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1.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 25(2): 237-260, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300479

RESUMO

OPINION STATEMENT: Homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) is an important biomarker guiding selection of ovarian cancer patients who will derive the most benefit from poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi). HRD prevents cells from repairing double-stranded DNA damage with high fidelity, PARPis limit single-stranded repair, and together these deficits induce synthetic lethality. Germline or somatic BRCA mutations represent the narrowest definition of HRD, but do not reflect all patients who will have a durable PARPi response. HRD can also be defined by its downstream consequences, which are measured by different metrics depending on the test used. Ideally, all patients will undergo genetic counseling and germline testing shortly after diagnosis and have somatic testing sent once an adequate tumor sample is available. Should barriers to one test be higher, pursuing germline testing with reflex to somatic testing for BRCA wildtype patients or somatic testing first strategies are both evidence-based. Ultimately both tests offer complementary information, germline testing should be pursued for any patient with a history of ovarian cancer, and somatic testing is valuable at recurrence if not performed in the upfront setting. There is a paucity of data to suggest superiority of one germline or somatic assay; therefore, selection should optimize turnaround time, cost to patients, preferred result format, and logistical burden. Each clinic should implement a standard testing strategy for all ovarian cancer patients that ensures HRD status is known at the time of upfront chemotherapy completion to facilitate comprehensive counseling about anticipated maintenance PARPi benefit.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Mutações Sintéticas Letais , Recombinação Homóloga
4.
J Clin Apher ; 39(1): e22105, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334173

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lipoprotein X (Lp-X) is an abnormal lipoprotein found in multiple disease conditions, including liver dysfunction and cholestasis. High Lp-X concentrations can interfere with some laboratory testing that may result in spurious results. The detection of Lp-X can be challenging, and there is currently a lack of consensus regarding the management of Lp-X other than treating the underlying disease. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old female with Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with dexamethasone, high dose cytarabine and cisplatin and vanishing bile duct syndrome confirmed by liver biopsy presented with cholestasis, pseudohyponatremia (sodium, 113 mmol/L; reference range 136-146 mmL/L; serum osmolality, 303 mOsm/kg), and hypercholesterolemia (> 2800 mg/dL, reference range < 200 mg/dL). Lp-X was confirmed by lipoprotein electrophoresis (EP). Although she did not manifest any specific signs or symptoms, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) was initiated based on laboratory findings of extreme hypercholesterolemia, spuriously abnormal serum sodium, and HDL values, and the potential for short- and long-term sequelae such as hyperviscosity syndrome, xanthoma, and neuropathy. During the hospitalization, she was treated with four 1.0 plasma volume TPE over 6 days using 5% albumin for replacement fluid. After the first TPE, total cholesterol (TC) decreased to 383 mg/dL and sodium was measured at 131 mmol/L. The patient was transitioned into outpatient maintenance TPE to eliminate the potential of Lp-X reappearance while the underlying disease was treated. Serial follow-up laboratory testing with lipoprotein EP showed the disappearance of Lp-X after nine TPEs over a 10-week period. LITERATURE REVIEW: There are seven and four case reports of Lp-X treated with TPE and lipoprotein apheresis (LA), respectively. While all previous case reports showed a reduction in TC levels, none had monitored the disappearance of Lp-X after completing a course of therapeutic apheresis. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should have a heightened suspicion for the presence of abnormal Lp-X in patients with cholestasis, hypercholesterolemia, and pseudohyponatremia. Once Lp-X is confirmed by lipoprotein EP, TPE should be initiated to reduce TC level and remove abnormal Lp-X. Most LA techniques are not expected to be beneficial since Lp-X lacks apolipoprotein B. Therefore, we suggest that inpatient course of TPE be performed every other day until serum sodium, TC and HDL levels become normalized. Outpatient maintenance TPE may also be considered to keep Lp-X levels low while the underlying disease is treated. Serum sodium, TC, and HDL levels should be monitored while on maintenance TPE.


Assuntos
Colestase , Hipercolesterolemia , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Hipercolesterolemia/terapia , Lipoproteína-X , Troca Plasmática , Colestase/etiologia , Colestase/terapia , Lipoproteínas , Sódio , Ductos Biliares
6.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334727

RESUMO

Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a rare complication of herpes zoster characterized by prolonged and excruciating pain. Traditional treatments for PHN, such as analgesics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, do not always bring the desired result. One promising alternative that is attracting the attention of the scientific community is dorsal root ganglion stimulation (DRGS). This method focuses on targeted and precise targeting of the source of pain, providing a new level of effectiveness in the treatment of PHN. OBJECTIVE: A retrospective analysis of the technique and results of implantation of a permanent device for stimulating the spinal ganglia in patients with refractory PHN at the Burdenko Neurosurgical Center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 7 patients (5 men, 2 women) with refractory PHN in the period from 2018 to 2020. The age of the patients ranged from 57 to 84 years (average age 74±8.4). All patients were implanted with Boston systems (Precision or Spectra versions). Stimulation parameters: pulse width - 120-210 µs, frequency - 30-130 Hz, amplitude at the lower limit of the appearance of paresthesia with the possibility of increasing with increased pain up to 5 mA. The position of the electrode depended on the location of the pain. All systems were implanted under X-ray guidance. RESULTS: The duration of follow-up observation was more than 2.5 years. The average pain intensity one year after treatment was 3.42±2.45 points on the visual analogue scale (VAS) (a 62.3% decrease in intensity compared to baseline). In 3 (42.8%) patients, the result was characterized by us as «excellent¼ (intensity according to VAS decreased by 75% or more), in 1 (14.2%) - as «good¼ (intensity according to VAS decreased by 50-74%), in 1 (14.2%) - as «moderate¼ (VAS intensity decreased by 25-49% and in 2 (28.5%) as «unsatisfactory¼ (VAS intensity decreased by less than 25%, or postoperative complications occurred). CONCLUSION: Given the complicated nature of PHN, the use of dorsal ganglion stimulation appears to be a promising and innovative treatment approach. Further research is needed to introduce this technique into clinical practice for the treatment of patients suffering from PHN.


Assuntos
Herpes Zoster , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/etiologia , Gânglios Espinais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Herpes Zoster/complicações , Herpes Zoster/tratamento farmacológico , Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados
7.
Support Care Cancer ; 32(3): 152, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334802

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The total number of cancer-related deaths and new cancer cases in 2020 was 19.3 billion and 10.8 billion, respectively. Therefore, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of neoplastic disease, as well as management of comorbidities, are of paramount importance. In this regards, poor nutritional status and mental disorders are comorbidity conditions frequently observed in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to assess the association between malnutrition and anxiety in hospitalized adult cancer patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective study. Nutrition Risk Screening (NRS) 2002, body mass index (BMI), daily calorie intake, and weight difference between admission and discharge were used to evaluate nutritional status. Anxiety was assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A). Ordered logistic and linear logistic regressions adjusted for sex and age were used to estimate the association between malnutrition and anxiety in cancer patients. RESULTS: A total of 90 patients were included. Higher NRS risk [aß = 0.85; 95% CI (0.28-1.42); p = 0.004], disease stage [aß = 0.77; 95% CI (0.08-1.47); p = 0.029], and cachexia [aß = 2.20; 95% CI (0.75-3.65); p = 0.003] were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms. Moreover, cancer site different than gastrointestinal cancers was associated with a lower risk of anxiety symptoms [aß = - 2.11; 95% CI (- 3.55/ - 0.66); p = 0.005]. CONCLUSION: In the current study, we found a relatively high rate of malnourished patients, indicating the importance of routinely assessing nutritional status and screening cancer patients for mental health issues. This approach could help physicians to treat both in a timely manner, thereby significantly reducing the burden of the disease and improving the quality of life of patients.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Neoplasias , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Avaliação Nutricional , Qualidade de Vida , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Estado Nutricional , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
8.
Int Ophthalmol ; 44(1): 39, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334808

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between clinical tests, patient symptoms, and conjunctivochalasis in contact lens wearers and non-wearers. METHODS: This study comprised 40 eyes of 40 current soft contact lens users and 40 eyes of 40 control subjects. Cross-sectional areas of conjunctivochalasis at three locations (nasal, central, temporal) during straight and downward gazes were determined using anterior segment optical coherence tomography in all participants. Tear film break up time test and Schirmer test with anesthesia were performed and for evaluation of symptoms, the participants completed ocular surface disease index questionnaire. RESULTS: During straight gaze, the mean cross-sectional areas of conjunctivochalasis were 0.0112 ± 0.009 and 0.006 ± 0.005 mm2 at nasal, 0.0096 ± 0.007 and 0.002 ± 0.004 mm2 at central, 0.0176 ± 0.014 and 0.008 ± 0.009 mm2 at temporal in contact lens and control groups, respectively. Regardless of location and gaze direction, the mean cross-sectional conjunctivachalasis areas of the contact lens group were significantly higher than those of the controls (all, p < 0.05). Significant positive correlations between ocular surface disease index score and measured conjunctivachalasis areas (in all sites) during straight gaze and downward gaze were observed in the contact lens group (all, p < 0.05 and r > 0.450). CONCLUSION: Wearing soft contact lenses is associated with increased conjunctivochalasis areas. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography determined conjunctivochalasis area is an objective clinical measurement value that is positively correlated with patients' symptoms in soft contact lens wearers.


Assuntos
Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva , Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas , Humanos , Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/diagnóstico , Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/epidemiologia , Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/etiologia , Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas/efeitos adversos , Olho , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Lágrimas
9.
Int Ophthalmol ; 44(1): 42, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334899

RESUMO

AIM: To report on the distribution of eye diseases, aetiologies of severe visual impairment/blindness (SVI/BL) and unmet eye care needs of the Syrian refugee population and the Lebanese host community. METHODS: This retrospective study analysed the data of patients that were examined during the Ayounkon project -an eye health care project offering medical and surgical treatment for Syrian refugees and Lebanese host community in the Bekaa Valley in Lebanon. The project took place in three different primary health care centres and involved cooperation between several NGOs and ophthalmologists working on a voluntary basis. Data was analysed for distribution of eye diseases and aetiologies responsible for monocular and binocular SVI/BL. RESULTS: A total of 2067 patients were included, 677 were children < 18 years. The most frequent pathologies were ocular allergy (10%), and cataract (7.4%). 158 patients (7.6%) were referred for surgery. Glasses were prescribed for 1103 patients (53.4%), of whom 242 (21.9%) were children of school age. SVI/BL was found in 276 patients (13%). The condition was bilateral in 116 patients (42%). SVI/BL was significantly more frequent in the Syrian population than in the Lebanese (186 patients, 14.8% versus 86 patients, 11.3%; p = 0.04). The main causes for SVI/BL were cataract, keratoconus/corneal decompensation and amblyopia. CONCLUSION: The Syrian refugee population and the Lebanese host community have a high prevalence of ophthalmic pathologies and SVI/BL. Visual impairment is more prevalent in the refugee population. Our findings underscore the importance of targeted interventions and access to eye care services for these populations.


Assuntos
Catarata , Ceratocone , Refugiados , Baixa Visão , Criança , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Síria/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Cegueira/etiologia , Baixa Visão/etiologia , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Catarata/complicações , Ceratocone/complicações
10.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 36(1): 29, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL), which can be influenced by various aspects, especially socioeconomic status and lifestyle, has been identified as an important predictor of the prognosis of older adults. Dietary habit, a major part of lifestyle, can affect the nutritional status, which is closely correlated with the development of geriatric syndromes in the elderly. AIMS: The aim of the study was to examine the association of HRQoL, socioeconomic status, and lifestyle with the risk and severity of sarcopenia, a geriatric syndrome characterized by progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and function. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective study with 2877 participants aged ≥65 years was performed. HRQoL was assessed using EuroQoL Five Dimensions questionnaire. Socioeconomic status was assessed by the educational attainment, occupation, and household income. Lifestyle was assessed using 12 items closely related to Chinese living habits. The information of daily dietary habits including tea, alcohol, type of diet, and volume of drinking water were collected. The associations of HRQoL, socioeconomic status, and lifestyle with the risk of sarcopenia were examined by multivariate regression logistical analysis. The potential causal role of age, body mass index, and waist circumference in the effect of HRQoL on sarcopenia risk was analyzed by causal mediation analysis. RESULTS: High HRQoL [adjusted odds ratio (OR) =0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.69-0.95, P=0.034] and household income levels (adjusted OR =0.74, 95% CI =0.57-0.95, P=0.019) were inversely associated with the risk of sarcopenia. Meanwhile, more consumption of spicy food (adjusted OR =1.34, 95% CI =1.09-1.81, P =0.037) and occasionally drinking (adjusted OR =1.46, 95% CI =1.07-2.00, P =0.016, as compared to those never drinking) were associated with higher risk of sarcopenia, while skipping breakfast occasionally (adjusted OR =0.37, 95% CI =0.21-0.64, P <0.001, as compared to those eating breakfast every day) and less consumption of salt (adjusted OR =0.71, 95% CI =0.52-0.96, P =0.026, as compared to those consuming high amount of salt) were associated with lower risk of sarcopenia. Further causal mediation analysis aimed to explore how much age, body mass index, and waist circumference might explain the effect of HRQoL on the risk of sarcopenia showed that the estimated proportion that mediated the effect of HRQoL on the risk of sarcopenia by age was 28.0%. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our findings demonstrate that low levels of HRQoL and household income, more intake of salt and spicy food, and occasional intake of alcohol are correlated with higher risk of sarcopenia, while skipping breakfast occasionally is associated with lower risk of sarcopenia in a Chinese population of older adults.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia , Idoso , Humanos , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento Alimentar , China/epidemiologia
11.
Br J Nurs ; 33(3): 100-103, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335097

RESUMO

Lymphoedema is the gradual, abnormal build-up of lymph fluid in the tissues resulting from a failure of the lymphatic system. The swelling impedes movement and is painful. Compression garments are contraindicated and not tolerated by patients with extensive peripheral arterial disease. In this case study, simple lymphatic drainage was therefore considered a safer treatment option to reduce oedema and to encourage proactive self-management for a patient with bilateral amputations, diabetes and peripheral arterial disease.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Linfedema , Doença Arterial Periférica , Humanos , Linfedema/terapia , Edema/etiologia , Edema/terapia , Sistema Linfático , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia
12.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 32(4): e193-e203, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335144

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine whether time from hospital admission to surgery is associated with inpatient complications and mortality for geriatric patients undergoing surgical treatment of acetabular fractures. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study using the National Trauma Data Bank from 2016 to 2018 of patients presenting to level I through IV trauma centers in the United States. All patients aged 60 years or older with acetabular fractures requiring surgical treatment were included. The main outcome measurements were inpatient mortality and complication rates. RESULTS: There were 6,036 patients who met inclusion criteria. The median age was 69 years (interquartile range 64-76 years). The odds of a complication increased by 7% for each additional day between hospital admission and surgery (multivariable regression OR 1.07, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.10; P < 0.001). Complications were also associated with patient age (OR 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.06; P < 0.001) and mCCI ≥ 5 (OR 2.52, 95% CI = 1.4 to 4.2; P = 0.001). Inpatient mortality was not associated with time to surgery (OR 0.97, 95% CI = 0.92 to 1.02; P = 0.30), but was associated with patient age (OR 1.07, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.10; P < 0.001; P < 0.001) and mCCI ≥ 5 (OR 4.62, 95% CI = 2.31 to 8.50; P < 0.001). DISCUSSION: In this database study, time from hospital admission to surgery was associated with a notable increase in inpatient complications but not inpatient mortality after adjusting for potentially confounding variables while age and mCCI were associated with both mortality and complications. Additional research is needed to determine the relationship between time to surgery with longer term mortality and complications and to assess causality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level III.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril , Lesões do Pescoço , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Humanos , Idoso , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hospitalização , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298302, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: cute kidney injury(AKI) is a rapid loss of the kidney's excretory function, resulting in an accumulation of end products of nitrogen metabolism. The causes of AKI in HIV-positive patients are not well investigated, but it may be associated with antiretroviral drug side effects and HIV itself. Even though there were studies that reported the prevalence of AKI among HIV-positive patients in Africa, their findings were inconsistent across the studies. METHODS: We searched on PubMed, Embas, Ebsco, OVID, Cochrane Library, and other supplementary search engines, including Google and Google Scholar. Articles published upto July 2023 were included in this review study. The quality of the study was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort studies. The data were extracted using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and exported to Stata version 14 for analysis. A random effect meta-analysis model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of AKI among HIV-positive patients. Heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochrane Q statistics and I squared (I2). Furthermore, the graphic asymmetric test of the funnel plot and/or Egger's tests were computed to detect publication bias. Sensitivity analysis was computed to see the effect of a single study on the summary effects. To treat the publication bias, a trim and fill analysis was carried out. The protocol of this review has been registered in an international database, the Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO),with reference number CRD42023446078. RESULTS: A total of twenty-four original articles comprising 7913HIV-positive patients were included in the study. The pooled prevalence of AKI among HI-positive patients was found to be 23.35% (95% CI: 18.14-28.56%, I2 = 97.7%, p-value <0.001). Low hemoglobin (Hgb <8mg/dl) was found to be the determinant factor for AKI among HIV-positive patients (AOR = 2.4; 95% CI:1.69-3.4, I2 = 0.0%, p-value = 0.40). In meta-regression analysis, sample size was the possible source of variation among the included studies (AOR = 3.11, 95%CI: 2.399-3.83). CONCLUSIONS: The pooled prevalence of AKI among HIV-positive patients was high. HIV-positive patients with low hemoglobin levels are at risk of developing AKI. Hence, regular monitoring of kidney function tests is needed to prevent or delay the risk of AKI among HIV-positive patients. Healthcare workers should provide an integrated healthcare service to HIV-positive patients on the prevention, treatment, and reduction of the progression of AKI to advanced stages and complications.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , África/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/complicações , Hemoglobinas , Etiópia/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0289248, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Agomelatine (AGO) is an antidepressant with unique pharmacological effects; however, its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we examined agomelatine's effects on catalase activity, oxidative stress, and inflammation. METHODS: Chronic restraint stress (CRS) model mice were established over 4 weeks, and AGO 50 mg/kg was administered to different groups alongside a deferasirox (DFX) 10 mg/kg gavage treatment. Behavioral tests were performed to assess the effect of AGO on the remission of depression-like behaviors. Meanwhile, the expression of CAT, the oxidative stress signaling pathway and inflammatory protein markers were assessed using ELISA, qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Four weeks of AGO treatment significantly improved depression-like behavior in mice through the activation of catalase in the hippocampus and serum of the model mice, increased superoxide dismutase expression, reduced malondialdehyde expression, and reduced oxidative stress damage. Deferasirox was found to offset this therapeutic effect partially. In addition, the inflammatory pathway (including nuclear factor-κB and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells inhibitor, alpha) was not significantly altered. CONCLUSIONS: AGO can exert antidepressant effects by altering oxidative stress by modulating catalase activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Depressão , Camundongos , Animais , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Catalase/metabolismo , Deferasirox/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico
15.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0296835, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early life factors of birthweight, child weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and pubertal timing are associated with risks of breast cancer. However, the predictive value of these factors in relation to breast cancer is largely unknown. Therefore, using a machine learning approach, we examined whether birthweight, childhood weights, heights, BMIs, and pubertal timing individually and in combination were predictive of breast cancer. METHODS: We used information on birthweight, childhood height and weight, and pubertal timing assessed by the onset of the growth spurt (OGS) from 164,216 girls born 1930-1996 from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. Of these, 10,002 women were diagnosed with breast cancer during 1977-2019 according to a nationwide breast cancer database. We developed a feed-forward neural network, which was trained and tested on early life body size measures individually and in various combinations. Evaluation metrics were examined to identify the best performing model. RESULTS: The highest area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) was achieved in a model that included birthweight, childhood heights, weights and age at OGS (AUC = 0.600). A model based on childhood heights and weights had a comparable AUC value (AUC = 0.598), whereas a model including only childhood heights had the lowest AUC value (AUC = 0.572). The sensitivity of the models ranged from 0.698 to 0.760 while the precision ranged from 0.071 to 0.076. CONCLUSION: We found that the best performing network was based on birthweight, childhood weights, heights and age at OGS as the input features. Nonetheless, this performance was only slightly better than the model including childhood heights and weights. Further, although the performance of our networks was relatively low, it was similar to those from previous studies including well-established risk factors. As such, our results suggest that childhood body size may add additional value to breast cancer prediction models.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Estatura , Tamanho Corporal , Puberdade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco , Redes Neurais de Computação
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(6): e36104, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335372

RESUMO

To determine whether health status during pregnancy is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and abnormal head circumference (HC) in the offspring. This study included 41 Han children with ASD who visited the Children's Health Clinic of the Second Hospital of Shandong University between March 2018 and February 2019, and 264 Han children with typical development (TD) who visited the clinic during the same period. Physical measurements were performed on the children. The questionnaire obtained information on maternal risk factors that may be related to the increased risk of ASD and folic acid (FA) supplementation. We designed an observational case-control study using propensity score matching and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The incidence of macrocephaly in the ASD group was 22.0%, significantly higher than that in the TD group (1.8%). The incidence of microcephaly in the ASD group was 17.1% (n = 7), significantly higher than that in the TD group (1.8%). The differences between the comparisons were statistically significant. Maternal FA supplementation during pregnancy was significantly associated with ASD (P < .05), with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval of 3.69 (1.76, 7.76)). Also was associated with macrocephaly (P < .05), odds ratio (95% confidence interval) were 8.13 (1.63, 40.61) and 4.16 (1.18, 14.60), respectively. The incidence of abnormal HC was higher in the ASD group than that in the TD group. Maternal FA supplementation during pregnancy may be negatively associated with the occurrence of ASD and abnormal HC in the offspring. Further examination of the role of maternal health status in the etiology of ASD is recommended.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Megalencefalia , Criança , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Fólico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pontuação de Propensão , Mães , Megalencefalia/complicações
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(6): e37211, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335374

RESUMO

We aimed to explore the therapeutic effects of endoscopically assisted surgical approaches for HICH. In this retrospective cohort study, we retrospectively analyzed the treatment status of 118 patients with HICH who underwent surgery for hematoma removal. Among them, 61 patients underwent endoscopically assisted hematoma removal surgery through the frontal lobe approach (frontal lobe group); 57 patients underwent endoscopic hematoma assisted via the temporal lobe approach (temporal lobe group). Treatment effects, cerebral hemodynamic status before and after treatment, postoperative prognosis at one month, and incidence of complications were compared between the 2 groups. We found that the total effective treatment rate in the frontal lobe group was higher than that in the temporal lobe group (P < .05). After surgery, the R during the contraction period of the common cerebral artery in both groups decreased compared to that before surgery, and the frontal lobe group was significantly lower than the temporal lobe group; the V and Q were higher than those before surgery, and the frontal lobe group was significantly higher than the temporal lobe group (P < .05). The prognosis of the frontal lobe group was better than that of the temporal lobe group (P < .05). Compared to the endoscopic-assisted temporal approach, the endoscopic-assisted frontal lobe approach for the treatment of HICH can improve cerebral hemodynamic status, enhance treatment efficacy, and improve prognosis.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Intracraniana Hipertensiva , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hemorragia Intracraniana Hipertensiva/cirurgia , Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Craniotomia , Resultado do Tratamento , Hematoma/etiologia
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(6): e37111, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy in patients with nephrotic syndrome presents enormous challenges to both the mother and fetus, and there are no treatment guidelines for these patients. METHODS: We show a case of a woman with anti-PLA2R antibody-positive membranous nephropathy who did not have a kidney biopsy. Her clinical course during both pregnancies was closely followed and her medications were guided. RESULTS: She gave birth to 2 healthy babies and her condition was very well controlled with the help of medication. CONCLUSION: Patients with nephrotic syndrome can have successful pregnancies after drug treatment. In addition, similar to the non-pregnant population, percutaneous kidney biopsy is not required for the diagnosis of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) in pregnant nephrotic syndrome patients with anti-PLA2R antibody positive, but the etiology of secondary MN should be excluded.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite Membranosa , Síndrome Nefrótica , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/complicações , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/diagnóstico , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Nefrótica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Nefrótica/etiologia , Autoanticorpos , Receptores da Fosfolipase A2 , Mães
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(6): e37142, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335418

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Epiglottic retroversion is the abnormal movement of the epiglottis to the rima glottis, resulting in blockage of inspiratory airflow. Acute upper airway obstruction caused by epiglottic retroversion can lead to sudden respiratory failure. Epiglottic retroversion has occasionally been reported in horses and dogs; however it is extremely rare in humans. Herein, we report a case of epiglottic retroversion causing recurrent upper airway obstruction in human. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present the case of a 74-year-old man who was diagnosed with epiglottic retroversion without evidence of epiglottis. The patient presented with recurrent episodes of abnormal breathing sounds and dyspnea. Inspiratory stridor was evident whenever the patient experienced dyspnea. DIAGNOSIS: Epiglottic retroversion was diagnosed as the cause of upper airway obstruction using fiber-optic bronchoscopy. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent tracheostomy to prevent acute respiratory failure because the recurrent episodes of stridor and dyspnea did not improve. OUTCOMES: The episodic dyspnea and oxygen desaturation did not relapse after tracheostomy and he could be discharged home. LESSONS: This case highlights the importance of considering epiglottic retroversion as a cause of acute upper airway obstruction.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Doenças da Laringe , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Masculino , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Cavalos , Idoso , Epiglote , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Doenças da Laringe/complicações , Doenças da Laringe/diagnóstico , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/complicações , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(6): e37115, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335440

RESUMO

Optic neuritis frequently occurs during the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this condition, demyelination of the optic nerve occurs, which electrophysiologically causes a delay in P100 wave latency. Sensitive cholesterol homeostasis is critical for the formation of the myelin sheath and for myelin to become functionally mature. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) becomes dysfunctional under oxidative stress and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. In this study, HDL levels of MS patients suffering from optic neuritis were compared with those of healthy individuals, and the relationship between pattern reversal visual evoked potential (PRVEP) P100 wave latency and HDL levels in patients with optic neuritis attacks was analyzed. PRVEP studies were performed in patients with MS who had an episode of optic neuritis, and P100 wave latencies were measured. Peripheral blood samples were collected from healthy participants and patients. Lipid levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and paraoxonase (PON) activities were measured, and the MPO/PON ratio was then calculated. The lipid profiles and dysfunctional HDL levels in the healthy and patient groups were compared. Finally, the relationship between these parameters and the PRVEP-P100 wave latency was examined. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were significantly higher in the patient group (P = .044; P = .038, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in HDL levels between groups (P = .659). The distribution of MPO values was similar between groups (P = .452). PON values were significantly lower, whereas the MPO/PON ratios were significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (P = .025; P = .028, respectively). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the elevated MPO/PON ratio, representing dysfunctional HDL, and both the mean and maximum PRVEP-P100 wave latencies (P < .001, R = 0.690; P < .001, R = 0.815, respectively). A dysfunctional form of HDL may lead to poor deactivation of remyelination-limiting factors and may ultimately be associated with poor outcomes in optic neuritis.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Neurite Óptica , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Lipoproteínas HDL , Neurite Óptica/etiologia , Colesterol
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