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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638979

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases represent a major public health issue and require better therapeutic management. The treatments developed mainly target neuronal activity. However, an inflammatory component must be considered, and microglia may constitute an important therapeutic target. Given the difficulty in developing molecules that can cross the blood-brain barrier, the use of food-derived molecules may be an interesting therapeutic avenue. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (22:6 omega-3), has an inhibitory action on cell death and oxidative stress induced in the microglia. It also acts on the inflammatory activity of microglia. These data obtained in vitro or on animal models are corroborated by clinical trials showing a protective effect of DHA. Whereas DHA crosses the blood-brain barrier, nutritional intake lacks specificity at both the tissue and cellular level. Nanomedicine offers new tools which favor the delivery of DHA at the cerebral level, especially in microglial cells. Because of the biological activities of DHA and the associated nanotargeting techniques, DHA represents a therapeutic molecule of interest for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Microglia/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/dietoterapia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684490

RESUMO

This review examines the effects of two popular intermittent fasting regimens on sleep in adults with overweight and obesity. Specifically, the effects of time restricted eating (TRE; eating all food within a 4-10 h window) and alternate day fasting (ADF; 600 kcal fast day alternated with ad libitum feast day) on sleep quality, sleep duration, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, insomnia severity, and risk of obstructive sleep apnea, will be summarized. The role of weight loss will also be discussed. Results from our review reveal that the majority of these trials produced weight loss in the range of 1-6% from baseline. Sleep quality and sleep duration remained unaltered with TRE and ADF, as assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The effects of intermittent fasting on sleep latency and sleep efficiency are mixed, with one study showing worsening of these parameters, and others showing no effect. Insomnia severity and the risk of obstructive sleep apnea remained unchanged in the trials assessing these metrics. Taken together, these preliminary findings suggest that TRE and ADF produce mild to moderate weight loss (1-6%) but their effects on sleep remain unclear. Solid conclusions are difficult to establish since participants in the studies had healthy sleep durations and no clinical insomnia at baseline, leaving little room for improvement in these metrics. Moreover, none of the trials were adequately powered to detect statistically significant changes in any measure of sleep. Future well-powered trials, conducted in individuals with diagnosed sleep disturbances, will be necessary to elucidate the effect of these popular diets on sleep.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica/efeitos adversos , Jejum/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/etiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
3.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684508

RESUMO

The low-saturated fat (Swank) and modified Paleolithic elimination (Wahls) diets have shown promise for MS symptoms; however, due to their restriction of specific foods, inadequate intake of micronutrients is concerning. Therefore, as part of a randomized trial, weighed food records were collected on three consecutive days and were used to evaluate the intake of micronutrients among people with relapsing remitting MS adapting these diets. After randomization to either the Swank or Wahls diets, diet education and support was provided by registered dietitians at baseline and throughout the first 12 weeks of the intervention. Usual intake of each micronutrient was estimated and then evaluated with the EAR-cut point method. At 12 weeks, the Swank group had significant reductions in the proportion with inadequate intake from food for vitamins C, D, and E, while the Wahls group had significant reductions for magnesium and vitamins A, C, D, and E. However, the proportion with inadequate intake significantly increased for calcium, thiamin, and vitamin B12 in the Wahls group and for vitamin A in the Swank group. Inclusion of intake from supplements reduced the proportion with inadequate intake for all micronutrients except calcium among the Wahls group but increased the proportion with excessive intake for vitamin D and niacin among both groups and magnesium among the Swank group. Both diets, especially when including intake from supplements, are associated with reduced inadequate intake compared to the normal diet of people with relapsing remitting MS.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Paleolítica/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/dietoterapia , Adulto , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Fadiga/dietoterapia , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684639

RESUMO

Obesity and associated insulin resistance (Ins-R) have been identified as important risk factors for esophageal adenocarcinoma development. Elevated calories and protein consumption are also associated with Ins-R and glucose intolerance. We investigated the effect of a 24-month moderate calorie and protein restriction program on overweight or obese patients affected by Barrett's esophagus (BE), as no similar dietary approach has been attempted to date in this disease context. Anthropometric parameters, levels of serum analytes related to obesity and Ins-R, and the esophageal insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway were analyzed. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03813381. Insulin, C-peptide, IGF-1, IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), adipokines, and esophageal expression of the main proteins involved in insulin/IGF-1 signal transduction were quantified using Luminex-XMAP® technology in 46 patients who followed the restriction program (IA) and in 54 controls (CA). Body mass index and waist circumference significantly decreased in 76.1% of IA and 35.2% of CA. IGF-1 levels were reduced in 71.7% of IA and 51.8% of CA. The simultaneous reduction of glycaemia, IGF-1, the IGF-1/IGFBP3 ratio, and the improvement in weight loss-dependent insulin sensitivity, were associated with the downregulation of the insulin/IGF-1 signal on BE tissue. The proposed intervention program was an effective approach to counteract obesity-associated cancer risk factors. The improvement in metabolic condition resulted in a downregulation of the ERK-mediated mitogenic signal in 43.5% of patients, probably affecting the molecular mechanism driving adenocarcinoma development in BE lesions.


Assuntos
Esôfago de Barrett/dietoterapia , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/métodos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Adenocarcinoma/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Esôfago de Barrett/complicações , Esôfago de Barrett/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Regulação para Baixo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/etiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Circunferência da Cintura , Perda de Peso
5.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684300

RESUMO

The decades-long dietary experiment embodied in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) focused on limiting fat, especially saturated fat, and higher carbohydrate intake has coincided with rapidly escalating epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) that are contributing to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other diet-related chronic diseases. Moreover, the lack of flexibility in the DGA as it pertains to low carbohydrate approaches does not align with the contemporary trend toward precision nutrition. We argue that personalizing the level of dietary carbohydrate should be a high priority based on evidence that Americans have a wide spectrum of metabolic variability in their tolerance to high carbohydrate loads. Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and T2D are conditions strongly associated with insulin resistance, a condition exacerbated by increased dietary carbohydrate and improved by restricting carbohydrate. Low-carbohydrate diets are grounded across the time-span of human evolution, have well-established biochemical principles, and are now supported by multiple clinical trials in humans that demonstrate consistent improvements in multiple established risk factors associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recently recognized a low carbohydrate eating pattern as an effective approach for patients with diabetes. Despite this evidence base, low-carbohydrate diets are not reflected in the DGA. As the DGA Dietary Patterns have not been demonstrated to be universally effective in addressing the needs of many Americans and recognizing the lack of widely available treatments for obesity, metabolic syndrome, and T2D that are safe, effective, and sustainable, the argument for an alternative, low-carbohydrate Dietary Pattern is all the more compelling.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Política Nutricional , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta Cetogênica , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
6.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684512

RESUMO

Studies of obstetric outcomes in women consuming low-carbohydrate diets have reported conflicting results. Most studies have defined low-carbohydrate diets by the percentage that carbohydrates contribute to overall energy intake, rather than by an absolute amount in grams per day (g/d). We hypothesised that a low absolute carbohydrate diet affects obstetric outcomes differently than a low percentage carbohydrate diet. Dietary data were collected from overweight or obese women in the Study of Probiotic IN Gestational diabetes at 16- and 28-weeks' gestation. Obstetric outcomes were compared between women whose carbohydrate intake was in the lowest quintile vs quintiles 2-5. Mean gestation was increased in women whose absolute carbohydrate intake was in the lowest quintile at 16 and at both 16- and 28-weeks' gestation compared with all other women (16: 39.7 vs. 39.1 weeks, p = 0.008; 16 and 28: 39.8 vs. 39.1, p = 0.005). In linear regression analysis, a low absolute carbohydrate intake at 16 and at 28 weeks' gestation was associated with increased gestation at delivery (16: p = 0.04, adjusted R2 = 0.15, 28: p = 0.04, adjusted R2 = 0.17). The coefficient of beta at 16 weeks' gestation was 0.50 (95% CI 0.03-0.98) and at 28 weeks' gestation was 0.51 (95%CI 0.03-0.99) meaning that consumption of a low absolute carbohydrate diet accounted for an extra 3.5 days in gestational age. This finding was not seen in women whose percentage carbohydrate intake was in the lowest quintile. Low-carbohydrate consumption in pregnancy is associated with increased gestational age at delivery.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Idade Gestacional , Obesidade Materna/metabolismo , Parto/metabolismo , Adulto , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Obesidade Materna/dietoterapia , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
JAMA ; 326(13): 1310-1318, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609446

RESUMO

Importance: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the esophagus that affects an estimated 34.4/100 000 people in Europe and North America. EoE affects both children and adults, and causes dysphagia, food impaction of the esophagus, and esophageal strictures. Observations: EoE is defined by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, such as vomiting, dysphagia, or feeding difficulties, in a patient with an esophageal biopsy demonstrating at least 15 eosinophils per high-power field in the absence of other conditions associated with esophageal eosinophilia such as gastroesophageal reflux disease or achalasia. Genetic factors and environmental factors, such as exposure to antibiotics early in life, are associated with EoE. Current therapies include proton pump inhibitors; topical steroid preparations, such as fluticasone and budesonide; dietary therapy with amino acid formula or empirical food elimination; and endoscopic dilation. In a systematic review of observational studies that included 1051 patients with EoE, proton pump inhibitor therapy was associated with a histologic response, defined as less than 15 eosinophils per high-power field on endoscopic biopsy, in 41.7% of patients, while placebo was associated with a 13.3% response rate. In a systematic review of 8 randomized trials of 437 patients with EoE, topical corticosteroid treatment was associated with histologic remission in 64.9% of patients compared with 13.3% for placebo. Patients with esophageal narrowing may require dilation. Objective assessment of therapeutic response typically requires endoscopy with biopsy. Conclusions and Relevance: EoE has a prevalence of approximately 34.4/100 000 worldwide. Treatments consist of proton pump inhibitors, topical steroids, elemental diet, and empirical food elimination, with esophageal dilation reserved for patients with symptomatic esophageal narrowing.


Assuntos
Esofagite Eosinofílica , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Aminoácidos/uso terapêutico , Budesonida/uso terapêutico , Cápsulas/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Dilatação , Esofagite Eosinofílica/diagnóstico , Esofagite Eosinofílica/etiologia , Esofagite Eosinofílica/patologia , Esofagite Eosinofílica/terapia , Eosinófilos/patologia , Esofagoscopia , Esôfago/patologia , Fluticasona/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/dietoterapia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico
8.
Maturitas ; 153: 61-67, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a Mediterranean dietary pattern on the incidence of macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes, namely cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetic foot disorders, diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. METHODS: This longitudinal study was conducted among 71392 adults with diabetes who attended academic tertiary-care outpatient clinics from February 2016 to March 2020 across Iran using the National Program for Prevention and Control of Diabetes database. Among them, 22187 patients with diabetes (type 1 and type 2) completed 2-11 follow-up visits after baseline registration. The association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and diabetic complications was assessed using pooled logistic regression models. This association was adjusted for potential confounders. The effect of time was assessed using fractional polynomials. RESULTS: A total of 22187 participants were included in the analysis (30.22% men and 69.78% women) with either type 1 (mean age 50.7 years) or type 2 (mean age 59.9 years) diabetes. After adjustment for confounding variables, there was a negative correlation between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and the incidence of CVD among patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and 2 diabetes (T2D) (OR= 0.53, 95% CI: 0.37 - 0.75, p-value <0.001 and OR= 0.61, 95% CI: 0.57 - 0.89, p-value <0.001, respectively). Also, the diet had a statistically significant protective effect against incident symptomatic neuropathy (OR= 0.32, 95% CI: 0.23 - 0.43, p-value <0.001, and OR= 0.68, 95% CI: 0.64 - 0.72, p-value <0.001, respectively), nephropathy (OR= 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30 - 0.58, p-value <0.001, and OR= 0.88, 95% CI: 0.80 - 0.96, p-value= 0.007, respectively), and retinopathy (OR= 0.32, 95% CI: 0.24 - 0.44, p-value <0.001, and OR= 0.68, 95% CI: 0.61 - 0.71, p-value <0.001, respectively) in T1D and T2D. CONCLUSION: The Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with a lower incidence of CVD and microvascular complications (i.e. diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) among a cohort of patients with T1D and T2D in Iran.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/dietoterapia , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/dietoterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
9.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684626

RESUMO

The daily intake of dietary fiber is well below the recommended levels in the US. The effect of adopting a low-fat vs. a low-carbohydrate weight loss diet on fiber intake is of interest but not well-documented, especially when both approaches promote high-quality food choices. The objective of this paper is to compare the quantity and sources of dietary fiber between a healthy low-fat (HLF) vs. healthy low-carbohydrate (HLC) diet group when consumed over 12 months in a weight loss diet study. In this secondary analysis of the Diet Intervention Examining The Factors Interacting with Treatment Success (DIETFITS) study, the amount and sources of dietary fiber were examined in generally healthy adults, 18-50 years of age, Body Mass Index (BMI) 28-40 kg/m2, randomized to HLF or HLC for 12 months, who had available 24-h recalls at 0 (n = 609), 3 (n = 549), 6 (n = 491), and 12 (n = 449) months. The dietary intake was estimated by the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R). The sources of fiber were determined for the major food groups. Significantly more total dietary fiber was consumed by HLF at every post-randomization time point, and, at 12 m, was 23.04 ± 9.43 g vs. 18.61 ± 8.12 g for HLF vs. HLC, respectively, p < 0.0001. In both diet groups at 12 months, the highest amount of dietary fiber came from non-starchy vegetables (4.13 ± 3.05 g and 5.13 ± 3.59 g). The other primary sources of fiber at 12 months for the HLF group were from whole grains (3.90 ± 3.13 g) and fruits (3.40 ± 2.87 g), and, for the HLC group, were from plant protein and fat sources, such as nuts and seeds, their butters, and avocados (2.64 ± 2.64 g). In the DIETFITS study, the difference in the total fiber intake for the HLF vs. HLC groups was more modest than expected. The HLC group consumed reasonably high amounts of fiber from high-protein and high fat plant-based sources.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Verduras , Perda de Peso , Grãos Integrais , Adulto Jovem
10.
FASEB J ; 35(11): e21945, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606638

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder and the most common cause of androgen excess in reproductive-age women. The heterogeneity of the clinical presentation in PCOS patients suggests the involvement of multiples abnormal physiological pathways. In addition, women with PCOS have a high prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors. Unfortunately, limited effective evidence-based therapeutic agents are available to treat the cardiometabolic complications in PCOS patients. Insights from recent studies highlight the multiple opportunities to deliver timely effective medical care for women with PCOS. This perspective manuscript aims to highlight the unmet need for effective and safe management of the cardiometabolic complications in PCOS patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/etiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Androgênios/metabolismo , Anticoncepcionais Orais/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/dietoterapia , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/cirurgia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-13, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546604

RESUMO

Viruses have evolved to manipulate host lipid metabolism to benefit their replication cycle. Enveloped viruses, including coronaviruses, use host lipids in various stages of the viral life cycle, particularly in the formation of replication compartments and envelopes. Host lipids are utilised by the virus in receptor binding, viral fusion and entry, as well as viral replication. Association of dyslipidaemia with the pathological development of Covid-19 raises the possibility that exploitation of host lipid metabolism might have therapeutic benefit against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this review, promising host lipid targets are discussed along with potential inhibitors. In addition, specific host lipids are involved in the inflammatory responses due to viral infection, so lipid supplementation represents another potential strategy to counteract the severity of viral infection. Furthermore, switching the lipid metabolism through a ketogenic diet is another potential way of limiting the effects of viral infection. Taken together, restricting the access of host lipids to the virus, either by using lipid inhibitors or supplementation with exogenous lipids, might significantly limit SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or severity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , COVID-19/dietoterapia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lipídeos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética
13.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579066

RESUMO

Nitrogen balance is the difference between nitrogen excreted as urea and nitrogen ingested, mainly in proteins. Increased circulating concentrations of amino acids (AA) in the bloodstream are usually associated with proportional increases in the production and excretion of urea. Previously, we reported results from a randomized, controlled, single-dose, crossover trial in healthy adult volunteers (n = 30) (Trial Registration: ISRCTN11016729), in which a Test product (prolonged-release AA mixture formulated with Physiomimic Technology™ (PT™)) significantly slowed down the release and reduced the peak plasma concentrations of essential AAs compared with a free AA mixture (Reference product) while maintaining essential AA bioavailability. Here, we report an assessment of the nitrogen balance from the same study. The amount of nitrogen contained in plasma AAs, levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (p < 0.0001) and changes in BUN (p < 0.0001) were smaller after the Test product compared with the Reference product. These findings suggest that the production of urea in proportion to systemic AA availability was significantly smaller after the administration of the Test product compared with the Reference product and that the test product conferred the increased utilization of AAs for protein synthesis and reduced their oxidation and conversion to urea. In the clinical setting, it is possible that the effects of PT™ observed on the disposition of free AAs in this study may translate to health benefits in terms of physiological body composition and growth if used for the treatment of subjects with phenylketonuria (PKU). Further investigation in patients with PKU is warranted.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Nitrogênio/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias , Proteínas/química , Ureia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminoácidos/sangue , Aminoácidos Essenciais/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenilcetonúrias/dietoterapia , Método Simples-Cego , Ureia/sangue , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18548, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535690

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the second most diagnosed cancer worldwide. Higher body weight is associated with chronic inflammation, increased angiogenesis, and treatment-resistant tumor phenotypes. Dietary tomato reduces PCa risk, which may be due to tomato inhibition of angiogenesis and disruption of androgen signaling. This pilot study investigated the interplay between tomato powder (TP), incorporated into control (CON) and obesogenic (OB) diets, and PCa tumor growth and blood perfusion over time in a transgenic model of PCa (TRAMP). Ultrasound microvessel imaging (UMI) results showed good agreement with gold-standard immunohistochemistry quantification of endothelial cell density, indicating that this technique can be applied to non-invasively monitor tumor blood perfusion in vivo. Greater body weight was positively associated with tumor growth. We also found that TP significantly inhibited prostate tumor angiogenesis but that this inhibition differentially affected measured outcomes depending on CON or OB diets. TP led to reduced tumor growth, intratumoral inflammation, and intratumoral androgen-regulated gene expression (srd5a1, srd5a2) when incorporated with the CON diet but greater tumor growth and intratumoral gene expression when incorporated with the OB diet. Results from this study show that protective benefits from dietary tomato are lost, or may become deleterious, when combined with a Western-style diet.


Assuntos
Dieta Ocidental , Lycopersicon esculentum , Neovascularização Patológica/dietoterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/dietoterapia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neovascularização Patológica/prevenção & controle , Projetos Piloto , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle
15.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578970

RESUMO

There is increasing interest in the use of a ketogenic diet for various adult disorders; however, the ability of adults to generate ketones is unknown. Our goal was to challenge the hypothesis that there would be no difference between adults and children regarding their ability to enter ketosis. METHODS: Two populations were studied, both treated with identical very low-carbohydrate high-fat diets: a retrospective series of children with epilepsy or/and metabolic disorders (2009-2016) and a prospective clinical trial of adults with glioblastoma. Dietary intake was assessed based upon written food diaries and 24-h dietary recall. Ketogenic ratio was calculated according to [grams of fat consumed]/[grams of carbohydrate and protein consumed]. Ketone levels (ß-hydroxybutyrate) were measured in blood and/or urine. RESULTS: A total of 168 encounters amongst 28 individuals were analyzed. Amongst both children and adults, ketone levels correlated with nutritional ketogenic ratio; however, the absolute ketone levels in adults were approximately one quarter of those seen in children. This difference was highly significant in a multivariate linear regression model, p < 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: For diets with comparable ketogenic ratios, adults have lower blood ketone levels than children; consequently, high levels of nutritional ketosis are unobtainable in adults.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Dieta Cetogênica , Cetonas/sangue , Adolescente , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/dietoterapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Epilepsia/dietoterapia , Feminino , Glioma/dietoterapia , Humanos , Lactente , Cetonas/urina , Cetose/sangue , Cetose/etiologia , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/dietoterapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579138

RESUMO

The hydrogen (H2) breath test is a non-invasive investigation used to diagnose lactose intolerance (LI). Patients with LI may also expire increased amounts of methane (CH4) during a lactose test. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of CH4 measurements. We tested 209 children (1-17 years old) with symptoms suggesting LI with lactose H2 and CH4 breath tests. The result was positive when the H2 excretion exceeded 20 parts per million (ppm) and the CH4 was 10 ppm above the baseline. A clinician, blinded for the results of the breath test, registered the symptoms. Of the patient population, 101/209 (48%) were negative for both H2 and CH4; 96/209 (46%) had a positive H2 breath test result; 31/96 (32%) were also positive for CH4; 12/209 (6%) patients were only positive for CH4. The majority of hydrogen producers showed symptoms, whereas this was only the case in half of the H2-negative CH4 producers. Almost all patients treated with a lactose-poor diet reported significant symptom improvement. These results indicate that CH4 measurements may possibly be of additional value for the diagnosis of LI, since 5.7% of patients were negative for H2 and positive for CH4, and half of them experienced symptoms during the test.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Hidrogênio/análise , Intolerância à Lactose/diagnóstico , Metano/análise , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Intolerância à Lactose/dietoterapia , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
17.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578999

RESUMO

The number of people suffering from being overweight or obese has risen steadily in recent years. Consequently, new forms of nutrition and diets were developed as potential solutions. In the last years, the time-restricted feeding and continuous energy restriction via macronutrient-based diets were increasingly popular. Both diets were exclusively studied separately. A comparison of the two diets for people with a high body mass index despite regular physical activity has not yet been studied in detail. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of these two diets on body composition and adherence. For this study, a total of 42 subjects (m = 21, f = 21) with a BMI above 25 were recruited from a local fitness gym. After a two-week familiarisation period, one of the two diets was followed over 14 weeks. Dietary behaviour was monitored throughout the period with a food diary. The primary measurement parameters were body weight, lean body mass, fat mass, body mass index, and waist and hip circumference. In addition, adherence was assessed and calculated by food diary and questionnaire. In total, the data of 35 participants (m = 14, f = 21) were analysed. Significant reductions in body weight, fat mass, body mass index, and waist and hip circumference were observed in both groups (p < 0.05). No significant change could be observed in lean body mass in either category. No group and gender differences were detected in any of the primary parameters. For the secondary parameters, a significantly higher adherence was observed in the time-restricted feeding group (p < 0.05). In addition, it can be assumed that an adherence of 60-70% cannot lead to positive changes in body composition. In conclusion, there were no differences between the two diets on the primary parameters. However, it seemed that time-restricted feeding can be better implemented in everyday life, and an adherence of more than 70% is required for both diets to prove effective.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Jejum , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Redutora , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579034

RESUMO

The pivotal role of childhood nutrition has always roused a growing interest from the scientific community. Plant extracts and bioactive dietary components play a significant role in the maintenance of human health and wellness, with the potential to modulate risk factors and manage symptoms for a large number of common childhood disorders such as memory impairment, respiratory illnesses, gastrointestinal disorders, metabolic derangements, and pathologies related to the oral cavity. This review is designed to highlight the health benefits of botanical extracts and bioactive dietary components in children as evidenced by clinical trials, considering their safety with regards to childhood sensibilities. The supplementation of children with the herbal extracts or bioactive components mentioned in this review leads to the conclusion that they are useful for treating various ailments, with no serious adverse events being reported. However, for the limited number of investigations specifically focused on the safety of such products in children, time is needed to expand the literature data covering the safety of childhood supplementation with botanical extract and bioactive food components.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Suplementos Nutricionais , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta/métodos , Gastroenteropatias/dietoterapia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fitoterapia/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Doenças Respiratórias/dietoterapia
19.
Eur J Cancer ; 157: 124-131, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508994

RESUMO

AIM: Patients with cancer are at an increased risk for severe coronavirus disease of 2019, thus data on the safety and efficacy of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines are essential. We conducted this prospective study of patients with cancer vaccinated with BNT162b2 and monitored for antibody response and safety. The aim was to evaluate the rate of seropositivity and define predictors for non-reactive immune response. Furthermore, we evaluated the frequency and the severity of adverse events. METHODS: The study included patients with solid tumours undergoing anticancer treatment and immunocompetent health-care workers serving as controls. Serum titres of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralising antibodies were measured 2-4 weeks after each vaccine dose. RESULTS: The analysis included 129 patients, of which 70.5% patients were metastatic. Patients were treated with chemotherapy (55%), immunotherapy (34.1%), biological agents (24.8%), hormonal treatment (8.5%) and radiotherapy (4.6%), that were given either alone or in combinations. The seropositivity rate among patients with cancer and controls was 32.4% versus 59.8% (p < 0.0001) after the first dose and 84.1% versus 98.9% (p < 0.0001) after the second dose, respectively. Median RBD-IgG titre was lower among patients than controls (p < 0.0001). Patients who were seronegative after the second dose had significantly more comorbidities than that with patients with seropositivity (77.8% vs 41.1%, respectively, p = 0.0042). CONCLUSION: Adequate antibody response after BNT162b2 vaccination was achieved after two doses but not after one dose, in patients with cancer vaccinated during anticancer therapy.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
20.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 1583154, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531707

RESUMO

Ayu-narezushi, a traditional Japanese fermented food, comprises abundant levels of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and free amino acids. This study aimed to examine the potential beneficial effects of ayu-narezushi and investigated whether ayu-narezushi led to improvements in the Tsumura Suzuki obese diabetes (TSOD) mice model of spontaneous metabolic syndrome because useful LAB are known as probiotics that regulate intestinal function. In the present study, the increased body weight of the TSOD mice was attenuated in those fed the ayu-narezushi-comprised chow (ayu-narezushi group) compared with those fed the normal rodent chow (control group). Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the Ayu-narezushi group than in the control group at 24 weeks of age. Furthermore, hepatic mRNA levels of carnitine-palmitoyl transferase 1 and acyl-CoA oxidase, which related to fatty acid oxidation, were significantly increased in the ayu-narezushi group than in the control group at 24 weeks of age. In conclusion, these results suggested that continuous feeding with ayu-narezushi improved obesity and dyslipidemia in the TSOD mice and that the activation of fatty acid oxidation in the liver might contribute to these improvements.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Osmeriformes , Acil-CoA Oxidase/biossíntese , Acil-CoA Oxidase/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/biossíntese , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/dietoterapia , Dislipidemias/genética , Indução Enzimática , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/química , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Japão , Fígado/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/genética , Oryza , Oxirredução , PPAR alfa/biossíntese , PPAR alfa/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Cloreto de Sódio , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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