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1.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 42(2): e138-e142, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) have recently been associated with a higher incidence of complications than previously thought. We compared: (1) incidence of PNB-related residual neurological symptoms and (2) patient selection, operative practices, and anesthesia practices for pediatric knee surgery patients before and after changes in PNB administration at our institution. METHODS: We compared data from pediatric patients who underwent knee surgery with PNBs from 2014 to 2016 (cohort 1; 100 patients) or 2017 to 2019 (cohort 2; 104 patients). Cohort 2 was treated after PNB administration was limited to a dedicated anesthesia block team at our institution. We used t tests and χ2 tests, with an α level of 0.05. RESULTS: The incidence of PNB-related neurological complications was lower in cohort 2 (0.96%;) than cohort 1 (6%) (P=0.045). The 1 complication in cohort 2 was numbness proximal to the knee. Cohort 1 had 5 cases of numbness proximal to the knee and 1 case of neuropathic pain upon palpation of the PNB site. The proportion of female patients was greater in cohort 2 (57%) than cohort 1 (36%) (P=0.01); age and body mass index did not differ between cohorts. In cohort 2, the mean operating time was longer, and tourniquets were used more frequently (both, P<0.01). A greater proportion of PNBs were performed by fellows in cohort 2 (67%) versus cohort 1 (55%) (P=0.01). A smaller proportion of PNBs were performed by residents in cohort 2 (6.9%) versus cohort 1 (16%) (P=0.01). The most common anatomic site for PNBs was the femoral nerve (51%) in cohort 1 and the saphenous nerve (51%) in cohort 2 (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of PNB-related complications after pediatric knee surgery decreased significantly after institutional changes in the regulation of PNB use. This decrease may be explained by shifts toward more experienced providers administering PNBs and preference for more distal anatomic sites, suggesting ways other institutions may lower their PNB complication rates. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-retrospective prognostic study.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Nervoso , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Joelho , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória , Nervos Periféricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 22(1): 12, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-ray cholangiography is of great value in the imaging of biliary tract diseases; however, occupational radiation exposure is unavoidable. Moreover, clinicians must manually inject the contrast dye, which may result in a relatively high incidence of adverse reactions due to unstable injection pressure. Thus, there is a need to develop a novel remote-controlled cholangiography injection device. METHODS: Patients with external biliary drainage requiring cholangiography were included. A remote-controlled injection device was developed with three major components: an injection pump, a pressure sensor, and a wireless remote-control panel. Image quality, adverse reactions, and radiation dose were evaluated. RESULTS: Different kinds of X-ray cholangiography were successfully and smoothly performed using this remote-controlled injection device in all patients. The incidence of adverse reactions in the device group was significantly lower than that in the manual group (4.17% vs. 13.9%, P = 0.001), and increasing the injection pressure increased the incidence of adverse reactions. In addition, the device helped operators avoid ionizing radiation completely. CONCLUSIONS: With good control of injection pressure (within 10 kPa), the remote-controlled cholangiography injection device could replace the need for the doctor to inject contrast agent with good security and effectivity. It is expected to be submitted for clinical application.


Assuntos
Doenças Biliares , Colangiografia , China , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Drenagem , Humanos
3.
BMC Surg ; 22(1): 5, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The frequency of gallstones is higher in patients who have undergone gastrectomy than in the general population. While there have been some studies of gallstone formation after open gastrectomy, there are few reports of gallstones after laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the incidence of gallstones after LG. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 184 patients who underwent LG between January 2011 and May 2016 at Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital. After gastrectomy, abdominal ultrasonography was generally performed every 6 months for 5 years. Patients who underwent cholecystectomy before LG, underwent simultaneous cholecystectomy, and did not undergo abdominal ultrasonography, with an observation period of < 24 months, were excluded from the study. Finally, 90 patients were analyzed. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed whenever biliary complications occurred. Patient characteristics were compared using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test or Chi-square test. In addition, the risk factors for postoperative gallstones were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among the 90 patients included in this study, 60 were men (78%), and the mean age was 65.5 years. Laparoscopic total gastrectomy was performed for 15 patients and laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for 75 patients. D2 lymph node dissection was performed for 8 patients (9%), whereas 68 patients underwent LG with Roux-en-Y reconstruction (76%). Gallstones were detected after LG in 27 of the 90 (30%) patients. Multivariate analysis identified Roux-en-Y reconstruction and male sex as significant risk factors of gallstones after gastrectomy. The incidence of gallstones was significantly higher (53%) in male patients who underwent Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Symptomatic gallstones after laparoscopic cholecystectomy were found in 6 cases (6/27, 22%), and all patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. CONCLUSION: Roux-en-Y reconstruction and male sex were identified as significant risk factors for gallstones after LG.


Assuntos
Cálculos Biliares , Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Gástricas , Idoso , Cálculos Biliares/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Biliares/epidemiologia , Cálculos Biliares/etiologia , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
4.
BMC Surg ; 22(1): 7, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A relationship between obesity and adverse outcomes in patients with post-sternotomy wounds undergoing pedicle flap reconstruction is not well-documented. In this study, we present a single-centre retrospective case series analysis of early postoperative outcomes of patients with infected post-sternotomy wounds undergoing pedicle flap reconstruction. We also propose a management algorithm for such patients, based on BMI and wound width. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed all patients, who underwent pedicle flap reconstruction for major sternal wound infections after sternotomy for cardiac surgery in a tertiary hospital in Germany during a 5-year period. Exclusion criteria included patients younger than 18 years of age and patients with BMI < 18.5 kg/m2. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to BMI: normal-weight (NW; BMI < 25 kg/m2) and overweight/obese (OB/OW; BMI > 25 kg/m2). Both groups were compared in terms of preoperative parameters and early postoperative outcomes. Preoperative parameters included demographics, wound bacteria and comorbidities. Postoperative outcomes included duration of surgery time (from incision to skin closure), transfusion requirement (during surgery and entire hospital stay), onset of flap and donor-site complications, length of stay and 30-day mortality. We employed the two-tailed t-test to compare continuous variables and the two-sided Fischer's exact test to compare categorical variables. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The total sample consisted of 48 patients. Overall mean BMI was 28.4 (6.1) kg/m2. Mean age was 67 (12) years. The study group consisted of 28 patients with BMI > 25 kg/m2, who were compared with 20 normal-weight patients. There was a significant difference amongst both groups regarding duration of surgery (120 vs. 174 min, p < 0.05). Donor-site complications requiring intervention were observed in 30% of patients in both groups. Flap-related complications were recorded in 16 (57%) cases in the study group and 7 cases in the control group (35%, p = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that wound width and BMI can aid the decision-making process for patients with infected sternal wounds after cardiac surgery requiring pedicle flap reconstruction. However, in our case series analysis, OB/OW patients were not found to be at statistically significantly increased risk for worse postoperative outcomes, but were associated with a longer duration of surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Esternotomia , Idoso , Algoritmos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esternotomia/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia
5.
World J Surg Oncol ; 20(1): 9, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety of gasless endoscopic trans-axillary thyroid surgery is still undetermined. METHODS: Clinical findings and postoperative complications of patients who had undergone trans-axillary thyroid surgery due to thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules were retrospectively studied. The sensory change and paralysis results from this technique and patients' satisfaction with the cosmesis were also studied. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients (49 females and 2 males) received operations by gasless, endoscopic trans-axillary approaches with one patient whose operation was converted to open surgery because of internal jugular vein injury. Only two patients developed temporary vocal cord paralysis and no patients developed other severe complications. The alleviation of the discomfort in the anterior neck area and sternocleidomastoid, and the cosmetic effect of gasless endoscopic trans-axillary thyroid surgery were acceptable. No evidence of recurrence was found during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Gasless, endoscopic trans-axillary thyroid surgery is a feasible procedure with acceptable safety and better cosmetic results in strictly selected patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Tireoidectomia , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(1)2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996770

RESUMO

Postoperative fevers are common in hospitalised patients and warrant workup beyond the early post-op period. A 50-year-old man was admitted after sustaining a tibial plateau fracture. Fevers began 3 days after external fixation and persisted through a second surgery despite initial negative workup. Careful review of medications revealed enoxaparin as the instigating agent of a febrile drug reaction, and the fevers resolved after discontinuing the drug. On further questioning, it was discovered the patient had an allergy to pork, from which the main components of enoxaparin are typically derived. To our knowledge, this is the first reported enoxaparin-induced fever in the setting of a pork allergy. Enoxaparin-induced fevers should be considered in patients with unexplained post-op fever. Our case demonstrates the importance of analysing newly administered medications. Simple detailed history may significantly reduce patient morbidity and help to broaden differentials during investigation.


Assuntos
Febre de Causa Desconhecida , Hipersensibilidade , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Enoxaparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Suínos
7.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 69 Suppl 1: s1-s14, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998305

RESUMO

Even though the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic represents a historical challenge, science has had an exponential development, and the current vaccination campaigns are proof of this. Unfortunately, along came misinformation and myths regarding their production and their adverse effects. For this reason, we have considered of utter importance to review anaphylaxis, one of the most feared vaccine adverse events.Anaphylaxis can be defined as a life-threatening acute and systemic allergic reaction, with a wide clinical spectrum, which can be explained by many immunological mechanisms, and whose diagnostic complexity demands the fulfillment of strict criteria. Though infrequent, any vaccine has the potential to trigger anaphylaxis. In the United States, for the new SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, rates from 1:200 000 (Pfizer-BioNTech) to 1:360 000 doses (Moderna) have been estimated. Vaccine adverse events can be mediated by hypersensitivity reactions, either allergic or not. Unlike a typical drug allergy, rarely is the active ingredient responsible for the reaction. Therefore, excipients must be considered during the approach to this problem. Vaccine associated anaphylaxis has to be referred to an allergist so as to guarantee the maximum benefit for the patient and improve the vaccines' security profile.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , COVID-19 , Vacinas , Anafilaxia/induzido quimicamente , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos , Vacinas/efeitos adversos
8.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 69 Suppl 1: s24-s30, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998307

RESUMO

Air pollution, climate change, and the decrease of biological diversity are major threats to human health. In the past decades, an increase in allergic diseases, including asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis, has been observed. Up to 40 % of the world population may have an allergic disease, which represents a significant impact on the quality of life of those who suffer from it, and environmental pollution is one of the causes of its presentation. Air pollution causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients with inflammatory airway diseases such as allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxidative stress in patients with respiratory diseases can induce eosinophilic inflammation in the airways, increase atopic allergic sensitization, and rise susceptibility to infections. Climate change has influenced exposure to extramural allergens and it is associated with exacerbations of respiratory diseases in the upper and lower airway. The interaction of indoor and outdoor environmental exposure and host factors can affect the development and progression of lifelong allergic diseases. The decrease of exposure to air pollutants has been associated with a favorable response in respiratory health, which is why it is necessary to implement measures that contribute to an improvement in air quality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Rinite Alérgica , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Alérgenos , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica/etiologia
9.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 69 Suppl 1: s81-s93, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998313

RESUMO

Betalactams are the most widely used antimicrobials for their safety and efficacy. These include the penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams. Penicillin allergy ranks first in relation to drug allergy. 10 to 20 % of the population is labeled as allergic to it, often wrongly. Cross reaction is reported in 2 to 5 % between penicillins and cephalosporin. There is no cross reaction between penicillins and aztreonam, but there is with ceftazidime. All the mechanisms of the Gell and Coombs classification are included in the pathophysiology of hypersensitivity reactions to penicillin. Stratification according to risk allows us to take the most objective behavior to label the patient as allergic to. In the natural history of penicillin allergy, 80-90 % of patients lose this sensitivity by 10 years. If necessary, the patient can undergo a desensitization protocol. The immuno-allergist is a key piece in the selection of the patient, the elaboration of the challenge and desensitization protocols, in a controlled environment.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Penicilinas , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Carbapenêmicos , Cefalosporinas/efeitos adversos , Reações Cruzadas , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Humanos , Penicilinas/efeitos adversos , Testes Cutâneos
11.
Korean J Radiol ; 23(1): 60-67, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To categorize multiparametric MRI features of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-related granulomatous prostatitis (GP) and discover potential manifestations for its differential diagnosis from prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cases of BCG-related GP in 24 male (mean age ± standard deviation, 66.0 ± 9.4 years; range, 50-88 years) pathologically confirmed between January 2011 and April 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent intravesical BCG therapy followed by a MRI scan. Additional follow-up MRI scans, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), were performed in 19 patients. The BCG-related GP cases were categorized into three: A, B, or C. The lesions with diffusion restriction and homogeneous enhancement were classified as type A. The lesions with diffusion restriction and a poorly enhancing component were classified as type B. A low signal intensity on high b-value DWI (b = 1000 s/mm²) was considered characteristic of type C. Two radiologists independently interpreted the MRI scans before making a consensus about the types. RESULTS: The median lesion size was 22 mm with the interquartile range (IQR) of 18-26 mm as measured using the initial MRI scans. The lesion types were A, B, and C in 7, 15, and 2 patients, respectively. Cohen's kappa value for the inter-reader agreement for the interpretation of the lesion types was 0.837. On the last follow-up MRI scans of 19 patients, the size decreased (median, 5.8 mm; IQR, 3.4-8.5 mm), and the type changed from A or B to C in 11 patients. The lesions resolved in four patients. In five patients who underwent prostatectomy, caseous necrosis on histopathology matched with the non-enhancing components of type B lesions and the entire type C lesions. CONCLUSION: BCG-related GP demonstrated three imaging patterns on multiparametric MRI. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging and DWI may play a role in its differential diagnosis from prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica , Neoplasias da Próstata , Prostatite , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vacina BCG/efeitos adversos , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Prostatite/induzido quimicamente , Prostatite/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 2, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A single-tablet regimen (STR) has been associated with better drug adherence. However, the durability of different STRs was unknown in the real-world settings. Our aim was to investigate the durability of different initial STR regimens in antiretroviral-naive patients starting STR in southern Taiwan. METHOD: This was a retrospective study of antiretroviral-naive patients that initiated first-line antiretroviral regimens with STRs between May 2016 and December 2017. The primary endpoint was time to virological failure. Secondary endpoints were STR discontinuation due to toxicity/intolerance. Durability was defined as time from the initiation until discontinuation/modification. Kaplan- Meier curves were plotted assessing time to virological suppression, treatment failure and discontinuation for the three STRs and Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the factors associated with time to viral suppression, treatment failure or discontinuation. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-three patients were included: The median follow-up duration (IQR) was 73.9 (48-101.6) weeks, 25 patients (11%) experienced virological failure; the 48 weeks probability of treatment failure was 22.9% (16/70) for Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (EFV/FTC/TDF), 24.1% (13/54) for Emtricitabine/Rilpivirine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (FTC/RPV/TDF) and 24.2% (24/99) for Abacavir/Dolutegravir/Lamivudine (ABC/DTG/3TC) (p=0.16). Fifty-six patients (25%) discontinued their STRs owing to toxicity/intolerance. When compared to EFV/FTC/TDF, treatment with FTC/RPV/TDF (aHR 8.39, CI 1.98-35.58, p = 0.004) and ABC/DTG/3TC (aHR 8.40, CI 2.39-29.54, p=0.001) were more likely to have treatment failure. The predictors for treatment failure included age ≦ 30 years old (aHR 3.73, CI 1.25-11.17, p = 0.018), switch between different STR (aHR 2.3, CI 1.18-4.50, p = 0.001) and free of active syphilis infection (aHR 0.24, CI 0.08-0.73, p = 0.012). The risk factor for treatment discontinuation included younger age ≦ 30 years old (aHR 3.82, CI 1.21-12.37, p = 0.023), treatment with EFV/FTC/TDF (aHR 8.65, CI 2.64-28.39, p < 0.001) and free of active syphilis infection (aHR 0.16, CI 0.04-0.62, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Younger age was associated with treatment failure and drug discontinuation. Active syphilis infection s/p treatment was associated with free from treatment failure and discontinuation. This probably driven by the more frequently sexual health education and counseling when patients had syphilis infection. Treatment with ABC/DTG/3TC was associated with higher risk of treatment failure. The STR durability was dependent on the drug toxicity/intolerance, age and syphilis infection.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Emtricitabina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comprimidos/uso terapêutico , Taiwan
13.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 22(1): 5, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Life expectancy in people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has increased but remains shorter than in people without IBD. We describe the life expectancy associated with IBD therapies among the growing number of older adults living with IBD. METHODS: Older adults (≥ 65 years) with IBD were identified from population-based health administrative data using a validated algorithm. Life expectancy on patients' 65th birthday, stratified by sex, was calculated using a period life table approach from age- and sex-specific mortality rates among patients receiving immunomodulator monotherapy, biologic monotherapy, combination therapy, mesalamine, systemic steroids, and no therapy. RESULTS: Among 28,260 older adults with IBD (239,125 person-years of follow-up), life expectancy at 65 years was longest for patients taking mesalamine (females: 22.1 years, 95% CI 21.8-22.5; males: 19.6 years, 95% CI 19.3-20.0) and shortest for patients taking steroids (females: 11.7 years, 95% CI 11.0-12.4; males 10.3 years, 95% CI 9.7-10.8). Life expectancy was similar for patients receiving immunomodulator monotherapy and biologic monotherapy. Immunomodulator monotherapy was associated with a reduction in life expectancy compared to combination therapy by 5.1 (95% CI 2.3-7.8) in females and 2.8 years (95% CI 0.1-5.5) in males. CONCLUSIONS: Life expectancy varies across therapies used for IBD, with differences likely arising from a combination of medication effectiveness, safety profiles, disease severity, and comorbid conditions. These considerations should be balanced when deciding on a therapeutic approach for the management of IBD in older adults.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Mesalamina/uso terapêutico
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 17, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concerns regarding potential toxicity and drug-drug interactions during long-term treatment with three-drug active antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens have been attracting increasing attention. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dolutegravir (DTG) plus lamivudine (3TC) in ART-naive adults in China. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study enrolled HIV-naive inpatients treated with DTG + 3TC (2DR arm) or efavirenz (EFV) plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and 3TC (3DR arm). There were no limits on baseline viral load. Inflammatory biomarkers were also investigated in the 2DR arm. RESULTS: Between September 2019 and January 2020, 27 patients treated with DTG + 3TC and 28 patients treated with EFV + TDF + 3TC were enrolled in the study. At week 12, the proportion of patients with viral loads < 50 copies/mL in the 2DR arm was 81.5% (22/27) compared with 53.6% (15/28) in the 3DR arm (p < 0.01). At week 24, the proportion of patients with viral loads < 50 copies/mL in the 2DR arm was 100% (26/26) compared with 83.3% (20/24) in the 3DR arm (p < 0.05). Mean changes in CD4 cell counts from baseline at week 12 were 125.46 cells/µL in the 2DR arm and 41.20 cells/µL in the 3DR arm (p < 0.05). Mean changes in CD4 cell counts from baseline at week 24 were 209.68 cells/µL in the 2DR arm and 73.28 cells/µL in the 3DR arm (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: DTG + 3TC achieved virologic suppression more rapidly than EFV + TDF + 3TC after 12 and 24 weeks. DTG + 3TC could represent an optimal regimen for advanced patients. Clinical Trial Registration ChiCTR1900027640 (22/November/2019).


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Alcinos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Ciclopropanos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis , Humanos , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Oxazinas , Piperazinas , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridonas , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico
15.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 32, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of viscosupplementation after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. METHOD: A randomized controlled trial of 47 patients who underwent arthroscopic partial meniscectomy was conducted between March 2020 and March 2021. Patients were randomized into two groups: a viscosupplementation group (n = 23) and a control group (n = 24). A single-dose intraarticular hyaluronic acid injection was used as viscosupplementation. The 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain assessment was measured at baseline and at 1 day, 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3 months post-surgery. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Tegner, Lysholm, and Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores and range of motion (ROM) of the knee were measured at baseline, 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3 months. RESULTS: The 100 mm VAS score for pain was significantly lower in the viscosupplementation group at 2 weeks post-surgery (27.5 mm vs. 40.7 mm, P = 0.047). ROM was significantly greater in the viscosupplementation group than in the control group at 2 weeks (131.5° vs. 121.0°, P = 0.044) post-surgery. No significant differences were observed in the IKDC or in the Tegner, Lysholm, and WOMAC scores between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Viscosupplementation after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy significantly reduced pain at 2 weeks post-surgery and improved ROM of the knee at 2 weeks post-surgery. There might be some benefits in terms of pain and functional recovery of viscosupplementation after arthroscopic surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This randomized controlled trial was registered at cris.nih.go.kr # KCT0004921 .


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho , Viscossuplementação , Artroscopia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Meniscectomia/efeitos adversos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Trials ; 23(1): 9, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence is a common complication post radical prostatectomy. Acupuncture is considered an effective treatment for post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI), but the evidence is still limited. We propose to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in a rigorously conducted trial. METHODS: Twenty hospitals will recruit 340 participants with urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy in China from April 2021 to April 2022. Participants will be randomly allocated to acupuncture or sham acupuncture with a 1:1 ratio using computerized simple random sampling. The study plan consists of 1-week baseline, 6-week treatment, and 18-week follow-up. Eighteen 30-min sessions of acupuncture or sham acupuncture treatment will be provided between weeks 1 and 6. The primary outcome is the change in the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI-SF) score at the week 6 from the baseline. Secondary outcomes include the change in volume of urine leakage at weeks 4 and 6 from a baseline measured using the 1-h pad test; 72-h incontinence episode frequency based on a 72-h voiding diary; change in the Expanded prostate cancer Index Composite scale (EPIC-26); change in the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale; weekly consumption of pads; and the severity of urinary incontinence based on a 72-h bladder diary and self-assessment of the therapeutic effect. The safety of acupuncture will also be assessed. DISCUSSION: This trial will help to identify whether acupuncture is effective for PPI, and, if so, whether it exerts a therapeutic rather than a placebo effect. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.Chictr.org.cn ChiCTR2100042500 . Retrospectively registered on 22 January 2021.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Incontinência Urinária , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Método Simples-Cego , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária/diagnóstico , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Incontinência Urinária/terapia
17.
Trials ; 23(1): 10, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most frequent and severe psychiatric conditions. Many chemical drugs to treat depression are associated with adverse reactions and have shortcomings. Traditional Chinese medicine is of great significance in the prevention and treatment of depression. Xiaoyao pills has achieved good results in clinical application, which has the advantages of quick effect and no obvious adverse reactions. The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Xiaoyao pills on mild to moderate depression patients. METHODS: This study is a multi-centre, double-blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 108 participants are assigned to three groups: Xiaoyao pill group taking Xiaoyao pills twice daily for 4 weeks, placebo group taking placebos twice daily for 4 weeks and normal group without taking any drug. The primary and secondary outcome measures are the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Syndrome Scale. The assessment is at baseline (before treatment initiation), 1 week, 2 weeks 4 weeks after the first treatment. Exploratory outcome is also assessed to explore the mechanism of Xiaoyao pills at baseline and 4 weeks. DISCUSSION: The results from this study will provide clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of Xiaoyao pills in patients with mild to moderate depression with syndrome of liver stagnation and spleen deficiency. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ISRCTN12746343. Registered on September 25, 2020.


Assuntos
Depressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 17, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors are among the new-generation oral antihyperglycemic agents that have been used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. With the recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and rise of cases in the third wave, diagnosis of life-threatening euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis may easily be overlooked or missed. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 37-year-old Malay gentleman with underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus on empagliflozin, who presented to our hospital with symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 infection and diabetic ketoacidosis. He developed severe rebound euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis due to the continuous usage of empagliflozin for glycemic control alongside intravenous insulin. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians should have a high index of suspicion in diagnosing and managing euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis, including withholding treatment of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors during the acute management of diabetic ketoacidosis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Cetoacidose Diabética , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Cetoacidose Diabética/induzido quimicamente , Cetoacidose Diabética/diagnóstico , Cetoacidose Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Sódio , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos
19.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 23(1): 52-62, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985463

RESUMO

In type 1 diabetes mellitus and in symptomatic and critical hyperglycemic states, insulin is a lifesaving drug; however, its value in long-term type 2 diabetes therapy, which represents more than 90% of diabetes, has not been assessed. This happens despite the fact that, in randomized studies on type 2 diabetes, insulin is used in two-thirds of cases when intensive hypoglycemic treatment is needed and in half of the patients when treatment is the standard one. This is a major issue from a clinical, economic and social-health organization point of view as insulin therapy is expensive and needs a complex organization. Observational and retrospective studies from the scientific literature show that in this type of diabetes insulin treatment is associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. It is not clear whether this is due to a greater severity of the clinical picture, to the therapeutic target of blood glucose that may induce hypoglycemia, or to the intrinsic pharmacological activity of the drug that beyond reducing hyperglycemia can cause hypoglycemia, water retention, weight gain and hyperinsulinemia with proatherogenic effects. In particular, in patients with heart failure at high cardiovascular risk or with high insulin resistance, these clues are supported by meaningful data. Although there is no definitive evidence (the so-called "smoking gun") from randomized controlled trials, the high degree of suspicion induces the preferential choice of other drugs such as sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and metformin beyond avoiding glycemic targets that induce hypoglycemia, especially in frail, elderly patients, or patients with cardiovascular diseases. These drugs, for their proven efficacy and the easy use within an outpatient setting (that favors their prescription and improves the inertia of the doctor and the adherence of patients), could help a more effective treatment of patients, both for quality and life expectancy beyond mere glycemic control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insulina , Idoso , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(1): 28-33, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986578

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The combination of ketamine and propofol, commonly referred to as ketofol, is sometimes used for procedural sedation and analgesia in the pediatric emergency department. This article reviews the pharmacology, dosing, and indications, as well as adverse effects and contraindications of ketamine, propofol, and ketofol.


Assuntos
Analgesia , Ketamina , Propofol , Criança , Sedação Consciente , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor , Propofol/efeitos adversos
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