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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 299-311, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stevia rebaudiana is a high value crop due to the strong commercial demand for its metabolites (steviol glycosides) but has limited geographical cultivation range. In non-native environments with different daylength and light quality, Stevia has low germination rates and early flowering resulting in lower biomass and poor yield of the desired metabolites. In this study, artificial lighting with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was used to determine if different light quality within and outside of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) range can be used to improve germination rates and yields for production of steviol glycosides for the herbal supplement and food industry. RESULTS: Plants treated with red and blue light at an intensity of 130 µmol m-2  s-1 supplemented with 5% of UV-A light under a 16-h photoperiod produced the most desirable overall results with a high rate of germination, low percentage of early flowering, and high yields of dry leaf, stevioside and rebaudioside A, 175 days after planting. CONCLUSION: While red and blue light combinations are effective for plant growth, the use of supplemental non-PAR irradiation of UV-A wavelength significantly and desirably delayed flowering, enhanced germination, biomass, rebaudioside A and stevioside yields, while supplemental green light improved yield of biomass and rebaudioside A, but not stevioside. Overall, the combination of red, blue and UV-A light resulted in the best overall productivity for Stevia rebaudiana. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Sementes/efeitos da radiação , Stevia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/metabolismo , Flores/química , Flores/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/metabolismo , Germinação , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Luz , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Stevia/química , Stevia/metabolismo , Stevia/efeitos da radiação
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(2): 472-487, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462916

RESUMO

Specialized metabolites from plants are important for human health due to their antioxidant properties. Light is one of the main factors modulating the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites, determining the cascade response activated by photoreceptors and the consequent modulation of expressed genes and biosynthetic pathways. Recent developments in light emitting diode (LED) technology have enabled improvements in artificial light applications for horticulture. In particular, the possibility to select specific spectral light compositions, intensities and photoperiods has been associated with altered metabolite content in a variety of crops. This review aims to analyze the effects of indoor LED lighting recipes and management on the specialized metabolite content in different groups of crop plants (namely medicinal and aromatic plants, microgreens and edible flowers), focusing on the literature from the last 5 years. The literature collection produced a total of 40 papers, which were analyzed according to the effects of artificial LED lighting on the content of anthocyanins, carotenoids, phenols, tocopherols, glycosides, and terpenes, and ranked on a scale of 1 to 3. Most studies applied a combination of red and blue light (22%) or monochromatic blue (23%), with a 16 h day-1 photoperiod (78%) and an intensity greater than 200 µmol m-2  s-1 (77%). These treatment features were often the most efficient in enhancing specialized metabolite content, although large variations in performance were observed, according to the species considered and the compound analyzed. The review aims to provide valuable indications for the definition of the most promising spectral components toward the achievement of nutrient-rich indoor-grown products. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Flores/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Comestíveis/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Verduras/efeitos da radiação , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Plantas Comestíveis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Comestíveis/efeitos da radiação , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos da radiação , Verduras/química , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/metabolismo
3.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1864(1): 183812, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743950

RESUMO

Lipid-porphyrin conjugates are considered nowadays as promising building blocks for the conception of drug delivery systems with multifunctional properties such as photothermal therapy (PTT), photodynamic therapy (PDT), phototriggerable release, photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging. For this aim, we have recently synthesized a new lipid-porphyrin conjugate named PhLSM. This was obtained by coupling pheophorbide-a (Pheo-a), a photosensitizer derived from chlorophyll-a, to egg lyso-sphingomyelin. The pure PhLSMs were able to self-assemble into vesicle-like structures that were however not stable and formed aggregates with undefined structures due to the mismatch between the length of the alkyl chain in sn-1 position and the adjacent porphyrin. Herein, stable PhLSMs lipid bilayers were achieved by mixing PhLSMs with cholesterol which exhibits a complementary packing parameter. The interfacial behavior as well as the fine structures of their equimolar mixture was studied at the air/buffer interface by the mean of Langmuir balance and x-ray reflectomerty (XRR) respectively. Our XRR analysis unraveled the monolayer thickening and the increase in the lateral ordering of PhLSM molecules. Interestingly, we could prepare stable vesicles with this mixture that encapsulate hydrophilic fluorescent probe. The light-triggered release kinetics and the photothermal conversion were studied. Moreover, the obtained vesicles were photo-triggerable and allowed the release of an encapsulated cargo in an ON-OFF fashion.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Lipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Porfirinas/química , Clorofila/análogos & derivados , Clorofila/síntese química , Clorofila/química , Colesterol/química , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas/efeitos da radiação , Cinética , Luz , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/efeitos da radiação , Lipídeos/síntese química , Lipídeos/efeitos da radiação , Lipídeos/uso terapêutico , Lipossomos/química , Lipossomos/efeitos da radiação , Lipossomos/uso terapêutico , Fosfolipídeos/síntese química , Fosfolipídeos/farmacologia , Fosfolipídeos/efeitos da radiação , Fotoquimioterapia/tendências , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/síntese química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/efeitos da radiação , Terapia Fototérmica/tendências , Porfirinas/síntese química , Porfirinas/efeitos da radiação , Porfirinas/uso terapêutico
4.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1864(1): 183817, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767780

RESUMO

Here, carbon nanodots synthesized from ß-alanine (Ala-CDs) and detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) were assessed using (1) radiolabeled excitatory neurotransmitters L-[14C]glutamate, D-[2,33H]aspartate, and inhibitory ones [3H]GABA, [3H]glycine for registration of their extracellular concentrations in rat cortex nerve terminals; (2) the fluorescent ratiometric probe NR12S and pH-sensitive probe acridine orange for registration of the membrane lipid order and synaptic vesicle acidification, respectively; (3) suspended bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) to monitor changes in transmembrane current. In nerve terminals, Ala-CDs and NDs increased the extracellular concentrations of neurotransmitters and decreased acidification of synaptic vesicles, whereas have not changed sufficiently the lipid order of membrane. Both nanoparticles, Ala-CDs and NDs, were capable of increasing the conductance of the BLM by inducing stable potential-dependent cation-selective pores. Introduction of divalent cations, Zn2+ or Cd2+ on the particles` application side (cis-side) increased the rate of Ala-CDs pore-formation in the BLM. The application of positive potential (+100 mV) to the cis-chamber with Ala-CDs or NDs also activated the insertion as compared with the negative potential (-100 mV). The Ala-CD pores exhibited a wide-range distribution of conductances between 10 and 60 pS and consecutive increase in conductance of each major peak by ~10 pS, which suggest the clustering of the same basic ion-conductive structure. NDs also formed ion-conductive pores ranging from 6 pS to 60 pS with the major peak of conductance at ~12 pS in cholesterol-containing membrane. Observed Ala-CDs and NDs-induced increase in transmembrane current coincides with disturbance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter transport in nerve terminals.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Sinapses/efeitos dos fármacos , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos , Vesículas Sinápticas/química , Alanina/síntese química , Alanina/química , Animais , Ácido Aspártico/síntese química , Ácido Aspártico/química , Ácido Aspártico/farmacologia , Carbono/química , Carbono/farmacologia , Radioisótopos de Carbono/química , Radioisótopos de Carbono/farmacologia , Cátions/farmacologia , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos da radiação , Colesterol/química , Ácido Glutâmico/síntese química , Ácido Glutâmico/química , Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Nanodiamantes/química , Neurotransmissores/química , Neurotransmissores/farmacologia , Ratos , Sinapses/química , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Vesículas Sinápticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vesículas Sinápticas/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/síntese química , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/química , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia
5.
Anticancer Res ; 42(1): 195-203, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histopathological tumor regression grade is applied not to lymph nodes but primary tumors modified by preoperative treatments. This study focused on patients whose pathological examination at the time of surgery showed no residual tumor after chemo(radio)therapy in the primary lesion (ypT0) or lymph nodes (ypN0). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 87 patients with clinical stage II/III thoracic esophageal cancer underwent esophagectomy following preoperative treatments to evaluate significances between pathological response and clinical outcomes; 51 patients with clinically definitive lymph node metastasis (cN+) were analyzed as a subgroup. RESULTS: ypT0 rates were 20.7% and 23.5%, and ypN0 rates were 47.1% and 27.5% in the whole cohort and in the cN+ subgroup, respectively. Disease-free survival, from surgery to relapse or death, was significantly influenced by ypN status (p=0.035) but not by ypT status in the 51 patients with definitive cN+ disease. Preoperative chemoradiation was an independent favorable factor for achievement of ypN0 in the 51 patients (odds ratio=0.09; p=0.007). CONCLUSION: ypN status was a predictive factor for DFS in patients treated with docetaxel plus low-dose 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin combined chemotherapy, superior to ypT status, especially in patients with definitive cN+ disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/cirurgia , Esofagectomia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/radioterapia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/efeitos da radiação , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Gradação de Tumores , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/efeitos adversos
6.
Anticancer Res ; 42(1): 205-209, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (TPF) for T3 N0 glottic carcinoma without vocal cord fixation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients underwent TPF-CCRT without elective nodal irradiaion (ENI). After the RT of 40 Gy, five patients (20%) without tumor regression underwent surgery. Others underwent RT with a median total dose of 66 Gy. RESULTS: Of the five patients who underwent surgery after the RT of 40 Gy, two showed residual carcinoma pathologically and the other three were confirmed to have complete pathological response to the treatment. The 5-year local control rate was 87%. No patients exhibited regional failure. No acute toxicities of grade 5 or late toxicities ≥grade 3 were observed. CONCLUSION: TPF-CCRT provides excellent tumor control with acceptable toxicities. CCRT while omitting ENI is a reasonable approach for T3 N0 glottic carcinoma without vocal cord fixation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Laríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Prega Vocal/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma/radioterapia , Carcinoma/cirurgia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/patologia , Neoplasias Laríngeas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Laríngeas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/cirurgia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prega Vocal/efeitos da radiação , Prega Vocal/cirurgia
7.
Anticancer Res ; 42(1): 293-300, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We investigated treatment outcomes and complications during reirradiation of patients with oral cancers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six patients who received definitive radiotherapy for oral cancer as the initial treatment and brachytherapy for recurrence were included. Local control and overall survival rates, soft tissue and mandibular complications, and tooth extraction were investigated. RESULTS: The five-year local control and overall survival rates were 83.3% and 100%, respectively. The occurrence rate of grade 2 soft tissue and mandible complications was 33.3%, and the primary sites were the buccal mucosa and the floor of mouth. The positions of the extracted tooth in the two cases were adjacent to the tumor, and one case developed grade 2 complication of the mandible. CONCLUSION: During recurrence of the buccal mucosa and the floor of mouth cancers, reirradiation should be avoided considering mandibular complications. To avoid reirradiation-related complications, tooth extraction near the radiation field should be avoided.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Ouro/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Bucais/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Reirradiação/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Braquiterapia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Isótopos de Ouro/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica/normas , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 65(1): 108-116, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fecal management systems have become ubiquitous in hospitalized patients with fecal incontinence or severe diarrhea, especially in the setting of perianal wounds. Although fecal management system use has been shown to be safe and effective in initial series, case reports of rectal ulceration and severe bleeding have been reported, with a relative paucity of clinical safety data in the literature. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of rectal complications attributable to fecal management systems, as well as to characterize possible risk factors and appropriate management strategies for such complications. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a large academic medical center. PATIENTS: All medical and surgical patients who underwent fecal management system placement from December 2014 to March 2017 were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured any rectal complication associated with fecal management system use, defined as any rectal injury identified after fecal management system use confirmed by lower endoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 629 patients were captured, with a median duration of fecal management system use of 4 days. Overall, 8 patients (1.3%) experienced a rectal injury associated with fecal management system use. All of the patients who experienced a rectal complication had severe underlying comorbidities, including 2 patients on dialysis, 1 patient with cirrhosis, and 3 patients with a recent history of emergent cardiac surgery. In 3 patients the bleeding resolved spontaneously, whereas the remaining 5 patients required intervention: transanal suture ligation (n = 2), endoscopic clip placement (n = 1), rectal packing (n = 1), and proctectomy in 1 patient with a history of pelvic radiotherapy. LIMITATIONS: The study was limited by its retrospective design and single institution. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study to date evaluating rectal complications from fecal management system use. Although rectal injury rates are low, they can lead to serious morbidity. Advanced age, severe comorbidities, pelvic radiotherapy, and anticoagulation status or coagulopathy are important factors to consider before fecal management system placement. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B698. INCIDENCIA Y CARACTERIZACIN DE LAS COMPLICACIONES RECTALES DE LOS SISTEMAS DE MANEJO FECAL: ANTECEDENTES:Los sistemas de manejo fecal se han vuelto omnipresentes en pacientes hospitalizados con incontinencia fecal o diarrea severa, especialmente en el contexto de heridas perianales. Aunque se ha demostrado que el uso del sistema de tratamiento fecal es seguro y eficaz en la serie inicial, se han notificado casos de ulceración rectal y hemorragia grave, con una relativa escasez de datos de seguridad clínica en la literatura.OBJETIVO:Determinar la tasa de complicaciones rectales atribuibles a los sistemas de manejo fecal. Caracterizar los posibles factores de riesgo y las estrategias de manejo adecuadas para tales complicaciones.DISEÑO:Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo.ENTORNO CLINICO:Centro médico académico de mayor volumen.PACIENTES:Todos los pacientes médicos y quirúrgicos que se sometieron a la colocación del sistema de manejo fecal desde diciembre de 2014 hasta marzo de 2017.PRINCIPALES MEDIDAS DE VALORACION:Cualquier complicación rectal asociada con el uso del sistema de manejo fecal, definida como cualquier lesión rectal identificada después del uso del sistema de manejo fecal confirmada por endoscopia baja.RESULTADOS:Se identificaron un total de 629 pacientes, con una duración media del uso del sistema de manejo fecal de 4,0 días. En general, 8 (1,3%) pacientes desarrollaron una lesión rectal asociada con el uso del sistema de manejo fecal. Todos los pacientes que mostraron una complicación rectal tenían comorbilidades subyacentes graves, incluidos dos pacientes en diálisis, un paciente con cirrosis y tres pacientes con antecedentes recientes de cirugía cardíaca emergente. En tres pacientes el sangrado se resolvió espontáneamente, mientras que los cinco pacientes restantes requirieron intervención: ligadura de sutura transanal (2), colocación de clip endoscópico (1), taponamiento rectal (1) y proctectomía en un paciente con antecedentes de radioterapia pélvica.LIMITACIONES:Diseño retrospectivo, institución única.CONCLUSIONES:Este es el estudio más grande hasta la fecha que evalúa las complicaciones rectales del uso del sistema de manejo fecal. Si bien las tasas de lesión rectal son bajas, pueden provocar una morbilidad grave. La edad avanzada, las comorbilidades graves, la radioterapia pélvica y el estado de anticoagulación o coagulopatía son factores importantes a considerar antes de la colocación del sistema de manejo fecal. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B698.


Assuntos
Incontinência Fecal/terapia , Fissura Anal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Doenças Retais/patologia , Reto/lesões , Idoso , Comorbidade/tendências , Gerenciamento Clínico , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Incontinência Fecal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fissura Anal/epidemiologia , Fissura Anal/cirurgia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/cirurgia , Humanos , Incidência , Ligadura/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pelve/patologia , Pelve/efeitos da radiação , Protectomia/métodos , Doenças Retais/cirurgia , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Reto/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Segurança , Suturas , Cirurgia Endoscópica Transanal/métodos
9.
Microbiol Res ; 254: 126916, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798539

RESUMO

Development of an efficient liquid fermentation method is helpful for food and pharmaceutical applications. This study investigated the effect of ultrasonication on the liquid fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum, a popular edible and medical fungi. Significant changes at both metabolic and transcriptional levels in mycelia were induced by ultrasound treatment. Compared with the control, 857 differential metabolites were identified (578 up- and 279 down-regulated metabolites), with more metabolites biosynthesis after sonication; 569 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (267 up- and 302 down-) and 932 DEGs (378 up- and 554 down-) were identified in ultrasound-treated samples with recovery time of 0.5 and 3 h, respectively. Furthermore, 334 DEGs were continuously induced within the recovery time of 3 h, indicating the lasting influence of sonication on mycelia. The DEGs and differential metabolites were mainly involved in pathways of carbohydrate, energy metabolism, amino acids, terpenoids biosynthesis and metabolism and membrane transport, suggesting that ultrasound induced multifaceted effects on primary and secondary metabolism. Ultrasonication enhanced the triterpenoids production of G. lucidum (34.96 %) by up-regulating the expression of terpenoids synthase genes. This study shows that the application of ultrasound in liquid fermentation of G. lucidum is an efficient approach to produce more metabolites.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Reishi , Ultrassom , Fermentação/efeitos da radiação , Metaboloma/efeitos da radiação , Reishi/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos da radiação
10.
Cancer Lett ; 524: 268-283, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648881

RESUMO

Although the DNA damage response (DDR) is associated with the radioresistance characteristics of lung cancer cells, the specific regulators and underlying mechanisms of the DDR are unclear. Here, we identified the serine proteinase inhibitor clade E member 2 (SERPINE2) as a modulator of radiosensitivity and the DDR in lung cancer. Cells exhibiting radioresistance after ionizing radiation show upregulation of SERPINE2, and SERPINE2 knockdown improves tumor radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Functionally, SERPINE2 deficiency causes a reduction in homologous recombination repair, rapid recovery of cell cycle checkpoints, and suppression of migration and invasion. Mechanistically, SERPINE2 knockdown inhibits the accumulation of p-ATM and the downstream repair protein RAD51 during DNA repair, and RAD51 can restore DNA damage and radioresistance phenotypes in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, SERPINE2 can directly interact with MRE11 and ATM to facilitate its phosphorylation in HR-mediated DSB repair. In addition, high SERPINE2 expression correlates with dismal prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and a high serum SERPINE2 concentration predicts a poor response to radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer patients. In summary, these findings indicate a novel regulatory mechanism by which SERPINE2 modulates the DDR and radioresistance in lung cancer.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Proteína Homóloga a MRE11/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Serpina E2/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Reparo do DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Fosforilação/efeitos da radiação , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Radiação Ionizante
11.
Cancer Lett ; 524: 29-41, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656689

RESUMO

125I seeds can effectively inhibit the growth of a variety of cancer cells. It has been used in the treatment of a variety of cancers, and has achieved certain curative effect. However, to the best of our knowledge, no report has described the effects of 125I seeds on the biological functions of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and the mechanisms underlying the effects of the seeds on this cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that 125I seeds could inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of CCA cells, as well as promoting apoptosis and blocking the cell cycle in these cells. Moreover, 125I seeds inhibited the growth of CCA xenografts and promoted the apoptosis of CCA cells in vivo. Furthermore, transcriptome sequencing showed that 125I seeds could inhibit the growth of CCA by inhibiting the expression of AGR2 and regulating p38 MAPK pathway. Finally, this finding indicated that 125I seeds can inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis in CCA cells by inhibiting the expression of AGR2 and DUSP1 and increasing the expression of p-p38 MAPK and p-p53. This study provides a new research direction for studies investigating the mechanisms underlying the effects of 125I seeds on CCA.


Assuntos
Colangiocarcinoma/radioterapia , Radioisótopos do Iodo/farmacologia , Mucoproteínas/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos da radiação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Fosfatase 1 de Especificidade Dupla/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
12.
Cancer Lett ; 524: 172-181, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688844

RESUMO

The influence of high-linear energy transfer (LET) particle radiation on the functionalities of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the effects of proton (1H), helium (4He), carbon (12C) and oxygen (16O) ions on human bone marrow-MSCs. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induction were examined by flow cytometry, and DNA damage was quantified using γH2AX immunofluorescence and Western blots. Relative biological effectiveness values of MSCs amounted to 1.0-1.1 for 1H, 1.7-2.3 for 4He, 2.9-3.4 for 12C and 2.6-3.3 for 16O. Particle radiation did not alter the MSCs' characteristic surface marker pattern, and MSCs maintained their multi-lineage differentiation capabilities. Apoptosis rates ranged low for all radiation modalities. At 24 h after irradiation, particle radiation-induced ATM and CHK2 phosphorylation as well as γH2AX foci numbers returned to baseline levels. The resistance of human MSCs to high-LET irradiation suggests that MSCs remain functional after exposure to moderate doses of particle radiation as seen in normal tissues after particle radiotherapy or during manned space flights. In the future, in vivo models focusing on long-term consequences of particle irradiation on the bone marrow niche and MSCs are needed.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Histonas/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos da radiação , Células-Tronco/efeitos da radiação , Medicina Aeroespacial , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos da radiação , Carbono/efeitos adversos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Ciclo Celular/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Linhagem da Célula/efeitos da radiação , Citometria de Fluxo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Hélio/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Oxigênio/efeitos adversos , Prótons/efeitos adversos , Voo Espacial , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
13.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(1): 166287, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626772

RESUMO

Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation are major causes of skin injury induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Ferroptosis is a form of regulated necrosis driven by iron-dependent peroxidation of phospholipids and contributes to kinds of tissue injuries. However, it remains unclear whether the accumulation of lipid peroxides in UV irradiation-induced skin injury could lead to ferroptosis. We generated UV irradiation-induced skin injury mice model to examine the accumulation of the lipid peroxides and iron. Lipid peroxides 4-HNE, the oxidative enzyme COX2, the oxidative DNA damage biomarker 8-OHdG, and the iron level were increased in UV irradiation-induced skin. The accumulation of iron and lipid peroxidation was also observed in UVB-irradiated epidermal keratinocytes without actual ongoing ferroptotic cell death. Ferroptosis was triggered in UV-irradiated keratinocytes stimulated with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) to mimic the iron overload. Although GPX4 protected UVB-injured keratinocytes against ferroptotic cell death resulted from dysregulation of iron metabolism and the subsequent increase of lipid ROS, keratinocytes enduring constant UVB treatment were markedly sensitized to ferroptosis. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) which is a direct and potent NAD+ precursor supplement, rescued the imbalanced NAD+/NADH ratio, recruited the production of GSH and promoted resistance to lipid peroxidation in a GPX4-dependent manner. Taken together, our data suggest that NMN recruits GSH to enhance GPX4-mediated ferroptosis defense in UV irradiation-induced skin injury and inhibits oxidative skin damage. NMN or ferroptosis inhibitor might become promising therapeutic approaches for treating oxidative stress-induced skin diseases or disorders.


Assuntos
Glutationa/genética , Ferro/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Pele/metabolismo , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/farmacologia , Aldeídos/farmacologia , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Compostos Férricos/farmacologia , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferroptose/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos da radiação , Peróxidos Lipídicos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Mononucleotídeo de Nicotinamida/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/lesões , Pele/patologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
14.
Environ Pollut ; 294: 118646, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896224

RESUMO

With the rapidly increasing popularity of 5G mobile technology, the effect of radiofrequency radiation on human health has caused public concern. This study explores the effects of a simulated 3.5 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMF) environment on the development and microbiome of flies under intensities of 0.1 W/m2, 1 W/m2 and 10 W/m2. We found that the pupation percentages in the first 3 days and eclosion rate in the first 2 days were increased under exposure to RF-EMF, and the mean development time was shortened. In a study on third-instar larvae, the expression levels of the heat shock protein genes hsp22, hsp26 and hsp70 and humoral immune system genes AttC, TotC and TotA were all significantly increased. In the oxidative stress system, DuoX gene expression was decreased, sod2 and cat gene expression levels were increased, and SOD and CAT enzyme activity also showed a significant increase. According to the 16S rDNA results, the diversity and species abundance of the microbial community decreased significantly, and according to the functional prediction analysis, the genera Acetobacter and Lactobacillus were significantly increased. In conclusion, 3.5 GHz RF-EMF may enhance thermal stress, oxidative stress and humoral immunity, cause changes in the microbial community, and regulate the insulin/TOR and ecdysteroid signalling pathways to promote fly development.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Microbiota/efeitos da radiação , Ondas de Rádio , Animais , Telefone Celular , Drosophila melanogaster/embriologia , Drosophila melanogaster/microbiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos da radiação , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Larva/efeitos da radiação
15.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108646, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392092

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate if ultrasonication of bovine longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) steaks increases calpain-1 and caspase-3 activities, and if so, to explore the underlying mechanisms that trigger their activation. Post-rigor bovine LTL steaks were subjected to ultrasonication at 40 kHz and 12 W/cm2 for 40 min and subsequently aged for 14 d at 4 °C. Ultrasonication improved beef tenderness (P < 0.05) without negatively impacting pH, color, or cook loss (P > 0.05). Improved tenderness in the ultrasonicated steaks was associated with greater degradation of titin, desmin, troponin-T, and calpastatin and increased calpain-1 autolysis and caspase-3 activity (P < 0.05). In addition, ultrasonicated steaks had greater levels of cytosolic calcium and reactive oxygen species and lower mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (P < 0.05). These data indicate that improved beef tenderness following ultrasonication is, in part, a function of increased calpain-1 and caspase-3 activities, potentially by elevating cytosolic calcium and inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, respectively.


Assuntos
Calpaína/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Carne Vermelha/análise , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Bovinos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/efeitos da radiação , Resistência ao Cisalhamento
16.
Dermatol Surg ; 48(1): 34-38, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous melanoma is strongly associated with tanning bed use. OBJECTIVE: To describe local residents' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding skin cancer and tanning bed use and to estimate prevalence of high risk for melanoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was mailed to 886 local residents (549, aged 18-39 years; 337, aged ≥40 years). Logistic and linear regression and univariate and multivariable analysis were used to assess perceived risk and skin cancer knowledge. RESULTS: The response rate was 21%; 55% of the younger group and 37% of the older group had used indoor tanning, and prevalence of high risk for melanoma according to a skin cancer risk calculator was 18% in the younger group and 33% in the older group. Individuals with high risk scores were more likely to correctly perceive that they were at high risk for skin cancer. Most participants with high risk scores and those who previously used tanning beds reported low likelihood of future indoor tanning. CONCLUSION: Female sex, high risk score, and previous indoor tanning were associated with participants' views of higher skin cancer risk. No specific knowledge gaps were identified. Understanding community residents' attitudes about skin cancer and indoor tanning can help guide interventions.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Banho de Sol/estatística & dados numéricos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/etiologia , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Banho de Sol/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(15): 22, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935883

RESUMO

Purpose: Given the potential role of light and its wavelength on ocular growth, we investigated the effect of short-term exposure to the red, green, and blue light on ocular biometry in the presence and absence of lens-induced defocus in humans. Methods: Twenty-five young adults were exposed to blue (460 nm), green (521 nm), red (623 nm), and white light conditions for 1-hour each on 4 separate experimental sessions conducted on 4 different days. In each light condition, hyperopic defocus (3D) was induced to the right eye with the fellow eye experiencing no defocus. Axial length and choroidal thickness were measured before and immediately after the light exposure with a non-contact biometer. Results: Axial length increased from baseline after red light (mean difference ± standard error in the defocussed eye and non-defocussed eye = 11.2 ± 2 µm and 6.4 ± 2.3 µm, P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively) and green light exposure (9.2 ± 3 µm and 7.0 ± 2.5 µm, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001) with a significant decrease in choroidal thickness (P < 0.05, both red and green light) after 1-hour of exposure. Blue light exposure resulted in a reduction in axial length in both the eyes (-8.0 ± 3 µm, P < 0.001 in the defocussed eye and -6.0 ± 3 µm, P = 0.11 in the non-defocused eye) with no significant changes in the choroidal thickness. Conclusions: Exposure to red and green light resulted in axial elongation, and blue light resulted in inhibition of axial elongation in human eyes. Impact of such specific wavelength exposure on children and its application in myopia control need to be explored.


Assuntos
Comprimento Axial do Olho/efeitos da radiação , Hiperopia/fisiopatologia , Luz , Adulto , Biometria , Corioide/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(15): 29, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967856

RESUMO

Purpose: Ultraviolet B (UVB) has been well documented to induce capsular cataracts; however, the mechanism of the lens epithelial cell-mediated repair process after UVB irradiation is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to better understand lens epithelial cell repair after UVB-induced epithelium damage. Method: C57BL/6J mice were irradiated by various doses of UVB. Lens morphology and lens capsule opacity were monitored by slit lamp, darkfield microscopy, and phase-contrast microscopy. Lens epithelial cell mitotic activation and cell apoptosis were measured by immunohistochemistry. Lens epithelial ultrastructure was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Results: UVB irradiation above a dose of 2.87 kJ/m2 triggered lens epithelial cell apoptosis and subcapsular cataract formation, with a ring-shaped structure composed of multilayered epithelial cell clusters manifesting a dense ring-shaped capsular cataract. The epithelial cells immediately outside the edge of the ring-shaped aggregates transitioned to mitotically active cells and performed wound healing through the epithelialization process. However, repairs ceased when lens epithelial cells made direct contact, and scar-like tissue in the center of the anterior capsule remained even by 6 months after UVB irradiation. Conclusions: Our present study demonstrates that normally quiescent lens epithelial cells can be reactivated for epithelialization repair in response to UV-induced damage.


Assuntos
Catarata/etiologia , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Cristalino/efeitos da radiação , Mitose/fisiologia , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/etiologia , Reepitelização/fisiologia , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Catarata/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Cristalino/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Microscopia de Contraste de Fase , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/patologia , Microscopia com Lâmpada de Fenda , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
19.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943893

RESUMO

In vascular plants, cryptochromes acting as blue-light photoreceptors have various functions to adapt plants to the fluctuating light conditions on land, while the roles of cryptochromes in bryophytes have been rarely reported. In this study, we investigated functions of a single-copy ortholog of cryptochrome (MpCRY) in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. Knock-out of MpCRY showed that a large number of the mutant plants exhibited asymmetric growth of thalli under blue light. Transcriptome analyses indicated that MpCRY is mainly involved in photosynthesis and sugar metabolism. Further physiological analysis showed that Mpcry mutant exhibited a reduction in CO2 uptake and sucrose metabolism. In addition, exogenous application of sucrose or glucose partially restored the symmetrical growth of the Mpcry mutant thalli. Together, these results suggest that MpCRY is involved in the symmetrical growth of thallus and the regulation of carbon fixation and sucrose metabolism in M. polymorpha.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Criptocromos/metabolismo , Marchantia/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ciclo do Carbono/efeitos da radiação , Criptocromos/química , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Glucose/metabolismo , Luz , Marchantia/efeitos da radiação , Mutação/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos da radiação
20.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944078

RESUMO

Population aging is occurring rapidly worldwide, challenging the global economy and healthcare services. Brain aging is a significant contributor to various age-related neurological and neuropsychological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Several extrinsic factors, such as exposure to ionizing radiation, can accelerate senescence. Multiple human and animal studies have reported that exposure to ionizing radiation can have varied effects on organ aging and lead to the prolongation or shortening of life span depending on the radiation dose or dose rate. This paper reviews the effects of radiation on the aging of different types of brain cells, including neurons, microglia, astrocytes, and cerebral endothelial cells. Further, the relevant molecular mechanisms are discussed. Overall, this review highlights how radiation-induced senescence in different cell types may lead to brain aging, which could result in the development of various neurological and neuropsychological disorders. Therefore, treatment targeting radiation-induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation may prevent radiation-induced brain aging and the neurological and neuropsychological disorders it may cause.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Senescência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Radiação Ionizante , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos da radiação , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação
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