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1.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 97(3): 1353-1363, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, poses a significant global burden. Diagnosis typically involves invasive and costly methods like neuroimaging or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker testing of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) and amyloid-ß42/40 (Aß42/40). Such procedures are especially impractical in resource-constrained regions, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Blood-based biomarker testing may provide a more accessible screening opportunity. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine if AD-related blood-based biomarkers are associated with cognitive test performance in the Congolese population, where limited research has been conducted. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 81 Congolese individuals, cognitive assessments (Alzheimer's Questionnaire (AQ) and Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSID)) distinguished dementia cases from controls. Blood draws were taken to assess p-tau 181 and Aß42/40 biomarkers. Relationships between the biomarkers and cognitive performance were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: Lower plasma Aß42/40 was significantly associated with lower CSID scores and higher AQ scores, indicative of AD (p < 0.001). These relationships were observed in healthy controls (CSID p = 0.01, AQ p = 0.03), but not in dementia cases. However, p-tau 181 did not exhibit significant associations with either measure. Factors such as age, sex, education, presence of APOEɛ4 allele, did not alter these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding relationships between AD-related screening tests and blood biomarkers is a step towards utilization of blood-based biomarker tests as a screening tool for AD, especially in resource-limited regions. Further research should be conducted to evaluate blood biomarker test efficacy in larger samples and other populations.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Estudos Transversais , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , República Democrática do Congo , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/líquido cefalorraquidiano
2.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 16(1): 28, 2024 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic multimorbidity is associated with an increased risk of dementia, but the pathogenic mechanisms linking them remain largely undefined. We aimed to assess the associations of cardiometabolic multimorbidity with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology to enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms linking cardiometabolic multimorbidity and AD. METHODS: This study included 1464 cognitively intact participants from the Chinese Alzheimer's Biomarker and LifestylE (CABLE) database. Cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) are a group of interrelated disorders such as hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases (HD), and stroke. Based on the CMD status, participants were categorized as CMD-free, single CMD, or CMD multimorbidity. CMD multimorbidity is defined as the coexistence of two or more CMDs. The associations of cardiometabolic multimorbidity and CSF biomarkers were examined using multivariable linear regression models with demographic characteristics, the APOE ε4 allele, and lifestyle factors as covariates. Subgroup analyses stratified by age, sex, and APOE ε4 status were also performed. RESULTS: A total of 1464 individuals (mean age, 61.80 years; age range, 40-89 years) were included. The markers of phosphorylated tau-related processes (CSF P-tau181: ß = 0.165, P = 0.037) and neuronal injury (CSF T-tau: ß = 0.065, P = 0.033) were significantly increased in subjects with CMD multimorbidity (versus CMD-free), but not in those with single CMD. The association between CMD multimorbidity with CSF T-tau levels remained significant after controlling for Aß42 levels. Additionally, significantly elevated tau-related biomarkers were observed in patients with specific CMD combinations (i.e., hypertension and diabetes, hypertension and HD), especially in long disease courses. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of cardiometabolic multimorbidity was associated with tau phosphorylation and neuronal injury in cognitively normal populations. CMD multimorbidity might be a potential independent target to alleviate tau-related pathologies that can cause cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Apolipoproteína E4/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Multimorbidade , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano
3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1004, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307843

RESUMO

Amyloid-ß (Aß) oligomers are implicated in the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herein, quinoline-derived half-curcumin-dioxaborine (Q-OB) fluorescent probe was designed for detecting Aß oligomers by finely tailoring the hydrophobicity of the biannulate donor motifs in donor-π-acceptor structure. Q-OB shows a great sensing potency in dynamically monitoring oligomerization of Aß during amyloid fibrillogenesis in vitro. In addition, we applied this strategy to fluorometrically analyze Aß self-assembly kinetics in the cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) of AD patients. The fluorescence intensity of Q-OB in AD patients' CSF revealed a marked change of log (I/I0) value of 0.34 ± 0.13 (cognitive normal), 0.15 ± 0.12 (mild cognitive impairment), and 0.14 ± 0.10 (AD dementia), guiding to distinguish a state of AD continuum for early diagnosis of AD. These studies demonstrate the potential of our approach can expand the currently available preclinical diagnostic platform for the early stages of AD, aiding in the disruption of pathological progression and the development of appropriate treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Proteínas Amiloidogênicas , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano
4.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 16(1): 34, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of early molecular biomarkers in sporadic behavioral variants of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and its clinical overlap with primary psychiatric disorders (PPD) hampers its diagnostic distinction. Synaptic dysfunction is an early feature in bvFTD and identification of specific biomarkers might improve its diagnostic accuracy. Our goal was to understand the differential diagnostic potential of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) synaptic biomarkers in bvFTD versus PPD and their specificity towards bvFTD compared with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and controls. Additionally, we explored the association of CSF synaptic biomarkers with social cognition, cognitive performance, and disease severity in these clinical groups. METHODS: Participants with probable bvFTD (n = 57), PPD (n = 71), AD (n = 60), and cognitively normal controls (n = 39) with available CSF, cognitive tests, and disease severity as frontotemporal lobar degeneration-modified clinical dementia rating scale (FTLD-CDR) were included. In a subset of bvFTD and PPD cases, Ekman 60 faces test scores for social cognition were available. CSF synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25), neurogranin (Ng), neuronal pentraxin 2 (NPTX2), and glutamate receptor 4 (GluR4) were measured, along with neurofilament light (NfL), and compared between groups using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and logistic regression. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed using ROC analyses, and biomarker panels were selected using Wald's backward selection. Correlations with cognitive measures were performed using Pearson's partial correlation analysis. RESULTS: NPTX2 concentrations were lower in the bvFTD group compared with PPD (p < 0.001) and controls (p = 0.003) but not compared with AD. Concentrations of SNAP25 (p < 0.001) and Ng (p < 0.001) were elevated in patients with AD versus those with bvFTD and controls. The modeled panel for differential diagnosis of bvFTD versus PPD consisted of NfL and NPTX2 (AUC = 0.96, CI: 0.93-0.99, p < 0.001). In bvFTD versus AD, the modeled panel consisted of NfL, SNAP25, Ng, and GluR4 (AUC = 0.86, CI: 0.79-0.92, p < 0.001). In bvFTD, lower NPTX2 (Pearson's r = 0.29, p = 0.036) and GluR4 (Pearson's r = 0.34, p = 0.014) concentrations were weakly associated with worse performance of total cognitive score. Lower GluR4 concentrations were also associated with worse MMSE scores (Pearson's r = 0.41, p = 0.002) as well as with worse executive functioning (Pearson's r = 0.36, p = 0.011) in bvFTD. There were no associations between synaptic markers and social cognition or disease severity in bvFTD. CONCLUSION: Our findings of involvement of NTPX2 in bvFTD but not PPD contribute towards better understanding of bvFTD disease pathology.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Demência Frontotemporal , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Demência Frontotemporal/patologia , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/diagnóstico , Curva ROC , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338759

RESUMO

Plasma biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a promising tool that may help in early diagnosis. However, their levels may be influenced by physiological parameters and comorbidities that should be considered before they can be used at the population level. For this purpose, we assessed the influences of different comorbidities on AD plasma markers in 208 cognitively unimpaired subjects. We analyzed both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of Aß40, Aß42, and p-tau181 using the fully automated Lumipulse platform. The relationships between the different plasma markers and physiological variables were studied using linear regression models. The mean differences in plasma markers according to comorbidity groups were also studied. The glomerular filtration rate showed an influence on plasma Aß40 and Aß42 levels but not on the Aß42/Aß40 ratio. The amyloid ratio was significantly lower in diabetic and hypertensive subjects, and the mean p-tau181 levels were higher in hypertensive subjects. The glomerular filtration rate may have an inverse relationship on plasma Aß40 and Aß42 levels but not on the amyloid ratio, suggesting that the latter is a more stable marker to use in the general population. Cardiovascular risk factors might have a long-term effect on the amyloid ratio and plasma levels of p-tau181.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Humanos , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Biomarcadores , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Fragmentos de Peptídeos
6.
Fluids Barriers CNS ; 21(1): 17, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interpretation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies can be challenging in preterm infants. We hypothesized that intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), and infection (meningitis) promote pro-inflammatory CSF conditions reflected in CSF parameters. METHODS: Biochemical and cytological profiles of lumbar CSF and peripheral blood samples were analyzed for 81 control, 29 IVH grade 1/2 (IVH1/2), 13 IVH grade 3/4 (IVH3/4), 15 PHH, 20 culture-confirmed bacterial meningitis (BM), and 27 viral meningitis (VM) infants at 36.5 ± 4 weeks estimated gestational age. RESULTS: PHH infants had higher (p < 0.02) CSF total cell and red blood cell (RBC) counts compared to control, IVH1/2, BM, and VM infants. No differences in white blood cell (WBC) count were found between IVH3/4, PHH, BM, and VM infants. CSF neutrophil counts increased (p ≤ 0.03) for all groups compared to controls except IVH1/2. CSF protein levels were higher (p ≤ 0.02) and CSF glucose levels were lower (p ≤ 0.003) for PHH infants compared to all other groups. In peripheral blood, PHH infants had higher (p ≤ 0.001) WBC counts and lower (p ≤ 0.03) hemoglobin and hematocrit than all groups except for IVH3/4. CONCLUSIONS: Similarities in CSF parameters may reflect common pathological processes in the inflammatory response and show the complexity associated with interpreting CSF profiles, especially in PHH and meningitis/ventriculitis.


Assuntos
Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central , Hidrocefalia , Meningite , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Relevância Clínica , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , Hidrocefalia/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/complicações , Meningite/complicações , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4015, 2024 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369552

RESUMO

FilmArray® Meningitis/Encephalitis panel (FAME-p) is used to diagnose central nervous system (CNS) infections. In this study, we investigated performance of FAME-p compared to comparator assays (CA), and for the first time, clinical diagnosis at discharge (CDD). 1000 consecutive patients with a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample analyzed with FAME-p were identified. As CA, culture, polymerase chain reaction and cryptococcal antigen test were used. Medical records of patients were obtained. A CDD of CNS infection was made in 139 of 1000 CSF samples. FAME-p was positive in 66 samples with 44 viral and 22 bacterial agents. Thirteen FAME-p findings were not confirmed by CA, with four discrepant results remaining after comparison with the CDD. Positive percentage agreement (PPA) calculated against CA was 100%. Negative percentage agreement (NPA) calculated against CA was 94.4-99.8% for Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. pneumoniae and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). NPA calculated against CDD was higher (compared to CA) for L. monocytogenes, S. agalactiae and VZV (100%), and lower for Escherichia coli, enterovirus and herpes simplex virus 2 (50-83.3%). NPA of FAME-p for human herpes virus 6 was difficult to interpret. Eighty-four cases received diagnosis of CNS-infection despite negative FAME-p. The four most common non-infectious etiologies were primary headache disorders, cranial nerve palsies, neuroinflammatory disorders and seizure. Although FAME-p shows good performance in diagnosis of CNS infections, result of FAME-p should be interpreted carefully. Considering infectious diseases not covered by FAME-p as well as non-infectious differential diagnoses is important in this context.


Assuntos
Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central , Encefalite , Meningite , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Herpesvirus Humano 3 , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Meningite/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Encefalite/líquido cefalorraquidiano
8.
Anal Chem ; 96(6): 2534-2542, 2024 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302490

RESUMO

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers are more sensitive than the Movement Disorder Society (MDS) criteria for detecting prodromal Parkinson's disease (PD). Early detection of PD provides the best chance for successful implementation of disease-modifying treatments, making it crucial to effectively identify CSF extracted from PD patients or normal individuals. In this study, an intelligent sensor array was built by using three metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that exhibited varying catalytic kinetics after reacting with potential protein markers. Machine learning algorithms were used to process fingerprint response patterns, allowing for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the proteins. The results were robust and capable of discriminating between PD and non-PD patients via CSF detection. The k-nearest neighbor regression algorithm was used to predict MDS scores with a minimum mean square error of 38.88. The intelligent MOF sensor array is expected to promote the detection of CSF biomarkers due to its ability to identify multiple targets and could be used in conjunction with MDS criteria and other techniques to diagnose PD more sensitively and selectively.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Diagnóstico Precoce , Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina
9.
J Neuroinflammation ; 21(1): 52, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368354

RESUMO

Establishing biomarkers to predict multiple sclerosis diagnosis and prognosis has been challenging using a single biomarker approach. We hypothesised that a combination of biomarkers would increase the accuracy of prediction models to differentiate multiple sclerosis from other neurological disorders and enhance prognostication for people with multiple sclerosis. We measured 24 fluid biomarkers in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of 77 people with multiple sclerosis and 80 people with other neurological disorders, using ELISA or Single Molecule Array assays. Primary outcomes were multiple sclerosis versus any other diagnosis, time to first relapse, and time to disability milestone (Expanded Disability Status Scale 6), adjusted for age and sex. Multivariate prediction models were calculated using the area under the curve value for diagnostic prediction, and concordance statistics (the percentage of each pair of events that are correctly ordered in time for each of the Cox regression models) for prognostic predictions. Predictions using combinations of biomarkers were considerably better than single biomarker predictions. The combination of cerebrospinal fluid [chitinase-3-like-1 + TNF-receptor-1 + CD27] and serum [osteopontin + MCP-1] had an area under the curve of 0.97 for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, compared to the best discriminative single marker in blood (osteopontin: area under the curve 0.84) and in cerebrospinal fluid (chitinase-3-like-1 area under the curve 0.84). Prediction for time to next relapse was optimal with a combination of cerebrospinal fluid[vitamin D binding protein + Factor I + C1inhibitor] + serum[Factor B + Interleukin-4 + C1inhibitor] (concordance 0.80), and time to Expanded Disability Status Scale 6 with cerebrospinal fluid [C9 + Neurofilament-light] + serum[chitinase-3-like-1 + CCL27 + vitamin D binding protein + C1inhibitor] (concordance 0.98). A combination of fluid biomarkers has a higher accuracy to differentiate multiple sclerosis from other neurological disorders and significantly improved the prediction of the development of sustained disability in multiple sclerosis. Serum models rivalled those of cerebrospinal fluid, holding promise for a non-invasive approach. The utility of our biomarker models can only be established by robust validation in different and varied cohorts.


Assuntos
Quitinases , Esclerose Múltipla , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Osteopontina , Proteína de Ligação a Vitamina D , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Recidiva
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3984, 2024 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368488

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia in the elderly worldwide. The exact etiology of AD, particularly its genetic mechanisms, remains incompletely understood. Traditional genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which primarily focus on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with main effects, provide limited explanations for the "missing heritability" of AD, while there is growing evidence supporting the important role of epistasis. In this study, we performed a genome-wide SNP-SNP interaction detection using a linear regression model and employed multiple GPUs for parallel computing, significantly enhancing the speed of whole-genome analysis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) phosphorylated tau (P-tau)/amyloid-[Formula: see text] (A[Formula: see text]) ratio was used as a quantitative trait (QT) to enhance statistical power. Age, gender, and clinical diagnosis were included as covariates to control for potential non-genetic factors influencing AD. We identified 961 pairs of statistically significant SNP-SNP interactions, explaining a high-level variance of P-tau/A[Formula: see text] level, all of which exhibited marginal main effects. Additionally, we replicated 432 previously reported AD-related genes and found 11 gene-gene interaction pairs overlapping with the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Our findings may contribute to partially explain the "missing heritability" of AD. The identified subnetwork may be associated with synaptic dysfunction, Wnt signaling pathway, oligodendrocytes, inflammation, hippocampus, and neuronal cells.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Humanos , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Epistasia Genética , Endofenótipos , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas tau/genética , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética
11.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 11(2): 435-444, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mathematical models of complex diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, have the potential to play a significant role in personalized medicine. Specifically, models can be personalized by fitting parameters with individual data for the purpose of discovering primary underlying disease drivers, predicting natural history, and assessing the effects of theoretical interventions. Previous work in causal/mechanistic modeling of Alzheimer's Disease progression has modeled the disease at the cellular level and on a short time scale, such as minutes to hours. No previous studies have addressed mechanistic modeling on a personalized level using clinically validated biomarkers in individual subjects. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of personalizing a causal model of Alzheimer's Disease progression using longitudinal biomarker data. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/MEASUREMENTS: We chose the Alzheimer Disease Biomarker Cascade model, a widely-referenced hypothetical model of Alzheimer's Disease based on the amyloid cascade hypothesis, which we had previously implemented mathematically as a mechanistic model. We used available longitudinal demographic and serial biomarker data in over 800 subjects across the cognitive spectrum from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. The data included participants that were cognitively normal, had mild cognitive impairment, or were diagnosed with dementia (probable Alzheimer's Disease). The model consisted of a sparse system of differential equations involving four measurable biomarkers based on cerebrospinal fluid proteins, imaging, and cognitive testing data. RESULTS: Personalization of the Alzheimer Disease Biomarker Cascade model with individual serial biomarker data yielded fourteen personalized parameters in each subject reflecting physiologically meaningful characteristics. These included growth rates, latency values, and carrying capacities of the various biomarkers, most of which demonstrated significant differences across clinical diagnostic groups. The model fits to training data across the entire cohort had a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.09 (SD 0.081) on a variable scale between zero and one, and were robust, with over 90% of subjects showing an RMSE of < 0.2. Similarly, in a subset of subjects with data on all four biomarkers in at least one test set, performance was high on the test sets, with a mean RMSE of 0.15 (SD 0.117), with 80% of subjects demonstrating an RMSE < 0.2 in the estimation of future biomarker points. Cluster analysis of parameters revealed two distinct endophenotypic groups, with distinct biomarker profiles and disease trajectories. CONCLUSION: Results support the feasibility of personalizing mechanistic models based on individual biomarker trajectories and suggest that this approach may be useful for reclassifying subjects on the Alzheimer's clinical spectrum. This computational modeling approach is not limited to the Alzheimer Disease Biomarker Cascade hypothesis, and can be applied to any mechanistic hypothesis of disease progression in the Alzheimer's field that can be monitored with biomarkers. Thus, it offers a computational platform to compare and validate various disease hypotheses, personalize individual biomarker trajectories and predict individual response to theoretical prevention and therapeutic intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Modelos Teóricos , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano
12.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 11(2): 453-462, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) development. However, few studies compare the overall cardiovascular risk with AD biomarkers, and when done, they are mainly performed in moderate cardiovascular risk regions. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether cardiovascular risk in older adults is associated with pathological cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of AD in a low cardiovascular risk population. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study performed between 2017 and 2020. PARTICIPANTS: The present work included patients between 50 and 75 years old who were negative for CSF AD biomarkers and had minimum cognitive alterations (controls) and patients with positive CSF AD biomarkers and in early stages of AD (cases). MEASUREMENTS: CSF biomarkers included total tau, phosphorylated tau 181 and amyloid ß42 (Aß42). Analytical variables were obtained. ERICE, SCORE2 and Framingham scales were used to calculate the overall patient's cardiovascular risk. The Aß42/Aß40 ratio and neurofilaments were explored when available. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-three patients were included. Nearly 76% of the sample had AD. AD patients had higher cardiovascular risk than controls (p-value < 0.05). ERICE and SCORE2 were associated with AD presence. Framingham was not. A correlation between elevated cardiovascular risk and higher total tau and NfL levels was observed when adjusted by age. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular risk assessment may be helpful in neurodegenerative disorders detection, as it is associated with CSF total tau and NfL. ERICE and SCORE2 may be useful scales in low cardiovascular risk regions to improve cardiovascular control and prevent neurodegenerative pathologies.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas
13.
Mol Neurodegener ; 19(1): 15, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyloid and tau aggregates are considered to cause neurodegeneration and consequently cognitive decline in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we explore the potential of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins to reflect AD pathology and cognitive decline, aiming to identify potential biomarkers for monitoring outcomes of disease-modifying therapies targeting these aggregates. METHOD: We used a multiplex antibody-based suspension bead array to measure the levels of 49 proteins in CSF from the Swedish GEDOC memory clinic cohort at the Karolinska University Hospital. The cohort comprised 148 amyloid- and tau-negative individuals (A-T-) and 65 amyloid- and tau-positive individuals (A+T+). An independent sample set of 26 A-T- and 26 A+T+ individuals from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort was used for validation. The measured proteins were clustered based on their correlation to CSF amyloid beta peptides, tau and NfL levels. Further, we used support vector machine modelling to identify protein pairs, matched based on their cluster origin, that reflect AD pathology and cognitive decline with improved performance compared to single proteins. RESULTS: The protein-clustering revealed 11 proteins strongly correlated to t-tau and p-tau (tau-associated group), including mainly synaptic proteins previously found elevated in AD such as NRGN, GAP43 and SNCB. Another 16 proteins showed predominant correlation with Aß42 (amyloid-associated group), including PTPRN2, NCAN and CHL1. Support vector machine modelling revealed that proteins from the two groups combined in pairs discriminated A-T- from A+T+ individuals with higher accuracy compared to single proteins, as well as compared to protein pairs composed of proteins originating from the same group. Moreover, combining the proteins from different groups in ratios (tau-associated protein/amyloid-associated protein) significantly increased their correlation to cognitive decline measured with cognitive scores. The results were validated in an independent cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Combining brain-derived proteins in pairs largely enhanced their capacity to discriminate between AD pathology-affected and unaffected individuals and increased their correlation to cognitive decline, potentially due to adjustment of inter-individual variability. With these results, we highlight the potential of protein pairs to monitor neurodegeneration and thereby possibly the efficacy of AD disease-modifying therapies.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Disfunção Cognitiva/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Encéfalo/patologia , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano
14.
Fluids Barriers CNS ; 21(1): 14, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteome could offer important insights into central nervous system (CNS) malignancies. To advance proteomic research in pediatric CNS cancer, the current study aims to (1) evaluate past mass spectrometry-based workflows and (2) synthesize previous CSF proteomic data, focusing on both qualitative summaries and quantitative re-analysis. MAIN: In our analysis of 11 studies investigating the CSF proteome in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or primary brain tumors, we observed significant methodological variability. This variability negatively affects comparative analysis of the included studies, as per GRADE criteria for quality of evidence. The qualitative summaries covered 161 patients and 134 non-tumor controls, while the application of validation cohort varied among the studies. The quantitative re-analysis comprised 15 B-ALL vs 6 "healthy" controls and 15 medulloblastoma patients vs 22 non-tumor controls. Certain CSF proteins were identified as potential indicators of specific malignancies or stages of neurotoxicity during chemotherapy, yet definitive conclusions were impeded by inconsistent data. There were no proteins with statistically significant differences when comparing cases versus controls that were corroborated across studies where quantitative reanalysis was feasible. From a gene ontology enrichment, we observed that age disparities between unmatched case and controls may mislead to protein correlations more indicative of age-related CNS developmental stages rather than neuro-oncological disease. Despite efforts to batch correct (HarmonizR) and impute missing values, merging of dataset proved unfeasible and thereby limited meaningful data integration across different studies. CONCLUSION: Infrequent publications on rare pediatric cancer entities, which often involve small sample sizes, are inherently prone to result in heterogeneous studies-particularly when conducted within a rapidly evolving field like proteomics. As a result, obtaining clear evidence, such as CSF proteome biomarkers for CNS dissemination or early-stage neurotoxicity, is currently impractical. Our general recommendations comprise the need for standardized methodologies, collaborative efforts, and improved data sharing in pediatric CNS malignancy research. We specifically emphasize the possible importance of considering natural age-related variations in CSF due to different CNS development stages when matching cases and controls in future studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central , Proteoma , Criança , Humanos , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/metabolismo
15.
Brain Nerve ; 76(2): 117-122, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351557

RESUMO

The inflow channel of the glymphatic pathway is the basilar membrane formed by the pia matter and glial border membrane in the outermost layer of the artery. Cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space enters the brain parenchyma through this pathway, and its water component is pumped into the brain parenchyma through aquaporin 4. One of the driving forces is vascular pulsation, and if this pathway becomes inoperative, cerebrospinal fluid loses its normal dynamics and contributes to idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Future research is needed to determine the extent of this contribution to the development of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.


Assuntos
Sistema Glinfático , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal , Hidrocefalia , Humanos , Sistema Glinfático/metabolismo , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Encéfalo , Neuroglia , Aquaporina 4 , Hidrocefalia/metabolismo , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/metabolismo
16.
Brain Nerve ; 76(2): 135-143, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351560

RESUMO

We present neuropathological findings in three autopsy brains from patients diagnosed clinically with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in Japan; still, specific findings of iNPH remain unclear. Comorbid atherosclerosis and hypertensive microvascular diseases, including arterio- and arteriolosclerosis and ischemic changes in the brain parenchyma, are frequently (65%) observed in autopsy brain tissue from patients with iNPH, which has drawn attention to the clinicopathological similarities and differences between iNPH and Binswanger's disease. Additionally, Aß protein deposition and phosphorylated tau-positive neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads are observed in cerebral cortical biopsy specimens obtained during intracranial pressure monitoring or shunt surgery among a subset of patients with iNPH. These findings are as frequent as those reported in autopsy data of the age-matched general population. Alterations in aquaporin-4 expression in the cerebral cortex have also been reported, suggestive of a possible association with altered volume or composition of the interstitial fluid in the microenvironment, particularly in the vicinity of capillaries, or glymphatic system dysfunction and consequent altered interstitial fluid drainage. Greater understanding of the normal anatomical structures and pathways involved in cerebrospinal fluid circulation, particularly in absorption and drainage, in the craniospinal region is essential for better clarity regarding iNPH neuropathology.


Assuntos
Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal , Humanos , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/complicações , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/cirurgia , Encéfalo/patologia , Córtex Cerebral , Neuropatologia , Autopsia
17.
Brain Nerve ; 76(2): 151-157, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351562

RESUMO

Although the pathophysiology of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) remain largely unknown, it is well acknowledged that iNPH causes ventricular enlargement due to decreased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption. Pathophysiologically, it is supposed that the excretion of waste proteins is impaired along with CSF. Hence, they tend to aggregate, and in many neurodegenerative diseases, abnormal aggregation and accumulation of such proteins are deeply involved in the pathogenesis of disease. Biomarkers (BMs) contribute to diagnosis by identifying comorbid neurodegenerative diseases that may affect the prognosis of treatment, as well as exploring the pathogenetic mechanisms of iNPH. In addition, BMs can be an important prognostic test for shunt therapy.


Assuntos
Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Humanos , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/diagnóstico , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biomarcadores , Prognóstico , Proteínas
18.
Brain Nerve ; 76(2): 175-180, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351565

RESUMO

Movement disorders, particularly gait and balance disturbances can lead to falls and reduced daily activities in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). In this study, we investigate movement disorders from both the pathophysiological and kinematic perspectives in patients with iNPH. Additionally, we discuss essential factors that should be evaluated before and after cerebrospinal fluid tap tests and shunt surgeries and considerations for assessment of fall risk in patients with iNPH. Additionally, we describe the most recent findings on rehabilitation of iNPH patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal , Transtornos dos Movimentos , Humanos , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/cirurgia , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Derivações do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Transtornos dos Movimentos/etiologia
19.
J Med Virol ; 96(2): e29471, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353496

RESUMO

Human enteroviruses (EV) are the most common cause of aseptic meningitis worldwide. Data on EV viral load in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and related epidemiological studies are scarce in Brazil. This study investigated the influence of EV viral load on CSF parameters, as well as identifying the involved species. CSF samples were collected in 2018-2019 from 140 individuals at The Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo. The EV viral load was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, while EV species were identified by 5'UTR region sequencing. Median viral load was 5.72 log10 copies/mL and did not differ by subjects' age and EV species. Pleocytosis was observed in 94.3% of cases, with the highest white blood cell (WBC) counts in younger individuals. Viral load and WBC count were correlated in children (p = 0.0172). Elevated lactate levels were observed in 60% of cases and correlated with the viral load in preteen-teenagers (p = 0.0120) and adults (p = 0.0184). Most individuals had normal total protein levels (70.7%), with higher in preteen-teenagers and adults (p < 0.0001). By sequencing, 8.2% were identified as EV species A and 91.8% as species B. Age-specific variations in CSF characteristics suggest distinct inflammatory responses in each group.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Meningite Asséptica , Meningite Viral , Criança , Adulto , Adolescente , Humanos , Lactente , Enterovirus/genética , Meningite Asséptica/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano
20.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 36(1): 42, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common complication with poor prognosis in the elderly, but its mechanism has not been fully elucidated. There is evidence that the changes in synaptic activity in the brain are closely related to the occurrence of POD. And neuronal pentraxin 2 (NPTX2) can regulate synaptic activity in vivo. AIMS: This study aims to explore whether decreased NPTX2 levels affects POD and whether the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of POD mediate this association. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we interviewed patients with knee/hip replacement 1 day before surgery to collect patient information and assess their cognitive function. CSF was extracted for measuring the CSF levels of NPTX2 and other POD biomarkers on the day of surgery. And postoperative follow-up visits were performed 1-7 days after surgery. RESULTS: Finally, 560 patients were included in the study. The patients were divided into POD group and NPOD (non-POD) group. The POD group had a median age of 80 years, a female proportion of 45%, a median BMI of 24.1 kg/m2, and a median years of education of 9 years. The Mann-Whitney U test showed that CSF NPTX2 levels were significantly lower in POD group, compared with the NPOD group (P < 0.05). Univariate binary logistic regression analysis showed that reduced CSF levels of NPTX2 protected against POD (crude OR = 0.994, 95% CI 0.993-0.995, P < 0.001). The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve indicated that CSF NPTX2 level had high predictive value for POD. Mediation analyses showed that CSF T-tau (mediating proportion = 21%) and P-tau (mediating proportion = 29%) had significant mediating effects on the association between CSF NPTX2 and POD. CONCLUSION: CSF NPTX2 levels were associated with the occurrence of POD. Low CSF NPTX2 levels may be an independent protective factor for POD. CSF T-tau and P-tau could mediate the association between CSF NPTX2 and POD occurrence. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial registration number (TRN): ChiCTR2200064740, Date of Registration: 2022-10-15.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Delírio , Delírio do Despertar , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Delírio/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Prospectivos , Masculino
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