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1.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 33(2): 179-182, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317628

RESUMO

Scientific research requires a substantial investment of time, effort, and money by researchers and funders. The funding that would be needed for all meritorious proposals far exceeds available resources. Major funding organizations use a multistep process for allocating research dollars that follows and extends beyond scientific peer review with considerations including mission priority, budget, and potential duplication of past or ongoing research activities. At the level of programmatic review, the process tends to be less proscribed than scientific review, but considerations relate to and are akin to basic value-driven economic principles. We propose a framework that encompasses the elements of programmatic review and provide examples of how the economic principles of opportunity costs, diminishing marginal productivity, sunk costs, economic optimization, return on investment, and option value apply to both research planning and funding decisions. Examples use cancer control population science research, as the nature of observational and interventional research involves large population studies (large sample size, recruitment, and often long-duration follow-up costs) which demand a high level of resource utilization; the same principles can be applied throughout medical and population health research. Awareness of the aspects of programmatic review and context to focus discussion regarding funding decisions may help guide research planning, decision-making, and increase transparency of the overall review process.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia
2.
Eur J Gen Pract ; 30(1): 2308006, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299574

RESUMO

Often described as a natural economic trend, the prices that pharmaceutical companies charge for new medicines have skyrocketed in recent years. Companies claim these prices are justified because of the 'value' new treatments represent or that they reflect the high costs and risks associated with the research and development process. They also claim that the revenues generated through these high prices are required to pay for continued innovation.This paper argues that high prices are not inevitable but the result of a societal and political choice to rely on a for-profit business model for medical innovation, selling medicines at the highest price possible. Instead of focusing on therapeutic advances, it prioritises profit maximisation to benefit shareholders and investors over improving people's health outcomes or equitable access.As a result, people and health systems worldwide struggle to pay for the increasingly expensive health products, with growing inequities in access to even life-saving medicines while the biopharmaceutical industry and its financiers are the most lucrative business sectors.As the extreme COVID-19 vaccine inequities once again highlighted, we urgently need to reform the social contract between governments, the biopharmaceutical industry, and the public and restore its original health purpose. Policymakers must redesign policies and financing of the pharmaceutical research and development ecosystem such that public and private sectors work together towards the shared objective of responding to public health and patients' needs, rather than maximising financial return because medicines should not be a luxury.


Assuntos
Custos de Medicamentos , Indústria Farmacêutica , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Preparações Farmacêuticas/economia , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia
3.
Trials ; 25(1): 105, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310290

RESUMO

Many research funders have invested billions of US dollars in building research capacity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Despite these colossal investments, many well-intentioned and designed clinical research projects have either failed to kick off or ended abruptly. Although obstacles to clinical research in SSA are well known, there is limited information on frameworks and tools that can be used to anticipate and avert these systemic bottlenecks, particularly those related to socio-politics. In this paper, we leveraged lessons from entrepreneurs and development experts in harsh and uncertain business environments to develop a framework for anticipating and addressing potential bottlenecks to clinical research in SSA. More so, to illustrate and build a case for this framework, we shared our experience in supporting clinicians and regulators to adopt a point-of-use care tool, the "chemoPAD," to screen for the quality of anticancer medications rapidly and systematically in Cameroon despite resistance from some stakeholders. The critical steps in this framework involve identifying stakeholders, categorizing them based on their potential reactions to the study (adversary, supporters, and indifferents), and developing critical strategies to engage or deal with each stakeholder's reactions, starting with adversaries. This approach may be useful in complex research projects, especially clinical trials, which often involve many stakeholders with different interests and perceptions.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Humanos , África Subsaariana , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Fortalecimento Institucional , Empreendedorismo
4.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 30(2): 112-117, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin affordability is a huge concern for patients with diabetes in the United States. On March 30, 2020, Utah signed House Bill 207 into law, aimed at capping copayments for insulin at $30 for a 30-day supply. The bill was enacted on January 1, 2021. OBJECTIVE: To assess patient basal insulin adherence, out-of-pocket costs, health plan costs, total costs on insulin, and hemoglobin A1c (A1c) in prepolicy vs postpolicy periods. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis using data from a regional health plan in Utah from October 1, 2019, to September 30, 2021. Inclusion criteria were fully enrolled members of all ages, under commercial insurance, with at least 1 fill for any type of insulin in both the preperiod and the postperiod. Adherence was measured by proportion of days covered (PDC). Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon sign rank tests were conducted to compare the health and economic outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 24,150 commercially insured individuals, a total of 244 patients were included. Across all 244 patients, there was a significant decline in monthly median out-of-pocket costs of insulin by 58.5% (P < 0.001), whereas the monthly median health plan costs of insulin increased by 22.0% (P < 0.001). The total monthly costs of insulin (the sum of out-of-pocket and health plan costs) were unchanged (P = 0.115). Only 74 patients with enough basal insulin fills in both periods were included in the analysis for PDC changes. PDC change was not statistically significant (P = 0.43). Among the 74 patients with PDC calculations, 29 patients had A1c recorded in both periods. The change in A1c was not statistically significant (P = 0.23). CONCLUSIONS: An insulin copayment max of $30 in Utah demonstrated lower patient out-of-pocket costs, subsidized by the health plan. PDC did not change, and HbA1c did not improve. An assessment of a longer period and on a larger population is needed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insulina , Humanos , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/economia , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação , Políticas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Utah
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(2): e2356412, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363568

RESUMO

Importance: The evidence for and against screening for chronic kidney disease in youths who are asymptomatic is inconsistent worldwide. Japan has been conducting urinary screening in students for 50 years, allowing for a full economic evaluation that includes the clinical benefits of early detection and intervention for chronic kidney disease. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of school urinary screening in Japan, with a focus on the benefits of the early detection and intervention for IgA nephropathy, and to explore key points in the model that are associated with the cost-effectiveness of the school urinary screening program. Design, Setting, and Participants: This economic evaluation with a cost-effectiveness analysis used a computer-simulated Markov model from the health care payer's perspective among a hypothetical cohort of 1 000 000 youths aged 6 years in first grade in Japanese elementary schools, followed up through junior and high school. The time horizon was lifetime. Costs and clinical outcomes were discounted at a rate of 2% per year. Costs were calculated in Japanese yen and 2020 US dollars (¥107 = US $1). Interventions: School urinary screening for IgA nephropathy was compared with no screening. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Cost-effectiveness was determined by evaluating whether the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per QALY gained remained less than ¥7 500 000 (US $70 093). Results: In the base case analysis, the ICER was ¥4 186 642 (US $39 127)/QALY, which was less than the threshold. There were 60.3 patients/1 000 000 patients in the no-screening strategy and 31.7 patients/1 000 000 patients in the screening strategy with an end-stage kidney disease. Cost-effectiveness improved as the number of screenings decreased (screening frequency <3 times: incremental cost, -¥75 [US $0.7]; incremental QALY, 0.00025; ICER, dominant), but the number of patients with end-stage kidney disease due to IgA nephropathy increased (40.9 patients/1 000 000 patients). Assuming the disutility due to false positives had a significant impact on the analysis; assuming a disutility of 0.01 or more, the population with no IgA nephropathy had an ICER greater than the threshold (¥8 304 093 [US $77 608]/QALY). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that Japanese school urinary screening was cost-effective, suggesting that it may be worthy of resource allocation. Key factors associated with cost-effectiveness were screening cost, the probability of incident detection outside of screening, and IgA nephropathy incidence, which may provide clues to decision-makers in other countries when evaluating the program in their own context.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite por IGA , Adolescente , Humanos , Análise de Custo-Efetividade , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/diagnóstico , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/urina , Japão , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/urina , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Urinálise/economia
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(1): e2351644, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38227313

RESUMO

Importance: Costs of employer-sponsored health care benefits have increased faster than workers' wages for several decades, with important implications for disparities in earnings and wage stagnation. Objective: To quantify how growth in employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) premiums may have been associated with reduced annual wages, disparities in earnings by race and ethnicity and wage level, and wage stagnation among US families with ESI. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this economic evaluation, serial cross-sectional analyses were performed of US families receiving ESI from 1988 to 2019 based on data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey, Kaiser Employer Health Benefits Survey, US Census Bureau's Current Population Survey, and federal payroll taxation rates. Statistical analysis was conducted from February 2022 to July 2023. Main Outcomes and Measures: Percentage of annual compensation associated with health care premiums (after accounting for tax deductibility) and lost wages associated with growth in cost of premiums from 1989 to 2019 based on 1988 compensation. To assess disparities, analyses were stratified by race and ethnicity and wage level. Results: In 1988, 44.7 million individuals (head of household: mean [SD] age, 43.3 [13.1] years; 30.1% were female; and 2.4% identified as Asian, 6.2% as Hispanic, 8.6% as non-Hispanic Black, and 82.8% as non-Hispanic White) were covered by ESI family plans; this number remained similar in 2019 at 44.8 million individuals (head of household: mean [SD] age, 47.1 [12.9] years; 41.3% were female; and 1.3% identified as Asian, 9.9% as Hispanic, 9.9% as non-Hispanic Black, and 78.9% as non-Hispanic White). In 1988, the mean (SD) household size was 3.3 (1.3) people, and in 2019, it was 3.4 (1.3) people. If ESI costs had remained at the same proportion of the 1988 average compensation package, then in 2019, the median US family with ESI could have earned $8774 (95% CI, $8354-$9195) more in annual wages. During all 32 years, health care premiums as a percentage of compensation were greater for non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic families than for non-Hispanic White families. By 2019, 13.8% (95% CI, 13.5%-14.1%) of compensation among non-Hispanic White families with ESI went to premium costs compared with 19.2% (95% CI, 18.8%-19.7%) among non-Hispanic Black families and 19.8% (19.3%-20.3%) among Hispanic families with ESI. In 2019, health care premiums as a percentage of compensation at the 95th percentile of earnings for families with ESI were 3.9% (95% CI, 3.8%-4.0%) compared with 28.5% (95% CI, 27.8%-29.2%) at the 20th percentile of earnings. From 1988 to 2019, the mean cumulative lost earnings associated with growth in health care premiums for the median US family with ESI was $125 340 (95% CI, $120 155-$130 525) in 2019 dollars, 4.7% of earnings over the 32-year period. Conclusions and Relevance: This economic evaluation of US families receiving ESI suggests that 3 decades of increasing health care premiums were likely associated with reduced annual earnings and increased earnings inequality by race and ethnicity and wage level and were meaningfully associated with wage stagnation.


Assuntos
Custos e Análise de Custo , Renda , Seguro , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Etnicidade , Seguro/economia , Grupos Raciais
17.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 83(1): 86-92, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180456

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of the new quadruple therapy regimen of adding sodium-glucose-linked transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, with standard treatment for patients with heart failure (HF) in China. From the payer's perspective, the dates of cardiovascular event recurrences were extracted from a meta-analysis including 6 trials, combined with the treatment cost for patients with HF in China to construct a Markov model. The outcomes included per capita medical costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) data. Single-factor, probability sensitivity analysis, and scenario analysis were used to explore the potential uncertainties of the model. The per capita costs of the new quadruple therapy regimen and standard treatment were $87441.26 and $87087.54, respectively. The new regimen was associated with a mean of 21.44 QALYs gained, compared with 18.60 QALYs gained with the standard treatment. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $124.03 per QALY gained. The sensitivity analysis revealed that changes in the parameters within the set range did not affect the model results. In China, compared with standard treatment, the new quadruple therapy regimen with SGLT2 inhibitors reduce the frequency of cardiovascular events among patients with HF, and it has economic advantages.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Humanos , China , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/economia
18.
JAMA ; 331(2): 124-131, 2024 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38193961

RESUMO

Importance: The End-Stage Renal Disease Treatment Choices (ETC) model randomly selected 30% of US dialysis facilities to receive financial incentives based on their use of home dialysis, kidney transplant waitlisting, or transplant receipt. Facilities that disproportionately serve populations with high social risk have a lower use of home dialysis and kidney transplant raising concerns that these sites may fare poorly in the payment model. Objective: To examine first-year ETC model performance scores and financial penalties across dialysis facilities, stratified by their incident patients' social risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study of 2191 US dialysis facilities that participated in the ETC model from January 1 through December 31, 2021. Exposure: Composition of incident patient population, characterized by the proportion of patients who were non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, living in a highly disadvantaged neighborhood, uninsured, or covered by Medicaid at dialysis initiation. A facility-level composite social risk score assessed whether each facility was in the highest quintile of having 0, 1, or at least 2 of these characteristics. Main Outcomes and Measures: Use of home dialysis, waitlisting, or transplant; model performance score; and financial penalization. Results: Using data from 125 984 incident patients (median age, 65 years [IQR, 54-74]; 41.8% female; 28.6% Black; 11.7% Hispanic), 1071 dialysis facilities (48.9%) had no social risk features, and 491 (22.4%) had 2 or more. In the first year of the ETC model, compared with those with no social risk features, dialysis facilities with 2 or more had lower mean performance scores (3.4 vs 3.6, P = .002) and lower use of home dialysis (14.1% vs 16.0%, P < .001). These facilities had higher receipt of financial penalties (18.5% vs 11.5%, P < .001), more frequently had the highest payment cut of 5% (2.4% vs 0.7%; P = .003), and were less likely to achieve the highest bonus of 4% (0% vs 2.7%; P < .001). Compared with all other facilities, those in the highest quintile of treating uninsured patients or those covered by Medicaid experienced more financial penalties (17.4% vs 12.9%, P = .01) as did those in the highest quintile in the proportion of patients who were Black (18.5% vs 12.6%, P = .001). Conclusions: In the first year of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' ETC model, dialysis facilities serving higher proportions of patients with social risk features had lower performance scores and experienced markedly higher receipt of financial penalties.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Falência Renal Crônica , Reembolso de Incentivo , Diálise Renal , Autocuidado , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Negro ou Afro-Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , População Negra/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispânico ou Latino/estatística & dados numéricos , Falência Renal Crônica/economia , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicaid/economia , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Econômicos , Reembolso de Incentivo/economia , Reembolso de Incentivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Diálise Renal/economia , Diálise Renal/métodos , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/economia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Listas de Espera , Autocuidado/economia , Autocuidado/métodos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Hawaii J Health Soc Welf ; 83(1): 16-24, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38223464

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in rapid and drastic changes to daily lives, posing a threat to residents' mental health and well-being. Filipinos are disproportionately impacted by COVID-19 and have one of the highest COVID-19 prevalence in Hawai'i. The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with a rise in mental health concerns, yet little is known about the impact on the mental health of Filipinos in Hawai'i. Using publicly available polling data from the SMS Community Pulse Survey, this study sought to describe the mental distress experienced by Filipino residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected from an online panel of Hawai'i residents over 4 timepoints (May 5-10; June 11-17; July 31-August 8; October 19-31, 2020). Compared to non-Filipinos, a higher proportion of Filipinos reported feeling stress and sadness during 3 of the 4 timepoints. Across all timepoints, Filipinos were more likely to respond affirmatively to mental health indicators (62.5%). Similarly, Filipinos reported food insecurity in higher proportions relative to non-Filipinos in most timepoints, particularly notable in Timepoint 4 where 33.0% of Filipino respondents reported food insecurity. These findings suggest that Filipinos would benefit from social policy and community-supported initiatives to address social determinants of health, reduce chronic stress, and prevent further mental health disparities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Humanos , Povo Asiático , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Havaí/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia
20.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0295798, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38175833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the budget impact of the incorporation of venetoclax for the treatment of patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) over 75 years of age or those with comorbidities and contraindications for the use of intensive chemotherapy, from the perspective of the social security and the private third-party payers in Argentina. METHODS: A budget impact model was adapted to estimate the cost difference between the current scenario (azacitidine, decitabine and low doses of cytarabine) and the new scenario (incorporation of venetoclax) for a third-party payer over a time horizon of three years. Input parameters were obtained from a literature review, validated or complemented by expert opinion using a modified Panel Delphi approach. All direct medical costs were estimated by the micro-costing approach and were expressed in US dollars (USD) as of September 2020 (1 USD = 76.18 Argentine pesos). RESULTS: For a third-party payer with a cohort of 1,000,000 individuals covered, incorporating venetoclax was associated with an average budget impact per-member per-month (PMPM) of $0.11 USD for the social security sector and $0.07 USD for the private sector. The duration of treatment with venetoclax was the most influential parameter in the budget impact results. CONCLUSION: The introduction of venetoclax was associated with a positive and slight budget impact. These findings are informative to support policy decisions aimed to expand the current treatment landscape of AML.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Humanos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Argentina , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Setor Privado , Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico
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