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1.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 276, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650165

RESUMO

Ultraviolet A light is commonly emitted by UV-nail polish dryers with recent reports suggesting that long-term use may increase the risk for developing skin cancer. However, no experimental evaluation has been conducted to reveal the effect of radiation emitted by UV-nail polish dryers on mammalian cells. Here, we show that irradiation by a UV-nail polish dryer causes high levels of reactive oxygen species, consistent with 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. Analysis of somatic mutations reveals a dose-dependent increase of C:G>A:T substitutions in irradiated samples with mutagenic patterns similar to mutational signatures previously attributed to reactive oxygen species. In summary, this study demonstrates that radiation emitted by UV-nail polish dryers can both damage DNA and permanently engrave mutations on the genomes of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts, human foreskin fibroblasts, and human epidermal keratinocytes.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Fibroblastos , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Mamíferos , Mutação/efeitos da radiação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Unhas
2.
BMC Microbiol ; 23(1): 24, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biological phenotypes are important characteristics of microorganisms, and often reflect their genotype and genotype changes. Traditionally, Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) phenotypes were detected using carbon source assimilation tests, during which the types of tested substances are limited. In addition, the operation is complicated, and only one substance can be tested at once. To observe the changes of the metabolic phenotype of T. rubrum after laser irradiation, a high-throughput phenotype microarray system was used to analyze the metabolism of different carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur source substrates in a Biolog metabolic phenotyping system. RESULTS: The strain of T. rubrum used in this study can effectively utilize 33 carbon, 20 nitrogen, 16 phosphorus, and 13 sulfur source substrates prior to laser irradiation. After laser irradiation, the strain was able to utilize 10 carbon, 12 nitrogen, 12 phosphorus, and 8 sulfur source substrates. The degree of utilization was significantly decreased compared with the control. Both groups efficiently utilized saccharides and organic acids as carbon sources as well as some amino acids as nitrogen sources for growth. The number of substrates utilized by T. rubrum after laser irradiation were significantly reduced, especially carbon substrates. Some substrates utilization degree in the laser treated group was higher than control, such as D-glucosamine, L-glutamine, D-2-Phospho-Glyceric Acid, D-glucosamine-6-phosphate, and D-methionine. CONCLUSION: Laser irradiation of T. rubrum may lead to changes in the metabolic substrate and metabolic pathway, thus weakening the activity of the strain.


Assuntos
Lasers , Trichophyton , Trichophyton/genética , Trichophyton/efeitos da radiação , Fenótipo , Fósforo , Enxofre
3.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 76(1)2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688747

RESUMO

Escherichia coli O157: H7 is a representative foodborne pathogen that causes haemorrhagic colitis, bloody diarrhea, and fatal haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Previously, only conventional heat treatment was used to pasteurised food; however, this method decreases food quality, including colour change, denatures proteins, and causes lipid oxidation. Therefore, emerging technologies to inactivate pathogens in food that affect food quality minimally have been researched and developed. This review aims to compile research since 2018 and briefly describe the inactivation mechanisms of emerging technologies such as microwave, radio frequency, ohmic heating, superheated steam, ionising radiation (gamma irradiation, electron beam, and X-rays), high pressure, ultraviolet light, pulsed light, ultrasound, gas treatment, plasma, and combination treatments. Pulsed electric field and electrolysed water were excluded because few research papers were published after 2018. In addition, the shortcomings of emerging technologies in the control of E. coli O157: H7 and the directions for emerging technology research are presented. Taking advantage of emerging technologies with many benefits will significantly improve food safety.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli O157 , Humanos , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos da radiação , Radiação Ionizante , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Diarreia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
4.
Radiat Oncol ; 18(1): 11, 2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639667

RESUMO

Radiation dermatitis is a major concern in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for head and neck cancer (HNC) despite its demonstrated superiority over contemporary photon radiotherapy. In this study, dose surface histogram data extracted from forty-four patients of HNC treated with IMPT was used to predict the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of skin. Grades of NTCP-skin were clustered using the K-means clustering unsupervised machine learning (ML) algorithm. A new skin-sparing IMPT (IMPT-SS) planning strategy was developed with three major changes and prospectively implemented in twenty HNC patients. Across skin surfaces exposed from 10 (S10) to 70 (S70) GyRBE, the skin's NTCP demonstrated the strongest associations with S50 and S40 GyRBE (0.95 and 0.94). The increase in the NTCP of skin per unit GyRBE is 0.568 for skin exposed to 50 GyRBE as compared to 0.418 for 40 GyRBE. Three distinct clusters were formed, with 41% of patients in G1, 32% in G2, and 27% in G3. The average (± SD) generalised equivalent uniform dose for G1, G2, and G3 clusters was 26.54 ± 6.75, 38.73 ± 1.80, and 45.67 ± 2.20 GyRBE. The corresponding NTCP (%) were 4.97 ± 5.12, 48.12 ± 12.72 and 87.28 ± 7.73 respectively. In comparison to IMPT, new IMPT-SS plans significantly (P < 0.01) reduced SX GyRBE, gEUD, and associated NTCP-skin while maintaining identical dose volume indices for target and other organs at risk. The mean NTCP-skin value for IMPT-SS was 34% lower than that of IMPT. The dose to skin in patients treated prospectively for HNC was reduced by including gEUD for an acceptable radiation dermatitis determined from the local patient population using an unsupervised MLA in the spot map optimization of a new IMPT planning technique. However, the clinical finding of acute skin toxicity must also be related to the observed reduction in skin dose.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Terapia com Prótons , Radiodermatite , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Humanos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Terapia com Prótons/efeitos adversos , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Radiodermatite/etiologia , Radiodermatite/prevenção & controle , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado
5.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 28(1): 2, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation involves irradiation preconditioning which causes bone marrow endothelial cell dysfunction. While much emphasis is on the reconstitution of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow microenvironment, endothelial cell preservation is indispensable to overcome the preconditioning damages. This study aims to ascertain the role of Roundabout 4 (Robo4) in regulating irradiation-induced damage to the endothelium. METHODS: Microvascular endothelial cells were treated with γ-radiation to establish an endothelial cell injury model. Robo4 expression in the endothelial cells was manipulated employing lentiviral-mediated RNAi and gene overexpression technology before irradiation treatment. The permeability of endothelial cells was measured using qPCR, immunocytochemistry, and immunoblotting to analyze the effect on the expression and distribution of junctional molecules, adherens junctions, tight junctions, and gap junctions. Using Transwell endothelial monolayer staining, FITC-Dextran permeability, and gap junction-mediated intercellular communication (GJIC) assays, we determined the changes in endothelial functions after Robo4 gene manipulation and irradiation. Moreover, we measured the proportion of CD31 expression in endothelial cells by flow cytometry. We analyzed variations between two or multiple groups using Student's t-tests and ANOVA. RESULTS: Ionizing radiation upregulates Robo4 expression but disrupts endothelial junctional molecules. Robo4 deletion causes further degradation of endothelial junctions hence increasing the permeability of the endothelial cell monolayer. Robo4 knockdown in microvascular endothelial cells increases the degradation and delocalization of ZO-1, PECAM-1, occludin, and claudin-5 molecules after irradiation. Conversely, connexin 43 expression increases after silencing Robo4 in endothelial cells to induce permeability but are readily destroyed when exposed to 10 Gy of gamma radiation. Also, Robo4 knockdown enhances Y731-VE-cadherin phosphorylation leading to the depletion and destabilization of VE-cadherin at the endothelial junctions following irradiation. However, Robo4 overexpression mitigates irradiation-induced degradation of tight junctional proteins and stabilizes claudin-5 and ZO-1 distribution. Finally, the enhanced expression of Robo4 ameliorates the irradiation-induced depletion of VE-cadherin and connexin 43, improves the integrity of microvascular endothelial cell junctions, and decreases permeability. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that Robo4 maintains microvascular integrity after radiation preconditioning treatment by regulating endothelial permeability and protecting endothelial functions. Our results also provided a potential mechanism to repair the bone marrow vascular niche after irradiation by modulating Robo4 expression.


Assuntos
Conexina 43 , Células Endoteliais , Receptores de Superfície Celular , Animais , Camundongos , Caderinas/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Claudina-5 , Conexina 43/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Raios gama , Permeabilidade/efeitos da radiação , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo
6.
Lasers Med Sci ; 38(1): 41, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652020

RESUMO

This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation and adhesive systems on the microtensile bond strength of Fusio Liquid Dentin (FLD) which is a self-adhering composite (SAC). Twenty-four freshly extracted human molar teeth were collected, and the enamel was removed from the occlusal surface to obtain a flat dentin surface. Twenty-four teeth were randomly divided into eight groups: Group 1: only Fusio Liquid Dentin (FLD) (Petron Clinical, Orange, California, USA) was applied to the dentin surface; Group 2: 37% Phosphoricacid (i-GEL, Medicinos Linija UAB, Lithuania) + FLD; Group 3: Single Bond Universal (SBU) (3 M ESPE, Germany) + FLD; Group 4: Adper Easy One (AEO) (3 M ESPE, Germany) + FLD; Group 5: Er:YAG laser + AEO + FLD; Group 6: Er:YAG laser + SBU + FLD; Group 7: Er,Cr:YSGG laser + AEO + FLD; and Group 8: Er,Cr:YSGG laser + SBU + FLD. After thermocycling, 1 × 1 mm2 sticks were used for the µTBS test (n = 10). Two sticks per group were used for SEM analysis. Fractured sample surfaces were evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Group 8 showed the highest µTBS value (13.70 MPa), whereas Group 1 showed the lowest µTBS value (5.60 MPa). There were no significant differences between Groups 2, 3, and 4 (P = 0.324), but Groups 5-8 showed statistically significant results that were higher than Groups 1-4 (P = 0.012). Adhesive failure mode was predominant followed by mixed failure. The evaluation of bonding of the FLD to dentin showed that the combined use of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers with SBU and AEO on dentin surfaces improved the dentinal bond strength of the FLD.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Lasers de Estado Sólido , Humanos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Adesivos , Dentina/efeitos da radiação , Resistência à Tração
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 381, 2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36611088

RESUMO

Dining tables may present a risk to diners by transmitting bacteria and/or viruses. Currently, there is a lack of an environmental-friendly and convenient means to protect diners when they are sitting together. This investigation constructed far-UVC excimer lamps to disinfect dining-table surfaces. The lamps were mounted at different heights and orientations, and the irradiance on table surfaces was measured. The irradiation doses to obtain different inactivation efficiencies for Escherichia coli (E. coli) were provided. In addition, numerical modeling was conducted for irradiance and the resulting inactivation efficiency. The surface-to-surface (S2S) model was validated with the measured irradiance. The germicidal performance of far-UVC irradiation, the far-UVC doses to which diners were exposed, and the risk of exposure to the generated ozone were evaluated. The results revealed that an irradiation dose of 12.8 mJ/cm2 can disinfect 99.9% of E. coli on surfaces. By varying the lamp irradiance output, the number and positions of the lamps, the far-UVC irradiation can achieve a 3-log reduction for a dining duration of 5 min. Besides, the far-UVC lamp has a low damage risk to diners when achieving an effective inactivation rate. Moreover, there is virtually no ozone exposure risk in a mechanically ventilated dining hall.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Vírus , Escherichia coli/efeitos da radiação , Desinfecção/métodos , Bactérias/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
8.
Lasers Med Sci ; 38(1): 32, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595096

RESUMO

At present, lasers are increasingly used in the oral clinical field, and research and applications in dental hard tissue treatment are also increasing. The effect of laser etching dentin on the bonding strength of composite resin reported in the literature is still inconclusive. The purpose of this review was to evaluate whether laser etching can improve the immediate and long-term bonding strength of dentin and investigate the effect of different types of adhesives on the bonding strength of dentin. Two reviewers performed a literature search up from January 2012 to November 2021 in four databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. A total of 25 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The Cochrane Collaboration Bias Risk Assessment tool was used to evaluate the quality of the included literature, and an analysis was carried out using Review Manager Software version 5.3. The aging bond strength of dentin after erbium (Er): yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser treatment was significantly lower than that of dentin in the bur group (P < 0.00001). At the same time, the bond strength of dentin immediately and aging after (Er), chromium-doped (Cr): yttrium scandium gallium garnet (YSGG) laser treatment was lower than that of dentin in the bur group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the immediate and aging bonding strength among samples in the Er: YAG laser, Er, Cr: YSGG laser, and blank control groups (no laser or bur). The aging bond strength of samples after neodymium-doped (Nd): YAG laser treatment was higher than that of samples in the blank control group (P < 0.05); in addition, the performance of self-etching adhesive was slightly better than that of acid etching adhesive. Regardless of the applied surface treatment and the adhesive employed, dentin after aging showed significant bond degradation (P < 0.05). There was high heterogeneity of bond strength between different groups, and the small number of studies and the contradictory results may be the main reasons for this outcome.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Lasers de Estado Sólido , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Adesivos , Érbio , Neodímio , Escândio/análise , Ítrio/análise , Dentina/efeitos da radiação
9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1404, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697433

RESUMO

Arabidopsis SENSITIVITY TO RED LIGHT REDUCED 1 (SRR1) delays the transition from vegetative to reproductive development in noninductive conditions. A second-site suppressor screen for novel genes that overcome early flowering of srr1-1 identified a range of suppressor of srr1-1 mutants flowering later than srr1-1 in short photoperiods. Here, we focus on mutants flowering with leaf numbers intermediate between srr1-1 and Col. Ssm67 overcomes srr1-1 early flowering independently of day-length and ambient temperature. Full-genome sequencing and linkage mapping identified a causative SNP in a gene encoding a Haloacid dehalogenase superfamily protein, named HAD-FAMILY REGULATOR OF DEVELOPMENT AND FLOWERING 1 (HDF1). Both, ssm67 and hdf1-1 show increased levels of FLC, indicating that HDF1 is a novel regulator of this floral repressor. HDF1 regulates flowering largely independent of SRR1, as the effect is visible in srr1-1 and in Col, but full activity on FLC may require SRR1. Furthermore, srr1-1 has a delayed leaf initiation rate that is dependent on HDF1, suggesting that SRR1 and HDF1 act together in leaf initiation. Another mutant flowering intermediate between srr1-1 and wt, ssm15, was identified as a new allele of ARABIDOPSIS SUMO PROTEASE 1, previously implicated in the regulation of FLC stability.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Flores , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/fisiologia , Mutação , Fotoperíodo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação
10.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 239: 112641, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610349

RESUMO

As an emerging UV source, ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) are increasingly being used for disinfection purposes. UVA-LEDs have a higher output power, lower cost, and stronger penetration and cause less harm than UVC-LEDs. In this study, a novel exposure mode based on UVA was proposed and well demonstrated by various experiments using S. aureus as an indicator. Compared with single-dose exposure, fractionated exposure with a 15 min interval between treatments resulted in increased S. aureus inactivation. A longer interval or lower first irradiation dose was unfavorable for inactivation. Fractionated exposure changed the inactivation rate constant and eliminated the shoulder in the fluence-response curves. This resulted in changing the sensitivity of bacteria to UVA and improving bacterial inactivation. Moreover, the fractioned exposure mode has universality for various bacteria (including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria). S. aureus was not reactivated by photoreactivation or dark repair after UVA treatment. As expected, the cells were damaged more seriously after fractionated exposure, further suggesting the advantages of this new exposure mode. In addition, the mechanism by which bacteria were inactivated after fractionated exposure was investigated, and it was found that •OH played an important role. A longer interval between treatments showed an adverse effect on inactivation, mainly due to the reduction of •OH and recovery of intracellular GSH. In summary, the current work provides novel ideas for the application of UVA-LEDs, which will give more choices for disinfection treatment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Raios Ultravioleta , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Bactérias/efeitos da radiação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos da radiação
11.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 239: 112647, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634432

RESUMO

UV-A radiation affects skin homeostasis by promoting oxidative distress. Endogenous photosensitizers in the dermis and epidermis of human skin absorb UV-A radiation forming excited states (singlet and triplet) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing oxidized compounds that trigger biological responses. The activation of NF-kB induces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and can intensify the generation of ROS. However, there is no studies evaluating the cross talks between inflammatory stimulus and UV-A exposure on the levels of redox misbalance and inflammation. In here, we evaluated the effects of UV-A exposure on J774 macrophage cells previously challenged with LPS in terms of oxidative distress, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and activation of regulated cell death pathways. Our results showed that LPS potentiates the dose-dependent UV-A-induced oxidative distress and cytokine release, in addition to amplifying the regulated (autophagy and apoptosis) and non-regulated (necrosis) mechanisms of cell death, indicating that a previous inflammatory stimulus potentiates UV-A-induced cell damage. We discuss these results in terms of the current-available skin care strategies.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Citocinas/metabolismo
12.
Methods Cell Biol ; 174: 137-149, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710047

RESUMO

Radiation therapy induces targeted effects in the cells that are irradiated and also non-targeted effects (i.e. bystander effects) in non-irradiated cells that are close to or at short distance (<∼1 mm) from irradiated cells. Bystander effects are mediated by intercellular communications and may result in cytotoxic and genotoxic modifications. Their occurrence and relative contribution to the irradiation outcome are influenced by several parameters among which the particle linear energy transfer seems to be prominent. Bystander effects were first observed after external radiation therapy, but have been described also following targeted radionuclide therapy. Therefore, we propose a method to investigate their occurrence in experimental conditions where cells are exposed to radiopharmaceuticals. In this approach, clonogenic cell death is the biological endpoint of the bystander effects caused by irradiation with alpha particles (a potent inducer of the bystander response).


Assuntos
Partículas alfa , Comunicação Celular , Partículas alfa/uso terapêutico , Efeito Espectador/fisiologia , Efeito Espectador/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
13.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 40(1): 2152500, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535921

RESUMO

Objective: To verify that the TiO2 nanofilm dip-coated by sol-gel can reduce titanium alloy implants (TAI)'s heat production after microwave diathermy (MD).Methods: The effect of 40 W and 60 W MD on the titanium alloy substrate coated with TiO2 nanofilm (Experimental Group) and the titanium alloy substrate without film (Control Group) were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Changes in the skeletal muscle around the implant were evaluated in ex vivo by histology.Results: After 20 min of MD, in vitro the temperature rise of the titanium substrate was less in the Experimental Group than in the Control Group (40 W: 1.4 °C vs. 2.6 °C, p < .01, 60 W: 2.5 °C vs. 3.7 °C, p < .01) and in vivo, the temperature rise of the muscle tissue adjacent to TAI was lower in the Experimental Group than in the Control Group (40 W: 3.29 °C vs. 4.8 °C, p < .01, 60 W: 4.16 °C vs. 6.52 °C, p < .01). Skeletal muscle thermal injury can be found in the Control Group but not in the Experimental Group.Conclusion: Sol-gel dip-coated TiO2 nanofilm can reduce the heat production of TAIs under single 40~60 W and continuous 40 W MD and protect the muscle tissue adjacent to the implants against thermal injury caused by irradiation.


Assuntos
Diatermia , Titânio , Titânio/efeitos da radiação , Ligas , Micro-Ondas , Músculo Esquelético
14.
Environ Pollut ; 316(Pt 2): 120594, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370979

RESUMO

Anthropogenic disturbances are known to cause significant physiological and behavioural changes in animals and, thus, are the critical focus of numerous studies. Light pollution is an increasingly recognised source of disturbance that has the potential to impact animal physiology and behaviour. Here, we investigate the effect of constant light on a personality trait and metabolic rate in the European hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus. We used Bayesian mixed models to estimate average behavioural change (i.e. sample mean level behavioural plasticity) and between- and within-individual variation in boldness in response to laboratory light. Hermit crabs experiencing constant light were consistently less bold and had a higher metabolic rate than those kept under a standard laboratory light regime (12:12 h light/dark). However, there was no effect of light on individual consistency in behaviour. As boldness is associated with coping with risk, hermit crabs exposed to light pollution at night may experience increased perceived predation risk, adjusting their behaviour to compensate for the increased conspicuousness. However, reduced boldness could lead to lower rates of foraging and this, in combination with elevated metabolic rate, has the potential for a reduction in energy balance.


Assuntos
Anomuros , Comportamento Animal , Poluição Luminosa , Animais , Anomuros/efeitos da radiação , Teorema de Bayes , Comportamento Animal/efeitos da radiação , Personalidade/efeitos da radiação
15.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 46(1): 16-19, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36562691

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mature follow up from multiple randomized trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of external beam partial breast irradiation (PBI) for appropriately selected patients with early stage breast cancer. Despite this evidence, external beam PBI remains underutilized. In this user guide we outline patient selection, workflow, and address possible challenges to aid in implementation of evidence-based external beam PBI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review of the current guidelines for PBI suitability, surgical considerations, treatment technique, simulation, contouring, and treatment planning, citing the latest published literature to support PBI utilization. RESULTS: Prospective data supports the use of 30 Gy in 5 fractions delivered with intensity modulated radiation therapy on a daily or every other day basis for a significant proportion of early stage breast cancer patients. The surgical cavity must be clearly visualized on treatment planning scan, recommend 3-5 weeks post-operatively, and the recommended clinical target volume expansion on the surgical cavity is 0.5-1.0 cm. A planning target volume expansion, based on motion management and image guidance, of 0.5-1.0 cm should be used. Organ at risk dose constraints of heart V3Gy ≤10% and contralateral breast Dmax ≤1 Gy are often achievable. CONCLUSIONS: Five fraction external beam PBI is a highly effective treatment with very limited toxicity for patients with early stage breast cancer following breast conserving surgery. Commonly utilized intensity modulated treatment planning techniques with plan delivery on standard linear accelerators results significant normal tissue sparing and makes implementation feasible at most radiation oncology centers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Prospectivos , Mama/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mastectomia Segmentar , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos
16.
J Radiat Res ; 64(1): 171-179, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527722

RESUMO

We conducted a prospective study to quantitatively evaluate the movement of the chest wall to establish the simple and reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) method. The left nipple position was monitored to confirm the inspiratory state. Planning computed tomography (CT) was performed under DIBH and free-breath. We conducted radiation plans with DIBH and free-breath CT and evaluated organ at risk (OAR) and target doses according to two different plans. The relationship between positioning errors of the chest wall and patient factors was evaluated using univariate analysis and fixed-effects models. Twenty-three patients aged ≤ 60 years were enrolled during January-August 2021; 358 daily radiation treatments were evaluated. The median time of treatment room occupancy was 16 minutes (interquartile range, 14-20). The area of the planning target volume (PTV) surrounded by the 95% isodose line was more extensive in DIBH than in free breathing (71.6% vs 69.5%, P < 0.01), whereas the cardiac and left anterior descending (LAD) artery doses were lower (both P < 0.01). In the fixed-effects model analysis, the occupation time of the treatment room was correlated with positioning error. The difference between the planned and irradiated dose was the largest in the LAD branch of the coronary artery (-2.5 Gy), although the OAR dose decreased owing to positional error. The current DIBH method, wherein a single point on the chest wall is monitored to confirm that the patient is in an inspiratory state, allows radiation to be performed in a short time with a small dose error.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Parede Torácica , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Prospectivos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Respiração , Movimento , Coração/efeitos da radiação , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação
17.
Nature ; 613(7943): 365-374, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36544019

RESUMO

How paternal exposure to ionizing radiation affects genetic inheritance and disease risk in the offspring has been a long-standing question in radiation biology. In humans, nearly 80% of transmitted mutations arise in the paternal germline1, but the transgenerational effects of ionizing radiation exposure has remained controversial and the mechanisms are unknown. Here we show that in sex-separated Caenorhabditis elegans strains, paternal, but not maternal, exposure to ionizing radiation leads to transgenerational embryonic lethality. The offspring of irradiated males displayed various genome instability phenotypes, including DNA fragmentation, chromosomal rearrangement and aneuploidy. Paternal DNA double strand breaks were repaired by maternally provided error-prone polymerase theta-mediated end joining. Mechanistically, we show that depletion of an orthologue of human histone H1.0, HIS-24, or the heterochromatin protein HPL-1, could significantly reverse the transgenerational embryonic lethality. Removal of HIS-24 or HPL-1 reduced histone 3 lysine 9 dimethylation and enabled error-free homologous recombination repair in the germline of the F1 generation from ionizing radiation-treated P0 males, consequently improving the viability of the F2 generation. This work establishes the mechanistic underpinnings of the heritable consequences of paternal radiation exposure on the health of offspring, which may lead to congenital disorders and cancer in humans.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Histonas , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Caenorhabditis elegans/embriologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos da radiação , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Instabilidade Genômica/efeitos da radiação , Histonas/metabolismo , Mutação , Radiação Ionizante , Perda do Embrião/genética , Feminino , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos da radiação , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades
18.
Phys Med ; 105: 102513, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565555

RESUMO

This paper aims to review on fetal dose in radiotherapy and extends and updates on a previous work1 to include proton therapy. Out-of-field doses, which are the doses received by regions outside of the treatment field, are unavoidable regardless of the treatment modalities used during radiotherapy. In the case of pregnant patients, fetal dose is a major concern as it has long been recognized that fetuses exposed to radiation have a higher probability of suffering from adverse effects such as anatomical malformations and even fetal death, especially when the 0.1Gy threshold is exceeded. In spite of the low occurrence of cancer during pregnancy, the radiotherapy team should be equipped with the necessary knowledge to deal with fetal dose. This is crucial so as to ensure that the fetus is adequately protected while not compromising the patient treatment outcomes. In this review paper, various aspects of fetal dose will be discussed ranging from biological, clinical to the physics aspects. Other than fetal dose resulting from conventional photon therapy, this paper will also extend the discussion to modern treatment modalities and techniques, namely proton therapy and image-guided radiotherapy, all of which have seen a significant increase in use in current radiotherapy. This review is expected to provide readers with a comprehensive understanding of fetal dose in radiotherapy, and to be fully aware of the steps to be taken in providing radiotherapy for pregnant patients.


Assuntos
Feto , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Feto/efeitos da radiação , Terapia com Prótons/efeitos adversos , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/radioterapia
19.
Chemosphere ; 314: 137632, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565762

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak has raised concerns about the efficacy of the disinfection process followed in water treatment plants in preventing the spread of viruses. Ultraviolet (UV) and chlorine multi-barrier disinfection processes are commonly used in water treatment plants; however, their effects on virus inactivation are still unclear. In this study, the effects of different disinfection processes (i.e., UV, free chlorine, and their combination) on waterborne viruses were analyzed using bacteriophage surrogates (i.e., MS2 and PR772) as alternative indicators. The results showed that the inactivation rates of PR772 by either UV or free chlorine disinfection were higher than those of MS2. PR772 was approximately 1.5 times more sensitive to UV disinfection and 8.4 times more sensitive to chlorine disinfection than MS2. Sequential UV-chlorine disinfection had a synergistic effect on virus inactivation, which was enhanced by an increase in the UV dose. As compared with single free chlorine disinfection, UV irradiation at 40 mJ cm-2 enhanced MS2 and PR772 inactivation significantly with a 2.7-fold (MS2) and a 1.7-fold (PR772) increase in the inactivation rate constants on subsequent chlorination in phosphate buffered saline. The synergistic effect was also observed in real wastewater samples, in which the MS2 inactivation rate increased 1.4-fold on subsequent chlorination following UV irradiation at 40 mJ cm-2. The mechanism of the synergistic effect of sequential UV-chlorine disinfection was determined via sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, using MS2 as an indicator. The results showed that the synergistic effect was due to damage to MS2 surface proteins caused by previous UV disinfection, which enhanced the sensitivity of MS2 to chlorination. This study provides a feasible approach for the efficient inactivation of viruses in water supply and drainage.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , COVID-19 , Purificação da Água , Humanos , Desinfecção/métodos , Cloro/farmacologia , Inativação de Vírus , Bacteriófagos/efeitos da radiação , Purificação da Água/métodos , Raios Ultravioleta
20.
J Radiol Prot ; 42(4)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36538825

RESUMO

In 2012, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued new recommendations, in publication 118, regarding the dose limits to the eye-lens. New analyses of historical exposure data had indicated that radiation-induced cataracts may appear at lower doses than previously assumed. This spurred largescale efforts in a variety of fields including dosimetry, radiation effects simulations, and the review of national regulatory limits. On the simulation side, much work led to the publication of dose rate conversion factors (DRCFs), to calculate the dose to the radiosensitive part of the eye-lens, and to the whole eye-lens as functions of the incident fluence of electron, photon, positron, and neutron radiation. The standard, ISO-15382 (2015Radiological Protection-Procedures for Monitoring the Dose to the Lens of the Eye, the Skin and the Extremities), from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), stated that the direct contact of a hot radioactive particle on the eye-lens represents a special contamination condition that must be considered. The aim of this work was to produce tabulated data of eye-lens dose rates, per activity (MBq), for a variety of radionuclides. In this work, the dose to the eye-lens from contamination directly in contact with the cornea, expressed in terms of DRCFs for eye-lens, in units of Gy h-1MBq-1, are presented for 102 radionuclides of interest. These radionuclides were selected as they had been considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency of importance for skin dose. The method consisted of two steps. The first was the determination of the DRCFs for mono-energetic electrons and photons for a hot particle in contact with the eye-lens, followed by the folding of these quantities with the emissions of the radionuclides of interest. Contributions from spontaneous fission neutrons were considered separately. Exposure geometries for spherical hot particles of different dimensions, materials and locations on the cornea were considered. In addition, partial surface coverage of the cornea, consistent with an accidental exposure to a contaminated liquid, was also modelled. Resulting radionuclide DRCFs were verified, for a few specific geometries and radionuclides with dedicated Monte Carlo simulations. The final data are presented in several tables included in this paper.


Assuntos
Cristalino , Lesões por Radiação , Humanos , Doses de Radiação , Radiometria/métodos , Radioisótopos , Cristalino/efeitos da radiação , Córnea , Método de Monte Carlo
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