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1.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(2): 62, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994875

RESUMO

Fusariosis affects cereal grain crops worldwide and is responsible for devastating crops, reducing grain quality and yield, and producing strong mycotoxins. Benzimidazoles and triazoles were recommended to combat fusariosis; however, there were reports of resistance, making it necessary to reflect on the reasons for this occurrence. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the fusariosis resistance to the main agricultural fungicides, to observe whether this resistance can cause changes in the production of mycotoxins, and to verify the influence of resistance on the cereal grain production chain. Scientific articles were selected from the ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Pubmed databases, published at maximum 10 years ago and covering the main fungicide classes that combat phytopathogenesis and mycotoxin production. A high occurrence of resistance to carbendazim was found, while few reports of resistance to triazoles are available. The effectiveness of strobilurins is doubtful, due to an increase of mycotoxins linked to it. It is possible to conclude that the large-scale use of fungicides can select resistant strains that will contribute to an increase in the production of mycotoxins and harm sectors of the world economy, not only the agriculture, but also sanitation and foreign trade.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Fusarium , Micotoxinas , Grão Comestível , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas
2.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 20, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (CR-hvKP) causes serious infections with significant morbidity and mortality. However, the epidemiology and transmission mechanisms of CR-hvKP and the corresponding carbapenem-resistant plasmids require further investigation. Herein, we have characterized an ST11 K. pneumoniae strain EBSI041 from the blood sample encoding both hypervirulence and carbapenem resistance phenotypes from a patient in Egypt. RESULTS: K. pneumoniae strain EBSI041 showed multidrug-resistance phenotypes, where it was highly resistant to almost all tested antibiotics including carbapenems. And hypervirulence phenotypes of EBSI041 was confirmed by the model of Galleria mellonella infection. Whole-genome sequencing analysis showed that the hybrid plasmid pEBSI041-1 carried a set of virulence factors rmpA, rmpA2, iucABCD and iutA, and six resistance genes aph(3')-VI, armA, msr(E), mph(E), qnrS, and sul2. Besides, blaOXA-48 and blaSHV-12 were harboured in a novel conjugative IncL-type plasmid pEBSI041-2. The blaKPC-2-carrying plasmid pEBSI041-3, a non-conjugative plasmid lacking the conjugative transfer genes, could be transferred with the help of pEBSI041-2, and the two plasmids could fuse into a new plasmid during co-transfer. Moreover, the emergence of the p16HN-263_KPC-like plasmids is likely due to the integration of pEBSI041-3 and pEBSI041-4 via IS26-mediated rearrangement. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the complete genome sequence of KPC-2- and OXA-48-coproducing hypervirulent K. pneumoniae from Egypt. These results give new insights into the adaptation and evolution of K. pneumoniae during nosocomial infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Klebsiella , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Egito , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética
3.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(2): 124, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997335

RESUMO

Soil pH conditions have important consequences for microbial community structure, their dynamics, ecosystem processes, and interactions with plants. Low soil pH affects the growth and functional activity of bacterial biocontrol agents which may experience a paradigm shift in their ability to act antagonistically against fungal phytopathogens. In this study, the antifungal activity of an acid-tolerant soil bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MBNC was evaluated under low pH and compared to its activity in neutral pH conditions. Bacterial supernatant from 3-day-old culture (approximately 11.2 × 108 cells/mL) grown in low pH conditions was found more effective against fungal pathogens. B. amyloliquefaciens MBNC harboured genes involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites of which surfactin homologues, with varying chain length (C11-C15), were identified through High-Resolution Mass Spectroscopy. The pH of the medium influenced the production of these metabolites. Surfactin C15 was exclusive to the extract of pH 4.5; production of iturinA and surfactin C11 was detected only in pH 7.0, while surfactin C12, C13 and C14 were detected in extracts of both the pH conditions. The secretion of phytohormones viz. indole acetic acid and gibberellic acid by B. amyloliquefaciens MBNC was detected in higher amounts in neutral condition compared to acidic condition. Although, secretion of metabolites and phytohormones in B. amyloliquefaciens MBNC was influenced by the pH condition of the medium, the isolate retained its antagonistic efficiency against several fungal phyto-pathogens under acidic condition.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ecossistema , Fungos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipopeptídeos , Doenças das Plantas
4.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(2): 126, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997845

RESUMO

The mechanism of berberine hydrochloride (BBH) inhibiting the biofilm formation of Hafnia alvei was investigated in this study. The antibiofilm potential of BBH was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as crystal violet staining. The quorum-sensing (QS) inhibition was revealed by determination of QS-related genes expression and related signal molecules production using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The binding of BBH to receptor proteins was simulated by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. It was found that BBH at sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) significantly reduced the biofilm formation of H. alvei in a dose dependent manner. BBH inhibited the bacterial swimming motility, decreased the transcription of halI and halR genes, and reduced the production of signal molecule C14-HSL. It bound to HalR protein mainly through Van der Waals force and electrostatic interaction force. Based on these results, it was concluded that BBH inhibits the biofilm formation of H. alvei and the mechanism is related to its interference with QS through down-regulating the expression of halI and halR genes.


Assuntos
Berberina , Hafnia alvei , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Berberina/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Percepção de Quorum
5.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 46, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is complicating the effective treatment and control of tuberculosis disease (TB). With the adoption of whole genome sequencing as a diagnostic tool, machine learning approaches are being employed to predict M. tuberculosis resistance and identify underlying genetic mutations. However, machine learning approaches can overfit and fail to identify causal mutations if they are applied out of the box and not adapted to the disease-specific context. We introduce a machine learning approach that is customized to the TB setting, which extracts a library of genomic variants re-occurring across individual studies to improve genotypic profiling. RESULTS: We developed a customized decision tree approach, called Treesist-TB, that performs TB drug resistance prediction by extracting and evaluating genomic variants across multiple studies. The application of Treesist-TB to rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH) and ethambutol (EMB) drugs, for which resistance mutations are known, demonstrated a level of predictive accuracy similar to the widely used TB-Profiler tool (Treesist-TB vs. TB-Profiler tool: RIF 97.5% vs. 97.6%; INH 96.8% vs. 96.5%; EMB 96.8% vs. 95.8%). Application of Treesist-TB to less understood second-line drugs of interest, ethionamide (ETH), cycloserine (CYS) and para-aminosalisylic acid (PAS), led to the identification of new variants (52, 6 and 11, respectively), with a high number absent from the TB-Profiler library (45, 4, and 6, respectively). Thereby, Treesist-TB had improved predictive sensitivity (Treesist-TB vs. TB-Profiler tool: PAS 64.3% vs. 38.8%; CYS 45.3% vs. 30.7%; ETH 72.1% vs. 71.1%). CONCLUSION: Our work reinforces the utility of machine learning for drug resistance prediction, while highlighting the need to customize approaches to the disease-specific context. Through applying a modified decision learning approach (Treesist-TB) across a range of anti-TB drugs, we identified plausible resistance-encoding genomic variants with high predictive ability, whilst potentially overcoming the overfitting challenges that can affect standard machine learning applications.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Árvores de Decisões , Resistência a Medicamentos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética
6.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(1): 4, 2022 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982146

RESUMO

Purpose: Netarsudil, a Rho kinase inhibitor with norepinephrine transport inhibitory effect, lowers intraocular pressure, however, its effect on axon damage remains to be elucidated. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of netarsudil on TNF-induced axon loss and to examine whether it affects phosphorylated-AMP-activated kinase (p-AMPK) and autophagy in the optic nerve. Methods: Intravitreal administration of TNF or TNF with netarsudil was carried out on rats and quantification of axon number was determined. Electron microscopy determined autophagosome numbers. Localization of p-AMPK expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. The changes in p62, LC3-II, and p-AMPK levels were estimated in the optic nerve by immunoblot analysis. The effect of an AMPK activator A769662 or an AMPK inhibitor dorsomorphin on axon number was evaluated. Results: Morphometric analysis revealed apparent protection by netarsudil against TNF-induced axon degeneration. Netarsudil increased autophagosome numbers inside axons. Netarsudil treatment significantly upregulated optic nerve LC3-II levels in both the TNF-treated eyes and the control eyes. Increased p62 protein level induced by TNF was significantly ameliorated by netarsudil. The netarsudil administration alone lessened p62 levels. Netarsudil significantly upregulated the optic nerve p-AMPK levels. A769662 exhibited obvious axonal protection against TNF-induced damage. A769662 treatment upregulated LC3-II levels and the increment of p62 level induced by TNF was significantly ameliorated by A769662. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that p-AMPK is present in axons. Netarsudil-mediated axonal protection was significantly suppressed by dorsomorphin administration. Conclusions: Netarsudil upregulated p-AMPK and autophagy. Netarsudil-mediated axonal protection may be associated with upregulated p-AMPK.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Autofagia/fisiologia , Axônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Degeneração Neural/prevenção & controle , Nervo Óptico/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/toxicidade , beta-Alanina/análogos & derivados , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Axônios/enzimologia , Axônios/patologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Injeções Intravítreas , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Degeneração Neural/enzimologia , Nervo Óptico/ultraestrutura , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pironas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Tiofenos/farmacologia , beta-Alanina/farmacologia
7.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(1): 11, 2022 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994769

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the amoebicidal activity of functionalized poly-epsilon-lysine hydrogels (pɛK+) against Acanthamoeba castellanii. Methods: A. castellanii trophozoites and cysts were grown in the presence of pɛK solution (0-2.17 mM), pɛK or pɛK+ hydrogels, or commercial hydrogel contact lens (CL) for 24 hours or 7 days in PBS or Peptone-Yeast-Glucose (PYG) media (nutrient-deplete or nutrient-replete cultures, respectively). Toxicity was determined using propidium iodide and imaged using fluorescence microscopy. Ex vivo porcine corneas were inoculated with A. castellanii trophozoites ± pɛK, pɛK+ hydrogels or commercial hydrogel CL for 7 days. Corneal infection was assessed by periodic acid-Schiff staining and histologic analysis. Regrowth of A. castellanii from hydrogel lenses and corneal discs at 7 days was assessed using microscopy and enumeration. Results: The toxicity of pɛK+ hydrogels resulted in the death of 98.52% or 83.31% of the trophozoites at 24 hours or 7 days, respectively. The toxicity of pɛK+ hydrogels resulted in the death of 70.59% or 82.32% of the cysts in PBS at 24 hours or 7 days, respectively. Cysts exposed to pɛK+ hydrogels in PYG medium resulted in 75.37% and 87.14% death at 24 hours and 7 days. Ex vivo corneas infected with trophozoites and incubated with pɛK+ hydrogels showed the absence of A. castellanii in the stroma, with no regrowth from corneas or pɛK+ hydrogel, compared with infected-only corneas and those incubated in presence of commercial hydrogel CL. Conclusions: pɛK+ hydrogels demonstrated pronounced amoebicidal and cysticidal activity against A. castellanii. pɛK+ hydrogels have the potential for use as CLs that could minimize the risk of CL-associated Acanthamoeba keratitis.


Assuntos
Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/tratamento farmacológico , Acanthamoeba castellanii/efeitos dos fármacos , Amebicidas/farmacologia , Córnea/parasitologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Polilisina/farmacologia , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/parasitologia , Amebicidas/toxicidade , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Soluções para Lentes de Contato/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitélio Corneano/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/parasitologia , Humanos , Hidrogéis/toxicidade , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Polilisina/toxicidade , Suínos , Trofozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 11, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared with other abiotic stresses, drought stress causes serious crop yield reductions. Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA), as an environmentally friendly biomacromolecule, plays an important role in plant growth and regulation. RESULTS: In this project, the effect of exogenous application of γ-PGA on drought tolerance of maize (Zea mays. L) and its mechanism were studied. Drought dramatically inhibited the growth and development of maize, but the exogenous application of γ-PGA significantly increased the dry weight of maize, the contents of ABA, soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll, and the photosynthetic rate under severe drought stress. RNA-seq data showed that γ-PGA may enhance drought resistance in maize by affecting the expression of ABA biosynthesis, signal transduction, and photosynthesis-related genes and other stress-responsive genes, which was also confirmed by RT-PCR and promoter motif analysis. In addition, diversity and structure analysis of the rhizosphere soil bacterial community demonstrated that γ-PGA enriched plant growth promoting bacteria such as Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Alphaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria. Moreover, γ-PGA significantly improved root development, urease activity and the ABA contents of maize rhizospheric soil under drought stress. This study emphasized the possibility of using γ-PGA to improve crop drought resistance and the soil environment under drought conditions and revealed its preliminary mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous application of poly-γ-glutamic acid could significantly enhance the drought resistance of maize by improving photosynthesis, and root development and affecting the rhizosphere microbial community.


Assuntos
Secas , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Poliglutâmico/análogos & derivados , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Zea mays/fisiologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Poliglutâmico/farmacologia , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(1): 112, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982208

RESUMO

In this study, a bacteriocin PA996 isolated from Pseudomonas azotoformans (P. azotoformans) was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulphate precipitation and SP-Sepharose column chromatography. P. azotoformans began to grow at 6 h, reached exponential phase at 12-18 h. Bacteriocin PA996 was produced at 18 h and reached a maximum level of 2400 AU/mL. The molecular mass of purified bacteriocin PA996 was estimated by SDS-PAGE and its molecular mass was approximately 50 kDa. By screening in vitro, the bacteriocin PA996 showed an antimicrobial activity against Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida). The bacteriocin PA996 showed antibacterial activity in the range of pH2-10 and it was heat labile. The inhibitory activities were diminished after treatment with proteinase K, trypsin and papain, respectively, while catalase treatment was ineffective. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and bactericidal kinetics curves showed that the bacteriocin PA996 had a good inhibitory ability against P. multocida. Our data indicate that bacteriocin PA996 could inhibit the growth of P. maltocida and it may have the potential to apply as an alternative therapeutic drug.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bacteriocinas , Pasteurella multocida/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
10.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 15, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonicotinoids are widely applied in the control of the destructive agricultural pest Bemisia tabaci, and resistance against these chemicals has become a common, severe problem in the control of whiteflies. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying resistance against nenonicotinoids in whiteflies, RNA-seq technology was applied, and the variation in the transcriptomic profiles of susceptible whiteflies and whiteflies selected by imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam treatment was characterized. RESULTS: A total of 90.86 GB of clean sequence data were obtained from the 4 transcriptomes. Among the 16,069 assembled genes, 584, 110 and 147 genes were upregulated in the imidacloprid-selected strain (IMI), acetamiprid-selected strain (ACE), and thiamethoxam (THI)-selected strain, respectively, relative to the susceptible strain. Detoxification-related genes including P450s, cuticle protein genes, GSTs, UGTs and molecular chaperone HSP70s were overexpressed in the selected resistant strains, especially in the IMI strain. Five genes were downregulated in all three selected resistant strains, including 2 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B18-like genes (LOC 109030370 and LOC 109032577). CONCLUSIONS: Ten generations of selection with the three neonicotinoids induced different resistance levels and gene expression profiles, mainly involving cuticle protein and P450 genes, in the three selected resistant whitefly strains. The results provide a reference for research on resistance and cross-resistance against neonicotinoids in B. tabaci.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Inseticidas , Animais , Hemípteros/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Tiametoxam
11.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 16, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Teriparatide (TPTD) is a drug for osteoporosis that promotes bone formation and improves bone quality. However, the effects of TPTD on cortical bone are not well understood. Sweep imaging with Fourier transform (SWIFT) has been reported as a useful tool for evaluating bound water of cortical bone, but it has yet to be used to investigate the effects of TPTD on cortical bone. This study aimed to evaluate the consequences of the effect of TPTD on cortical bone formation using SWIFT. METHODS: Twelve-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 36) were reared after ovariectomy to create a postmenopausal osteoporosis model. They were divided into two groups: the TPTD and non-TPTD groups. Rats were euthanized at 4, 12, and 24 weeks after initiating TPTD treatment. Tibial bones were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone histomorphometry. In MRI, proton density-weighted imaging (PDWI) and SWIFT imaging were performed. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated for each method. The same area evaluated by MRI was then used to calculate the bone formation rate by bone histomorphometry. Measurements were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test, and a P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: PDWI-SNR was not significantly different between the two groups at any time point (P = 0.589, 0.394, and 0.394 at 4, 12, and 24 weeks, respectively). Contrarily, SWIFT-SNR was significantly higher in the TPTD group than in the non-TPTD group at 4 weeks after initiating treatment, but it was not significantly different at 12 and 24 weeks (P = 0.009, 0.937, and 0.818 at 4, 12, and 24 weeks, respectively). The bone formation rate assessed by histomorphometry was significantly higher in the TPTD group than in the non-TPTD group at all timepoints (P < 0.05, all weeks). In particular, at 4 weeks, the bone formation rate was markedly higher in the TPTD group than in the non-TPTD group (P = 0.028, 1.98 ± 0.33 vs. 0.09 ± 0.05 µm3/µm2/day). CONCLUSIONS: SWIFT could detect increased signals of bound water, reflecting the effect of TPTD on the cortical bone. The signal detected by SWIFT reflects a marked increase in the cortical bone formation rate.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Teriparatida , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/farmacologia , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Osso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Análise de Fourier , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Osteogênese , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Teriparatida/farmacologia , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico
12.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(2): 59, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982214

RESUMO

Dermatophytoses representing a major global health problem and dermatophyte species with reduced susceptibility to antifungals are increasingly reported. Therefore, we investigated for the first time the antidermatophyte activity and phytochemical properties of the sequential extracts of the Egyptian privet Henna (Lawsonia inermis) leaves. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids (TF), and antioxidant activity of chloroform, diethyl ether, acetone, ethanol 80%, and aqueous extracts were evaluated. The antifungal activity of henna leaves extracts (HLE) toward 30 clinical dermatophytes isolates, including Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, and T. rubrum, was determined. Morphological changes in hyphae were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Following the polarity of ethanol and acetone, they exhibited distinct efficiency for the solubility and extraction of polyphenolic polar antioxidants from henna leaves. Fraxetin, lawsone, and luteolin-3-O-glucoside were the major phenolic compounds of henna leaves, as assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. A high and significant positive correlation was found between TPC, TF, the antioxidants, and the antidermatophyte activities of HLE. Acetone and ethanol extracts exhibited the highest antifungal activity toward the tested dermatophyte species with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges 12.5-37.5 and 25-62.5 µg/mL, respectively. Structural changes including collapsing, distortion, inflating, crushing of hyphae with corrugation of walls, and depressions on hyphal surfaces were observed in SEM analysis for dermatophyte species treated with MICs of griseofulvin, acetone, and ethanol extracts. In conclusion, acetone and ethanolic extracts of henna leaves with their major constituent fraxetin exhibited effective antifungal activity toward dermatophyte species and may be developed as an alternative for dermatophytosis treatment. These findings impart a useful insight into the development of an effective and safe antifungal agent for the treatment of superficial fungal infections caused by dermatophytes.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Lawsonia (Planta)/química , Microsporum/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
13.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 36, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988774

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the effects of selenium (Se) and vitamin E (vitE) supplementation on blood cell counts and blood metabolite concentrations in goats and their kids. Fifteen Saanen goats (average age 6 years of age; average initial body weight of 70 ± 10 kg) and 21 ½ Saanen × ½ Pardo Alpine crossbred goat kids (average body weight of 3.70 ± 0.64 kg) were used. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with five replicates per diet for mother goats and seven for goat kids and randomly assigned into three groups in the following diets: CON, control basal diet; Se, inclusion of 3.2 mg of Se/kg DM; SevitE, inclusion of 3.2 mg Se/kg DM and 1145 IU/day vitE/kg DM. Effects of time were observed on red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin in goats and goat kids. Effects of time were observed on differential counts of leucocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in goat kids. Interaction was observed for high-density lipoprotein and total protein in goats and for triglycerides, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in goat kids. Effects of time were observed on low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, glucose, lactate, BHBA, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), creatinine, aspartate-aminotransferase, and GGT in goats and all blood metabolites in goat kids. Selenium, vitE, or association in the evaluated levels are not sufficient to change blood cell counts when supplied in diets for goats or goat kids. However, the effect of time or interaction between time and diets change the blood metabolite concentrations in the animals.


Assuntos
Cabras , Selênio , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Período Periparto , Selênio/farmacologia , Vitamina E
14.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(1): 120, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989857

RESUMO

It is well known that loss of aerobic respiration in Gram-negative bacteria can diminish the efficacy of a variety of bactericidal antibiotics, which has lead to subsequent demonstrations that the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the proton motive force (PMF) can both play a role in antibiotic toxicity. The susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria to aminoglycoside antibiotics, particularly gentamicin, has previously been linked to both the production of ROS and the rate of antibiotic uptake that is mediated by the PMF, although the relative contributions of ROS and PMF to aminoglycoside toxicity has remained poorly understood. Herein, gentamicin was shown to elicit a very modest increase in ROS levels in an aerobically grown Escherichia coli clinical isolate. The well-characterised uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) was used to disrupt the PMF, which resulted in a significant decrease in gentamicin lethality towards E. coli. DNP did not significantly alter respiratory oxygen consumption, supporting the hypothesis that this uncoupler does not increase ROS production via elevated respiratory oxidase activity. These observations support the hypothesis that maintenance of PMF rather than induction of ROS production underpins the mechanism for how the respiratory chain potentiates the toxicity of aminoglycosides. This was further supported by the demonstration that the uncoupler DNP elicits a dramatic decrease in gentamicin lethality under anaerobic conditions. Together, these data strongly suggest that maintenance of the PMF is the dominant mechanism for the respiratory chain in potentiating the toxic effects of aminoglycosides.


Assuntos
Aminoglicosídeos , Escherichia coli , Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Força Próton-Motriz , Respiração
15.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(1): 119, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989872

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of different fractions obtained from edible Tunisian Ziziphus Lotus leaves of Tozeur region. Different organic extracts were tested: cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water. Bio-guided fractionation revealed that dichloromethane fraction is the most active against S. aureus and Methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains. Moreover, this fraction showed the highest antileishmanial activity with IC50 values of 20.55 ± 0.34 µg/mL and 15.37 ± 0.17 µg/mL against L. major and L. infantum, respectively. The potentialities of antibacterial and leishmanicidal activities found in dichloromethane could be explained by the presence of major flavonoids such as catechin, rutin and luteolin 7-O-glucoside as revealed by HPLC system. The observed moderate antifungal activity, which was only given by butanolic fraction against pathogen fungi, may be attributed to the presence of chlorogenic acid. Furthermore, dichloromethane and butanolic fraction showed a good DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) scavenging activity and Ferric reducing power. These results suggest that Ziziphus lotus leaf fractions might be used as antioxidant and antimicrobialagent.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Ziziphus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Staphylococcus aureus
16.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(2): 35, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982230

RESUMO

Several studies have reported that bacteria produce anti-fungal volatiles. We identified the organic volatile compounds produced by six cacao endophytic bacteria (CEB) strains (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CFFSUR-B35, Bacillus megaterium CFFSUR-B32, Bacillus muralis CFFSUR-B39, Bacillus pumilus CFFSUR-B34, Bacillus subtilis CFFSUR-B31, and Novosphingobium lindaniclasticum CFFSUR-B36). We evaluated their inhibitory effect on mycelium growth and spore germination of the phytopathogenic fungus Moniliophtora roreri. The volatiles produced by these six CEB, were collected and identified by SPME and GC-MS. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of five synthetic volatile organic compounds, individually and in mixtures (dimethyl disulfide, 2-5 dimethyl pyrazine, α-pinene, 2-heptanone and 2-ethyl hexanol) on M. roreri mycelium growth and spore germination was evaluated. All strains examined produced volatiles in different amounts; 13 to 10 compounds were identified, including sulfide, alcohol benzene derivate, pyrazine, ketone, nitrogen and terpene compounds. The B. subtilis CFFSUR-B31 strain produced the largest number of volatiles, while B. pumilus CFFSUR-B34 produced the fewest and the lowest amounts. The volatile organic compounds produced by B. pumilus CFFSUR-B34, B. muralis CFFSUR-B39 and N. lindaniclasticum CFFSUR-B36 inhibited M. roreri mycelium growth by more than 35%, sporulation by more than 81% and spore germination by more than 74%. However, when synthetic compounds were evaluated individually and in mixtures, 2-ethyl hexanol at 100,000 ppm (20 mg/filter paper disc) inhibited M. roreri mycelium growth by 100%, followed by organic volatile compound mixtures C (dimethyl disulfide, 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine, α-pinene, 2-ethyl-hexanol, 2-Heptanone) and D (only the top four) at 100,000 ppm (4 and 5 mg/filter paper disc) which inhibited spore germination by 97 and 89%, respectively.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Cacau , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Micélio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
17.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(2): 49, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982234

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause several diseases including otitis media, sinusitis, pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis. The introduction of pneumococcal vaccines has changed the molecular epidemiological and antibiotic resistance profiles of related diseases. Analysis of molecular patterns and genome sequences of clinical strains may facilitate the identification of novel drug resistance mechanism. Three multidrug resistance 19A isolates were verified, serotyped and the complete genomes were sequenced combining the Pacific Biosciences and the Illumina Miseq platform. Genomic annotation revealed that similar central networks were found in the clinical isolates, and Mauve alignments indicated high similarity between different strains. The pan-genome analysis showed the shared and unique cluster in the strains. Mobile elements were predicted in the isolates including prophages and CRISPER systems, which may participate in the virulence and antibiotic resistance of the strains. The presence of 31 virulence factor genes was predicted from other pathogens for PRSP 19339 and 19343, while 30 for PRSP 19087. Meanwhile, 33 genes antibiotic resistance genes were predicted including antibiotic resistance genes, antibiotic-target genes and antibiotic biosynthesis genes. Further analysis of the antibiotic resistance genes revealed new mutations in the isolates. By comparative genomic analysis, we contributed to the understanding of resistance mechanism of the clinical isolates with other serotype strains, which could facilitate the concrete drug resistance mechanism study.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Infecções Pneumocócicas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Genômica , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Penicilinas , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética
18.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(2): 58, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982237

RESUMO

The study aimed to evaluate the safety of copper ion sterilization based on copper ion residues in zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio), as well as bacterial community structure and diversity in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs). The copper ion content was determined using national food safety standard GB 5009.13-2017. Bacterial community structures and alpha and beta diversity indexes were examined using the 16S rRNA gene sequences produced by Illumina HiSeq sequencing. The results revealed no significant copper ion enrichment in B. rerio when the copper ion concentration was 0.15 mg/L. The relative abundances of Erythrobacter, nitrite bacteria, and Flavanobacteria were clearly higher in the treatment group than in the control and differences in bacterial species richness and diversity were obvious. In addition, there was no sharp decrease in the microflora at the outflow of the copper ion generator. In conjunction with the changes in ammonia nitrogen, nitrate, and nitrite concentrations during the experiment, the results indicated that there were no significant effects on the purification efficacy of the biological filter, but the abundances of beneficial bacteria increased significantly. This is of great relevance in order to understand the response of bacterial communities affected by changing environmental conditions, such as copper ion sterilization.


Assuntos
Cobre , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Aquicultura , Bactérias/genética , Cobre/farmacologia , Água Doce , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Esterilização
19.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(1): 51-59, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983739

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anthelmintic resistance (AR) of ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) constitutes a major problem worldwide. Among GINs, the abomasal blood-feeding parasite Haemonchus contortus is particularly pathogenic and may show resistance against all major anthelmintic substance classes. In the present study, the death of a 1,5 year-old European bison (Bison bonasus) from a German wildlife park due to haemonchosis despite frequent anthelmintic treatment of the herd with fenbendazole as well as doramectin prompted an investigation regarding AR. Pooled faecal samples were collected from four different bison groups as well as from mouflons (Ovis orientalis), elk (Alces alces), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), sika deer (Cervus nippon), Persian fallow deer (Dama mesopotamica) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) housed by the wildlife park. After coproscopical examination, faecal larval cultures were established. Haemonchus contortus-positive larval cultures were further examined for genetic polymorphisms associated with benzimidazole resistance at codons 167 and 200 of the ß-tubulin isotype 1 gene by real-time pyrosequencing. Infections with H. contortus were detected in all four bison groups, as well as in mouflons. In five samples, representing two bison groups and the mouflons, the frequency of the resistance-associated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at codon 200 was 100%. In contrast, resistance-associated SNPs were not detected at codon 167. In addition, faecal egg counts from two bison before and 14 days after parenteral doramectin treatment indicated possible macrocyclic lactone resistance. Detection of anthelmintic resistant nematodes in these animals was especially concerning in the light of planned reintroduction into the wild. As helminth control in zoological gardens and wildlife parks relies mostly on anthelmintic treatment due to restricted possibilities regarding management practices such as rotational grazing, care should be taken to avoid underdosing or unnecessary frequent treatments facilitating the development of AR.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Cervos , Haemonchus , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis , Resistência a Medicamentos , Ovinos
20.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(2): 133, 2022 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999965

RESUMO

Biofilm formation of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas (P). aeruginosa is one of the major global challenges to control nosocomial infections due to their high resistance to antimicrobials and host defense mechanisms. The present study aimed to assess the antibacterial and the antibiofilm activities of Peganum (P). harmala seed extract against multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. Chemical identification of the active compound and determination of its molecular mechanism of action were also investigated. Results showed that P. harmala n-butanol "n-BuOH" extract exhibited antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. This extract was even more active than conventional antibiotics cefazolin and vaamox when tested against three P. aeruginosa multidrug-resistant isolates. In addition, P. harmala n-BuOH extract exhibited potent bactericidal activity against PAO1 strain at MIC value corresponding to 500 µg/mL and attained 100% killing effect at 24 h of incubation. Furthermore, P. harmala n-BuOH extract showed an antibiofilm activity against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and exhibited 80.43% inhibition at sub-inhibitory concentration. The extract also eradicated 83.99% of the biofilm-forming bacteria. The active compound was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as an indole alkaloid harmaline. Transcriptomic analysis showed complete inhibition of the biofilm-related gene pilA when PAO1 cells were treated with harmaline. Our results revealed that P. harmala seed extract and its active compound harmaline could be considered as a candidate for a new treatment of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa pathogens-associated biofilm infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Peganum , Extratos Vegetais , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Peganum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
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