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1.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 54-62, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374349

RESUMO

Background: Associations between IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 alleles have been reported in several ethnic groups. We investigated the association of HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 alleles with the predisposition for IgAN and disease progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in Korean patients. Methods: We analyzed HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 genotypes in 399 IgAN patients between January 2000 and January 2019 using a LIFECODES sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) typing kit (Immucor, Stamford, CT, USA) or a LABType SSO Typing Test (One Lambda, Canoga Park, CA, USA). Alleles with a significant difference in two-digit resolution were further analyzed using in-house sequence-based typing and sequence-specific primer PCR. As controls, 613 healthy hematopoietic stem cell donors were included. Kidney survival was analyzed in 281 IgAN patients with available clinical and laboratory data using Cox regression analysis. Where needed, P-values were adjusted using Bonferroni correction. Results: The allele frequencies of HLA-DRB1*04:05 (corrected P [Pc]<0.001), -DQB1 *04:01 (Pc=0.048), and -DQB1*03:02 (Pc=0.021) were significantly higher in IgAN patients than in controls, whereas those of HLA-DRB1*07:01, -DRB1*15:01, -DQB1*02:02, and -DQB1*06:02 (Pc<0.001 for all) were significantly lower in IgAN patients than in controls. The allele frequency of HLA-DQB1*05:03 (Pc=0.016) was significantly lower in the ESKD group than in the non-ESKD group; however, there was no significant difference for ESKD progression between these groups. Conclusions: We report novel associations of HLA-DRB1*15:01, DQB1*02:02, -DQB1*03:02, and -DQB1*04:01 with IgAN. Further studies of HLA alleles associated with IgAN progression in a larger cohort and in various ethnic groups are needed.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite por IGA , Alelos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/diagnóstico , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , República da Coreia
2.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 79-88, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374352

RESUMO

Background: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are genomic imprinting disorders that are mainly caused by a deletion on 15q11-q13, the uniparental disomy of chromosome 15, or an imprinting defect. We evaluated the utility of methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) as a diagnostic tool and for demonstrating the relationship between molecular mechanisms and clinical presentation. Methods: We performed MS-MLPA using DNA samples from 93 subjects (45 PWS, 24 AS, and 24 non-PWS/AS controls) who had previously undergone MS-PCR for the diagnosis of PWS/AS. We compared the results of both assays, and patients' clinical phenotypes were reviewed retrospectively. Results: MS-MLPA showed a 100% concordance rate with MS-PCR. Among the 45 PWS patients, 26 (57.8%) had a deletion of 15q11-q13, and the others (42.2%) had uniparental disomy 15 or an imprinting defect. Among the 24 AS patients, 16 (66.7%) had a deletion of 15q11-q13, 7 AS patients (29.2%) had uniparental disomy 15 or an imprinting defect, and one AS patient (4.2%) showed an imprinting center deletion. Conclusions: MS-MLPA has clinical utility for the diagnosis of PWS/AS, and it is superior to MS-PCR in that it can identify the molecular mechanism underlying the disease.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman , Síndrome de Prader-Willi , Síndrome de Angelman/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Angelman/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Metilação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Talanta ; 236: 122827, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635217

RESUMO

Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a global threat with significant attributable morbidity and mortality. Information on microfluidic detection for CM diagnosis is still limited. We developed a multifunctional microfluidic module that integrated the pathogen enrichment and on-chip nucleic acid extraction. The module adopted a simple filtration membrane to effectively capture Cryptococcus cells and simplify the process, and combined lyticase digestion, alkaline lysis and heating methods to optimize the strategy to achieve nucleic acid extraction. The entire process was operated in the module, which reduced the exposure risk of directly processing cryptococcal samples. A portable one-pot lyophilized LAMP reagent bead with no temperature limit was developed, which improved the flexibility of operation. This module did not require any additional instrument, and is promising to develop a simple, rapid, and efficient approach to realize the "sample in and answer out" detection of real CSF samples. This microfluidic module had practical prospects and is expected to replace LFA for efficacy evaluation and follow-up in the middle and late stages of CM treatment, and could be used as an auxiliary method to confirm cases with questionable LFA results in the early diagnosis of CM.


Assuntos
Meningite Criptocócica , Ácidos Nucleicos , Humanos , Meningite Criptocócica/diagnóstico , Microfluídica , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos
4.
Talanta ; 236: 122843, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635233

RESUMO

In our study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) is proposed as a novel tool, which can be applied to analyze lipids in urine samples. For this reason, the main aim of the study was to develop and optimize the preparation protocol for urine samples in lipidomics, using urine samples obtained from patients with diagnosed cancer and non-cancer controls. Several conditions like extraction method and types of matrices were evaluated. For this purpose, two methods for the extraction of lipids, namely modified Folch and Bligh & Dyer were employed. Furthermore, two types of matrices (α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCCA) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB)) for the separation of lipids into individual components was tested. The results of this study can serve as an essential source for the selection of appropriate extraction methods and the appropriate choice of a matrix for the purification and identification of a particular class of lipid in human biological fluids. Based on it, Bligh & Dyer method associated with the usage of HCCA matrix was found to be the most effective for lipidomics using MALDI-TOF/MS. The optimized method was applied to compare the lipid profile of 139 urine samples collected from both healthy individuals and patients with prostate cancer. The tandem spectroscopic analysis allowed to identify lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, and triacylglycerols in urine samples. Finally, MALDI-TOF/MS analysis enabled to discriminate between the two tested groups (healthy individuals and patients with prostate cancer). A preliminary statistical model suggested that classification accuracy ranging from 83.3 to100.0% may be achieved by using pre-selected MS signals.


Assuntos
Fosfatidilcolinas , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Triglicerídeos
5.
Talanta ; 236: 122867, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635249

RESUMO

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is one of the most widely used tumor marker around the world, it mainly used for gastrointestinal cancers, especially in colorectal malignancy. At present, the detection methods of CEA are mostly based on antigen-antibody binding, whereas these methods were limited by the high costs and long waiting times in massive population tumor screening. During the experiments, we interestingly found that the fluorescence signal would be dramatically altered when the secondary structure of fluorescent modified guanine-rich DNA changed. Then we explored the reasons and established a new method for CEA detection, this method brings a simple, fast and cheap sensing platform for detection of biomarkers. It has great potential in screening of tumors among the group and is expected to provide prospective effects for tumor treatment.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Fluorescência , Guanina , Humanos
6.
Talanta ; 236: 122886, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635266

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorder, is an incurable disease. We developed a peptide-based electrochemical sensor using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy that can be used to detect autoantibodies for RA diagnostics. We first validated that the developed peptide showed high sensitivity and could compliment the current gold standard method of an anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP) ELISA. The developed peptide can be modified on the nanogold surface of the working electrode of sensing chips through the method of a self-assembling monolayer. The sensing process was first optimized using a positive control cohort and a healthy control cohort. Subsequently, 10 clinically confirmed samples from RA patients and five healthy control samples were used to find the threshold value of the impedance between RA and healthy subjects. Furthermore, 10 clinically confirmed samples but with low values of anti-CCP autoantibodies were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the present method compared to the conventional method. The proposed method showed better sensitivity than the current conventional anti-CCP ELISA method.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Espectroscopia Dielétrica , Impedância Elétrica , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Peptídeos
7.
Gene ; 806: 145935, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478821

RESUMO

Soluble molecules of programmed death ligand 1 (sPD-L1) are known to modulate T-cell depletion, an important mechanism of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence and liver disease progression. In addition, PD-L1 polymorphisms in the 3'-UTR can influence PD-L1 expression and have been associated with cancer risk, although not definitively. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of PD-L1 polymorphisms and circulating levels of sPD-L1 in HBV infection and live disease progression. In this study, five hundred fifty-one HBV infected patients of the three clinically well-defined subgroups chronic hepatitis B (CHB, n = 186), liver cirrhosis (LC, n = 142) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n = 223) and 240 healthy individuals (HC) were enrolled. PD-L1 polymorphisms (rs2297136 and rs4143815) were genotyped by in-house validated ARMS assays. Logistic regression models were applied in order to determine the association of PD-L1 polymorphisms with HBV infection as well as with progression of related liver diseases. Plasma sPD-L1 levels were quantified by ELISA assays. The PD-L1 rs2297136 AA genotype was associated with HBV infection susceptibility (HBV vs. HC: OR = 1.6; 95%CI = 1.1-2.3; p = 0.0087) and disease progression (LC vs. CHB: OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.1-2.9; p = 0.018). Whereas, the rs2297136 GG genotype was a protective factor for HCC development. Plasma sPD-L1 levels were significantly high in HBV patients (p < 0.0001) and higher in the LC followed by CHB and HCC groups. High sPD-L1 levels correlated with increased liver enzymes and with advanced liver disease progression (Child-pugh C > B > A, p < 0.0001) and BCLC classification (BCLC D > C > B > A, p = 0.031). We could, for the first time, conclude that PD-L1 rs2297136 polymorphism and plasma sPD-L1 protein levels associate with HBV infection and HBV-related liver disease progression.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite B Crônica/genética , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Adulto , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Vírus da Hepatite B/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
8.
Gene ; 806: 145922, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454032

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC)-derived cell lines were generally used in basic cancer research and drug screening. However, it is always concerned about the difference between cultured cells and primary tumor by oncologists. To address this question, we compared differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in primary cancers, healthy tissues, and cell lines both in vitro and in silico. Seven reported genes with decreased expression in GCs by DNA methylation were analyzed in our cohort studies and experimentally validation. Selected datasets from TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas), CCLE (The Broad Institute Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia), and GTEx (The Genotype-Tissue Expression project) were used to represent GCs, GC-derived cell lines, and healthy tissues respectively in the in silico analysis. Thirty gastric tissues together with six cell lines were used for validations. Unexpectedly, we experimentally found that reported cancer-related downregulated genes were only found in cancer cell lines but not in biopsies. The unchanged gene expressions in primary GCs were generally consistent with our cohort study, using information from cancerous (TCGA) and healthy tissues (GETx). Substantial differences were also found between DEGs of cancer tissues (TGCA)/ healthy tissues (GTEx) pair and cell lines (CCLE)/ healthy tissues (GTEx) pair, which confirmed the significant differences between primary cancer and cancer cell lines. Moreover, elevated expression of YWHAQ (14-3-3 δ) and THBS1 were observed in the GC biopsies, which might be potential biomarkers for GC diagnosis, considering the increased YWHAQ and THBS1 associated with poor survival rates in gastric cancer patients. In sum, it is suggested that cautions should be taken when using GC cell lines to study genes that show great differences between cell lines and tissues.


Assuntos
Proteínas 14-3-3/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Trombospondinas/genética , Proteínas 14-3-3/metabolismo , Idoso , Atlas como Assunto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Metilação de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Trombospondinas/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
9.
Talanta ; 236: 122847, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635237

RESUMO

Nucleocapsid protein (N protein) is the most abundant protein in SARS-CoV2 and is highly conserved, and there are no homologous proteins in the human body, making it an ideal biomarker for the early diagnosis of SARS-CoV2. However, early detection of clinical specimens for SARS-CoV2 remains a challenge due to false-negative results with viral RNA and host antibodies based testing. In this manuscript, a microfluidic chip with femtoliter-sized wells was fabricated for the sensitive digital detection of N protein. Briefly, ß-galactosidase (ß-Gal)-linked antibody/N protein/aptamer immunocomplexes were formed on magnetic beads (MBs). Afterwards, the MBs and ß-Gal substrate fluorescein-di-ß-d-galactopyranoside (FDG) were injected into the chip together. Each well of the chip would only hold one MB as confined by the diameter of the wells. The MBs in the wells were sealed by fluorocarbon oil, which confines the fluorescent (FL) product generated from the reaction between ß-Gal and FDG in the individual femtoliter-sized well and creates a locally high concentration of the FL product. The FL images of the wells were acquired using a conventional inverted FL microscope. The number of FL wells with MBs (FL wells number) and the number of wells with MBs (MBs wells number) were counted, respectively. The percentage of FL wells was calculated by dividing (FL wells number) by (MBs wells number). The higher the percentage of FL wells, the higher the N protein concentration. The detection limit of this digital method for N protein was 33.28 pg/mL, which was 300 times lower than traditional double-antibody sandwich based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).


Assuntos
Imunoensaio/métodos , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Humanos , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2390: 103-112, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731465

RESUMO

The development of vaccines for the treatment of COVID-19 is paving the way for new hope. Despite this, the risk of the virus mutating into a vaccine-resistant variant still persists. As a result, the demand of efficacious drugs to treat COVID-19 is still pertinent. To this end, scientists continue to identify and repurpose marketed drugs for this new disease. Many of these drugs are currently undergoing clinical trials and, so far, only one has been officially approved by FDA. Drug repurposing is a much faster route to the clinic than standard drug development of novel molecules, nevertheless in a pandemic this process is still not fast enough to halt the spread of the virus. Artificial intelligence has already played a large part in hastening the drug discovery process, not only by facilitating the selection of potential drug candidates but also in monitoring the pandemic and enabling faster diagnosis of patients. In this chapter, we focus on the impact and challenges that artificial intelligence has demonstrated thus far with respect to drug repurposing of therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Inteligência Artificial , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Estrutura Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2390: 177-190, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731469

RESUMO

We describe an approach to early stage drug discovery that explicitly engages with the complexities of human biology. The combined computational and experimental approach is formulated on a conceptual framework in which network biology is used to bridge between individual molecular entities and the cellular phenotype that emerges when those entities interact in a network. Multiple aspects of early stage discovery are addressed including the data-driven elucidation of biological processes implicated in disease, target identification and validation, phenotypic discovery of active molecules and their mechanism of action, and extraction of genetic target support from human population genetics data. Validation is described via summary of a number of discovery projects and details from a project aimed at COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Biologia de Sistemas , Animais , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 265: 120400, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547683

RESUMO

Intraoperative detection of the marginal tissues is the last and most important step to complete the resection of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. However, the current intraoperative diagnosis is time-consuming and requires numerous steps including staining. In this paper, we present the use of Raman spectroscopy with deep learning to achieve accurate diagnosis with stain-free process. To make the spectrum more suitable for deep learning, we utilize an unusual way of thinking which regards Raman spectral signal as a sequence and then converts it into two-dimensional Raman spectrogram by short-time Fourier transform as input. The normal-adenocarcinoma deep learning model and normal-squamous carcinoma deep learning model both achieve more than 96% accuracy, 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity when test, which higher than the conventional principal components analysis-linear discriminant analysis method with normal-adenocarcinoma model (0.896 accuracy, 0.867 sensitivity, 0.926 specificity) and normal-squamous carcinoma model (0.821 accuracy, 0.776 sensitivity, 1.000 specificity). The high performance of deep learning models provides a reliable way for intraoperative detection of marginal tissue, and is expected to reduce the detection time and save human lives.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Aprendizado Profundo , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Análise Espectral Raman
13.
Talanta ; 237: 122926, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736663

RESUMO

Selective and sensitive detection of cancer biomarkers in serum samples is critical for early diagnosis of cancer. Prostate specific antigen is an important biomarker of prostate cancer, which ranks high among cancer-related deaths of men over 50 years old. Herein, a novel analytical method was introduced for detection of PSA by combining high selectivity of molecularly-imprinted polymers and high sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Firstly, magnetic nanoparticles were grafted with an imprinted layer by using tannic acid as a functional monomer, diethylenetriamine as a cross-linker and prostate specific antigen as a template molecule. Detailed surface characterization and re-binding experiment results indicated that the imprinting of the antigen was successful with an imprinting factor of 5.58. The prepared magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) were used as an antibody-free capture probe and labeled with gold nanoparticles that were modified with anti-PSA and a Raman reporter, namely 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). Thus, a plasmonic structure (sandwich complex) was formed between MMIP and the SERS label. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the designed sensor were 0.9 pg/mL and 3.2 pg/mL, respectively. The sensor also showed high recovery rates (98.0-100.1% for healthy person and 99.0-101.3% for patient) with low standard deviations (less than 4.3% for healthy person and less than 3.3% for patient) for PSA in serum samples. Compared with the traditional immunoassays, the proposed method has several advantages like low cost, reduced detection procedure, fast response, high sensitivity and selectivity. It is believed that the proposed method can be potentially used for selective and sensitive determination of tumor marker of prostate cancer in clinical applications.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Impressão Molecular , Neoplasias da Próstata , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Ouro , Humanos , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos , Polímeros , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Análise Espectral Raman
14.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(1): 82-86, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412982

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is detectable in the nails and hair of patients with chronic HBV infection. However, it remains unclear whether HBV DNA can be detectable in the nails and hair of patients with acute HBV infection. We encountered two cases of children with acute HBV infection. HBV DNA in the nails and hair from the two children was evaluated by real-time PCR. To clarify the characteristics of HBV DNA, full-length HBV genome sequencing and phylogenetic tree analysis were performed. The levels of serum HBV DNA in children of cases 1 and 2 at day 0 were 7.6 Log IU/mL and 7.4 Log IU/mL, respectively. Nail HBV DNA was detected in both children (case 1: 4.6 Log IU/mL at day 0, case 2: 5.5 Log IU/mL at day 14). Moreover, hair HBV DNA was detectable in case 2 (4.0 Log IU/mL at day 14). Serum HBV DNA became undetectable within approximately 3-4 months after the first hospital visit. After the resolution of HBV viremia, nail and hair HBV DNA became undetectable. The sequence analysis of serum, nail and hair HBV DNA showed the same HBV genotype in each case (case1: genotype C, case 2: genotype A). In case 1, 3 nucleotides were different in the full-genome HBV sequence between the serum and nails. In case 2, the full-genome HBV sequences were identical among the serum, nails and hair. In conclusion, HBV DNA was detectable in nails and hair of children with acute HBV infection.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite B , Criança , DNA Viral/genética , Genótipo , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Unhas , Filogenia
15.
Clin Plast Surg ; 49(1): 23-31, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782137

RESUMO

Nasal airway obstruction is a very common phenomenon that can significantly decrease patients' quality of life. This review article summarizes in an evidence-based fashion the diagnosis and treatment of nasal airway obstruction. The nasal airway may be obstructed at the level of the nasal valve, septum, nasal turbinates, sinonasal mucosa, or nasopharynx. Nasal valve obstruction and septal deviations are usually treated surgically depending on the level of valve obstruction. Isolated turbinate hypertrophy is usually managed medically as part of the treatment of rhinitis, with surgery reserved for cases refractory to medical care. Sinonasal and nasopharyngeal conditions are treated according to the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Obstrução Nasal , Rinoplastia , Humanos , Obstrução Nasal/diagnóstico , Obstrução Nasal/etiologia , Obstrução Nasal/cirurgia , Septo Nasal/cirurgia , Nasofaringe , Qualidade de Vida
16.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 265: 120355, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530200

RESUMO

The mortality of ovarian cancer is closely related to its poor rate of early detection. In the search of an efficient diagnosis method, Raman spectroscopy of blood features as a promising technique allowing simple, rapid, minimally-invasive and cost-effective detection of cancers, in particular ovarian cancer. Although Raman spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be effective to detect ovarian cancers with respect to normal controls, a binary classification remains idealized with respect to the real clinical practice. This work considered a population of 95 woman patients initially suspected of an ovarian cancer and finally fixed with a cancer or a cyst. Additionally, 79 normal controls completed the ensemble of samples. Such sample collection proposed us a study case where a ternary classification should be realized with Raman spectroscopy of the collected blood samples coupled with suitable spectroscopic data treatment algorithms. In the medical as well as data points of view, the appearance of the cyst case considerably reduces the distances among the different populations and makes their distinction much more difficult, since the intermediate cyst case can share the specific features of the both cancer and normal cases. After a proper spectrum pretreatment, we first demonstrated the evidence of different behaviors among the Raman spectra of the 3 types of samples. Such difference was further visualized in a high dimensional space, where the data points of the cancer and the normal cases are separately clustered, whereas the data of the cyst case were scattered into the areas respectively occupied by the cancer and normal cases. We finally developed and tested an ensemble of models for a ternary classification with 2 consequent steps of binary classifications, based on machine learning algorithms, allowing identification with sensitivity and specificity of 81.0% and 97.3% for cancer samples, 63.6% and 91.5% for cyst samples, 100% and 90.6% for normal samples.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Análise Espectral Raman , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Plasma , Análise de Componente Principal
17.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103556, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419785

RESUMO

The high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) has been a concern in the meat-processing industry, owing to the manual nature of the work and the high upper-limb and neck exposure to movements that can lead to WRMSD. The ability to perform an accurate and fast assessment of WRMSDs remains a challenge in industrial environments. Most assessment methodologies rely on standard survey-based methods, which are time- and labor-intensive. In this paper, we present an application of inertial measurement units (IMUs) to measure human activity, and the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques to perform task classification and ergonomic assessments in workplace settings. We present the results obtained by using simple low-cost IMUs worn on slaughterhouse worker wrists to capture information on their movements. We describe the use of this information to detect the risk factors of the wrists/hands that can lead to WRMSDs. The results indicate that by using low-cost IMU-based sensors on the wrists of slaughterhouse workers, we can accurately classify the sharpness of the knife and predict the worker RULA score.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Inteligência Artificial , Ergonomia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico
18.
Urol Clin North Am ; 49(1): 129-152, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776047

RESUMO

Organ sparing approaches for the management of localized prostate cancer were developed in part to overcome the morbidity associated with standard, whole gland treatment options. The first description of focal therapy was now over two decades ago and since that time much has changed. The evolution of patient selection, the approach to ablation, and surveillance after focal therapy have mirrored the technologic advancements in the field as well as the improved understanding of the biology of low-grade, low-risk prostate cancer. This review presents the evidence for the basis of focal therapy from the past to the present and future endeavors.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação/métodos , Seleção de Pacientes , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Técnicas de Ablação/tendências , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Masculino , Imagem Multimodal , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica , Gradação de Tumores , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Ultrassonografia
19.
Urol Clin North Am ; 49(1): 65-117, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776055

RESUMO

The growth and adoption of artificial intelligence has led to impressive results in urology. As artificial intelligence grows more ubiquitous, it is important to establish artificial intelligence literacy in the workforce. To this end, we present a narrative review of the literature of artificial intelligence and machine learning in urology and propose a checklist of reporting standards to improve readability and evaluate the current state of the literature. The listed article demonstrated heterogeneous reporting of methodologies and outcomes, limiting generalizability of research. We hope that this review serves as a foundation for future evaluation of medical research in artificial intelligence.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Neoplasias Urológicas/diagnóstico , Pesquisa Biomédica , Humanos , Hidronefrose/diagnóstico , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Urológicas/terapia , Urologistas , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/cirurgia
20.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 40(1): 1-17, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782082

RESUMO

Allergic reactions and anaphylaxis occur on a severity continuum from mild and self-limited to potentially life-threatening or fatal reactions. Anaphylaxis is typically a multiorgan phenomenon involving a broad range of effector cells and mediators. Emergency department visits for anaphylaxis are increasing, especially among children. There is a broad differential diagnosis for anaphylaxis, and the diagnosis of anaphylaxis can be aided by the use of the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease/Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network clinical diagnostic criteria. Risk factors for severe anaphylaxis include older age, delayed epinephrine administration, and cardiopulmonary comorbidities.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/fisiopatologia , Hipersensibilidade/fisiopatologia , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco
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