um papel na formação do smog. Portanto, é necessário reduzir as fontes de partículas e NOx, especificamente para reduzir a formação de smog em Lahore.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Paquistão , Smog , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cidades , Material Particulado/análise
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253599, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355891

RESUMO

Abstract The antioxidant activity of Tetragonisca angustula honey (TAH) and its ethanolic extract (TAEE) were investigated. The total levels of phenolic (TPC) and flavonoids (TFC) were also evaluated. The results for TPC were 19.91 ± 0.38 and 29.37 ± 1.82 mg GAE g-1 and for TFC 0.20 ± 0.02 and 0.14 ± 0.01 mg QE g-1 of TAH and TAEE, respectively. Antioxidant activities were 73.29 ± 0.49% and 93.36 ± 0.27% in the DPPH● assay and 71.73 ± 4.07% and 97.86 ± 0.35% in ABTS●+ for TAH and TAEE, respectively. The total reducing activity was determined by the method of reducing power (PR) and iron ion (Fe III) and the results varied in PR from 151.7 ± 25.7 and 230.7 ± 25.2 mg GAE L-1, for TAH and TAEE respectively and for (Fe III) in EC50 0.284 in TAEE and 0.687 in TAH. Chemical analysis by HPLC-DAD of the ethanolic extract (TAEE) revealed the presence of ferulic acid as majority phenolic component in the extract. The 1H NMR analysis confirmed this structure and showed the also presence of glucose, citric acid, succinic acid, proline and hydrocarbon derivatives. In addition, the botanical origin was also investigated and showed a multifloral characteristic, having found 19 pollen types with a botanical predominance of the Anacardiaceae family, with Tapirira pollen occurring as predominant (42.6%) and Schinus as secondary (25.7%). The results showed that T. angustula honey is an interesting source of antioxidant phenolic compounds due to its floral origin and can act as a protector of human health when consumed.


Resumo A atividade antioxidante do mel de Tetragonisca angustula (TAH) e seu extrato etanólico (TAEE) foram investigados. Os níveis totais de fenólicos (TPC) e flavonóides (TFC) também foram avaliados. Os resultados para TPC foram 19,91 ± 0,38 e 29,37 ± 1,82 mg GAE g-1 e para TFC 0,20 ± 0,02 e 0,14 ± 0,01 mg QE g-1 de TAH e TAEE, respectivamente. As atividades antioxidantes foram 73,29 ± 0,49% e 93,36 ± 0,27% no ensaio DPPH● e 71,73 ± 4,07% e 97,86 ± 0,35% no ABTS●+ para TAH e TAEE, respectivamente. A atividade redutora total foi determinada pelo método de poder redutor (PR) e íon ferrico (Fe III) e os resultados variaram em PR de 151,7 ± 25,7 e 230,7 ± 25,2 mg GAE L-1, para TAH e TAEE respectivamente e para (Fe III) em EC50 0,284 em TAEE e 0,687 em TAH. A análise química por HPLC-DAD do extrato etanólico (TAEE) revelou a presença de ácido ferúlico como componente majoritário no extrato. A análise de RMN 1H confirmou esta estrutura e mostrou a presença de glicose, ácido cítrico, ácido succínico, prolina e derivados de hidrocarbonetos no TAEE. Além disso, a origem botânica também foi investigada e apresentou característica multifloral, tendo encontrado 19 tipos polínicos com predomínio botânico da família Anacardiaceae, sendo o pólen Tapirira predominante (42,6%) e o Schinus secundário (25,7%). Os resultados mostraram que o mel de T. angustula é uma interessante fonte de compostos fenólicos antioxidantes devido à sua origem floral e pode atuar como protetor da saúde humana quando consumido.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Mel/análise , Antioxidantes , Fenóis/análise , Brasil , Ácidos Cumáricos
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253555, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355900

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of selenium nanoparticles on the growth, hematology and nutrients digestibility of Labeorohita fingerlings. Fingerlings were fed with seven isocaloric sunflower meal-based diet supplemented with different concentrations of nanoparticles naming T1 to T7 (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg/kg), with 5% wet body weight while chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. After experimentation for 90 days T3 treated group (1mg/kg -1Se-nano level) showed the best result in hematological parameters (WBC's 7.97 ×103mm-3, RBC's 2.98 ×106 mm-3 and Platelet count 67), nutrient digestibility (crude protein: 74%, ether extract: 76%, gross energy: 70%) and growth performance (weight gain 13.24 g, weight gain% 198, feed conversion ratio 1.5, survival rate 100%) as compared to the other treatment groups. Specific growth rates were found significantly higher in T5 than in other groups. The present study indicated positive effect of 1 mg/kg Se-nanoparticles on growth advancement, hematological parameters, and nutrients digestibility of L. rohita fingerlings.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar os efeitos das nanopartículas de selênio no crescimento, hematologia e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de alevinos de Labeo rohita. Os alevinos foram alimentados com sete dietas isocalóricas à base de farinha de girassol suplementada com diferentes concentrações de nanopartículas, nomeando T1 a T7 (0, 0,5, 1, 1,5, 2, 2,5 e 3 mg / kg), com 5% do peso corporal úmido enquanto o óxido crômico foi usado como um marcador indigesto. Após a experimentação por 90 dias, o grupo tratado com T3 (nível 1mg / kg -1Se-nano) mostrou o melhor resultado em parâmetros hematológicos (WBC's 7,97 × 103mm-3, RBC's 2,98 × 106mm-3 e contagem de plaquetas 67), digestibilidade dos nutrientes (proteína bruta: 74%, extrato de éter: 76%, energia bruta: 70%) e desempenho de crescimento (ganho de peso 13,24 g, ganho de peso % 198, taxa de conversão alimentar 1,5, taxa de sobrevivência 100%) em comparação com os outros grupos de tratamento. As taxas de crescimento específicas foram encontradas significativamente mais altas em T5 do que em outros grupos. O presente estudo indicou efeito positivo de 1 mg / kg de nanopartículas de Se no avanço do crescimento, parâmetros hematológicos e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de L. rohita.


Assuntos
Animais , Nanopartículas , Helianthus , Nutrientes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250723, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355902

RESUMO

Abstract This study assessed the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole effect on the main indicators of the quality of sheep meat obtained from infected and deworming animals. A total of 20 heads of Akzhaik meat and wool sheep (i.e. 2 years of age, of different sex) were used in a 20-day experiment and 2 groups of 10 heads were formed (n = 4). The sheep were fed with the basic diet (i.e. control, group CON), without adding anything, and the second group was fed the basic diet orally with the addition of a dose of 1.2 g / head (an experimental group). At the end of the experiment, a control slaughter was carried out from each group in order to study the biochemical composition of meat and its quality. The anthelmintic feed additive albendazole did not have a significant effect on the indicators (organoleptic and physicochemical) of meat quality (P> 0.04). However, the ratio of fat and ash in the meat of the control group has differences in indicators and is reduced by 24.81% and 0.03%, respectively. The drug had a significant effect on the biological value of meat in the experimental group, where there is a higher content of essential amino acids (P = 0.06), nonessential (P = 0.05) concentrations in comparison with the CON groups. The results obtained show that the meat of the experimental groups of sheep, when using the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole, did not have a significant effect on organoleptic parameters, but significantly positively influenced the metabolism, live weight gain and biological value of meat.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol sobre os principais indicadores de qualidade da carne ovina obtida de animais infectados e desparasitados. Um total de 20 cabeças de carne Akzhaik e ovelhas de lã (ou seja, 2 anos de idade, de sexo diferente) foi usado em um experimento de 20 dias e dois grupos de 10 cabeças foram formados (n = 4). As ovelhas foram alimentadas com dieta básica (ou seja, controle, grupo CON), sem adicionar nada, e o segundo grupo foi alimentado com dieta básica por via oral com a adição de uma dose de 1,2 g / cabeça (um grupo experimental). Ao final do experimento, foi realizado um abate controle de cada grupo para estudar a composição bioquímica da carne e sua qualidade. O aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol não teve efeito significativo sobre os indicadores (organolépticos e físico-químicos) de qualidade da carne (P > 0,04). No entanto, a proporção de gordura e cinzas na carne do grupo de controle tem diferenças nos indicadores e é reduzida em 24,81% e 0,03%, respectivamente. A droga teve efeito significativo sobre o valor biológico da carne no grupo experimental, onde há maior teor de aminoácidos essenciais (P = 0,06), concentrações não essenciais (P = 0,05) em comparação com os grupos CON. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a carne dos grupos experimentais de ovinos, ao utilizar o aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol, não teve efeito significativo nos parâmetros organolépticos, mas influenciou positivamente de forma significativa no metabolismo, ganho de peso vivo e valor biológico da carne.


Assuntos
Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Anti-Helmínticos , Ovinos , Albendazol , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/análise
8.
Clin Transl Med ; 13(1): e1152, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36588088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut-brain axis is widely implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). We take an integrated approach to considering the gut as a target for disease-modifying intervention, using continuous measurements of disease facets irrespective of diagnostic divide. METHODS: We characterised 77 participants with diagnosed-PD, 113 without, by dietary/exogenous substance intake, faecal metabolome, intestinal inflammation, serum cytokines/chemokines, clinical phenotype including colonic transit time. Complete-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis of metabolites discriminant for PD-status was performed. RESULTS: Longer colonic transit was linked to deficits in faecal short-chain-fatty acids outside PD, to a 'tryptophan-containing metabolite cluster' overall. Phenotypic cluster analysis aggregated colonic transit with brady/hypokinesia, tremor, sleep disorder and dysosmia, each individually associated with tryptophan-cluster deficit. Overall, a faster pulse was associated with deficits in a metabolite cluster including benzoic acid and an imidazole-ring compound (anti-fungals) and vitamin B3 (anti-inflammatory) and with higher serum CCL20 (chemotactic for lymphocytes/dendritic cells towards mucosal epithelium). The faster pulse in PD was irrespective of postural hypotension. The benzoic acid-cluster deficit was linked to (well-recognised) lower caffeine and alcohol intakes, tryptophan-cluster deficit to higher maltose intake. Free-sugar intake was increased in PD, maltose intake being 63% higher (p = .001). Faecal calprotectin was 44% (95% CI 5%, 98%) greater in PD [p = .001, adjusted for proton-pump inhibitors (p = .001)], with 16% of PD-probands exceeding a cut-point for clinically significant inflammation compatible with inflammatory bowel disease. Higher maltose intake was associated with exceeding this calprotectin cut-point. CONCLUSIONS: Emerging picture is of (i) clinical phenotype being described by deficits in microbial metabolites essential to gut health; (ii) intestinal inflammation; (iii) a systemic inflammatory response syndrome.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Triptofano , Maltose , Inflamação , Dieta , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Benzoatos
9.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 6, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596767

RESUMO

The latest Permian mass extinction (LPME) was triggered by magmatism of the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province (STLIP), which left an extensive record of sedimentary Hg anomalies at Northern Hemisphere and tropical sites. Here, we present Hg records from terrestrial sites in southern Pangea, nearly antipodal to contemporaneous STLIP activity, providing insights into the global distribution of volcanogenic Hg during this event and its environmental processing. These profiles (two from Karoo Basin, South Africa; two from Sydney Basin, Australia) exhibit significant Hg enrichments within the uppermost Permian extinction interval as well as positive Δ199Hg excursions (to ~0.3‰), providing evidence of long-distance atmospheric transfer of volcanogenic Hg. These results demonstrate the far-reaching effects of the Siberian Traps as well as refine stratigraphic placement of the LPME interval in the Karoo Basin at a temporal resolution of ~105 years based on global isochronism of volcanogenic Hg anomalies.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Mercúrio/análise , Extinção Biológica , África do Sul , Austrália
10.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279893, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598904

RESUMO

Arsenic is a potent environmental toxicant and human carcinogen. Skin lesions are the most common manifestations of chronic exposure to arsenic. Advanced-stage skin lesions, particularly hyperkeratosis have been recognized as precancerous diseases. However, the underlying mechanism of arsenic-induced skin lesions remains unknown. Periostin, a matricellular protein, is implicated in the pathogenesis of many forms of skin lesions. The objective of this study was to examine whether periostin is associated with arsenic-induced skin lesions. A total of 442 individuals from low- (n = 123) and high-arsenic exposure areas (n = 319) in rural Bangladesh were evaluated for the presence of arsenic-induced skin lesions (Yes/No). Participants with skin lesions were further categorized into two groups: early-stage skin lesions (melanosis and keratosis) and advanced-stage skin lesions (hyperkeratosis). Drinking water, hair, and nail arsenic concentrations were considered as the participants' exposure levels. The higher levels of arsenic and serum periostin were significantly associated with skin lesions. Causal mediation analysis revealed the significant effect of arsenic on skin lesions through the mediator, periostin, suggesting that periostin contributes to the development of skin lesions. When skin lesion was used as a three-category outcome (none, early-stage, and advanced-stage skin lesions), higher serum periostin levels were significantly associated with both early-stage and advanced-stage skin lesions. Median (IQR) periostin levels were progressively increased with the increasing severity of skin lesions. Furthermore, there were general trends in increasing serum type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eotaxin) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels with the progression of the disease. The median (IQR) of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, eotaxin, and IgE levels were significantly higher in the early-and advanced-stage skin lesions compared to the group of participants without skin lesions. The results of this study suggest that periostin is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of arsenic-induced skin lesions through the dysregulation of type 2 immune response.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Ceratose Actínica , Dermatopatias , Humanos , Arsênio/toxicidade , Arsênio/análise , Interleucina-13 , Interleucina-4 , Interleucina-5 , Exposição Ambiental , Abastecimento de Água , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente , Imunoglobulina E/efeitos adversos
11.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279546, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598920

RESUMO

Studying infant diet and feeding practices through stable isotope analysis provides direct insight into the life and health of vulnerable population groups in the past. Although the general diet in medieval and early modern Livonia has been reconstructed from written sources, little is known about childhood diet during this tumultuous period of Eastern European history. This study presents a comparative investigation of the staple non-adult diet in urban/rural communities during the 13th-17th centuries AD, with a special focus on feeding practices. We aim to reveal the impact of socio-economic circumstances on early childhood nutrition, which affects the physical development and overall survival of this susceptible population group. Bone collagen samples from 176 individuals between the fetal and the 7-15 age categories from four urban/rural South-Estonian cemeteries were cross-sectionally analyzed via EA-IRMS (Elemental Analysis with Isotope Ratio Mass Spectroscopy) for δ13C and δ15N. Results suggest that South-Estonian children had a staple terrestrial C3 diet integrated with animal proteins. Significant divergences were observed between urban and rural sites and slight variation occurred among rural subgroups, possibly resulting from a wider food choice available in towns, different consumption of C4 foods, and/or secular changes. This study provides the first data regarding infant feeding practices in medieval and early modern Livonia. These practices were similar among the different contexts, indicating comparable cultural traditions in child rearing. Breastfeeding was likely practiced for 1-2 years, with supplementary foods introduced around 1 year of age. The weaning process was probably concluded around the age of 3. The δ13C and δ15N values of older children are comparable to those of the adults from the same sites, indicating their diets became similar after weaning, when they started working and obtained a more mature social status.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , História Medieval , Estônia , Aleitamento Materno/história , Desmame , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Dieta , Alimentos Infantis
12.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678323

RESUMO

There is a growing awareness that fostering the transition toward plant-based diets with reduced meat consumption levels is essential to alleviating the detrimental impacts of the food system on the planet and to improving human health and animal welfare. The reduction in average meat intake may be reached via many possible ways, one possibility being the increased consumption of plant-based meat alternatives (PBMAs). For this reason, in recent years, hundreds of products have been launched on the market with sensory attributes (i.e., taste, texture, appearance, and smell) similar to their animal counterparts; however, these products have often a long list of ingredients and their nutritional values are very different from animal meat. The present review aims to highlight the main opportunities and challenges related to the production and consumption of PBMAs through an interdisciplinary approach. Aspects related to the production technology, nutritional profiles, potential impacts on health and the environment, and the current market and consumer acceptance of PBMAs are discussed. Focusing on the growing literature on this topic, this review will also highlight research gaps related to PBMAs that should be considered in the future, possibly through the collaboration of different stakeholders that can support the transition toward sustainable plant-based diets.


Assuntos
Dieta , Carne , Animais , Humanos , Carne/análise , Percepção Gustatória , Olfato
13.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678345

RESUMO

The food supplement market is growing as many consumers wish to complement their nutrient intake. Despite all the regulations in place to ensure food supplements safety, there are still many cases of irregularities reported especially connected to internet sales. Twenty resveratrol food supplement products sold on the Slovenian market were evaluated on their compliance of declared vs. determined resveratrol content, as well as the compliance of labels with the European Union (EU) and Slovenian regulatory requirements. Both the ingredient contents and food information are important parts of food safety. Analyses of 20 food supplements performed using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled with densitometry showed that 95% of products had contents different from what was declared and 55% of products contained higher contents than declared. In 25% of the products the determined content per unit exceeded the maximum level (150 mg/day) specified in EU novel food conditions for food supplement with trans-resveratrol. Evaluation of the 20 food supplement labels included mandatory and voluntary food information, food supplement information, novel food information, health claims and nutrition claims. Most labels contained the necessary information, but multiple errors were observed ranging from typos to misleading practices. From a food safety perspective there is still a lot of improvement needed in the field of food supplements.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Resveratrol , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , União Europeia
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679372

RESUMO

Tea polyphenols, amino acids, soluble sugars, and other ingredients in fresh tea leaves are the key parameters of tea quality. In this research, a tea leaf ingredient estimation sensor was developed based on a multi-channel spectral sensor. The experiment showed that the device could effectively acquire 700-1000 nm spectral data of tea tree leaves and could display the ingredients of leaf samples in real time through the visual interactive interface. The spectral data of Fuding white tea tree leaves acquired by the detection device were used to build an ingredient content prediction model based on the ridge regression model and random forest algorithm. As a result, the prediction model based on the random forest algorithm with better prediction performance was loaded into the ingredient detection device. Verification experiment showed that the root mean square error (RMSE) and determination coefficient (R2) in the prediction were, respectively, as follows: moisture content (1.61 and 0.35), free amino acid content (0.16 and 0.79), tea polyphenol content (1.35 and 0.28), sugar content (0.14 and 0.33), nitrogen content (1.15 and 0.91), and chlorophyll content (0.02 and 0.97). As a result, the device can predict some parameters with high accuracy (nitrogen, chlorophyll, free amino acid) but some of them with lower accuracy (moisture, polyphenol, sugar) based on the R2 values. The tea leaf ingredient estimation sensor could realize rapid non-destructive detection of key ingredients affecting tea quality, which is conducive to real-time monitoring of the current quality of tea leaves, evaluating the status during tea tree growth, and improving the quality of tea production. The application of this research will be helpful for the automatic management of tea plantations.


Assuntos
Clorofila , Chá , Chá/química , Clorofila/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Açúcares/análise
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679383

RESUMO

Infectious diseases such as the COVID-19 pandemic have necessitated preventive measures against the spread of indoor infections. There has been increasing interest in indoor air quality (IAQ) management. Air quality can be managed simply by alleviating the source of infection or pollution, but the person within a space can be the source of infection or pollution, thus necessitating an estimation of the exact number of people occupying the space. Generally, management plans for mitigating the spread of infections and maintaining the IAQ, such as ventilation, are based on the number of people occupying the space. In this study, carbon dioxide (CO2)-based machine learning was used to estimate the number of people occupying a space. For machine learning, the CO2 concentration, ventilation system operation status, and indoor-outdoor and indoor-corridor differential pressure data were used. In the random forest (RF) and artificial neural network (ANN) models, where the CO2 concentration and ventilation system operation modes were input, the accuracy was highest at 0.9102 and 0.9180, respectively. When the CO2 concentration and differential pressure data were included, the accuracy was lowest at 0.8916 and 0.8936, respectively. Future differential pressure data will be associated with the change in the CO2 concentration to increase the accuracy of occupancy estimation.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , COVID-19 , Humanos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Ventilação
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679407

RESUMO

This article provides an overview on the broad topic of biogenic amines (BAs) that are a persistent concern in the context of food quality and safety. They emerge mainly from the decomposition of amino acids in protein-rich food due to enzymes excreted by pathogenic bacteria that infect food under inappropriate storage conditions. While there are food authority regulations on the maximum allowed amounts of, e.g., histamine in fish, sensitive individuals can still suffer from medical conditions triggered by biogenic amines, and mass outbreaks of scombroid poisoning are reported regularly. We review first the classical techniques used for selective BA detection and quantification in analytical laboratories and focus then on sensor-based solutions aiming at on-site BA detection throughout the food chain. There are receptor-free chemosensors for BA detection and a vastly growing range of bio- and biomimetic sensors that employ receptors to enable selective molecular recognition. Regarding the receptors, we address enzymes, antibodies, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), and aptamers as the most recent class of BA receptors. Furthermore, we address the underlying transducer technologies, including optical, electrochemical, mass-sensitive, and thermal-based sensing principles. The review concludes with an assessment on the persistent limitations of BA sensors, a technological forecast, and thoughts on short-term solutions.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Animais , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Histamina/análise , Aminoácidos
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679459

RESUMO

Fresh tea leaves continuously lose water after harvesting, and the level of water content directly affects the configuration of tea processing parameters. To address this problem, this study established an online detection system for the water content of fresh tea leaves after harvesting based on near-infrared spectroscopy. The online acquisition and analysis system of the temperature and humidity sensor signal data was developed based on LabVIEW and Python software platforms. Near-infrared spectral data, environmental temperature, and humidity were collected from fresh leaves after harvesting. Spectral data were combined with PLS (partial least squares) to develop a prediction model for the water content of fresh tea leaves. Simultaneously, data communication between LabVIEW and PLC was established, laying the foundation for establishing a feedback mechanism to send the prediction results to the main platform of the lower computer. This provides a more objective and accurate basis for the detection of fresh leaves before processing and regulation during processing, thereby effectively promoting the standardisation and intelligent development of tea-processing equipment.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Água , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Água/análise , Chá/química , Padrões de Referência , Folhas de Planta/química , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679464

RESUMO

The quality and shelf life of meat and meat products are key factors that are usually evaluated by complex and laborious protocols and intricate sensory methods. Devices with attractive characteristics (fast reading, portability, and relatively low operational costs) that facilitate the measurement of meat and meat products characteristics are of great value. This review aims to provide an overview of the fundamentals of electronic nose (E-nose), eye (E-eye), and tongue (E-tongue), data preprocessing, chemometrics, the application in the evaluation of quality and shelf life of meat and meat products, and advantages and disadvantages related to these electronic systems. E-nose is the most versatile technology among all three electronic systems and comprises applications to distinguish the application of different preservation methods (chilling vs. frozen, for instance), processing conditions (especially temperature and time), detect adulteration (meat from different species), and the monitoring of shelf life. Emerging applications include the detection of pathogenic microorganisms using E-nose. E-tongue is another relevant technology to determine adulteration, processing conditions, and to monitor shelf life. Finally, E-eye has been providing accurate measuring of color evaluation and grade marbling levels in fresh meat. However, advances are necessary to obtain information that are more related to industrial conditions. Advances to include industrial scenarios (cut sorting in continuous processing, for instance) are of great value.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Nariz Eletrônico , Carne/análise , Tecnologia , Movimento Celular
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679780

RESUMO

Aiming at guiding agricultural producers to harvest crops at an appropriate time and ensuring the pesticide residue does not exceed the maximum limit, the present work proposed a method of detecting pesticide residue rapidly by analyzing near-infrared microscopic images of the leaves of Shanghaiqing (Brassica rapa), a type of Chinese cabbage with computer vision technology. After image pre-processing and feature extraction, the pattern recognition methods of K nearest neighbors (KNN), naïve Bayes, support vector machine (SVM), and back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) were applied to assess whether Shanghaiqing is sprayed with pesticides. The SVM method with linear or RBF kernel provides the highest recognition accuracy of 96.96% for the samples sprayed with trichlorfon at a concentration of 1 g/L. The SVM method with RBF kernel has the highest recognition accuracy of 79.16~84.37% for the samples sprayed with cypermethrin at a concentration of 0.1 g/L. The investigation on the SVM classification models built on the samples sprayed with cypermethrin at different concentrations shows that the accuracy of the models increases with the pesticide concentrations. In addition, the relationship between the concentration of the cypermethrin sprayed and the image features was established by multiple regression to estimate the initial pesticide concentration on the Shanghaiqing leaves. A pesticide degradation equation was established on the basis of the first-order kinetic equation. The time for pesticides concentration to decrease to an acceptable level can be calculated on the basis of the degradation equation and the initial pesticide concentration. The present work provides a feasible way to rapidly detect pesticide residue on Shanghaiqing by means of NIR microscopic image technique. The methodology laid out in this research can be used as a reference for the pesticide detection of other types of vegetables.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Teorema de Bayes , Verduras/química
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