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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246460, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350310

RESUMO

Abstract Field survey study was conducted season (2017). Soybeans and weeds were weekly sampled randomly. Thrips adults were identified and counted. Detection of the virus isolate and the natural incidence was determined using; Mechanical transmission, host range, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. The natural incidence thrips individuals was detected depending on the SVNV% in thrips individuals and weeds hosts. Ten thrips species were associated with soybean plants in the field. The most abundant species was T. tabaci, average 256.5 average no.of individuals, followed by F. occidentalis (142.5 average no. of individuals), then N. variabilis (86.6/ average no. of individuals). Fourteen thrips species occurred on 5 legumes field crops and 41 weed plant species within soybean field. The highest average number 40.6.of individuals were recorded on Ammi majus. While the lowest one 3.3 average no. of individuals were on Urtica urens. Only 21diagnostic plant species were susceptible to infection with SVNV. G. max and Vigna radiate, were the highest percentage of infection 80% followed by V. unguilata & N. benthamiana, 75%. Egyptian isolate of Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV) in this study showed a high degree of similarity and it is closely related to TSWV from Egypt (DQ479968) and TCSV from USA (KY820965) with nucleotide sequence identity of 78%. Four thrips species transmitted SVNV (F. fusca 4.0%, F. schultzei 4.3%, F. tritici 3.3% and N. variabilis 68.0% transmission). Both C. phaseoli and M. sjostedti can acquire the virus but unable to transmit it. The following species; T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis and T. palmi cannot acquire or transmit SVNV. The incidence of SVNV in the field started by the end of July then increased gradualy from 12.7 to 71.3% by the end of the season. In conclusion, few thrips individuals invaded soybean crops are enough to transmit high rate of SVNV within the crop. Furthermore, several vector species are also abundant on weeds, which are the major sources of soybean viruses transmitted to the crops. This information might be important for control and reduce the incidence of SVNV infection.


Resumo O estudo de pesquisa de campo foi realizado na temporada (2017). A soja e as ervas daninhas foram amostradas semanalmente de forma aleatória. Tripes adultos foram identificados e contados. A detecção do vírus isolado e a incidência natural foram determinadas usando transmissão mecânica, gama de hospedeiros, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. A incidência natural de tripes em indivíduos foi detectada dependendo da % de SVNV em tripes e hospedeiros infestantes. Dez espécies de tripes foram associadas a plantas de soja no campo. A espécie mais abundante foi T. tabaci, com média de 256,5 número médio de indivíduos, seguida por F. occidentalis (142,5) e N. variabilis (86,6 / número médio de indivíduos). Catorze espécies de tripes ocorreram em 5 culturas de leguminosas e 41 espécies de plantas daninhas dentro de campos de soja. O maior número médio de 40,6 indivíduos foi registrado em Ammi majus. Enquanto o mais baixo, 3,3 número médio de indivíduos, foi no Urtica urens. Apenas 21 espécies de plantas diagnosticadas foram suscetíveis à infecção com SVNV. G. max e Vigna radiate foram os maiores percentuais de infecção, 80%, seguidos por V. unguilata e N. benthamiana, 75%. O isolado egípcio neste estudo mostrou um alto grau de similaridade e está intimamente relacionado ao TSWV do Egito (DQ479968) e ao TCSV dos EUA (KY820965), com identidade de sequência de nucleotídeos de 78%. Quatro espécies de tripes transmitiram SVNV (F. fusca 4,0%, F. schultzei 4,3%, F. tritici 3,3% e N. variabilis 68,0% de transmissão). Tanto C. phaseoli quanto M. sjostedti podem adquirir o vírus, mas não podem transmiti-lo. As seguintes espécies, T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis e T. palmi não podem adquirir ou transmitir SVNV. A incidência de SVNV no campo, iniciada no final de julho, aumentou gradativamente de 12,7 para 71,3% no final da temporada. Em conclusão, poucos indivíduos de tripes invadiram a cultura da soja e são suficientes para transmitir alta taxa de SVNV dentro da cultura. Além disso, várias espécies de vetores também abundam em ervas daninhas, que são as principais fontes dos vírus da soja transmitidos às lavouras. Essas informações podem ser importantes para controlar e reduzir a incidência de infecção por SVNV.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tospovirus , Doenças das Plantas , Soja , Incidência , Urticaceae , Egito/epidemiologia , Plantas Daninhas , Necrose
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

RESUMO

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Brasil/epidemiologia , Incidência , Modelos Estatísticos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252952, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355913

RESUMO

Abstract The main purpose of this study was to find out a possible association between ABO blood groups or Rh and diabetes mellitus (DM) in the local population of eight (8) different towns of Karachi, Pakistan. For this purpose a survey was carried out in Karachi to have a practical observation of these towns during the period of 9 months from June 2019 to Feb. 2020. Out of eighteen (18) towns of Karachi, samples (N= 584) were collected from only eight (8) Towns of Karachi and gave a code-number to each town. Diabetic group sample was (n1=432) & pre-diabetes sample was (n2 =152). A standard Abbot Company Glucometer for Random Blood Sugar (RBS) and Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) tests, standard blood anti sera were used for ABO/Rh blood type. Health assessment techniques were performed ethically by taking informed consent from all registered subjects. Finally data was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. In our current study, the comparison of ABO blood groups frequencies between diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals were carried out. The percentage values of blood Group-B as given as: (32% in DM vs. 31% in pre-diabetics), followed by blood Group-O as: (18% in DM vs. 11% in pre-diabetics). Contrary to Group-"B" & "O", blood Group-A and Group-AB were distribution percentage higher pre-diabetic as compared to DM patients, as given as: Group-A (32% in pre-diabetics vs. 26% in DM) & Group-AB (26% in pre-diabetics vs. 24% in diabetic's patients). In addition, percentage distribution of Rh system was also calculated, in which Rh+ve Group was high and more common in DM patients as compared to pre-diabetics; numerically given as: Rh+ve Group (80% in DM vs. 72% in pre-diabetics). Different views and dimensions of the research topic were studied through literature support, some have found no any association and some established a positive association still some were not clear in making a solid conclusion. It is concluded that DM has a positive correlation with ABO blood groups, and people with Group-B have increased susceptibility to DM disease.


Resumo O objetivo principal deste estudo foi descobrir uma possível associação entre grupos sanguíneos ABO ou Rh e diabetes mellitus (DM) na população local de oito (8) diferentes cidades de Karachi, Paquistão. Para tanto, foi realizado um levantamento em Karachi para observação prática dessas cidades durante o período de 9 meses de junho de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020.De dezoito (18) cidades de Karachi, as amostras (N = 584) foram coletadas de apenas oito (8) cidades de Karachi e deram um número-código para cada cidade. A amostra do grupo de diabéticos foi (n1 = 432) e a amostra de pré-diabetes foi (n2 = 152). Um glicômetro padrão da Abbot Company para testes de açúcar no sangue aleatório (RBS) e açúcar no sangue em jejum (FBS), antissoros de sangue padrão foram usados ​​para o tipo de sangue ABO / Rh. As técnicas de avaliação de saúde foram realizadas de forma ética, tomando o consentimento informado de todos os indivíduos registrados. Finalmente, os dados foram analisados ​​pelo SPSS versão 20.0.No presente estudo, foi realizada a comparação das frequências dos grupos sanguíneos ABO entre diabéticos e pré-diabéticos. Os valores percentuais do sangue do Grupo-B são dados como: (32% em DM vs. 31% em pré-diabéticos), seguido pelo sangue do Grupo-O como: (18% em DM vs. 11% em pré-diabéticos). Ao contrário dos Grupos "B" e "O", sangue do Grupo-A e Grupo-AB tiveram distribuição percentual maior de pré-diabéticos em comparação com pacientes com DM, dado como: Grupo-A (32% em pré-diabéticos vs. 26% em DM) e Grupo AB (26% em pré-diabéticos vs. 24% em pacientes diabéticos). Além disso, também foi calculada a distribuição percentual do sistema Rh, no qual o Grupo Rh + ve foi elevado e mais comum em pacientes com DM em comparação aos pré-diabéticos; dados numericamente como: Grupo Rh + ve (80% em DM vs. 72% em pré-diabéticos). Diferentes visões e dimensões do tema de pesquisa foram estudadas com o suporte da literatura, alguns não encontraram nenhuma associação e alguns estabeleceram uma associação positiva, embora alguns não estivessem claros em fazer uma conclusão sólida. Conclui-se que o DM tem correlação positiva com os grupos sanguíneos ABO, e as pessoas com o Grupo B têm maior suscetibilidade à doença DM.


Assuntos
Humanos , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Cidades
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 86, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596828

RESUMO

Excess mortalities are a more accurate indicator of true COVID-19 disease burden. This study aims to investigate levels of excess all-cause mortality and their geographic, age and sex distributions between January 2020-September 2021. National mortality data between January 2016 and September 2021 from the Department of Statistics Malaysia was utilised. Baseline mortality was estimated using the Farrington algorithm and data between 1 January 2016 and 31 December 2019. The occurrence of excess all-cause mortality by geographic-, age- and sex-stratum was examined from 1 January 2020 to 30 September 2021. A sub-analysis was also conducted for road-traffic accidents, ethnicity and nationality. Malaysia had a 5.5-23.7% reduction in all-cause mortality across 2020. A reversal is observed in 2021, with an excess of 13.0-24.0%. Excess mortality density is highest between July and September 2021. All states and sexes reported excess trends consistent with the national trends. There were reductions in all all-cause mortalities in individuals under the age of 15 (0.4-8.1%) and road traffic accident-related mortalities (36.6-80.5%). These reductions were higher during the first Movement Control Order in 2020. Overall, there appears to be a reduction in all-cause mortality for Malaysia in 2020. This trend is reversed in 2021, with excess mortalities being observed. Surveillance of excess mortalities can allow expedient detection of aberrant events allowing timely health system and public health responses.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Etnicidade , Mortalidade
5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 80, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596822

RESUMO

Both sex/gender and socioeconomic differences have been reported in the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for dementia. However, it remains unclear whether the associations between modifiable risk factors for dementia and incident dementia differ by sex/gender or socioeconomic status. This study aimed to investigate sex/gender and socioeconomic differences in the associations of modifiable risk factors with incident dementia using a life-course perspective. We used data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (2008/2009 to 2018/2019). A total of 8,941 individuals were included [mean (standard deviation) age, 66.1 ± 9.8 years; 4,935 (55.2%) were women]. No overall sex/gender difference in dementia risk was found. Dementia risk was higher among those who experienced childhood deprivation [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.51 (1.17; 1.96)], lower occupational attainment [HR low versus high = 1.60 (1.23; 2.09) and HR medium versus high = 1.53 (1.15; 2.06)], and low wealth [HR low versus high = 1.63 (1.26; 2.12)]. Though different associations were found among the subgroups, there might be a sex/gender difference in dementia risk only for low cognitive activity, suggesting a higher risk for women [HR = 2.61 (1.89; 3.60)] compared to men [HR = 1.73 (1.20; 2.49)]. No consistent socioeconomic differences in modifiable dementia risk were found. A population-based approach that tackles inequalities in dementia risk profiles directly may be more effective than individual approaches in dementia prevention.


Assuntos
Demência , Classe Social , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos Longitudinais , Fatores de Risco , Envelhecimento , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/etiologia , Demência/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Trials ; 24(1): 5, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA) of azithromycin (AZI) has been shown to reduce under-5 mortality in some but not all sub-Saharan African settings. A large-scale cluster-randomized trial conducted in Malawi, Niger, and Tanzania suggested that the effect differs by country, may be stronger in infants, and may be concentrated within the first 3 months after treatment. Another study found no effect when azithromycin was given concomitantly with seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC). Given the observed heterogeneity and possible effect modification by other co-interventions, further trials are needed to determine the efficacy in additional settings and to determine the most effective treatment regimen. METHODS: LAKANA stands for Large-scale Assessment of the Key health-promoting Activities of two New mass drug administration regimens with Azithromycin. The LAKANA trial is designed to address the mortality and health impacts of 4 or 2 annual rounds of azithromycin MDA delivered to 1-11-month-old (29-364 days) infants, in a high-mortality and malaria holoendemic Malian setting where there is a national SMC program. Participating villages (clusters) are randomly allocated in a ratio of 3:2:4 to three groups: placebo (control):4-dose AZI:2-dose AZI. The primary outcome measured is mortality. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) will be monitored closely before, during, and after the intervention and both among those receiving and those not receiving MDA with the study drugs. Other outcomes, from a subset of villages, comprise efficacy outcomes related to morbidity, growth and nutritional status, outcomes related to the mechanism of azithromycin activity through measures of malaria parasitemia and inflammation, safety outcomes (AMR, adverse and serious adverse events), and outcomes related to the implementation of the intervention documenting feasibility, acceptability, and economic aspects. The enrolment commenced in October 2020 and is planned to be completed by the end of 2022. The expected date of study completion is December 2024. DISCUSSION: If LAKANA provides evidence in support of a positive mortality benefit resulting from azithromycin MDA, it will significantly contribute to the options for successfully promoting child survival in Mali, and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04424511. Registered on 11 June 2020.


Assuntos
Azitromicina , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Humanos , Lactente , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Azitromicina/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Infantil , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mali/epidemiologia , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 103(2): 78-83, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597734

RESUMO

Early comprehensive assessment and early intervention of vascular disease, and the life-time maintenance of vascular health are the key to effectively preventing death and disability in end-stage of heart, brain, kidney and peripheral vascular events. Based on this concept, it is necessary to establish a professional clinical discipline of "vascular medicine" which is based on the systemic vascular bed, with measures on prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and intellectualized and digital vascular health management throughout the life cycle for different vascular lesions and different degree of vascular injury. The aim of the establishment of Beijing Vascular Health Stratification (BVHS) is to give a comprehensive and dynamic assessment of vascular health based on the concept of vascular medicine, to conduct individualized analysis of the results, to classify the degree of injury on vascular structure and function, to carry out individualized intervention, and eventually achieve targeted precise prevention and management, establish newly intellectualized and digital vascular health management medical model in China, for effectively reducing the incidence of cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Doenças Vasculares , Pequim , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos
8.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279283, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether the Massachusetts COVID-19 vaccine lottery increased vaccine uptake. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Vaccine Tracker to identify total number of adults aged 18 to 64 who received at least first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine or who were fully vaccinated in Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, and Vermont during the study period of March 6 -July 31, 2021. Each of the five states contributed 148 days of a daily report on cumulative number of vaccinated people, comprising 740 state-days as the total sample size. We conducted multivariable, state-day level difference-in-differences (DID) regression using a negative binomial regression model that compared the change in outcomes for Massachusetts to those of four geographically adjacent comparison states without the lotteries, before and after the Massachusetts vaccine lottery announcement (June 15, 2021). Our analyses controlled for key state-level characteristics obtained from the American Community Survey as well as day fixed-effects to capture secular trends in the outcomes. RESULTS: Massachusetts COVID-19 vaccine lottery was not associated with a significant increase in the number of adults aged 18 to 64 who were fully vaccinated or received at least one dose of the vaccine, compared with other states [Full dose, incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97 to 1.11, P > 0.05; At least one dose, IRR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.06, P > 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: There was insufficient evidence to conclude that Massachusetts COVID-19 vaccine lottery was associated with increased number of adult COVID-19 vaccinations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtorno Dissociativo de Identidade , Vacina Antivariólica , Adulto , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Massachusetts/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279163, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598881

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Understand the continuity and changes in headache not-otherwise-specified (NOS), migraine, and post-traumatic headache (PTH) diagnoses after the transition from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). BACKGROUND: Headache is one of the most commonly diagnosed chronic conditions managed within primary and specialty care clinics. The VHA transitioned from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM on October-1-2015. The effect transitioning on coding of specific headache diagnoses is unknown. Accuracy of headache diagnosis is important since different headache types respond to different treatments. METHODS: We mapped headache diagnoses from ICD-9-CM (FY 2014/2015) onto ICD-10-CM (FY 2016/2017) and computed coding proportions two years before/after the transition in VHA. We used queries to determine the change in transition pathways. We report the odds of ICD-10-CM coding associated with ICD-9-CM controlling for provider type, and patient age, sex, and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Only 37%, 58% and 34% of patients with ICD-9-CM coding of NOS, migraine, and PTH respectively had an ICD-10-CM headache diagnosis. Of those with an ICD-10-CM diagnosis, 73-79% had a single headache diagnosis. The odds ratios for receiving the same code in both ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM after adjustment for ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM headache comorbidities and sociodemographic factors were high (range 6-26) and statistically significant. Specifically, 75% of patients with headache NOS had received one headache diagnoses (Adjusted headache NOS-ICD-9-CM OR for headache NOS-ICD-10-CM = 6.1, 95% CI 5.89-6.32. 79% of migraineurs had one headache diagnoses, mostly migraine (Adjusted migraine-ICD-9-CM OR for migraine-ICD-10-CM = 26.43, 95% CI 25.51-27.38). The same held true for PTH (Adjusted PTH-ICD-9-CM OR for PTH-ICD-10-CM = 22.92, 95% CI: 18.97-27.68). These strong associations remained after adjustment for specialist care in ICD-10-CM follow-up period. DISCUSSION: The majority of people with ICD-9-CM headache diagnoses did not have an ICD-10-CM headache diagnosis. However, a given diagnosis in ICD-9-CM by a primary care provider (PCP) was significantly predictive of its assignment in ICD-10-CM as was seeing either a neurologist or physiatrist (compared to a generalist) for an ICD-10-CM headache diagnosis. CONCLUSION: When a veteran had a specific diagnosis in ICD-9-CM, the odds of being coded with the same diagnosis in ICD-10-CM were significantly higher. Specialist visit during the ICD-10-CM period was independently associated with all three ICD-10-CM headaches.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Cefaleia Pós-Traumática , Veteranos , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Saúde dos Veteranos , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Comorbidade
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(1): e0010983, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598885

RESUMO

Pit vipers from the genus Tropidolaemus are identified as one of the common causes of snake bite from venomous species in Malaysia. All Tropidolaemus species bite cases referred to the Remote Envenomation Consultation Services (RECS) between 2015-2021 were included. A total of 4,718 snake-related injuries cases consulted to RECS with 310 (6.6%) involved Tropidolaemus species; of these 190 (61.3%) were T. subannulatus and 120 (38.7%) T. wagleri. All the T. subannulatus cases occurred in Sabah and Sarawak while all cases of T. wagleri occurred in Peninsular Malaysia. The majority of patients were male (74.8%) and adults between 18-59 years old (61.2%). The upper limb (56.6%) was the most frequent anatomical region involved. Most cases were non-occupationally related (75.4%). Bites from both species caused local pain (77.1%) and swelling (27.2%). Most patients complained of mild pain (48.0%). Paracetamol (40.0%) was the most common analgesic prescribed. Antivenom was not indicated in all cases. Two patients were given antivenom inappropriately before RECS consultation. Most patients (54.7%) needed hospital observation for less than 24 hours. No deaths occurred in the group studied.


Assuntos
Crotalinae , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Malásia/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia , Antivenenos/uso terapêutico
12.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280031, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends pregnant women attend antenatal clinic at least three times during pregnancy; during the first, second and third trimesters. During these visits, an array of clinical and laboratory tests is conducted. The information obtained plays an important role not only in the management and care of pregnancy, but also guides policies targeted at addressing pregnancy-induced health challenges. This study therefore presents laboratory and clinical information of pregnant women at their first antenatal visits. METHODS: The study was cross-sectional in design which retrospectively reviewed laboratory and clinical data of pregnant women attending their first antenatal clinic (ANC) at the Comboni Hospital, Volta region, Ghana. The data reviewed included information on hemoglobin level, hemoglobin phenotype, malaria diagnostics, Human Immunodeficiency Virus test (HIV), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) test, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) test, Syphilis test, blood pressure, age, urine glucose, and urine protein. The hemoglobin level was assayed with a hemoglobinometer. Qualitative lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay techniques were used to diagnose the HIV, HCV, HBV, syphilis, and malaria status of the pregnant women. Urine dipstick was used assay for the urine protein and urine glucose, whilst the methemoglobin test was used for the G6PD deficiency and alkaline hemoglobin electrophoresis for hemoglobin phenotype. Data on demographic, anthropometric and vital signs such as age, weight and blood pressure were also collected. Descriptive statistics were performed. Frequency and percentages were used to describe the categorical variables and means and standard deviations used to describe the continuous variables. RESULTS: Hemoglobin S(Hb S) was found in 12.8% of the women with 73.4% having hemoglobin levels below 11.5g/dl. On G6PD deficiency, 1.6% and 0.8% were partially and fully defective respectively. Also, urine protein (1.2%) and glucose (0.4%) were detected. The prevalence of HBV, HCV and malaria were 4.4%, 3.6% and 2.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Anemia in pregnancy was high among the study sample. Malaria and hepatitis infections were observed in the study sample. Policies on maternal health should be targeted at providing better nutritional options, that can enhance the hemoglobin level during pregnancy. Pregnant women should benefit from enhanced surveillance for HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Malária , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Sífilis , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepacivirus , Prevalência
13.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279820, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598921

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic represents a context that might influence how people experience significant life events (such as marriage, job change, or relocation). In the present research, we argue that one important factor of how positively or negatively the pandemic influences the experience of significant life events is how much control people perceive in the situation. An online sample of N = 882 participants aged 18-82 years reported a significant life event that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants described whether the pandemic influenced the life event, to what extent they perceived control over the life event and how they experienced the life event in terms of valence (i.e., positively or negatively). The results showed that the self-reported pandemic influence was significantly associated with the life-event experience. Furthermore, perceived control partly mediated this association. The results persisted even after controlling for the age of the participants. The present research underscores the important role of control for experiencing significant life events in challenging times such as during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Casamento , Autorrelato
14.
BMC Prim Care ; 24(1): 4, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary care electronic medical records contain clinical-administrative information on a high percentage of the population. Before this information can be used for epidemiological purposes, its quality must be verified. This study aims to validate diagnoses of atrial fibrillation (AF) recorded in primary care electronic medical records and to estimate the prevalence of AF in the population attending primary care consultations. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional validation study of all diagnoses of AF recorded in primary care electronic medical records in Madrid (Spain). We also performed simple random sampling of diagnoses of AF (ICPC-2 code K78) registered by 55 physicians and random age- and sex-matched sampling of the records that included a diagnosis of AF. Electrocardiograms, echocardiograms, and hospital discharge or cardiology clinic reports were matched. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), and overall agreement were calculated using the kappa statistic (κ). The prevalence of AF in the community of Madrid was estimated considering the sensitivity and specificity obtained in the validation. All calculations were performed overall and by sex and age groups. RESULTS: The degree of agreement was very high (κ = 0.952), with a sensitivity of 97.84%, specificity of 97.39%, PPV of 97.37%, and NPV of 97.85%. The prevalence of AF in the population aged over 18 years was 2.41% (95%CI 2.39-2.42% [2.25% in women and 2.58% in men]). This increased progressively with age, reaching 16.95% in those over 80 years of age (15.5% in women and 19.44% in men). CONCLUSIONS: The validation results obtained enable diagnosis of AF recorded in primary care to be used as a tool for epidemiological studies. A high prevalence of AF was found, especially in older patients.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Atenção Primária à Saúde
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 7, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB) is the greatest cause of mortality and morbidity in children up to five years of age globally. The Western Australian (WA) PTB Prevention Initiative, the world's first whole-of-population whole-of-state program aimed at PTB prevention, was implemented across WA in 2014. METHODS: We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study using pregnancy data for singleton births in WA from 2009 to 2019. Logistic regression using the last full year before the Initiative (2013) as the reference, and run charts were used to examine changes in PTB rates compared to pre-Initiative levels, by gestational age group, hospital type, low and high risk of PTB in mid-pregnancy, and onset of labour (spontaneous/medically initiated). Analyses were stratified by Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal maternal ethnicity. RESULTS: Amongst non-Aboriginal women, there was initially a reduction in the PTB rate across the state, and in recent years it returned to pre-Initiative levels. Amongst Aboriginal women there was a small, non- significant reduction in the state-wide PTB rate in the first three years of the Initiative, followed by a rise in recent years. For non-Aboriginal women, the reduction in the rate of PTB at the tertiary centre was sustained and improved further for women of all risk levels and onsets of labour. This reduction was not observed for Aboriginal women giving birth at the tertiary centre, amongst whom there was an increase in the PTB rate overall and in all subgroups, with the exception of medically initiated PTB. Amongst Aboriginal women the PTB rate has also increased across the state. At non-tertiary hospitals there was a large increase in PTB amongst both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women, largely driven by medically initiated late PTB. Maternal risk factors cannot account for this increase. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in PTB rates amongst non-Aboriginal women at the state's tertiary hospital demonstrates that with the right strategies, PTB can be reduced. A sustained collaborative model is required to realise this success in non-tertiary hospitals. The series of interventions was of limited use in Aboriginal women, and future efforts will need to be directed at strategies more likely to be successful, such as midwifery continuity of care models, with Aboriginal representation in the healthcare workforce.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Criança , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Austrália , Parto , Fatores de Risco
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 5, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600221

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the incidence of retained embryos (REs) in embryo transfer (ET) cycles and its effects on pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). METHODS: This was a matched retrospective cohort study involving 29,160 ET cycles conducted from March 2016 to February 2021, in which ET cycles without RE were matched to the RE group at a 2:1 ratio. Clinical pregnancy, implantation, miscarriage, and live birth rates were compared between the with-RE and without-RE groups. RESULTS: Our study showed that the overall incidence of REs was 0.33% (95/29,160). There was a statistically significant difference in RE rate among the operators (P < 0.001), suggesting that the embryo retention rate may be affected by the individual operator. A total of 95 repeated ET cycles due to RE were included in the study group, and 190 ET cycles without RE were matched to the study group (1:2). There were no significant differences between the RE and matched groups in terms of implantation rate (35.6 vs. 38.0%; P = 0.608), clinical pregnancy rate (47.4 vs. 54.7%; P = 0.240), biochemical pregnancy rate (5.3 vs. 4.7%; P = 0.846), miscarriage rate (11.1 vs. 9.6%; P = 0.781), ectopic pregnancy rate (2.2 vs. 1.9%; P = 1.000) or live birth rate (41.1 vs. 48.9%; P = 0.208). CONCLUSIONS: The present findings demonstrated that immediate retransfer of REs did not significantly affect IVF outcomes, which may provide counselling information for patients when REs are identified and ET is reattempted. The incidence of REs was associated with the operator who expelled the embryos from the catheter. Attention to detail and frequent assessment of the operator's technique may facilitate avoidance of embryo retention.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Resultado da Gravidez , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Taxa de Gravidez , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 2, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory infections (LRIs) cause substantial mortality and morbidity. The present study reported and analysed the burden of LRIs in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region between 1990 and 2019, by age, sex, etiology, and socio-demographic index (SDI). METHODS: The data used in this study were sourced from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2019. The annual incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to LRIs were presented as counts and age-standardised rates per 100,000 population, along with their 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). The average annual percent changes (AAPC) in the age-standardised incidence, death and DALYs rates were calculated using Joinpoint software and correlations (Pearson's correlation coefficient) between the AAPCs and SDIs were calculated using Stata software. RESULTS: In 2019, there were 34.1 million (95% UI 31.7-36.8) incident cases of LRIs in MENA, with an age-standardised rate of 6510.2 (95% UI 6063.6-6997.8) per 100,000 population. The number of regional DALYs was 4.7 million (95% UI 3.9-5.4), with an age-standardised rate of 888.5 (95% UI 761.1-1019.9) per 100,000 population, which has decreased since 1990. Furthermore, Egypt [8150.8 (95% UI 7535.8-8783.5)] and Afghanistan [61.9 (95% UI 52.1-72.6)] had the highest age-standardised incidence and death rates, respectively. In 2019, the regional incidence and DALY rates were highest in the 1-4 age group, in both females and males. In terms of deaths, pneumococcus and H. influenza type B were the most and least common types of LRIs, respectively. From 1990 to 2019, the burden of LRIs generally decreased with increasing SDI. There were significant positive correlations between SDI and the AAPCs for the age-standardised incidence, death and DALY rates (p < 0.05). Over the 1990-2019 period, the regional incidence, deaths and DALYs attributable to LRIs decreased with AAPCs of - 1.19% (- 1.25 to - 1.13), - 2.47% (- 2.65 to - 2.28) and - 4.21% (- 4.43 to - 3.99), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The LRI-associated burden in the MENA region decreased between 1990 and 2019. SDI had a significant positive correlation with the AAPC and pneumococcus was the most common underlying cause of LRIs. Afghanistan, Yemen and Egypt had the largest burdens in 2019. Further studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions and programs to control LRIs and their risk factors.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Infecções Respiratórias , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Incidência , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Prevalência
18.
Eur J Med Res ; 28(1): 8, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the survival outcomes among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (CA) who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in China. METHODS: Relevant studies, published between January 1, 2010 and September 5, 2022, were retrieved from databases, including EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, the China Biology Medicine disk, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang databases. We included clinical studies in which all patients were diagnosed with CA and underwent out-of-hospital CPR, and the outcome variables were at least one of the following: return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival to admission, survival to hospital discharge, 1-month survival, achieved good neurological outcomes, and 1-year survival. Two investigators independently extracted the study data and assessed its quality using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale tool. The data were pooled using random-effects models. RESULTS: Of the 3620 identified studies, 49 (63,378 patients) were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled ROSC rate was 9.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.5-10.5%, I2 = 97%), the pooled survival to admission rate was 5.0% (95% CI 2.7-8.0%, I2 = 98%), and the pooled survival to discharge rate was 1.8% (95% CI 1.2-2.5%, I2 = 95%). Additionally, the ROSC rate of patients with bystander CPR was significantly higher than that of those without bystander CPR, and the pooled odds ratio (OR) was 7.92 (95% CI 4.32-14.53, I2 = 85%). The ROSC rate of participants who started CPR within 5 min was significantly higher than that of those who started CPR after 5 min, and the pooled OR was 5.92 (95% CI 1.92-18.26, I2 = 85%). The ROSC rate of participants with defibrillation was significantly higher than that of those without defibrillation, and the pooled OR was 8.52 (95% CI 3.72-19.52, I2 = 77%). CONCLUSION: The survival outcomes of out-of-hospital CPR in China are far below the world average. Therefore, the policy of providing automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in public places and strengthening CPR training for healthcare providers and public personnel should be encouraged and disseminated nationwide. Trial registration This study was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42022326165) on 29 April 2022.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Hospitalização , China/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 6, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600225

RESUMO

Africa has the highest rates of maternal deaths globally which have been linked to poorly functioning health care systems. The pandemic revealed already known weaknesses in the health systems in Africa, such as workforce shortages, lack of equipment and resources. The aim of this paper is to review the published literature on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal and child health in Africa. The integrative review process delineated by Whittemore and Knafl (2005) was used to meet the study aims. The literature search of Ovid Medline, CINAHL, PubMed, WHO, Google and Google scholar, Africa journals online, MIDIRS was limited to publications between March 2020 and May 2022. All the studies went through the PRISMA stages, and 179 full text papers screened for eligibility, 36 papers met inclusion criteria. Of the studies, 6 were qualitative, 25 quantitative studies, and 5 mixed methods. Thematic analysis according to the methods of Braun and Clark (2006) were used to synthesize the data. From the search the six themes that emerged include: effects of lockdown measures, COVID concerns and psychological stress, reduced attendance at antenatal care, childhood vaccination, reduced facility-based births, and increase maternal and child mortality. A review of the literature revealed the following policy issues: The need for government to develop robust response mechanism to public health emergencies that negatively affect maternal and child health issues and devise health policies to mitigate negative effects of lockdown. In times of pandemic there is need to maintain special access for both antenatal care and child delivery services and limit a shift to use of untrained birth attendants to reduce maternal and neonatal deaths. These could be achieved by soliciting investments from various sectors to provide high-quality care that ensures sustainability to all layers of the population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde da Criança , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , África/epidemiologia
20.
Trials ; 24(1): 9, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spatial repellents (SRs) have been widely used for prevention of mosquito bites, but their efficacy in reducing Aedes-borne viruses (ABV) has not been tested rigorously at large scale in Asia. To address this knowledge gap, a trial to evaluate the efficacy of Mosquito Shield™, a transfluthrin SR, was developed in Gampaha District of Sri Lanka across three Medical Officer of Health areas; i.e., Negombo, Wattala, and Kelaniya. METHODS: This trial is a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. A total of ~14,430 subjects aged ≥ 6 months in 30 clusters (15 intervention, 15 placebo) from ~3900 households (HH) will be randomly selected for enrolment into a "febrile surveillance cohort." A subset of the surveillance cohort, ~3570 subjects aged ≥4-16 years that test seronegative (naïve) or are serologically positive for a previous single dengue virus (DENV) infection (monotypic) at baseline sampling, will be enrolled into a "longitudinal cohort" for measuring DENV infection based on laboratory-confirmed seroconversion during the trial. Persons identified positive for antibodies against multiple DENV serotypes (multitypic) at baseline will be monitored for secondary analyses. Active ABV disease will be assessed using an enhanced passive surveillance system with case ascertainment performed in designated healthcare facilities. Serum samples will be taken from longitudinal cohort subjects within 1-2 weeks of when intervention is first deployed (T0) with additional samples taken ~12 (T1) and ~24 months (T2) from baseline sampling. DENV seroconversion and ABV active disease rates from baseline (pre-intervention) and follow-up (post-intervention) samples will be compared between intervention and placebo clusters. Participating houses will be monitored entomologically (indoor adult Aedes aegypti population densities and adult female blood fed status) within 3 months before intervention deployment and monthly during the intervention phase. Entomological surveys will monitor indoor adult Ae. aegypti population densities and blood fed status. Dengue incidence in each cohort will be estimated and compared to determine the public health benefit of using an SR. Entomological parameters will be measured to determine if there are entomological correlates of SR efficacy that may be useful for the evaluation of new SR products. DISCUSSION: The trial will serve as an efficacy assessment of SR products in South Asia. Results will be submitted to the World Health Organization Vector Control Advisory Group for assessment of public health value towards an endorsement to recommend inclusion of SRs in ABV control programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Sri Lanka Clinical Trial Registry SLCTR /2022/018. Registered on July 1, 2022. CLINICALTRIALS: gov NCT05452447 . Registered on July 11, 2022. The Universal Trial Number is U1111-1275-3055.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Viroses , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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