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1.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 58(1): 92-97, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642459

RESUMO

It is a basic prerequisite for the successful completion of endodontic treatment to thoroughly understand the root canal space anatomy. With the development of dental devices in dentistry, the root canal morphology of the mandibular first premolars can be presented in more detail. Before conducting root canal therapy on the mandibular first premolar with complex root canal morphology, it should be necessary to evaluate the potential difficulties and risks for making an appropriate treatment plan. The present paper reviews the research progress on the diversities of root canal morphology in mandibular first premolars in recent years, and then makes technologic recommendations based on the morphology diversities.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Mandíbula , Humanos , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Pré-Molar/anatomia & histologia , Raiz Dentária/anatomia & histologia , Tratamento do Canal Radicular
2.
PeerJ ; 11: e14556, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36643642

RESUMO

Tibetan pigs, an indigenous pig breed in China, have high overall fat deposition and flavorful and tasty meat. They are thus good models for studying adipogenesis. Few studies have been conducted focusing on expression of lipid regulated genes in different adipose tissues of Tibetan pigs. Therefore, we compared the difference of histomorphology and expression level of lipid regulated genes through qPCR and western blot in subcutaneous fat, perirenal fat, omental adipose tissue, and inguinal fat of Tibetan pigs. Our results showed that the area of subcutaneous adipocytes in Tibetan pigs was smaller, while the other three adipose tissues (perirenal fat, greater omentum fat, inguinal fat) had cell areas of similar size. The gene expression of FABP4, FASN, FABP3, and ME1 in subcutaneous fat was significantly higher than that in perirenal fat. Furthermore, the protein expression of FABP4 was significantly lower in subcutaneous fat than in perirenal fat (p < 0.05), and the expression of FASN was higher in greater omentum fat than in subcutaneous fat (p = 0.084). The difference in adipocyte cell size and expression of lipid-regulated genes in adipose tissues from the various parts of the pig body is likely due to the different cellular lipid metabolic processes. Specially, FABP4 and FASN may be involved in the regulation of fat deposition in different adipose tissues of Tibetan pigs.


Assuntos
Adipócitos , Tecido Adiposo , Suínos/genética , Animais , Tibet , Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Lipídeos
4.
Sci Data ; 10(1): 3, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635312

RESUMO

Laparoscopy is an imaging technique that enables minimally-invasive procedures in various medical disciplines including abdominal surgery, gynaecology and urology. To date, publicly available laparoscopic image datasets are mostly limited to general classifications of data, semantic segmentations of surgical instruments and low-volume weak annotations of specific abdominal organs. The Dresden Surgical Anatomy Dataset provides semantic segmentations of eight abdominal organs (colon, liver, pancreas, small intestine, spleen, stomach, ureter, vesicular glands), the abdominal wall and two vessel structures (inferior mesenteric artery, intestinal veins) in laparoscopic view. In total, this dataset comprises 13195 laparoscopic images. For each anatomical structure, we provide over a thousand images with pixel-wise segmentations. Annotations comprise semantic segmentations of single organs and one multi-organ-segmentation dataset including segments for all eleven anatomical structures. Moreover, we provide weak annotations of organ presence for every single image. This dataset markedly expands the horizon for surgical data science applications of computer vision in laparoscopic surgery and could thereby contribute to a reduction of risks and faster translation of Artificial Intelligence into surgical practice.


Assuntos
Abdome , Inteligência Artificial , Abdome/anatomia & histologia , Abdome/cirurgia , Algoritmos , Ciência de Dados , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Alemanha
5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 16, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604433

RESUMO

Sauropterygia is the largest, most successful group of Mesozoic marine diapsids, spanning from the late Early Triassic to the Late Cretaceous. Plesiomorphic for sauropterygians, pachypleurosauroids are important for our understanding on the early evolution of this group. Here, we present a new pachypleurosaurid, Luopingosaurus imparilis gen. et sp. nov., based on an exceptionally preserved skeleton from the early Middle Triassic Luoping Lagerstätte in Yunnan, China. The discovery documents the first long-snouted pachypleurosaurid with an unexpected hyperphalangy in the manus, providing new insights into the morphological diversification, ecological adaption and biogeographic evolution of this clade. The discovery further indicates that there is a morphological divergence between short-snouted (brevirostrine) keichousaurids and relatively long-snouted (longirostrine) pachypleurosaurids, which was probably driven by ecological specializations related to feeding and foraging. Additionally, an evolutionary trend towards the reduction of the ratio of the hyoid length to mandibular length (HM ratio) is recognized in pachypleurosauroids. This reduction of HM ratio, associated with the increase of the snout length, might implicate a gradual recession of suction feeding in pachypleurosauroid evolution. Phylogenetic studies incorporating Luopingosaurus recover European pachypleurosaurids as successive sister groups to Chinese derived pachypleurosaurids, supporting a western Tethyan origin for this family.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Animais , Filogenia , China , Répteis/anatomia & histologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 207, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604529

RESUMO

This paper describes the fabrication of cicada-wing-inspired antimicrobial surfaces using Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD). From the study of an annual cicada (Neotibicen Canicularis, also known as dog-day cicada) in North America, it is found that the cicada wing surfaces are composed of unique three-dimensional (3D) nanofeature arrays, which grant them extraordinary properties including antimicrobial (antifouling) and antireflective. However, the morphology of these 3D nanostructures imposes challenges in artificially synthesizing the structures by utilizing and scaling up the template area from nature. From the perspective of circumventing the difficulties of creating 3D nanofeature arrays with top-down nanofabrication techniques, this paper introduces a nanofabrication process that combines bottom-up steps: self-assembled nanospheres are used as the bases of the features, while sub-100 nm pillars are grown on top of the bases by GLAD. Scanning electron micrographs show the resemblance of the synthesized cicada wing mimicry samples to the actual cicada wings, both quantitatively and qualitatively. The synthetic mimicry samples are hydrophobic with a water contact angle of 125˚. Finally, the antimicrobial properties of the mimicries are validated by showing flat growth curves of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and by direct observation under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The process is potentially suitable for large-area antimicrobial applications in food and biomedical industries.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Hemípteros , Nanoestruturas , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Hemípteros/anatomia & histologia , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Nanoestruturas/química , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 23(1): 12, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crown imperial (Fritillaria imperialis L.) is a threatened bulbous plant which has great ornamental and medicinal values and importance. In the present study, a total of 100 specimens of wild-growing F. imperialis from 10 natural areas of Markazi province, Iran, representing one of the main centers of genetic diversity of this species, were evaluated using 37 phenotypic attributes during April 2021. RESULTS: High level of genetic variation within populations (75%) and low levels of genetic variation among populations (25%) was revealed. The highest coefficient of variation (CV) was found in leaf trichome (82.00%) and then margin of crown leaves (80.44%). In addition, flower color (CV = 50.86%), flower number (CV = 44.61%), peduncle diameter (CV = 33.44%), and plant length (CV = 32.55%)-all important from an ornamental point of view- showed relatively high CV values. The CV was the lowest for flower shape, filament color, bulb shape, bulblet number, and floral scent. Ward cluster analysis identified two main clusters, containing 14 and 86 specimens, respectively. The first group consisted mainly of specimens from the adjacent Shahbaz and Rasvand populations. According to the principal component analysis (PCA), the first six components of data accounted for 88.36% of total variance. The Shahbaz-1, Shahbaz-2, Shahbaz-6, Shahbaz-7, Shahbaz-9, and Bolagh-8 specimens showed the highest variation and were separated from others, which they can be used further in breeding programs, while Sarchal-2, Bolagh-3, and Chepeqli-4 specimens showed the lowest variability. Moreover, the studied populations were clustered into four distinct groups, each including populations that were geographically close to one another. CONCLUSIONS: Although the examined specimens revealed high genetic diversity herein, the results indicated that wild-growing populations of F. imperialis are still at risk suffering from overcollection in the most of studied areas, especially in Deh-Sad and Tureh.


Assuntos
Fritillaria , Fritillaria/genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Melhoramento Vegetal , Flores/genética , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Variação Genética
8.
PeerJ ; 11: e14623, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655041

RESUMO

The taxonomic concept of the genus Stenocaris Sars, 1909 is uncertain because none of the synapomorphies for the species of Stenocaris are defined. Detailed comparison of previous records of Stenocaris minor (T. Scott, 1892) from different localities reveals that this species represents a species complex composed of two species, S. minor s. str. and S. minor sensu Cottarelli & Venanzetti, 1989. Because the latter species has fundamental differences in the nature of the fifth leg in females and the sexual dimorphism of the second leg in males, we propose a new species for S. minor sensu Cottarelli & Venanzetti, 1989, S. figaroloensis sp. nov. We also suggest that S. minor sensu Apostolov, 1971, S. minor sensu Marinov, 1971, and S. minor sensu Apostolov & Marinov, 1988 from the Black Sea and S. minor sensu Wilson, 1932 from North America should be relegated to species inquirenda in the genus. Taxonomic review of the morphology of all Stenocaris species indicated that the generic concept must be restricted to accommodate S. minor s. str., S. gracilis Sars, 1909, S. intermedia Itô, 1972, S. figaroloensis sp. nov., and the South Korean new species, S. marcida sp. nov., based on the synapomorphic condition of the confluent fifth leg in males. As a result of our analysis, two Stenocaris species, S. baltica Arlt, 1983 and S. pygmaea Noodt, 1955, are transferred to the genus Vermicaris Kornev & Chertoprud, 2008 as V. baltica (Arlt, 1983) comb. nov. and V. pygmaea (Noodt, 1955) comb. nov. based on the synapomorphic characters of a reduced condition of the second and fifth legs. Additionally, S. arenicola Wilson, 1932 and S. kliei (Kunz, 1938) are allocated to a new genus, Huysicaris gen. nov., mainly characterized by obvious caudal rami with a recurved dorsal spinous process and convex inner margins, as H. arenicola (Wilson, 1932) comb. nov. and H. kliei (Kunz, 1938) comb. nov. A marine interstitial harpacticoid collected from the subtidal substrate off Dok-do Island in the East Sea of South Korea is proposed as S. marcida sp. nov. and the distribution of S. intermedia, originally known from its type locality in Japanese waters only, is extended to the East Sea of Korea and Russia. We provide their detailed descriptions and illustrations and discuss the morphological characters supporting their identities.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Copépodes/anatomia & histologia , República da Coreia , Federação Russa , Mar Negro
9.
PeerJ ; 11: e14717, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655047

RESUMO

After its original description, the Middle Miocene gekkotan Palaeogekko risgoviensis remained an enigma for palaeontologists due to a rather poor knowledge of its osteology and relationships. Coming from a single locality in southern Germany, this gecko lived in central Europe during a period when a single gekkotan lineage (i.e., euleptine sphaerodactylids) is confidently reported to have inhabited the continent. However, it is unclear whether P. risgoviensis may represent a member of this same lineage or a second clade of Gekkota. In order to shed light on this issue, the type material of P. risgoviensis is here redescribed, refigured and extensively compared with extinct and extant geckos from Europe. A phylogenetic analysis is also conducted in order to investigate its relationships. The new observations confirm the validity of the German species as a distinct taxon, and exclude the previously-suggested chimeric status of the type material of this gecko (with the exception of a single dentary included in the type series, which clearly belong to a different lizard). Phylogenetic relationships of Palaeogekko are still unclear, though, with different positions within the gekkotan tree recovered for the taxon. Nevertheless, it is confidently supported as a non-eublepharid gekkonoid, in agreement with hypothesys presented by other scholars.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Filogenia , Alemanha , Europa (Continente) , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia
10.
PeerJ ; 11: e14692, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655053

RESUMO

Hybotidae fly species, also known as dance flies, in Cretaceous ambers have been described from Lebanon, France, Myanmar, Russia, and Canada. Here we describe Grimaldipeza coelica gen. et sp. n., and recognize another two un-named species, in Spanish amber from the middle Albian El Soplao and lower Cenomanian La Hoya outcrops. The fore tibial gland is present in the new genus, which is characteristic of the family Hybotidae. We compare Grimaldipeza coelica gen. et sp. n. with the holotypes of Trichinites cretaceus Hennig, 1970 and Ecommocydromia difficilis Schlüter, 1978, and clarify some morphological details present in the latter two species. Further taxonomic placement beyond family of the here described new genus was not possible and remains incertae sedis within Hybotidae until extant subfamilies are better defined. We provide new paleoecological data of the hybotids, together with paleogeographical and life paleoenvironmental notes. A table with the known Cretaceous Hybotidae is provided. Furthermore, the La Hoya amber-bearing outcrop is described in detail, filling the information gap for this deposit.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae , Dípteros , Animais , Dípteros/anatomia & histologia , Âmbar , Espanha , Fósseis , França
11.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 24(1): 41, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To study deep learning segmentation of knee anatomy with 13 anatomical classes by using a magnetic resonance (MR) protocol of four three-dimensional (3D) pulse sequences, and evaluate possible clinical usefulness. METHODS: The sample selection involved 40 healthy right knee volumes from adult participants. Further, a recently injured single left knee with previous known ACL reconstruction was included as a test subject. The MR protocol consisted of the following 3D pulse sequences: T1 TSE, PD TSE, PD FS TSE, and Angio GE. The DenseVNet neural network was considered for these experiments. Five input combinations of sequences (i) T1, (ii) T1 and FS, (iii) PD and FS, (iv) T1, PD, and FS and (v) T1, PD, FS and Angio were trained using the deep learning algorithm. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), Jaccard index and Hausdorff were used to compare the performance of the networks. RESULTS: Combining all sequences collectively performed significantly better than other alternatives. The following DSCs (±standard deviation) were obtained for the test dataset: Bone medulla 0.997 (±0.002), PCL 0.973 (±0.015), ACL 0.964 (±0.022), muscle 0.998 (±0.001), cartilage 0.966 (±0.018), bone cortex 0.980 (±0.010), arteries 0.943 (±0.038), collateral ligaments 0.919 (± 0.069), tendons 0.982 (±0.005), meniscus 0.955 (±0.032), adipose tissue 0.998 (±0.001), veins 0.980 (±0.010) and nerves 0.921 (±0.071). The deep learning network correctly identified the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear of the left knee, thus indicating a future aid to orthopaedics. CONCLUSIONS: The convolutional neural network proves highly capable of correctly labeling all anatomical structures of the knee joint when applied to 3D MR sequences. We have demonstrated that this deep learning model is capable of automatized segmentation that may give 3D models and discover pathology. Both useful for a preoperative evaluation.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Imageamento Tridimensional , Articulação do Joelho , Joelho , Adulto , Humanos , Joelho/anatomia & histologia , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação
12.
Sci Data ; 10(1): 34, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653365

RESUMO

Models and simulations of human function impact medicine and medical technology. Particularly, musculoskeletal modeling provides an avenue for insight into the human body, which might not be otherwise possible. However, reaching the ultimate goal of functional multi-scale human models has been slowed by the lack of freely available datasets of anatomical models and geometries. Moreover, female-specific geometries have been neglected with a widespread emphasis on male geometry. To help realize this goal, we have developed and shared complete three-dimensional musculoskeletal geometries extracted from the National Libraries of Medicine Visible Human Female and Male cryosections. Muscle, bone, cartilage, ligament, and fat from the pelvis to the ankle were digitized and exported. These geometries provide a foundation for continued work in human musculoskeletal simulation with high-fidelity deformable tissues that enable a better understanding of normal function and the evaluation of pathologies and treatments. This work is novel as it includes both the male and female Visible Human specimens, outputs at multiple levels of post-processing for maximum data reuse, and is publicly available.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Osso e Ossos , Simulação por Computador , Extremidade Inferior/anatomia & histologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 19(1): 12, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658593

RESUMO

Macrodontia is the enlargement of tooth dimensions of different ethologies. This work aims to show a histological evaluation of macrodontic teeth in guinea pigs. The material was obtained from animals postmortem. Ninety structural changes derived from 24 guinea pigs were evaluated. All teeth used in the study showed macrodontic changes. The samples were decalcified, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin. Material was cut in the transverse and longitudinal planes in relation to the alveolar bone. Histological evaluation included apical bud cells, pulp cavity cells, periodontium, dentin, enamel, cementum and alveolar bone tissue. Individual elements were evaluated with respect to their morphology and distribution. Moreover, the arrangement of the individual hard tooth structures was assessed on the teeth. No atypia was found among the cells that make up the apical bud, pulp or periodontal cavity. Displacement of periodontal cells or odontoblasts towards the pulp cavity as well as disorganization of the cell system in the pulp cavity were observed. Changes in the dentine ligaments and the reconstruction of the alveolar bone were also observed in areas where dentine and cement systems were affected. Dental slides were observed and showed that the enamel is also involved in structural remodelling of the pulp cavity. The histological assessment revealed that structural changes in macrodontic teeth involve the rearrangement of typical tooth tissues.


Assuntos
Dente , Cobaias , Animais , Bochecha , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Osso e Ossos , Polpa Dentária
14.
J Helminthol ; 97: e12, 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36700420

RESUMO

During the parasitological examination of molluscs Abra segmentum obtained from the Black Sea basin, parthenitae belonging to the family Faustulidae were found. The cercariae were obtained by natural emergence and were studied using differential interference contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Specimens resemble Cercaria pennata ex Tapes rugatus which was described from the Sevastopol area, in the shape and length of the body, tail length, location and shape of internal organs, suckers, pharynx, testicular rudiments, and the number and position of longitudinal lamellae on the tail finlets. To date, there are only limited descriptions of the parthenitae of C. pennata without detailed measurements, thus the taxonomic position of the individuals studied needs thorough revision and molecular verification. According to the molecular analyses, C. pennata was identical to that of published sequences of Pronoprymna ventricosa.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Trematódeos , Humanos , Animais , Cercárias , Mar Negro , Trematódeos/genética , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
15.
Evolution ; 77(1): 83-96, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689235

RESUMO

Identifying the drivers of adaptation is key to understanding the origin and evolution of diversity. Here we study the morphological evolution of tooth morphology, a classic example of a conserved structure, to gain insights into the conditions that can overcome resistance to evolutionary change. We use geometric morphometrics of the occlusal surface outline of the fourth lower premolar (p4) of squirrels, a paradigm of a stable tooth morphology, to explore morphological adaptations to diet. Although a versatile generalist dental morphology favors the retention of the ancestral shape, the acquisition of diets that require strong mechanical processing drives morphological change. In particular, species that eat both grass and dry fruits evolved disparate tooth shape morphologies, related to trade-offs between feeding performance that lead to a more or less pronounced change depending on the proportion of those items in their diet. Also, some folivores develop relatively large p4s, and most bark gleaners have relatively small p4s. Ultimately, despite the role of diet shaping these patterns, we showed that diet is not the only factor driving the evolution of tooth morphology.


Assuntos
Sciuridae , Dente , Animais , Sciuridae/anatomia & histologia , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Dieta , Adaptação Fisiológica , Evolução Biológica , Filogenia
16.
Annu Rev Entomol ; 68: 401-429, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689304

RESUMO

While Mesozoic, Paleogene, and Neogene insect faunas greatly resemble the modern one, the Paleozoic fauna provides unique insights into key innovations in insect evolution, such as the origin of wings and modifications of postembryonic development including holometaboly. Deep-divergence estimates suggest that the majority of contemporary insect orders originated in the Late Paleozoic, but these estimates reflect divergences between stem groups of each lineage rather than the later appearance of the crown groups. The fossil record shows the initial radiations of the extant hyperdiverse clades during the Early Permian, as well as the specialized fauna present before the End Permian mass extinction. This review summarizes the recent discoveries related to the documented diversity of Paleozoic hexapods, as well as current knowledge about what has actually been verified from fossil evidence as it relates to postembryonic development and the morphology of different body parts.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Insetos , Animais , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Extinção Biológica , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia
17.
Nature ; 613(7945): 614, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639443
18.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 378(1872): 20210402, 2023 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688396

RESUMO

The emergence of animal societies is a major evolutionary transition, but its implications for learning-dependent innovations are insufficiently understood. Bees, with lifestyles ranging from solitary to eusocial, are ideal models for exploring social evolution. Here, we ask how and why bees may acquire a new 'technology', foraging on morphologically complex flowers, and whether eusociality facilitates this technological shift. We consider 'complex' flowers that produce high food rewards but are difficult to access, versus 'simple' flowers offering easily accessible yet lower rewards. Complex flowers are less profitable than simple flowers to naive bees but become more rewarding after a learning period. We model how social bees optimally choose between simple and complex flowers over time, to maximize their colony's food balance. The model predicts no effect of colony size on the bees' flower choices. More foraging on complex flowers is predicted as colony longevity, its proportion of foragers, individual longevity and learning ability increase. Of these traits, only long-lived colonies and abundant foragers characterize eusocial bees. Thus, we predict that eusociality supports, but is not mandatory for, learning to exploit complex flowers. A re-analysis of a large published dataset of bee-flower interactions supports these conclusions. We discuss parallels between the evolution of insect sociality and other major transitions that provide scaffolds for learning innovations. This article is part of the theme issue 'Human socio-cultural evolution in light of evolutionary transitions'.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Aprendizagem , Humanos , Abelhas , Animais , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Insetos , Comportamento Social , Polinização
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 19(1): 20, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36691004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interpretation of patellar ligament (PL) ultrasonography may be difficult, as hypoechoic or heterogenous echogenicity are common findings. Verifying suspected disease of equine PLs by histopathology is also problematic as descriptions of normal PL vascularity and histology are scarce. The current study describes the PL and infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) vascular pattern from computed tomography scans of barium perfused normal equine specimens (n = 8; age 10 days to 18 years), as well as routine histology to serve as a reference for future investigations into PL pathology and IFP disease. RESULTS: The PLs received a bipolar blood supply. Vascular architecture consisted of numerous distinct longitudinal vessels with several horizontal connections, which branched into extensive latticeworks of smaller vessels throughout the ligaments. Several vascular connections between the PLs and the IFP were identified. One distinct longitudinal vessel was seen entering each of the IFP lobes at the distocranial aspect, branching extensively into lobar vascular networks which anastomosed by several horizontal branches at the mid portion of the IFP where the two lobes merge. Histologically, there were large variations in PL interfascicular endotenon thickness, vascularity and fatty infiltration; these parameters increased with age for the intermediate and medial PL. Areas of metaplastic tenocytes / chondroid metaplasia were identified in all investigated adult medial PLs; in 2/7 in the intermediate PL and in 4/7 in the lateral PL. The adult IFP consisted of white unilocular adipose tissue, organized in lobules separated by thin connective tissue septa increasing in thickness towards the periphery and the distocentral aspect. CONCLUSIONS: The equine PLs and IFP are highly vascularized structures with ample vascular connections suggestive of crosstalk. This, together with the large variation in PL endotenon thickness, vascularity and fatty infiltration, should be taken into consideration when assessing potential PL histopathology as these changes increase with age and are found in horses without clinical signs of stifle disease. Metaplastic tenocytes / chondroid metaplasia should be considered a normal finding throughout the medial PL and is not age dependent. The role of the equine IFP in stifle disease has yet to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Cavalos , Ligamento Patelar , Animais , Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Articulação do Joelho , Patela , Ligamento Patelar/anatomia & histologia , Ligamento Patelar/irrigação sanguínea , Ligamento Patelar/diagnóstico por imagem , Joelho de Quadrúpedes , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
20.
Curr Biol ; 33(2): R52-R58, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693306

RESUMO

This article begins as many others on sauropods before it: "Sauropod dinosaurs were the largest animals to ever walk the Earth, by far". The largest sauropods were easily four times heavier than the largest land mammals (and the largest other dinosaur species, for that matter). The iconic body plan of sauropods is dominated by their very long neck, in some species exceeding 14 meters in length, provided with a relatively small head (Figure 1). The neck was mostly held horizontally or at a low angle. The massive but relatively short trunk was supported by four columnar legs, much like in an elephant. The bones in the fore foot of sauropods are oriented vertically, and some late forms even lost their finger bones, walking on their metacarpals (middle bones of the hand). The hind leg, which bore most of the weight, has a half-upright foot. The femur (thigh bone) was the largest bone in the skeleton, like in most other true land vertebrates (amniotes). The long neck was counterbalanced by the long tail, the base of which also functioned as the anchoring region of the giant muscles that pulled back the hind leg during walking.


Assuntos
Dinossauros , Fósseis , Animais , Osso e Ossos , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Mamíferos
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