Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 248.010
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301776, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722906

RESUMO

An accurate assessment of species diversity is a cornerstone of biology and conservation. The lynx spiders (Araneae: Oxyopidae) represent one of the most diverse and widespread cursorial spider groups, however their species richness in Asia is highly underestimated. In this study, we revised species diversity with extensive taxon sampling in Taiwan and explored species boundaries based on morphological traits and genetic data using a two-step approach of molecular species delimitation. Firstly, we employed a single COI dataset and applied two genetic distance-based methods: ABGD and ASAP, and two topology-based methods: GMYC and bPTP. Secondly, we further analyzed the lineages that were not consistently delimited, and incorporated H3 to the dataset for a coalescent-based analysis using BPP. A total of eight morphological species were recognized, including five new species, Hamataliwa cordivulva sp. nov., Hamat. leporauris sp. nov., Tapponia auriola sp. nov., T. parva sp. nov. and T. rarobulbus sp. nov., and three newly recorded species, Hamadruas hieroglyphica (Thorell, 1887), Hamat. foveata Tang & Li, 2012 and Peucetia latikae Tikader, 1970. All eight morphological species exhibited reciprocally monophyletic lineages. The results of molecular-based delimitation analyses suggested a variety of species hypotheses that did not fully correspond to the eight morphological species. We found that Hamat. cordivulva sp. nov. and Hamat. foveata showed shallow genetic differentiation in the COI, but they were unequivocally distinguishable according to their genitalia. In contrast, T. parva sp. nov. represented a deep divergent lineage, while differences of genitalia were not detected. This study highlights the need to comprehensively employ multiple evidence and methods to delineate species boundaries and the values of diagnostic morphological characters for taxonomic studies in lynx spiders.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Aranhas , Animais , Aranhas/classificação , Aranhas/genética , Aranhas/anatomia & histologia , Taiwan , Masculino , Feminino , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10624, 2024 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724555

RESUMO

To date, the presence of pulmonary organs in the fossil record is extremely rare. Among extant vertebrates, lungs are described in actinopterygian polypterids and in all sarcopterygians, including coelacanths and lungfish. However, vasculature of pulmonary arteries has never been accurately identified neither in fossil nor extant coelacanths due to the paucity of fossil preservation of pulmonary organs and limitations of invasive studies in extant specimens. Here we present the first description of the pulmonary vasculature in both fossil and extant actinistian, a non-tetrapod sarcopterygian clade, contributing to a more in-depth discussion on the morphology of these structures and on the possible homology between vertebrate air-filled organs (lungs of sarcopterygians, lungs of actinopterygians, and gas bladders of actinopterygians).


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Peixes , Fósseis , Artéria Pulmonar , Animais , Artéria Pulmonar/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Vertebrados/anatomia & histologia , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Filogenia
3.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 500, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Teeth identification has a pivotal role in the dental curriculum and provides one of the important foundations of clinical practice. Accurately identifying teeth is a vital aspect of dental education and clinical practice, but can be challenging due to the anatomical similarities between categories. In this study, we aim to explore the possibility of using a deep learning model to classify isolated tooth by a set of photographs. METHODS: A collection of 5,100 photographs from 850 isolated human tooth specimens were assembled to serve as the dataset for this study. Each tooth was carefully labeled during the data collection phase through direct observation. We developed a deep learning model that incorporates the state-of-the-art feature extractor and attention mechanism to classify each tooth based on a set of 6 photographs captured from multiple angles. To increase the validity of model evaluation, a voting-based strategy was applied to refine the test set to generate a more reliable label, and the model was evaluated under different types of classification granularities. RESULTS: This deep learning model achieved top-3 accuracies of over 90% in all classification types, with an average AUC of 0.95. The Cohen's Kappa demonstrated good agreement between model prediction and the test set. CONCLUSIONS: This deep learning model can achieve performance comparable to that of human experts and has the potential to become a valuable tool for dental education and various applications in accurately identifying isolated tooth.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Dente , Humanos , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Fotografia Dentária/métodos
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 355, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is an economically valuable fruit tree in Uganda. However, the production of jackfruit in Uganda is low. Additionally, because of deforestation, genetic erosion of the resource is predicted before its exploitation for crop improvement and conservation. As a prerequisite for crop improvement and conservation, 100 A. heterophyllus tree isolates from the Kayunga and Luwero districts in Uganda were characterized using 16 morphological and 10 microsatellite markers. RESULTS: The results from the morphological analysis revealed variations in tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), and crown diameter, with coefficient of variation (CV) values of 20%, 41%, and 33%, respectively. Apart from the pulp taste, variation was also observed in qualitative traits, including tree vigor, trunk surface, branching density, tree growth habit, crown shape, leaf blade shape, fruit shape, fruit surface, flake shape, flake color, flake flavor and pulp consistency/texture. Genotyping revealed that the number of alleles amplified per microsatellite locus ranged from 2 to 5, with an average of 2.90 and a total of 29. The mean observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity were 0.71 and 0.57, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 81% of the variation occurred within individual trees, 19% among trees within populations and 0% between the two populations. The gene flow (Nm) in the two populations was 88.72. The results from the 'partitioning around medoids' (PAM), principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and genetic cluster analysis further revealed no differentiation of the jackfruit populations. The Mantel test revealed a negligible correlation between the morphological and genetic distances. CONCLUSIONS: Both morphological and genetic analyses revealed variation in jackfruit within a single interbreeding population. This diversity can be exploited to establish breeding and conservation strategies to increase the production of jackfruit and hence boost farmers' incomes. However, selecting germplasm based on morphology alone may be misleading.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Repetições de Microssatélites , Uganda , Artocarpus/genética , Artocarpus/anatomia & histologia , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Variação Genética , Genótipo
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 371, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724940

RESUMO

Variations in functional traits serve as measures of plants' ability to adapt to environment. Exploring the patterns of functional traits of desert plants along elevational gradients is helpful to understand the responses and adaptation strategies of species to changing environments. However, it is unknown whether the relationship between functional traits and elevation is affected by differences in the species' elevational distributions (elevation preference and species' range). Importantly, most researches have concerned with differences in mean trait values and ignored intraspecific trait variation. Here, we measured functional traits of desert plants along a wide elevational gradient in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas and explored functional trait patterns over elevation in species with different elevational distributions. We decomposed trait variation and further investigated characterizations of intraspecific variation. Ultimately, the main drivers of trait variation were identified using redundancy analysis. We found that species' elevational distributions significantly influenced the relationship of functional traits such as plant height, leaf dry matter content, leaf thickness, leaf nitrogen and carbon content with elevation. Species with a lower elevational preference showed greater trait variation than species with a higher elevational preference, suggesting that species that prefer high elevation are more conservative facing environmental changes. We provide evidence that interspecific trait variation in leaf thickness and leaf carbon content decreased with increasing species' range, indicating that increased variations in resistance traits within species make greater responsiveness to environmental changes, enabling species a wider range. Elevation, temperature and precipitation were the main drivers of trait variation in species with a low elevational preference, while the effect of precipitation on trait variation in species with a high elevational preference was not significant. This study sheds new insights on how plants with different elevational distributions regulate their ecological strategies to cope with changing environments.


Assuntos
Altitude , Clima Desértico , Tibet , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia
6.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 543, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In complex teeth like maxillary premolars, endodontic treatment success depends on a complete comprehension of root canal anatomy. The research on mandibular premolars' root canal anatomy has been extensive and well-documented in existing literature. However, there appears to be a notable gap in available data concerning the root canal anatomy of maxillary premolars. This study aimed to explore the root canal morphology of maxillary premolars using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging, considering age and gender variations. METHODS: From 500 patient CBCT scans, 787 maxillary premolar teeth were evaluated. The sample was divided by gender and age (10-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and 61 years and older). Ahmed et al. classification system was used to record root canal morphology. RESULTS: The most frequent classifications for right maxillary 1st premolars were 2MPM1 B1 L1 (39.03%) and 1MPM1 (2.81%), while the most frequent classifications for right maxillary 2nd premolars were 2MPM1 B1 L1 (39.08%) and 1MPM1 (17.85%). Most of the premolars typically had two roots (left maxillary first premolars: 81.5%, left maxillary second premolars: 82.7%, right maxillary first premolars: 74.4%, right maxillary second premolars: 75.7%). Left and right maxillary 1st premolars for classes 1MPM1 and 1MPM1-2-1 showed significant gender differences. For classifications 1MPM1 and 1MPM1-2-1, age-related changes were seen in the left and right maxillary first premolars. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel insights into the root canal anatomy of maxillary premolars within the Saudi population, addressing a notable gap in the literature specific to this demographic. Through CBCT imaging and analysis of large sample sizes, the complex and diverse nature of root canal morphology in these teeth among Saudi individuals is elucidated. The findings underscore the importance of CBCT imaging in precise treatment planning and decision-making tailored to the Saudi population. Consideration of age and gender-related variations further enhances understanding and aids in personalized endodontic interventions within this demographic.


Assuntos
Dente Pré-Molar , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Cavidade Pulpar , Maxila , Humanos , Dente Pré-Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Pré-Molar/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Arábia Saudita , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Adulto Jovem , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Etários
7.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 45(7): e26695, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727010

RESUMO

Human infancy is marked by fastest postnatal brain structural changes. It also coincides with the onset of many neurodevelopmental disorders. Atlas-based automated structure labeling has been widely used for analyzing various neuroimaging data. However, the relatively large and nonlinear neuroanatomical differences between infant and adult brains can lead to significant offsets of the labeled structures in infant brains when adult brain atlas is used. Age-specific 1- and 2-year-old brain atlases covering all major gray and white matter (GM and WM) structures with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and structural MRI are critical for precision medicine for infant population yet have not been established. In this study, high-quality DTI and structural MRI data were obtained from 50 healthy children to build up three-dimensional age-specific 1- and 2-year-old brain templates and atlases. Age-specific templates include a single-subject template as well as two population-averaged templates from linear and nonlinear transformation, respectively. Each age-specific atlas consists of 124 comprehensively labeled major GM and WM structures, including 52 cerebral cortical, 10 deep GM, 40 WM, and 22 brainstem and cerebellar structures. When combined with appropriate registration methods, the established atlases can be used for highly accurate automatic labeling of any given infant brain MRI. We demonstrated that one can automatically and effectively delineate deep WM microstructural development from 3 to 38 months by using these age-specific atlases. These established 1- and 2-year-old infant brain DTI atlases can advance our understanding of typical brain development and serve as clinical anatomical references for brain disorders during infancy.


Assuntos
Atlas como Assunto , Encéfalo , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Substância Cinzenta , Substância Branca , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/anatomia & histologia , Substância Branca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Substância Cinzenta/anatomia & histologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos
8.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 59, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730384

RESUMO

The study of thirty-two shed crowns from the Portezuelo Formation (middle Turonian-late Coniacian) at the Sierra del Portezuelo locality, reveals six distinct tooth morphotypes identified through cladistic, discriminant, and cluster analyses. Two morphotypes were identified as belonging to Megaraptoridae, three to Abelisauridae, one to Abelisauroidea, and one to Alvarezsauridae. Additionally, two of the morphotypes exhibit a combination of dental features typically found in megaraptorid and abelisauridtheropods. These results suggest a greater diversity of theropods in the original ecosystem than previously thought, including the presence of a second morphotype of megaraptorid and alvarezsaurid previously undocumented in this formation. Furthermore, the existence of Morphotype 6 indicates the potential coexistence of medium-sized abelisauroids alongside larger abelisaurids in the same ecosystem. These findings underscore the importance of future expeditions to the Sierra del Portezuelo locality to further our understanding of these previously unknown theropod species.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Dente , Animais , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Biodiversidade , Argentina , Filogenia
9.
Syst Parasitol ; 101(3): 39, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733439

RESUMO

Myxosporean infection in marine water fishes has drawn less attention than in freshwater fishes, which resulted in a higher taxonomic variety in freshwater in Malaysia. This study aimed to address the gap by conducting a myxosporean survey on two commercially significant marine fish species, Nemipterus furcosus (Valenciennes) (Eupercaria incertae sedis: Nemipteridae) and Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch) (Carangiformes: Carangidae), collected from the northeastern part of peninsular Malaysia. During the examination of the organs, two distinct Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 species were discovered in the brain tissue of these fishes, despite the absence of any observable pathological signs. The two Myxobolus species were characterized through morphometry, morphology, and analysis of partial small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rDNA) gene. As a result, Myxobolus acanthogobii Hoshina, 1952, which infects 2.3% of N. furcosus, is synonymous with a myxobolid species commonly found in Japanese waters, based on its morphological traits, tissue tropism, and molecular diagnostics. Furthermore, a novel species, Myxobolus selari n. sp., was described, infecting the brain of one (11%) individual S. crumenophthalmus. This unique species displayed distinctive features, placing it within a well-supported subclade primarily comprising brain-infecting myxobolids. Maximum likelihood analysis further revealed the close relationships among these brain-infecting myxobolids, underscoring the significance of tissue tropism and host taxonomy for myxobolids. This study represents the initial documentation of Myxobolus species within the southern South China Sea, shedding light on the potential diversity of marine myxosporean in this region. This article was registered in the Official Register of Zoological Nomenclature (ZooBank) as urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:7C400E35-7CB8-4DEE-92B7-F75FF3926441.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Myxobolus , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Animais , Myxobolus/classificação , Myxobolus/genética , Myxobolus/anatomia & histologia , Malásia , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia
10.
Eur Radiol Exp ; 8(1): 57, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared computed tomography (CT) images and holograms (HG) to assess the number of arteries of the lung lobes undergoing lobectomy and assessed easiness in interpretation by radiologists and thoracic surgeons with both techniques. METHODS: Patients scheduled for lobectomy for lung cancer were prospectively included and underwent CT for staging. A patient-specific three-dimensional model was generated and visualized in an augmented reality setting. One radiologist and one thoracic surgeon evaluated CT images and holograms to count lobar arteries, having as reference standard the number of arteries recorded at surgery. The easiness of vessel identification was graded according to a Likert scale. Wilcoxon signed-rank test and κ statistics were used. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients were prospectively included. The two doctors detected the same number of arteries in 44/52 images (85%) and in 51/52 holograms (98%). The mean difference between the number of artery branches detected by surgery and CT images was 0.31 ± 0.98, whereas it was 0.09 ± 0.37 between surgery and HGs (p = 0.433). In particular, the mean difference in the number of arteries detected in the upper lobes was 0.67 ± 1.08 between surgery and CT images and 0.17 ± 0.46 between surgery and holograms (p = 0.029). Both radiologist and surgeon showed a higher agreement for holograms (κ = 0.99) than for CT (κ = 0.81) and found holograms easier to evaluate than CTs (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Augmented reality by holograms is an effective tool for preoperative vascular anatomy assessment of lungs, especially when evaluating the upper lobes, more prone to anatomical variations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04227444 RELEVANCE STATEMENT: Preoperative evaluation of the lung lobe arteries through augmented reality may help the thoracic surgeons to carefully plan a lobectomy, thus contributing to optimize patients' outcomes. KEY POINTS: • Preoperative assessment of the lung arteries may help surgical planning. • Lung artery detection by augmented reality was more accurate than that by CT images, particularly for the upper lobes. • The assessment of the lung arterial vessels was easier by using holograms than CT images.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Holografia , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Artéria Pulmonar , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Holografia/métodos , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Pulmonar/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Padrões de Referência , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/cirurgia
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10760, 2024 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729983

RESUMO

Measurement of auricle parameters for planning and post-operative evaluation presents substantial challenges due to the complex 3D structure of the human auricle. Traditional measurement methods rely on manual techniques, resulting in limited precision. This study introduces a novel automated surface-based three-dimensional measurement method for quantifying human auricle parameters. The method was applied to virtual auricles reconstructed from Computed Tomography (CT) scans of a cadaver head and subsequent measurement of important clinically relevant aesthetical auricular parameters (length, width, protrusion, position, auriculocephalic angle, and inclination angle). Reference measurements were done manually (using a caliper and using a 3D landmarking method) and measurement precision was compared to the automated method. The CT scans were performed using both a contemporary high-end and a low-end CT scanner. Scans were conducted at a standard scanning dose, and at half the dose. The automatic method demonstrated significantly higher precision in measuring auricle parameters compared to manual methods. Compared to traditional manual measurements, precision improved for auricle length (9×), width (5×), protrusion (5×), Auriculocephalic Angle (5-54×) and posteroanterior position (23×). Concerning parameters without comparison with a manual method, the precision level of supero-inferior position was 0.489 mm; and the precisions of the inclination angle measurements were 1.365 mm and 0.237 mm for the two automated methods investigated. Improved precision of measuring auricle parameters was associated with using the high-end scanner. A higher dose was only associated with a higher precision for the left auricle length. The findings of this study emphasize the advantage of automated surface-based auricle measurements, showcasing improved precision compared to traditional methods. This novel algorithm has the potential to enhance auricle reconstruction and other applications in plastic surgery, offering a promising avenue for future research and clinical application.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Pavilhão Auricular , Imageamento Tridimensional , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , Pavilhão Auricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Pavilhão Auricular/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Cadáver , Masculino
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731906

RESUMO

Roots are the hidden and most important part of plants. They serve as stabilizers and channels for uptaking water and nutrients and play a crucial role in the growth and development of plants. Here, two-dimensional image data were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling root traits in an interspecific mapping population derived from a cross between wild soybean 'PI366121' and cultivar 'Williams 82'. A total of 2830 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used for genotyping, constructing genetic linkage maps, and analyzing QTLs. Forty-two QTLs were identified on twelve chromosomes, twelve of which were identified as major QTLs, with a phenotypic variation range of 36.12% to 39.11% and a logarithm of odds value range of 12.01 to 17.35. Two significant QTL regions for the average diameter, root volume, and link average diameter root traits were detected on chromosomes 3 and 13, and both wild and cultivated soybeans contributed positive alleles. Six candidate genes, Glyma.03G027500 (transketolase/glycoaldehyde transferase), Glyma.03G014500 (dehydrogenases), Glyma.13G341500 (leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase), Glyma.13G341400 (AGC kinase family protein), Glyma.13G331900 (60S ribosomal protein), and Glyma.13G333100 (aquaporin transporter) showed higher expression in root tissues based on publicly available transcriptome data. These results will help breeders improve soybean genetic components and enhance soybean root morphological traits using desirable alleles from wild soybeans.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Glycine max , Raízes de Plantas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Glycine max/genética , Glycine max/anatomia & histologia , Glycine max/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Fenótipo , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Ligação Genética , Genótipo
13.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e078018, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differences in myopia prevalence and ocular biometry in children and adolescents in Chongqing and Tibet, China. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The study included children and adolescents aged 6-18 years in Chongqing, a low-altitude region, and in Qamdo, a high-altitude region of Tibet. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 448 participants in Qamdo, Tibet, and 748 participants in Chongqing were enrolled in this study. METHODS: All participants underwent uncorrected visual acuity assessment, non-cycloplegic refraction, axial length (AL) measurement, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement and corneal tomography. And the participants were grouped according to age (6-8, 9-11, 12-14 and 15-18 years group), and altitude of location (primary school students: group A (average altitude: 325 m), group B (average altitude: 2300 m), group C (average altitude: 3250 and 3170 m) and group D (average altitude: 3870 m)). RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in mean age (12.09±3.15 vs 12.2±3.10, p=0.549) and sex distribution (males, 50.4% vs 47.6%, p=0.339) between the two groups. The Tibet group presented greater spherical equivalent (SE, -0.63 (-2.00, 0.13) vs -0.88 (-2.88, -0.13), p<0.001), shorter AL (23.45±1.02 vs 23.92±1.19, p<0.001), lower prevalence of myopia (39.7% vs 47.6%, p=0.008) and flatter mean curvature power of the cornea (Km, 43.06±1.4 vs 43.26±1.36, p=0.014) than the Chongqing group. Further analysis based on age subgroups revealed that the Tibet group had a lower prevalence of myopia and higher SE in the 12-14, and 15-18 years old groups, shorter AL in the 9-11, 12-14 and 15-18 years old groups, and lower AL to corneal radius of curvature ratio (AL/CR) in all age subgroups compared with the Chongqing group, while Km was similar between the two groups in each age subgroup. Simple linear regression analysis showed that SE decreased with age in both the Tibet and Chongqing groups, with the Tibet group exhibiting a slower rate of decrease (p<0.001). AL and AL/CR increased with age in both the Tibet and Chongqing groups, but the rate of increase was slower in the Tibet group (p<0.001 of both). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that AL had the greatest effect on SE in both groups, followed by Km. In addition, the children and adolescents in Tibet presented thinner corneal thickness (CCT, p<0.001), smaller white to white distance (WTW, p<0.001), lower IOP (p<0.001) and deeper anterior chamber depth (ACD, p=0.015) than in Chongqing. Comparison of altitude subgroups showed that the prevalence of myopia (p=0.002), SE (p=0.031), AL (p=0.001) and AL/CR (p<0.001) of children at different altitudes was statistically different but the Km (p=0.189) were similar. The highest altitude, Tengchen County, exhibited the lowest prevalence of myopia and greatest SE among children, and the mean AL also decreased with increasing altitude. CONCLUSIONS: Myopia prevalence in Tibet was comparable with that in Chongqing for students aged 6-8 and 9-11 years but was lower and myopia progressed more slowly for students aged 12-14 and 15-18 years than in Chongqing, and AL was the main contributor for this difference, which may be related to higher ultraviolet radiation exposure and lower IOP in children and adolescents at high altitude in Tibet. Differences in AL and AL/CR between Tibet and Chongqing children and adolescents manifested earlier than in SE, underscoring the importance of AL measurement in myopia screening.


Assuntos
Altitude , Biometria , Miopia , Refração Ocular , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Tibet/epidemiologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , China/epidemiologia , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual , Comprimento Axial do Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Córnea/patologia , Córnea/anatomia & histologia
14.
Forensic Sci Int ; 359: 111993, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704925

RESUMO

There are numerous anatomical and anthropometrical standards that can be utilised for craniofacial analysis and identification. These standards originate from a wide variety of sources, such as orthodontic, maxillofacial, surgical, anatomical, anthropological and forensic literature, and numerous media have been employed to collect data from living and deceased subjects. With the development of clinical imaging and the enhanced technology associated with this field, multiple methods of data collection have become accessible, including Computed Tomography, Cone-Beam Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Radiographs, Three-dimensional Scanning, Photogrammetry and Ultrasound, alongside the more traditional in vivo methods, such as palpation and direct measurement, and cadaveric human dissection. Practitioners often struggle to identify the most appropriate standards and research results are frequently inconsistent adding to the confusion. This paper aims to clarify how practitioners can choose optimal standards, which standards are the most reliable and when to apply these standards for craniofacial identification. This paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of each mode of data collection and collates published research to review standards across different populations for each facial feature. This paper does not aim to be a practical instruction paper; since this field encompasses a wide range of 2D and 3D approaches (e.g., clay sculpture, sketch, automated, computer-modelling), the implementation of these standards is left to the individual practitioner.


Assuntos
Antropologia Forense , Humanos , Antropologia Forense/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Face/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cefalometria/normas , Identificação Biométrica/métodos
15.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 568, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the tooth anatomy is crucial for ensuring effective endodontic treatment. This study investigated the root canal morphology of the second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal in maxillary first molars (MFMs) in a Chinese population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). METHODS: This study evaluated 486 MFMs with MB2 canals from 285 participants undergoing CBCT examination and determined the Vertucci's classification and position of the MB2 canal orifice. The prevalence of the MB2 canal was correlated with the sex, age, and tooth side. The correlations between the prevalence of the MB2 canal and sex and tooth side were assessed using the Fisher's exact test. The chi-square test was used for evaluating the correlation between the prevalence of the MB2 canal and age. RESULTS: The number of type II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, and other root canals in the MFMs was 30.9%, 0.6%, 65.0%, 1.2%, 1.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6%, respectively. Among the 201 cases with bilateral inclusion, 87.6% showed consistent canal configuration. Results of the first clear apparent position (FCAP) of the MB2 canals showed that 434, 44, and 3 teeth had FCAP at the upper, middle, and bottom one-third of the root, respectively. The FCAPs of the MB2 canal in the MFMs with types II, IV, and VI, as well as types III and V canals showed significant differences (p<0.05). The horizontal distance between the MB1 and MB2 canal orifices in the type II canals of MFMs was significantly lesser than those in the type IV canals of MFMs (p < 0.01). The longitudinal distance between the pulp chamber floor plane and MB2 canal orifice significantly correlated with age (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The morphology of the mesiobuccal root canal in the MFMs is complex. Complete understanding of the anatomical morphology of the root canal combined with the CBCT and dental operating microscope is necessary for the accurate detection of the MB2 canal and consequently improved success rate of root canal treatment. Our study findings can help endodontists improve endodontic treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Cavidade Pulpar , Maxila , Dente Molar , Humanos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , China , Adolescente , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , População do Leste Asiático
16.
J Med Primatol ; 53(3): e12702, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Analysing the literature about the reproductive anatomy on New World Primates, one can see the need of standardisation on the description methods and, more importantly, the lack of detailed information. The problem is aggravated by the difficult access to specimens of the endangered species such as Brachyteles sp. This paper's objective was to extend knowledge on the male reproductive anatomy of these primates. The testis and funiculus spermaticus of Brachyteles are described in detail. METHODS: We utilised one individual of Brachyteles arachnoides, two hybrids (B. arachnoides × Brachyteles hypoxanthus) and photographs of the testis of a third fresh specimen of a hybrid individual. RESULTS: The septum formed by tunica dartos adheres to the testis and separates the scrotum in two testicular cavities. Passed the spermatic cord, the external spermatic fascia continues with the tunica dartos, covering the cranial half of the testis. The fascia cremasterica divides itself in bundles of fibres and forms loops around the testicles creating a sac like structure that seems to be unique among Neotropical Primates. The appendix testis is described for the first time in platyrrhini. It is presented as a sessile structure in the extremitas capitata of the testis. Previous literature on the reproductive anatomy of platyrrhini is limited. Despite that, it can be said that the large size and volume of the testis, and complex structure of the cremaster, could consist of a heat loss reduction strategy in cold and humid forest environments. CONCLUSIONS: Except for the larger size of the testicles in hybrid individuals, no other significant morphological differences were found between B. arachnoides and hybrids (B. arachnoides × B. hypoxanthus).


Assuntos
Atelinae , Testículo , Animais , Masculino , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Atelinae/anatomia & histologia , Atelinae/fisiologia , Cordão Espermático/anatomia & histologia
17.
Syst Parasitol ; 101(3): 37, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700664

RESUMO

A synopsis of Ortholinea Shulman, 1962 (Cnidaria: Myxosporea: Ortholineidae) is presented and identifies 26 nominal species presently allocated within this genus. Species morphological and morphometric features, tissue tropism, type-host, and type-locality are provided from original descriptions. Data from subsequent redescriptions and reports is also given. Accession numbers to sequences deposited in GenBank are indicated when available, and the myxospores were redrawn based on original descriptions. The information gathered shows that Ortholinea infect a wide taxonomic variety of freshwater and marine fish. Nonetheless, the broad host specificity reported for several species is not fully supported by morphological descriptions and requires molecular corroboration. The members of this genus are coelozoic and mainly parasitize the urinary system, with few species occurring in the gallbladder. Ortholinea visakhapatnamensis is the only exception, being histozoic in the visceral peritoneum. Molecular data of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) is available for about one third of Ortholinea species, with genetic interspecific variation ranging between 1.65% and 29.1%. Phylogenetic analyses reveal Ortholinea to be polyphyletic, with available SSU rDNA sequences clustering within the subclades of the highly heterogenous freshwater urinary clade of the oligochaete-infecting lineage. The life cycles of two Ortholinea species have been clarified based on molecular inferences and identify triactinomyxon actinospores as counterparts, and marine oligochaetes of the family Naididae as permissive hosts to this genus.


Assuntos
Myxozoa , Especificidade da Espécie , Animais , Myxozoa/classificação , Myxozoa/genética , Myxozoa/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Peixes/parasitologia , DNA Ribossômico/genética
18.
J Morphol ; 285(5): e21706, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704702

RESUMO

The usefulness of anatomical variation is determined by the knowledge of why nonmetric traits appear. Clear descriptions of the traits are a necessary task, due to the risk of confusing anatomical variants and evidence of trauma. Numerous interpretations of the appearance of calcaneal anatomical variants add to the need of an anatomical atlas of calcaneal nonmetric traits. We have analyzed a total of 886 calcanei; 559 belong to different modern and pre-Hispanic samples, and 327 bones were studied from a reference collection from Athens. In this study, we present the anatomical variations that exist on the calcaneus bone, some of which have rarely been mentioned in previous research. The standardization of methods proposed may be useful to experts working in human anatomy, physical anthropology as well as comparative morphology, due to usefulness of this information during surgery, and bioanthropology to observe and study the lifestyle of past populations.


Assuntos
Variação Anatômica , Calcâneo , Calcâneo/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino
19.
J Morphol ; 285(5): e21705, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704727

RESUMO

The ontogeny of feeding is characterized by shifting functional demands concurrent with changes in craniofacial anatomy; relationships between these factors will look different in primates with disparate feeding behaviors during development. This study examines the ontogeny of skull morphology and jaw leverage in tufted (Sapajus) and untufted (Cebus) capuchin monkeys. Unlike Cebus, Sapajus have a mechanically challenging diet and behavioral observations of juvenile Sapajus suggest these foods are exploited early in development. Landmarks were placed on three-dimensional surface models of an ontogenetic series of Sapajus and Cebus skulls (n = 53) and used to generate shape data and jaw-leverage estimates across the tooth row for three jaw-closing muscles (temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid) as well as a weighted combined estimate. Using geometric morphometric methods, we found that skull shape diverges early and shape is significantly different between Sapajus and Cebus throughout ontogeny. Additionally, jaw leverage varies with age and position on the tooth row and is greater in Sapajus compared to Cebus when calculated at the permanent dentition. We used two-block partial least squares analyses to identify covariance between skull shape and each of our jaw muscle leverage estimates. Sapajus, but not Cebus, has significant covariance between all leverage estimates at the anterior dentition. Our findings show that Sapajus and Cebus exhibit distinct craniofacial morphologies early in ontogeny and strong covariance between leverage estimates and craniofacial shape in Sapajus. These results are consistent with prior behavioral and comparative work suggesting these differences are a function of selection for exploiting mechanically challenging foods in Sapajus, and further emphasize that these differences appear quite early in ontogeny. This research builds on prior work that has highlighted the importance of understanding ontogeny for interpreting adult morphology.


Assuntos
Cebus , Arcada Osseodentária , Crânio , Animais , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Cebus/anatomia & histologia , Sapajus/anatomia & histologia , Sapajus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino
20.
J Helminthol ; 98: e39, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726571

RESUMO

During nematode surveys of natural vegetation in forests of La Cima de Copey de Dota, San José, San José province, Costa Rica, a Xenocriconemella species closely resembling X. macrodora and related species was found. Integrative taxonomical approaches demonstrated that it is a new species described herein as X. costaricense sp. nov. The new species is parthenogenetic (only females have been detected) and characterised by a short body (276-404 µm); lip region with two annuli, not offset, not separated from body contour; first lip annulus partially covering the second lip annulus. Stylet thin, very long (113-133 µm) and flexible, occupying 30.5-47.8% of body length. Excretory pore located from one or two annuli anterior to one or two annuli posterior to level of stylet knobs, at 42 (37-45) µm from anterior end. Female genital tract monodelphic, prodelphic, outstretched, and occupying 35-45% of body length, with vagina slightly ventrally curved (14-18 µm long). Anus located 6-11 annuli from the tail terminus. Tail conoid and bluntly rounded terminus, the last 2-3 annuli oriented dorsally. Results of molecular characterisation and phylogenetic analyses of D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA, ITS, and partial 18S rRNA, as well as cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene sequences further characterised the new species and clearly separated it from X. macrodora and other related species (X. iberica, X. paraiberica, and X. pradense).


Assuntos
Filogenia , Animais , Costa Rica , Feminino , Masculino , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/anatomia & histologia , Nematoides/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Florestas , Análise de Sequência de DNA
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...