Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 241.057
Filtrar
3.
Codas ; 34(1): e20200114, 2022.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019062

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare orofacial anthropometric measurements, with weight, height and sex of newborns. METHODS: Observational cross-sectional study carried out with 130 newborns on exclusive breastfeeding. Data collection was performed by properly trained and calibrated speech therapists. The orofacial measurements of the newborns were performed with flexible and transparent ruler 10 cm long, in the following segments: heights of the upper third(tr-g), the middle third(g-sn) and the lower third on the face (sn-gn); filter height (sn-Is), distance between the corner of the eye and the labial commissure on the right and left side (ex-ch). Weight and height measurements were collected from the newborns' medical records. The data were submitted to statistical analysis, using the Mann-Whitney test, adopting a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Of the 130 newborns, 61 were male and 69 female. The median weight was 3.3 kg and the median height was 49 cm. There was significant difference between weight and measurement distance between the corner of the eye and the left and right labial commissure (ex-ch). There was no significant difference in orofacial measurements with sex and height. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in orofacial anthropometric measurements of full-term newborns when compared with sex and height; however, when compared to weight, there is a difference in the measurements of the distance between the corner of the eye and the labial commissure on the right and left side.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Face , Antropometria , Estatura , Estudos Transversais , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Cabeça , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
4.
Meat Sci ; 184: 108676, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656004

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate intramuscular fat and expression of genes in the muscle of Montana × Nellore treated with vitamin A at birth. We hypothesized that an injection of vitamin A after birth would increase marbling by increasing the expression of angiogenic, adipogenic, and lipogenic genes. Animals treated with vitamin A had greater marbling in the longissimus muscle (P = 0.05). The vitamin A treatment increased the expression of VEGFA gene at 40 days of age and at weaning and increased the expression of ZNF423 at weaning and at harvesting (P ≤ 0.03). The expression of WNT was higher (P = 0.01) at 40 days of age and at weaning in the animals treated with vitamin A. Vitamin A also increased the expression of SREBF1 at 40 days of age and at weaning (P ≤ 0.05). Therefore, the administration of vitamin A to cattle at birth could be a way to increase carcass marbling without affecting the performance of the animals.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carne Vermelha/análise , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia
5.
J Morphol ; 283(1): 66-90, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775628

RESUMO

Recent studies have analyzed and described the endocranial cavities of caviomorph rodents. However, no study has documented the changes in the morphology and relative size of such cavities during ontogeny. Expecting to contribute to the discussion of the endocranial spaces of extinct caviomorphs, we aimed to characterize the cranial endocast morphology and paranasal sinuses of the largest living rodent, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, by focusing on its ontogenetic growth patterns. We analyzed 12 specimens of different ontogenetic stages and provided a comparison with other cavioids. Our study demonstrates that the adult cranial endocast of H. hydrochaeris is characterized by olfactory bulbs with an irregular shape, showing an elongated olfactory tract without a clear circular fissure, a marked temporal region that makes the endocast with rhombus outline, and gyrencephaly. Some of these traits change as the brain grows. The cranial pneumatization is present in the frontal and lacrimal bones. We identified two recesses (frontal and lacrimal) and one sinus (frontal). These pneumatic cavities increase their volume as the cranium grows, covering the cranial region of the cranial endocast. The encephalization quotient was calculated for each specimen, demonstrating that it decreases as the individual grows, being much higher in younger specimens than in adults. Our results show that the ontogenetic stage can be a confounding factor when it comes to the general patterns of encephalization of extinct rodents, reinforcing the need for paleobiologists to take the age of the specimens into account in future studies on this subject to avoid age-related biases.


Assuntos
Seios Paranasais , Roedores , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo , Fósseis , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
6.
J Morphol ; 283(1): 123-133, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783076

RESUMO

The myodural bridge, that is, skeletal muscle fibers attaching to the cervical dura mater, has been described from a variety of mammals and other amniotes. To test an earlier assumption about the presence of the myodural bridge in snakes, a comparative study was designed using a group of Colubrine snakes. Serial histological sections revealed no evidence of the myodural bridge in any of the snakes examined. Further analyses, including histology, computed tomography (CT), and micro-CT imaging of other distantly related snakes, also turned up no evidence of a myodural bridge. The close apposition of adjacent neural arches in snakes may preclude muscle tendons from passing through the intervertebral joint to reach the spinal dura. It is hypothesized that the myodural bridge functions in the clearance of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by creating episodic CSF pressure pulsations, and that snakes are capable of creating equivalent CSF pressure pulsations through vertebral displacement.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais , Músculos do Pescoço , Animais , Vértebras Cervicais/anatomia & histologia , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Dura-Máter , Pescoço , Músculos do Pescoço/anatomia & histologia , Músculos do Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Serpentes
7.
Ann Anat ; 239: 151835, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diaphragm pacing allows certain ventilator-dependent patients to achieve weaning from mechanical ventilation. The reference method consists in implanting intrathoracic contact electrodes around the phrenic nerve during video-assisted thoracic surgery, which involves time-consuming phrenic nerve dissection with a risk of nerve damage. Identifying a phrenic segment suitable for dissection-free implantation of electrodes would constitute progress. STUDY DESIGN: This study characterizes a free terminal phrenic segment never fully described before. We conducted a cadaver study (n = 14) and a clinical observational study during thoracic procedures (n = 54). RESULTS: A free terminal phrenic segment was observed on both sides in 100% of cases, "jumping" from the pericardium to the diaphragm and measuring 60 mm [95% confidence interval; 48-63] and 72.5 mm [65-82] (right left, respectively; p = 0.0038; cadaver study). This segment rolled up on itself at end-expiration and became unravelled and elongated with diaphragm descent (clinical study). Three categories of fat pads were defined (type 1: pericardiophrenic bundle free of surrounding fat; type 2: single fatty fringe leaving the phrenic nerve visible until diaphragmatic entry; type 3: multiple fatty fringes masking the site of penetration of the phrenic nerve) that depended on body mass index (p = 0.001, clinical study). Hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue staining (cadaver study) showed that all of the phrenic fibers in the distal, pre-branching part of the terminal segment were contained within a single epineurium containing a variable number of fascicles (right: 1 [95%CI 0.65-4.01]; left 5 [3.37-7.63]; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Diaphragm pacing through periphrenic electrodes positioned on the terminal phrenic segment should be tested.


Assuntos
Diafragma , Nervo Frênico , Cadáver , Eletrodos Implantados , Humanos , Pericárdio , Nervo Frênico/anatomia & histologia
8.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(1): 143-146, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937226

RESUMO

Purpose: The Castroviejo caliper is routinely used for measuring the corneal diameter in patients with primary congenital glaucoma, but needs an examination under anesthesia (EUA) or sedation. A simple U-shaped tool was devised to aid in the estimation of the corneal diameters of patients in settings where an ophthalmic caliper is not available or EUA is not feasible. Methods: Infants presenting to the congenital glaucoma clinic posted for EUA were recruited. The demographic details of the patients such as age, sex, and diagnosis were noted. A simple U-shaped tool was devised using three Schirmer strips or a printable ruler. Before the patient underwent a EUA, the corneal diameters were measured using the U-tool. During EUA, corneal diameters were measured using the Castroviejo caliper. Results: The mean age of infants was 6.7 ± 3.39 months (R = 1-12). The mean corneal diameter measured using the U-tool was 13.29 ± 1.33 mm and with Castroviejo caliper was 13.18 ± 1.39 mm. The difference between the corneal diameters measured using the two techniques was -0.114 mm with the Bland-Altman plot 95% Limits of agreement (LoA) from -0.965 to 0.737 mm. Corneal diameters measured with both instruments had a good correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.95, P < 0.001). Conclusion: U-tool can be used for screening congenital glaucoma by first-contact physicians or optometrists. It can also be used by ophthalmologists when EUA is delayed.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Hidroftalmia , Córnea/anatomia & histologia , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Exame Físico
9.
Gene ; 806: 145929, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461150

RESUMO

The body color of Neocaridina denticulate sinensis is a compelling phenotypic trait, in which a cascade of carotenoid metabolic processes plays an important role. The study was conducted to compare the transcriptome of cephalothoraxes among three pigmentation phenotypes (red, blue, and chocolate) of N. denticulate sinensis. The purpose of this study was to explore the candidate genes associated with different colors of N. denticulate sinensis. Nine cDNA libraries in three groups were constructed from the cephalothoraxes of shrimps. After assembly, 75022 unigenes were obtained in total with an average length of 1026 bp and N50 length of 1876 bp. There were 45977, 25284, 23605, 21913 unigenes annotated in the Nr, Swissprot, KOG, and KEGG databases, respectively. Differential expression analysis revealed that there were 829, 554, and 3194 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in RD vs BL, RD vs CH, and BL vs CH, respectively. These DEGs may play roles in the absorption, transport, and metabolism of carotenoids. We also emphasized that electron transfer across the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) was a key process in pigment metabolism. In addition, a total of 6328 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were also detected in N. denticulate sinensis. The results laid a solid foundation for further research on the molecular mechanism of integument pigmentation in the crustacean and contributed to developing more attractive aquatic animals.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Decápodes/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Proteínas de Artrópodes/classificação , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Cor , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Decápodes/anatomia & histologia , Decápodes/metabolismo , Água Doce , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Biblioteca Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
10.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102445, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481082

RESUMO

The present study describes Hoferellus jutubensis n. sp., a myxozoan parasite found in the urinary bladder of the driftwood catfish Ageneiosus inermis, captured on Jutuba Island in the state of Pará, northern Brazil. A total of 30 A. inermis specimens were examined, of which 26 (86.7%) had myxospores and polysporic plasmodia of varying shapes and sizes dispersed in the lumen of the urinary bladder, either floating freely or attached to the epithelium. In the apical view, the myxospores of Hoferellus jutubensis n. sp. are rounded, 6.1 ± 0.2 (5.7-6.3) µm long and 5.5 ± 0.3 (5.2-6.0) µm wide, with two sub-spherical polar capsules, equal in size and shape, 2.5 ± 0.2 (2.3-2.7) µm long and 1.7 ± 0.2 (1.4-2.2) µm wide. The phylogenetic analysis of a partial sequence of the SSU rDNA gene, indicated that the new species is the sister taxon of Hoferellus azevedoi, with these two species forming a Brazilian lineage of Hoferellus. The comparison of the morphological and molecular data with those of the existing members of the genus confirmed the species status of Hoferellus jutubensis n. sp., which adds one further Hoferellus taxon to the known myxosporean diversity of the Amazon basin.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Myxozoa/classificação , Animais , Brasil , Myxozoa/anatomia & histologia , Myxozoa/genética , Myxozoa/fisiologia
11.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102468, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520840

RESUMO

Parastrigea brasiliana (Szidat, 1928) Dubois, 1964, was described from (Cochlearius cochlearius) in South America. The taxonomy of this species has been unstable due that it was described as a member of Strigea Abildgaard, 1790. However, the same author one year later transferred it to Apharyngostrigea Ciurea, 1927 and since then, it has been alternatively placed in the genus Apharyngostrigea or Parastrigea Szidat, 1928 from Strigeidae. In the current research, specimens identified as P. brasiliana were collected from type host in southeastern Mexico. We sequenced three molecular markers: the internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2 including the 5.8S gene (ITS region), the D1-D3 domains of the large subunit (LSU) from nuclear DNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox 1) from mitochondrial DNA. These sequences were aligned with other sequences available in the GenBank dataset from Strigeidae. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses inferred with three molecular markers consistently showed that P. brasiliana is not closely related to other members of the genus Parastrigea and are placed in a reciprocal monophyletic clade inside Apharyngostrigea, with very low genetic divergence, varying from 0 to 0.09% for the ITS, from 0 to 0.08% for the LSU and from 0.21 to 0.43% for cox 1. Consequently, we proposed to reallocate it to A. brasiliana. The phylogenetic analyses obtained are key and very useful for re-evaluate the morphology of A. brasiliana because this species share morphological characters with the genera Parastrigea (concentration of vitelline follicles distributed in two lateral expansions on the forebody) and Apharyngostrigea (absence of pharynx). Finally, the current record of A. brasiliana expands its distribution range in four countries, namely, the USA, Mexico, Venezuela and Brazil, in the Neotropical region.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves , Trematódeos , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Proteínas de Helminto/análise , México , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética , Trematódeos/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
12.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102469, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534656

RESUMO

The metacercarial infections of door snails (Gastropoda: Clausiliidae) with unknown species of the genus Brachylaima (Trematoda: Brachylaimidae) have recently been reported in eastern Honshu and Kyushu, Japan. A large scale snail survey was carried out to clarify their taxonomic status. From the period of 2015 to 2020, a total of 1239 land snails (768 door snails and 471 others) were collected from 32 localities in Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu. The resulting trematode isolates were identified as Brachylaima sp. by mitochondrial DNA barcoding. The sporocysts were found only a few from Megalophaedusa sublunellata (Clausiliidae), Tauphaedusa subaculus (Clausiliidae), and Aegista trochula (Camaenidae), while the metacercariae were frequently detected from 14 species of Clausiliidae and 2 species of other families. Although Brachylaima sp. showed a broad range of intermediate hosts, door snails seem to be very important to drive the life cycle. The gravid adults of Brachylaima sp. was experimentally raised from metacercariae using immunosuppressed mice. Morphological, phylogenetical, and ecological considerations prompted us to propose Brachylaima phaedusae n. sp. for this unknown species. The definitive hosts of the new species are completely unknown. The wide geographic distribution and high genetic diversity of the new species suggest a possibility that the definitive host is ground-foraging birds, which prefer door snails.


Assuntos
Caramujos/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Animais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Feminino , Japão , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260505, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932567

RESUMO

Over the centuries, iconographic representations of St Anthony of Padua, one of the most revered saints in the Catholic world, have been inspired by literary sources, which described the Saint as either naturally corpulent or with a swollen abdomen due to dropsy (i.e. fluid accumulation in the body cavities). Even recent attempts to reconstruct the face of the Saint have yielded discordant results regarding his outward appearance. To address questions about the real appearance of St Anthony, we applied body mass estimation equations to the osteometric measurements taken in 1981, during the public recognition of the Saint's skeletal remains. Both the biomechanical and the morphometric approach were employed to solve some intrinsic limitations in the equations for body mass estimation from skeletal remains. The estimated body mass was used to assess the physique of the Saint with the body mass index. The outcomes of this investigation reveal interesting information about the body type of the Saint throughout his lifetime.


Assuntos
Edema/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Aparência Física , Santos/história , Gordura Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Restos Mortais/anatomia & histologia , Diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Edema/história , Edema/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/história , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , História do Século XXI , História Medieval , Humanos , Itália , Obesidade/história , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Religião e Medicina
15.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 30: e20210462, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess facial changes after oral rehabilitation with complete dentures (CDs) by 3D technology allows understanding the results of a treatment that changes facial proportions. Precise outcome parameters can improve decision making. This descriptive observational research aimed to assess facial changes in completely edentulous patients after oral rehabilitation with a CD by a 3D stereophotogrammetry system. METHODOLOGY: 30 edentulous patients (7 men and 23 women), aged 50 to 75, were analyzed with stereophotogrammetry at 28 previously determined anthropometric landmarks, at 2 different times: T1, before treatment, and T2, after inserting the CDs. Images were analyzed with a specific software for linear and angular measurements. The paired t-test was used to compare timestamps (α=0.05). RESULTS: Major changes were observed in 7 of the 13 linear measures and 7 of the 9 angular measures. The following linear measurements had an increase: Sn-Gn (lower third of the face), Ls-Li (height of the vermilion lip), and ChL-ChR (mouth width). Sn-Ls (nasal philtrum height) decreased. For angular measurements, Sn-St-Pg (lower facial convexity) angles increased, and the Prn-Sn-Ls (nasolabial angle) and GoR-Pg-GoL (mandible convexity) angles decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Major facial changes in newly rehabilitated edentulous patients with CDs included an increase of the lower third of the face, of the vermilion lip, of mouth width, and of the lower facial convexity, and a decrease of the nasolabial angle and mandible convexity.


Assuntos
Face , Fotogrametria , Cefalometria , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Lábio/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Mandíbula
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(12): e0010014, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910720

RESUMO

Biting midges of genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are the vectors of several pathogenic arboviruses and parasites of humans and animals. Several reports have suggested that biting midges might be a potential vector of Leishmania parasites. In this study, we screened for Leishmania and Trypanosoma DNA in biting midges collected from near the home of a leishmaniasis patient in Lamphun province, northern Thailand by using UV-CDC light traps. The identification of biting midge species was based on morphological characters and confirmed using the Cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. The detection of Leishmania and Trypanosoma DNA was performed by amplifying the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes, respectively. All the amplified PCR amplicons were cloned and sequenced. The collected 223 biting midges belonged to seven species (Culicoides mahasarakhamense, C. guttifer, C. innoxius, C. sumatrae, C. huffi, C. oxystoma, and C. palpifer). The dominant species found in this study was C. mahasarakhamense (47.53%). Leishmania martiniquensis DNA was detected in three samples of 106 specimens of C. mahasarakhamense tested indicating a field infection rate of 2.83%, which is comparable to reported rates in local phlebotomines. Moreover, we also detected Trypanosoma sp. DNA in one sample of C. huffi. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular detection of L. martiniquensis in C. mahasarakhamense as well as the first detection of avian Trypanosoma in C. huffi. Blood meal analysis of engorged specimens of C. mahasarakhamense, C. guttifer, and C. huffi revealed that all specimens had fed on avian, however, further studies of the host ranges of Culicoides are needed to gain a better insight of potential vectors of emerging leishmaniasis. Clarification of the vectors of these parasites is also important to provide tools to establish effective disease prevention and control programs in Thailand.


Assuntos
Ceratopogonidae/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/genética , Trypanosoma/genética , Animais , Ceratopogonidae/anatomia & histologia , Ceratopogonidae/classificação , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Feminino , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania/patogenicidade , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Tailândia , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Trypanosoma/patogenicidade
17.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261593, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936685

RESUMO

To realize real-time and accurate performance monitoring of large- and medium-sized seed metering devices, a performance monitoring system was designed for seed metering devices based on LED visible photoelectric sensing technology and a pulse width recognition algorithm. Through an analysis of the of sensing component pointing characteristics and seed motion characteristics, the layout of the sensing components and critical photoelectric sensing system components was optimized. Single-grain seed metering devices were employed as monitoring objects, and the pulse width thresholds for Ekangmian-10 cotton seeds and Zhengdan-958 corn seeds were determined through pulse width threshold calibration experiments employed at different seed metering plate rotational speeds. According to the seeding quantity monitoring experiments, when the seed metering plate rotational speed ranged from 28.31~35.71 rev/min, the accuracy reached 98.41% for Ekangmian-10 cotton seeds. When the seed metering plate rotational speed ranged from 13.78~19.39 rev/min, the seeding quantity monitoring accuracy reached 98.19% for Zhengdan-958 corn seeds. Performance monitoring experiments revealed that the qualified seeding quantity monitoring accuracy of cotton precision seed metering devices, missed seeding quantity monitoring accuracy, and reseeding quantity monitoring accuracy could reach 98.75%, 94.06%, and 91.30%, respectively, within a seeding speed range of 8~9 km/h. This system meets the requirements of real-time performance monitoring of large- and medium-sized precision seed metering devices, which helps to improve the operational performance of seeding machines.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Algoritmos , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Zea mays/anatomia & histologia
18.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261185, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932586

RESUMO

Despite decades of research, much uncertainty remains regarding the selection pressures responsible for brain size variation. Whilst the influential social brain hypothesis once garnered extensive support, more recent studies have failed to find support for a link between brain size and sociality. Instead, it appears there is now substantial evidence suggesting ecology better predicts brain size in both primates and carnivores. Here, different models of brain evolution were tested, and the relative importance of social, ecological, and life-history traits were assessed on both overall encephalisation and specific brain regions. In primates, evidence is found for consistent associations between brain size and ecological factors, particularly diet; however, evidence was also found advocating sociality as a selection pressure driving brain size. In carnivores, evidence suggests ecological variables, most notably home range size, are influencing brain size; whereas, no support is found for the social brain hypothesis, perhaps reflecting the fact sociality appears to be limited to a select few taxa. Life-history associations reveal complex selection mechanisms to be counterbalancing the costs associated with expensive brain tissue through extended developmental periods, reduced fertility, and extended maximum lifespan. Future studies should give careful consideration of the methods chosen for measuring brain size, investigate both whole brain and specific brain regions where possible, and look to integrate multiple variables, thus fully capturing all of the potential factors influencing brain size.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Carnívoros/fisiologia , Primatas/fisiologia , Animais , Carnívoros/anatomia & histologia , Longevidade , Tamanho do Órgão , Primatas/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento Social
19.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261608, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929019

RESUMO

Ac3IV (Ac-CYIQNCPRG-NH2) is an enzymatically stable vasopressin analogue that selectively activates Avpr1a (V1a) and Avpr1b (V1b) receptors. In the current study we have employed streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic transgenic Ins1Cre/+;Rosa26-eYFP and GluCreERT2;Rosa26-eYFP mice, to evaluate the impact of sustained Ac3IV treatment on pancreatic islet cell morphology and transdifferentiation. Twice-daily administration of Ac3IV (25 nmol/kg bw) to STZ-diabetic Ins1Cre/+;Rosa26-eYFP mice for 12 days increased pancreatic insulin (p<0.01) and significantly reversed the detrimental effects of STZ on pancreatic islet morphology. Such benefits were coupled with increased (p<0.01) beta-cell proliferation and decreased (p<0.05) beta-cell apoptosis. In terms of islet cell lineage tracing, induction of diabetes increased (p<0.001) beta- to alpha-cell differentiation in Ins1Cre/+;Rosa26-eYFP mice, with Ac3IV partially reversing (p<0.05) such transition events. Comparable benefits of Ac3IV on pancreatic islet architecture were observed in STZ-diabetic GluCreERT2;ROSA26-eYFP transgenic mice. In this model, Ac3IV provoked improvements in islet morphology which were linked to increased (p<0.05-p<0.01) transition of alpha- to beta-cells. Ac3IV also increased (p<0.05-p<0.01) CK-19 co-expression with insulin in pancreatic ductal and islet cells. Blood glucose levels were unchanged by Ac3IV in both models, reflecting the severity of diabetes induced. Taken together these data indicate that activation of islet receptors for V1a and V1b positively modulates alpha- and beta-cell turnover and endocrine cell lineage transition events to preserve beta-cell identity and islet architecture.


Assuntos
Transdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Glucagon/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasopressinas/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Glucagon/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Glucagon/patologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/anatomia & histologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptores de Vasopressinas
20.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261579, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate upper airway changes three-dimensionally following rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and compare the changes with matched controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients (mean age 12.6 ± 1.8 years) with maxillary transverse deficiency were treated with RME. Using the propensity score matching method, 17 patients (mean age 12.3 ± 1.5 years) were selected from a non-RME control group of 33. Case-control matching was performed based on 5 covariates: age, gender, CBCT scan interval, sagittal skeletal pattern, and tongue posture. Airway volumes of nasopharynx and oropharynx and minimum cross-sectional areas (MCA) of oropharynx were measured and compared between the case and control groups in CBCT scan images. RESULTS: In the case group, significant increases from before to after RME were found in all measurements except MCA of the retroglossal segment of oropharynx. Before treatment, there were no significant differences between case group and control group. While comparing the case group with the control group after treatment showed overall greater increases in the case group. In particular, MCA of retropalatal segment showed statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that RME causes an increase in upper airway dimensions.


Assuntos
Nasofaringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Orofaringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnica de Expansão Palatina , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nasofaringe/anatomia & histologia , Orofaringe/anatomia & histologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...