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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515629

RESUMO

An obligately anaerobic bacterial strain (CTTWT) belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae within the class Clostridia was isolated from an anoxic soil sample subjected to biological or reductive soil disinfestation. Cells of the strain were Gram-stain-positive, short rods with peritrichous flagella. The strain was saccharolytic and decomposed polysaccharides, chitin, xylan and ß-1,3-glucan. Strain CTTWT decomposed cell biomass and cell-wall preparations of an ascomycete plant pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae. The strain produced acetate, ethanol, H2 and CO2 as fermentation products from the utilized substrates. The major cellular fatty acids of the strain were C16 : 1 ω7c dimethylacetal (DMA), C16 : 0 DMA and C18 : 1 ω7c DMA. The closely related species of strain CTTWT based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences were species in the genus Anaerocolumna with sequence similarities of 95.2-97.6 %. Results of genome analyses of strain CTTWT indicated that the genome size of the strain was 5.62 Mb and the genomic DNA G+C content was 38.3 mol%. Six 16S rRNA genes with five different sequences from each other were found in the genome. Strain CTTWT had genes encoding chitinase, xylanase, cellulase, ß-glucosidase and nitrogenase as characteristic genes in the genome. Homologous genes encoding these proteins were found in the genomes of the related Anaerocolumna species, but the genomic and phenotypic properties of strain CTTWT were distinct from them. Based on the phylogenetic, genomic and phenotypic analyses, the name Anaerocolumna chitinilytica sp. nov., in the family Lachnospiraceae is proposed for strain CTTWT (=NBRC 112102T=DSM 110036T).


Assuntos
Quitina , Solo , Anaerobiose , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fusarium , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia do Solo
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516364

RESUMO

An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and non-motile strain (XY-359T) was isolated from the mouth of a marine invertebrate Onchidium species from the South China Sea. It grew at pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum, pH 7.5), at 15-37 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and in the presence of 0.5-4.5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2.5 %). It could not hydrolyse Tweens 20, 40, 60 or 80 and no flexirubin-type pigments were produced. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid, six unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified polar lipids. The major fatty acids were iso-C17:0 3-OH, iso-C15:1 G and iso-C15:0 3-OH. The respiratory quinone was MK-6. Strain XY-359T showed the greatest degree of 16S rRNA sequence similarity to Flagellimonas algicola AsT0115T (96.54 %), followed by Muricauda flava DSM 22638T (96.27 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and 31 core genes indicated that strain XY-359T belongs to the genus Muricauda. The genome size of strain XY-359T was 4 207 872 bp, with 39.1 mol% of DNA G+C content. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain XY-359T and F. algicola AsT0115T were 74.58 % and 18.5 %, respectively, and those between strain XY-359T and M. flava DSM 22638T were 74.2 % and 18.3 %. The combined phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data suggest that strain XY-359T represents a novel species of the genus Muricauda, for which the name Muricauda onchidii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XY-359T (=MCCC 1K03658T =KCTC 72218T). Moreover, based on the proposal of nesting Spongiibacterium and Flagellimonas within Muricauda by García (Validation List No. 193) and the analyses of phylogenetic trees and average amino acid identities in this study, the transfers of F. algicola, F. pacifica and F. maritima to the genus Muricauda as Muricauda algicola comb. nov., Muricauda parva nom. nov. and M. aurantiaca nom. nov., respectively, are proposed, with an emended description of the genus Muricauda.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Gastrópodes , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacteriaceae , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516367

RESUMO

Strain F2AT, isolated from the cricket Acheta domesticus, was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic characterization. Cells of the strain were rod-shaped, Gram-stain-negative and catalase- and oxidase-positive. It did not assimilate any carbohydrates. The strain's 16S rRNA gene sequence showed highest similarity to Entomomonas moraniae QZS01T (96.4 %). The next highest similarity values were found to representatives of related genera (<93 %). The genome size of strain F2AT was 3.2 Mbp and the G+C content was 36.4 mol%. Average nucleotide identity values based on blast and MUMmer and average amino acid identity values between strain F2AT and E. moraniae QZS01T were 74.29/74.43, 83.88 and 74.70 %, respectively. The quinone system predominantly contained ubiquinone Q-8. In the polar lipid profile, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid were detected. The polyamine pattern consisted of the major compounds putrescine and spermidine. Major fatty acids were C18 : 1 ω7c and C16 : 0 and the hydroxyl acids were C12 : 0 3-OH, C14 : 0 2-OH and C14 : 0 3-OH. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. Due to its association with the only species of the genus Entomomonas but its distinctness from E. moraniae we here propose the novel species Entomomonas asaccharolytica sp. nov. F2AT (=CCM 9136T=LMG 32211T).


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Gryllidae , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516368

RESUMO

The status Candidatus was introduced to bacterial taxonomy in the 1990s to accommodate uncultured taxa defined by analyses of DNA sequences. Here I review the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) associated with the status Candidatus in the light of a quarter century of use, twinned with recent developments in bacterial taxonomy and sequence-based taxonomic discovery. Despite ambiguities as to its scope, philosophical objections to its use and practical problems in implementation, the status Candidatus has now been applied to over 1000 taxa and has been widely adopted by journals and databases. Although lacking priority under the International Code for Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, many Candidatus names have already achieved de facto standing in the academic literature and in databases via description of a taxon in a peer-reviewed publication, alongside deposition of a genome sequence and there is a clear path to valid publication of such names on culture. Continued and increased use of Candidatus names provides an alternative to the potential upheaval that might accompany creation of a new additional code of nomenclature and provides a ready solution to the urgent challenge of naming many thousands of newly discovered but uncultured species.


Assuntos
Archaea , Ácidos Graxos , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
Talanta ; 235: 122779, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517637

RESUMO

To ensure the safety of dairy products, especially milk, and consequently protect human health, accurate and simple analytical techniques are highly necessary to determine the low concentration of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) as an important carcinogen. Herein, a novel, accurate and simple fluorescent aptasensor was designed for selective detection of AFM1 based on bivalent binding aptamer-cDNA (BBA-cDNA) structure. Moreover, MoS2 nanosheets (MoS2 NSs) were used as the fluorescent quencher and FAM-labeled complementary strand of aptamer (FAM-CS) was applied as a fluorescent probe. In this study, we achieved a new result. Unlike previous studies, in this work, the BBA-cDNA structure was not disassembled in the presence of the target. Therefore, as the AFM1 concentration increased, more targets were attached to the BBA-cDNA structure and as a result, the BBA-cDNA structure/AFM1 could not be placed on the surface of MoS2 NSs, leading to the more fluorescent intensity detection. Under optimized conditions, the developed fluorescent analytical method revealed great selectivity toward AFM1 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 nM and a linear range from 0.7 to 10 nM. This fabricated aptasensor indicated excellent analytical performance for AFM1 detection in milk samples with LOD of 0.1 nM. Overall, the proposed approach could provide an effective basis for small molecule analysis to guarantee food and human safety using appropriate aptamer sequences.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Aflatoxina M1/análise , Animais , DNA Complementar , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Leite/química , Molibdênio
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502130

RESUMO

Bifidobacteria are some of the major agents that shaped the immune system of many members of the animal kingdom during their evolution. Over recent years, the question of concrete mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory properties of bifidobacteria has been addressed in both animal and human studies. A possible candidate for this role has been discovered recently. The PFNA cluster, consisting of five core genes, pkb2, fn3, aaa-atp, duf58, tgm, has been found in all gut-dwelling autochthonous bifidobacterial species of humans. The sensory region of the species-specific serine-threonine protein kinase (PKB2), the transmembrane region of the microbial transglutaminase (TGM), and the type-III fibronectin domain-containing protein (FN3) encoded by the I gene imply that the PFNA cluster might be implicated in the interaction between bacteria and the host immune system. Moreover, the FN3 protein encoded by one of the genes making up the PFNA cluster, contains domains and motifs of cytokine receptors capable of selectively binding TNF-α. The PFNA cluster could play an important role for sensing signals of the immune system. Among the practical implications of this finding is the creation of anti-inflammatory drugs aimed at alleviating cytokine storms, one of the dire consequences resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/química , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Óperon/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502335

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been identified as the pathogen responsible for the outbreak of a severe, rapidly developing pneumonia (Coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19). The virus enzyme, called 3CLpro or main protease (Mpro), is essential for viral replication, making it a most promising target for antiviral drug development. Recently, we adopted the drug repurposing as appropriate strategy to give fast response to global COVID-19 epidemic, by demonstrating that the zonulin octapeptide inhibitor AT1001 (Larazotide acetate) binds Mpro catalytic domain. Thus, in the present study we tried to investigate the antiviral activity of AT1001, along with five derivatives, by cell-based assays. Our results provide with the identification of AT1001 peptide molecular framework for lead optimization step to develop new generations of antiviral agents of SARS-CoV-2 with an improved biological activity, expanding the chance for success in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oligopeptídeos/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Sítios de Ligação , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular , Citomegalovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Herpesvirus Humano 3/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Peptídeos/síntese química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/química , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502340

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) is one of the molecular targets for drug design. Effective vaccines have been identified as a long-term solution but the rate at which they are being administered is slow in several countries, and mutations of SARS-CoV-2 could render them less effective. Moreover, remdesivir seems to work only with some types of COVID-19 patients. Hence, the continuous investigation of new treatments for this disease is pivotal. This study investigated the inhibitory role of natural products against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro as repurposable agents in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Through in silico approach, selected flavonoids were docked into the active site of Mpro. The free energies of the ligands complexed with Mpro were computationally estimated using the molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) method. In addition, the inhibition process of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with these ligands was simulated at 100 ns in order to uncover the dynamic behavior and complex stability. The docking results showed that the selected flavonoids exhibited good poses in the binding domain of Mpro. The amino acid residues involved in the binding of the selected ligands correlated well with the residues involved with the mechanism-based inhibitor (N3) and the docking score of Quercetin-3-O-Neohesperidoside (-16.8 Kcal/mol) ranked efficiently with this inhibitor (-16.5 Kcal/mol). In addition, single-structure MM/GBSA rescoring method showed that Quercetin-3-O-Neohesperidoside (-87.60 Kcal/mol) is more energetically favored than N3 (-80.88 Kcal/mol) and other ligands (Myricetin 3-Rutinoside (-87.50 Kcal/mol), Quercetin 3-Rhamnoside (-80.17 Kcal/mol), Rutin (-58.98 Kcal/mol), and Myricitrin (-49.22 Kcal/mol). The molecular dynamics simulation (MDs) pinpointed the stability of these complexes over the course of 100 ns with reduced RMSD and RMSF. Based on the docking results and energy calculation, together with the RMSD of 1.98 ± 0.19 Å and RMSF of 1.00 ± 0.51 Å, Quercetin-3-O-Neohesperidoside is a better inhibitor of Mpro compared to N3 and other selected ligands and can be repurposed as a drug candidate for the treatment of COVID-19. In addition, this study demonstrated that in silico docking, free energy calculations, and MDs, respectively, are applicable to estimating the interaction, energetics, and dynamic behavior of molecular targets by natural products and can be used to direct the development of novel target function modulators.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Domínio Catalítico , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/metabolismo , Quercetina/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/química
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502431

RESUMO

Transparent materials used for facial protection equipment provide protection against microbial infections caused by viruses and bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. However, transparent materials used for this type of application are made of materials that do not possess antimicrobial activity. They just avoid direct contact between the person and the biological agent. Therefore, healthy people can become infected through contact of the contaminated material surfaces and this equipment constitute an increasing source of infectious biological waste. Furthermore, infected people can transmit microbial infections easily because the protective equipment do not inactivate the microbial load generated while breathing, sneezing or coughing. In this regard, the goal of this work consisted of fabricating a transparent face shield with intrinsic antimicrobial activity that could provide extra-protection against infectious agents and reduce the generation of infectious waste. Thus, a single-use transparent antimicrobial face shield composed of polyethylene terephthalate and an antimicrobial coating of benzalkonium chloride has been developed for the next generation of facial protective equipment. The antimicrobial coating was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy with elemental analysis. This is the first facial transparent protective material capable of inactivating enveloped viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in less than one minute of contact, and the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Bacterial infections contribute to severe pneumonia associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their resistance to antibiotics is increasing. Our extra protective broad-spectrum antimicrobial composite material could also be applied for the fabrication of other facial protective tools such as such as goggles, helmets, plastic masks and space separation screens used for counters or vehicles. This low-cost technology would be very useful to combat the current pandemic and protect health care workers from multidrug-resistant infections in developed and underdeveloped countries.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Bacteriófago phi 6/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Benzalcônio/química , Compostos de Benzalcônio/farmacologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenotereftalatos/química , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502487

RESUMO

Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are an important group of drugs of several generations, ranging from the oldest phenobarbital (1912) to the most recent cenobamate (2019). Cannabidiol (CBD) is increasingly used to treat epilepsy. The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in 2019 created new challenges in the effective treatment of epilepsy in COVID-19 patients. The purpose of this review is to present data from the last few years on drug-drug interactions among of AEDs, as well as AEDs with other drugs, nutrients and food. Literature data was collected mainly in PubMed, as well as google base. The most important pharmacokinetic parameters of the chosen 29 AEDs, mechanism of action and clinical application, as well as their biotransformation, are presented. We pay a special attention to the new potential interactions of the applied first-generation AEDs (carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and primidone), on decreased concentration of some medications (atazanavir and remdesivir), or their compositions (darunavir/cobicistat and lopinavir/ritonavir) used in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. CBD interactions with AEDs are clearly defined. In addition, nutrients, as well as diet, cause changes in pharmacokinetics of some AEDs. The understanding of the pharmacokinetic interactions of the AEDs seems to be important in effective management of epilepsy.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Interações Medicamentosas , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Anticonvulsivantes/química , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacocinética , COVID-19/virologia , Canabidiol/química , Canabidiol/farmacocinética , Carbamazepina/química , Carbamazepina/farmacocinética , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Clobazam/química , Clobazam/farmacocinética , Clobazam/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/patologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
11.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 60, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of creatine supplementation for improvements in exercise performance. Few studies, however, have examined the effects of phosphocreatine supplementation on exercise performance. Furthermore, while polyphenols have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, little is known regarding the influence of polyphenol supplementation on muscular strength, power, and endurance. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of 28 days of supplementation with phosphocreatine disodium salts plus blueberry extract (PCDSB), creatine monohydrate (CM), and placebo on measures of muscular strength, power, and endurance. METHODS: Thirty-three men were randomly assigned to consume either PCDSB, CM, or placebo for 28 days. Peak torque (PT), average power (AP), and percent decline for peak torque (PT%) and average power (AP%) were assessed from a fatigue test consisting of 50 maximal, unilateral, isokinetic leg extensions at 180°·s- 1 before and after the 28 days of supplementation. Individual responses were assessed to examine the proportion of subjects that exceeded a minimal important difference (MID). RESULTS: The results demonstrated significant (p < 0.05) improvements in PT for the PCDSB and CM groups from pre- (99.90 ± 22.47 N·m and 99.95 ± 22.50 N·m, respectively) to post-supplementation (119.22 ± 29.87 N·m and 111.97 ± 24.50 N·m, respectively), but no significant (p = 0.112) change for the placebo group. The PCDSB and CM groups also exhibited significant improvements in AP from pre- (140.18 ± 32.08 W and 143.42 ± 33.84 W, respectively) to post-supplementation (170.12 ± 42.68 W and 159.78 ± 31.20 W, respectively), but no significant (p = 0.279) change for the placebo group. A significantly (p < 0.05) greater proportion of subjects in the PCDSB group exceeded the MID for PT compared to the placebo group, but there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences in the proportion of subjects exceeding the MID between the CM and placebo groups or between the CM and PCDSB groups. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that for the group mean responses, 28 days of supplementation with both PCDSB and CM resulted in increases in PT and AP. The PCDSB, however, may have an advantage over CM when compared to the placebo group for the proportion of individuals that respond favorably to supplementation with meaningful increases in muscular strength.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfocreatina/farmacologia , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Creatina , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Torque , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 402, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant-parasitic nematodes and herbivorous insects have a significant negative impact on global crop production. A successful approach to protect crops from these pests is the in planta expression of nematotoxic or entomotoxic proteins such as crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or plant lectins. However, the efficacy of this approach is threatened by emergence of resistance in nematode and insect populations to these proteins. To solve this problem, novel nematotoxic and entomotoxic proteins are needed. During the last two decades, several cytoplasmic lectins from mushrooms with nematicidal and insecticidal activity have been characterized. In this study, we tested the potential of Marasmius oreades agglutinin (MOA) to furnish Arabidopsis plants with resistance towards three economically important crop pests: the two plant-parasitic nematodes Heterodera schachtii and Meloidogyne incognita and the herbivorous diamondback moth Plutella xylostella. RESULTS: The expression of MOA does not affect plant growth under axenic conditions which is an essential parameter in the engineering of genetically modified crops. The transgenic Arabidopsis lines showed nearly complete resistance to H. schachtii, in that the number of female and male nematodes per cm root was reduced by 86-91 % and 43-93 % compared to WT, respectively. M. incognita proved to be less susceptible to the MOA protein in that 18-25 % and 26-35 % less galls and nematode egg masses, respectively, were observed in the transgenic lines. Larvae of the herbivorous P. xylostella foraging on MOA-expression lines showed a lower relative mass gain (22-38 %) and survival rate (15-24 %) than those feeding on WT plants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our in planta experiments reveal a robust nematicidal and insecticidal activity of the fungal lectin MOA against important agricultural pests which may be exploited for crop protection.


Assuntos
Aglutininas/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/parasitologia , Herbivoria , Marasmius/química , Nematoides/fisiologia , Aglutininas/química , Animais , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125894, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492832

RESUMO

The chemistry of root cell wall of rice could be changed by inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the roles of such changes on cadmium (Cd) uptake and distribution in rice. Results showed that inoculation of AM fungus Rhizophagus intraradices (RI) significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) shoot biomass, plant height and root length of rice, and decreased Cd concentration in shoot and root under Cd stress. Moreover, Cd in root was mainly found in pectin and hemicellulose 1 (HC1) components of root cell wall. Inoculation of RI increased the levels of pectin, HC1 and lignin content, accompanied by the increments of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and pectin methylesterase (PME) activities. Results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further showed that more hydroxyl and carboxyl groups in root cell wall were observed in mycorrhizal treatment, compared with control. This study demonstrates that cell wall components could be the locations for Cd fixation, which reduced Cd transportation from root to shoot. Inoculation of AMF may remodel root cell wall biosynthesis and affect the characteristics of Cd fixation. The entering and fixing mechanisms should be further studied.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Parede Celular/química , Fungos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
14.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256834, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499662

RESUMO

The current pandemic outbreak clearly indicated the urgent need for tools allowing fast predictions of bioactivity of a large number of compounds, either available or at least synthesizable. In the computational chemistry toolbox, several such tools are available, with the main ones being docking and structure-activity relationship modeling either by classical linear QSAR or Machine Learning techniques. In this contribution, we focus on the comparison of the results obtained using different docking protocols on the example of the search for bioactivity of compounds containing N-N-C(S)-N scaffold at the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 virus with ACE2 human receptor interface. Based on over 1800 structures in the training set we have predicted binding properties of the complete set of nearly 600000 structures from the same class using the Machine Learning Random Forest Regressor approach.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/química , Tioureia/farmacologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Tioureia/química
15.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257191, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499677

RESUMO

COVID-19 in humans is caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that belongs to the beta family of coronaviruses. SARS-CoV-2 causes severe respiratory illness in 10-15% of infected individuals and mortality in 2-3%. Vaccines are urgently needed to prevent infection and to contain viral spread. Although several mRNA- and adenovirus-based vaccines are highly effective, their dependence on the "cold chain" transportation makes global vaccination a difficult task. In this context, a stable lyophilized vaccine may present certain advantages. Accordingly, establishing additional vaccine platforms remains vital to tackle SARS-CoV-2 and any future variants that may arise. Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been used to eradicate smallpox disease, and several attenuated viral strains with enhanced safety for human applications have been developed. We have generated two candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccines based on two vaccinia viral strains, MVA and v-NY, that express full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Whereas MVA is growth-restricted in mammalian cells, the v-NY strain is replication-competent. We demonstrate that both candidate recombinant vaccines induce high titers of neutralizing antibodies in C57BL/6 mice vaccinated according to prime-boost regimens. Furthermore, our vaccination regimens generated TH1-biased immune responses in mice. Most importantly, prime-boost vaccination of a Syrian hamster infection model with MVA-S and v-NY-S protected the hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 infection, supporting that these two vaccines are promising candidates for future development. Finally, our vaccination regimens generated neutralizing antibodies that partially cross-neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/imunologia , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/análise , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/genética , Feminino , Imunização Secundária , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química
16.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 105, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination programs have been launched worldwide to halt the spread of COVID-19. However, the identification of existing, safe compounds with combined treatment and prophylactic properties would be beneficial to individuals who are waiting to be vaccinated, particularly in less economically developed countries, where vaccine availability may be initially limited. METHODS: We used a data-driven approach, combining results from the screening of a large transcriptomic database (L1000) and molecular docking analyses, with in vitro tests using a lung organoid model of SARS-CoV-2 entry, to identify drugs with putative multimodal properties against COVID-19. RESULTS: Out of thousands of FDA-approved drugs considered, we observed that atorvastatin was the most promising candidate, as its effects negatively correlated with the transcriptional changes associated with infection. Atorvastatin was further predicted to bind to SARS-CoV-2's main protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and was shown to inhibit viral entry in our lung organoid model. CONCLUSIONS: Small clinical studies reported that general statin use, and specifically, atorvastatin use, are associated with protective effects against COVID-19. Our study corroborrates these findings and supports the investigation of atorvastatin in larger clinical studies. Ultimately, our framework demonstrates one promising way to fast-track the identification of compounds for COVID-19, which could similarly be applied when tackling future pandemics.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Atorvastatina/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/química , Atorvastatina/química , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Linhagem Celular , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/química , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/química , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Aprovação de Drogas , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pulmão/virologia , Modelos Biológicos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Organoides/virologia , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/química , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Trifluoperazina/química , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Vesiculovirus/genética , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(3): 431-436, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study aimed to determine the predictive values of the C-reactive protein (CRP)/albumin ratio (CAR), fibrinogen/albumin ratio (FAR), and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) parameters, which reflect the systemic inflammatory status, for the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 188 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were enrolled in this study. Among them, 118 were in the severe group, and 70 were in the non-severe group. Levels of albumin, CRP, D-dimer, procalcitonin, fibrinogen, and hemoglobin; leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts; and the FAR, CAR, and NLR were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The CAR, FAR, and NLR values were significantly higher in the severe group compared to the non-severe group. CAR, FAR, and NLR were positively correlated with leukocyte and neutrophil counts and CRP, procalcitonin, and fibrinogen levels. On the other hand, they were inversely correlated with monocyte (except for NLR) and lymphocyte counts. Receiver operator characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC) for CAR, FAR, and NLR was 0.841, 0.737, and 0.802, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation revealed that the CAR, FAR, and NLR indices can be used to predict the severity of COVID-19, among which CAR was the best predictor of severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , COVID-19 , Albuminas , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Fibrinogênio , Humanos , Linfócitos/química , Neutrófilos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1178: 338802, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482881

RESUMO

Dispersive micro solid-phase extraction procedure using a novel and selective sorbent prepared from four components was developed as a sample preparation strategy for extracting five organophosphorus pesticides, including fenitrothion, malathion, ethion, and chlorpyrifos, and diazinon in several vegetables, fruit juices, and cow's milk samples. Due to the high importance of the sorbent in the microextraction process, the percentages of sorbent components, including metal-organic framework (ZIF-67), chitosan, magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and silica nanoparticles, were optimized by a simplex lattice mixture design. After optimizing the sorbent composite, effective parameters on the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides were optimized using a definitive screening design and Box-Behnken design, respectively. A surfactant (Triton X100) as a dispersion agent with a low volume (10 µL) was utilized in the microextraction procedure to reduce the sorbent dispersion time and increase the sorbent dispersion efficiency. Under the optimal conditions, linearity for the determination of fenitrothion, malathion, ethion, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon was in the concentration ranges of 0.13-1100, 0.27-1000, 0.38-1000, 0.21-1200, and 0.11-1100 ng mL-1 with a determination coefficient higher than 0.9906, respectively. The quantitation limits, detection limits, and relative standard deviations (n = 5) were lower than 0.38 ng mL-1, 0.11 ng mL-1, and 4.59% for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides. The method application for measuring OPPs on cucumber, carrot, tomato, apple juice, orange juice, and cow's milk indicated the presence of residual amounts of malathion in a cucumber sample, diazinon in a carrot sample, and chlorpyrifos in a tomato sample.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Limite de Detecção , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Leite/química , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Verduras , Água/análise
19.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1177: 338844, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482892

RESUMO

In this work, we describe for the first time the synthesis of a thiocarbazone for the selective determination of Cu2+ in distilled beverages. The method was based on the complexation reaction of Cu2+ with the thiocarbazone, and the colored product was analyzed using a smartphone application. The thiocarbazone reacts with Cu2+ to form a 1:1 (metal:ligand) complex. The Cu2+ complex was characterized by UV, IR and NMR spectral analyses. The proposed reaction yields a yellow color, and therefore, channel B of the RGB system was used in the analysis. After optimizing the reaction conditions, an analytical curve was obtained to determine Cu2+ concentrations ranging between 0.25 and 6.75 mg L-1; the use of 400 µL sample volumes led to a relative standard deviation (n = 5) of 3.2% and a detection limit of 0.18 mg L-1. Recovery experiments were performed with sugar cane spirits, whiskies and tequilas to evaluate the accuracy of the method, and the recovery obtained ranged from 80.5 to 112.2%.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação , Saccharum , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Bebidas , Cobre/análise , Grão Comestível/química
20.
Se Pu ; 39(9): 958-967, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486835

RESUMO

Dried fruit foods, including nuts and preserved fruits, are favored by consumers and are rich in protein, lipids, minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. However, these food products can be contaminated by pesticide residues, heavy metals, mycotoxins, and additives during growth, processing, storage, and transportation. The presence of such pollutants in excess of a certain limit will lead to food safety problems. Therefore, it is of great economic and social significance to strengthen the quality supervision of dried fruit foods. However, these foods have a complex matrix and low concentrations of various harmful substances, which necessitates efficient and appropriate sample preparation methods as well as rapid, accurate detection methods. In the present article, the sample preparation and analytical methods for harmful substances in dried fruit foods since 2010 are reviewed. The sample preparation methods are classified as field-assisted extraction, phase separation, and derivatization and extraction methods. The field-assisted extraction method is based on the action of an external field (synergistic) such as ultrasonic or microwave fields to increase the dissolution rate of hazardous substances in dried fruits and improve the extraction efficiency. Phase separation methods such as solid-phase extraction, dispersive solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction are commonly used as sample preparation methods for dried fruit samples, because of the advantages of low solvent consumption and wide analysis range. Moreover, this paper discusses the progress of various analytical methods for these hazardous substances in dried fruits, including conventional laboratory methods such as chromatography, atomic spectroscopy, inorganic mass spectrometry, and electrochemical analysis, as well as rapid detection techniques suitable for field analysis. Laboratory testing has the advantages of high accuracy, high sensitivity, and low detection limits. However, it has the disadvantages of complicated preparation, long analysis time, and difficult operation. Rapid detection technology speeds up the analytical speed, has operational simplicity, and saves analysis time. The complexity of the food matrix, which easily interferes with the sample matrix, low selectivity, and difficulty in accurate quantification, it is necessary to minimize cases of incorrect or erroneous detection. Therefore, rapid detection of harmful substances in dried fruit foods is possible by optimizing the sample pretreatment methods and detection technologies, and by seeking new (especially, on-site) detection technologies. Prospects on the development of selective and non-destructive sample preparation methods and automated, high-throughput, rapid detection methods in dried fruit food analysis are presented. The development of new, green rapid sample pretreatment methods and technical products that integrate separation, enrichment, and detection as well as the construction of accurate and sensitive rapid detection methods are expected to become the development trend in the analysis of harmful substances in dried fruit foods.


Assuntos
Frutas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Análise de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Microextração em Fase Sólida
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