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9.
Ethics Hum Res ; 45(1): 2-14, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36691690

RESUMO

Discussion of medical researcher teams' ancillary-care obligations has long been dominated by partial-entrustment theory, developed in 2004 by the author of this article, in collaboration with Leah Belsky. Critics of the limited scope of the special ancillary-care obligations defended by that theory, however, argue that a better theory would take fuller account of the relationship that develops between individual research participants and members of the research team. Nate W. Olson and Thaddeus Metz have each put forward well worked-out versions of such a relationship-based account of ancillary-care obligations. This article critically evaluates these accounts, concluding that while each of them is vulnerable to various criticisms, each also crucially facilitates understanding of this relationship: Olson brings out well how research participants can find that role not just beneficial but also deeply meaningful, and Metz, drawing on African ethical traditions, emphasizes that when things go well, participants are involved as partners in the research effort. Yet the article closes by arguing that the partial-entrustment theory, surprisingly, can take on board each of these lessons. As so enhanced, it may actually be the best available relationship-based theory of this subject.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Obrigações Morais , Humanos , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética
12.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 28: e45268, 2023.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1406372

RESUMO

RESUMO. A autonomia privada existencial, como expressão da dignidade da pessoa humana, representa para o indivíduo a possibilidade de agir em conformidade com valores e significados eleitos essenciais na elaboração do seu projeto de vida. Neste estudo, seus autores, dois terapeutas ocupacionais, dois advogados e uma psicóloga, somam saberes e dialogam com intuito de demarcar a relevância da autonomia privada existencial nas condições de demência avançada, nos estados vegetativos permanentes e na iminência de morte. Na tarefa a que se propõem, os autores ponderam sobre suas experimentações e interlocuções enquanto profissionais de formação acadêmica diversificada, inclinados a ofertar espaços para comunicar vida e acolher dores. São apresentadas e discutidas as bases jurídicas da autonomia privada, assim como os pressupostos da Logoterapia de Viktor Frankl em defesa da liberdade de vontade e da dignidade no final da vida.


RESUMEN La autonomía existencial privada, como expresión de la dignidad de la persona humana, representa para el individuo la posibilidad de actuar de acuerdo con valores y significados elegidos esenciales en la elaboración de su proyecto de vida. En este estudio, sus autores, dos terapeutas ocupacionales, dos abogados y un psicólogo suman conocimiento y diálogo con el fin de demarcar la relevancia de la autonomía privada existencial en condiciones de demencia avanzada, en estados vegetativos permanentes y muerte inminente. En la tarea que proponen, los autores reflexionan sobre sus vivencias e interlocuciones como profesionales con una formación académica diversificada, inclinados a ofrecer espacios para comunicar la vida y acoger el dolor. Se presentan y discuten las bases legales de la autonomía privada, así como los supuestos de la Logoterapia de Viktor Frankl en defensa de la libertad de voluntad y dignidad al final de la vida.


ABSTRACT. Existential private autonomy, as an expression of the dignity of the human person, represents for the individual the possibility of acting in accordance with essential values and meanings for elaboration of their life project. The authors of this study, two occupational therapists, two lawyers and a psychologist gather their knowledge and dialogue to demarcate the relevance of existential private autonomy in conditions of advanced dementia, in permanent vegetative states and imminent death. In the task proposed, the authors pondered over their experiences and dialogues as professionals with a diversified academic background, inclined to provide spaces to communicate life and welcome pain. The legal bases of private autonomy are presented and discussed, as well as the assumptions of Viktor Frankl's Logotherapy in defense of freedom of will and dignity at the end of life.


Assuntos
Direito a Morrer/ética , Estado Vegetativo Persistente/psicologia , Demência/psicologia , Logoterapia/educação , Psicologia , Volição , Autonomia Pessoal , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/educação , Ética , Liberdade , Respeito , Logoterapia/legislação & jurisprudência , Logoterapia/ética , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência
16.
Malawi Med J ; 34(3): 213-219, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36406092

RESUMO

Background: Pragmatic clinical trials generally rely on real world data and have the potential to generate real world evidence. This approach arose from concerns that many trial results did not adequately inform real world practice. However, maintaining the real world setting during the conduct of a trial and ensuring adequate protection for research participants can be challenging. Best practices in research oversight for pragmatic clinical trials are nascent and underdeveloped, especially in developing countries. Methods: We use the PRECIS-2 tool to present a case study from Lilongwe in Malawi to describe ethical and regulatory challenges encountered during the conduct of a pragmatic trial and suggest possible solutions. Results: In this article, we highlight the following six issues: (1) one public facility hosting several pragmatic trials within the same period; (2) research participants refusing financial incentives; (3) inadequate infrastructure and high workload to conduct research; (4) silos among partner organisations involved in delivery of health care; (5) individuals influencing the implementation of revised national guidelines; (6) difficulties with access to electronic medical records. Conclusion: Multiple stakeholder engagement is critical to the conduct of pragmatic trials, and even with careful stakeholder engagement, continuous monitoring by gatekeepers is essential. In the Malawian context, active engagement of the district research committees can complement the work of the research ethics committees (RECs).


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Humanos , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Malaui , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto/ética , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais
19.
Science ; 378(6621): 694-695, 2022 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395231

RESUMO

Matthew Schrag confronts a mentor after their joint work is flagged on the PubPeer website.


Assuntos
Neurociências , Má Conduta Científica , Denúncia de Irregularidades , Humanos , Mentores , Neurociências/ética , Doença de Alzheimer
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