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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 487-515, jul. 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538020

RESUMO

Myrtus communis L., commonly known as true myrtle, is a medicinal plant native to the Mediterranean area. Since ancient times, the inhabitant s of this area have been using it for its cultural and medicinal properties. Because of the vast diversity of biomolecules in its aerial parts, it exhibits several biological properties, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties. This review retrospect the research on the source, biological activities with empirical evidence, chemical composition, applications, and cellular targets of extracts and essential oils obtained from M. communis leaves, which provides a perspective for further studies on the applications and formulations of extract and EO of M. communis leaves. The efficacy of constituents' individually, in association with other bioactive constituents, or in combination with available commercial drugs would provide insights in to the development of these bio - actives as future drugs and their evolving future potential applications in the pharmaceutical, food, and aroma industries.


Myrtus communis L., comúnmente conocido como arrayán verdadero, es una planta medicinal originaria de la zona mediterránea. Desde la antigüedad, los habitantes de esta zona lo utilizan por sus propiedades culturales y medicinales. Debido a la gran div ersidad de biomoléculas en sus partes aéreas, exhibe varias propiedades biológicas, incluidas propiedades antioxidantes, antimicrobianas y anticancerígenas. Esta revisión retrospectiva de la investigación sobre la fuente, las actividades biológicas con evi dencia empírica, la composición química, las aplicaciones y los objetivos celulares de los extractos y aceites esenciales obtenidos de las hojas de M. communis , lo que brinda una perspectiva para futuros estudios sobre las aplicaciones y formulaciones de l os extractos y EO de M. communis . La eficacia de los componentes individualmente, en asociación con otros componentes bioactivos o en combinación con medicamentos comerciales disponibles proporcionaría información sobre el desarrollo de estos bioactivos co mo medicamentos futuros y sus futuras aplicaciones potenciales en las industrias farmacéutica, alimentaria y aromática


Assuntos
Myrtus communis/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos , Antioxidantes
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 568-576, jul. 2024. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538065

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the repellent and insecticidal activity of four essential oils (EOs) from plants collected in the Chocó rain forest, Colombia, against T. castaneum . Conventional hydrodistillation was used to obtain the EOs. The repellent and insecticidal activities were evaluated by the preference area and gas dispersion methods, espectively. Statistical differences (p<0.05) were determined by applying a student's t-test. EOs of Siparuna guianensis, S. conica, Piper marginatum, and Nectandra acutifolia showed excellent repellent properties as the main findings, highlighting S. conicaEO with 84% repellency (1-hµL/cm2), while P. marginatum showed to be bioactive to the dose of 500 µL/mL (72 h), inducing mortality of 100% of the exposed population. In conclusion, the results evidenced the repellent properties of the EOs evaluated against T. castaneum , which allows us to conclude that these plant species are potential natural sources producing bio-repellents that contribute to the integrated control of T. castaneum.


Se evaluaron cuatro aceites esenciales (AEs) de plantas recolectadas en la selva pluvial del Chocó, Colombia, para determinar su actividad repelente e insecticida contra T. castaneum. Los AEs fueron obtenidos por hidrodestilación convencional. Las actividades repelentes e insecticidas se evaluaron por los métodos de área de preferencia y dispersión de gas, respectivamente. Las diferencias significativas (p<0,05) fueron determinadas aplicando una prueba t de student. Los AEs de Siparuna guianensis, S. conica, Piper marginatum y Nectandra acutifolia mostraron excelentes propiedades repelentes, destacando el AE de S. conicacon un 84% de repelencia (1µL/cm2), mientras que el AE de P. marginatummostró ser bioactivo a la dosis de 500 µL/mL (72 h) al inducir la mortalidad del 100% de la población expuesta. Se concluye que estas especies de plantas son fuentes naturales potencialmente viables para la producción de biorepelentes que contribuyan en el control integrado de T. castaneum.


Assuntos
Tribolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Colômbia , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 636-644, jul. 2024. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538072

RESUMO

Thechemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from aerial parts (leaves and flowers) of Chuquiraga arcuataHarling grown in the Ecuadorian Andes were studied. One hundred and twenty-six compounds were identified in the essential oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (45.8%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (44.1%) had the major percentages. The most abundant compounds were camphor (21.6%), myrcene (19.5%), and 1,8-cineole (13.4%). Antioxidant activity was examined using DPPH, ABTS,and FRAP assays. The essential oil had a moderate scavenging effect and reduction of ferric ion capacity through FRAP assay. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was observed against four pathogenic bacteria and a fungus. The essential oil exhibited activity against all microorganism strains under test, particularly against Candida albicansand Staphylococcus aureuswith MICs of 2.43-12.10 µg/mL.


Se estudió la composición química, actividades antioxidantes y antimicrobianas del aceite esencial procedente de las partes aérea (hojas y flores) de Chuquiraga arcuataHarling cultivadas en los Andes ecuatorianos. Se identificaron 126 compuestos en el aceite esencial. Los hidrocarburos monoterpénicos (45,8%) y los monoterpenos oxigenados (44,1%) tuvieron el mayor porcentaje. Los compuestos más abundantes fueron alcanfor (21,6%), mirceno (19,5%) y 1,8-cineol (13,4%). La actividadantioxidante se examinó mediante ensayos DPPH, ABTS y FRAP. El aceite esencial tuvo un efecto eliminador moderado y una reducción de la capacidad de iones férricos mediante el ensayo FRAP. Se observó actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial contra cuatro bacterias y un hongo patógenos. El aceite esencial mostró actividad contra todas las cepas de microorganismos bajo prueba, particularmente contra Candida albicansy Staphylococcus aureuscon CMI de 2,43-12,10 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Flores/química , Equador , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
4.
Acc Chem Res ; 57(8): 1174-1187, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557015

RESUMO

ConspectusSupramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) are predictable and size-tunable supramolecular self-assemblies constructed through directional coordination bonds between readily available organic ligands and metallic receptors. Based on planar and 3D structures, SCCs can be mainly divided into two categories: metallacycles (e.g., rhomboidal, triangular, rectangular, and hexagonal) and metallacages (e.g., tetrahedral, hexahedral, and dodecahedral). The directional coordination bonds enable the efficient formation of metallacycles and metallacages with well-defined architectures and geometries. SCCs exhibit several advantages, including good directionality, strong interaction force, tunable modularity, and good solution processability, making them highly attractive for biomedical applications, especially in cellular imaging and cancer therapy. Compared with their molecular precursors, SCCs demonstrate enhanced cellular uptake and a strengthened tumor accumulation effect, owing to their inherently charged structures. These properties and the chemotherapeutic potential inherent to organic platinum complexes have promoted their widespread application in antitumor therapy. Furthermore, the defined structures of SCCs, achieved via the design modification of assembly elements and introduction of different functional groups, enable them to combat malignant tumors through multipronged treatment modalities. Because the development of cancer-treatment methodologies integrated in clinics has evolved from single-modality chemotherapy to synergistic multimodal therapy, the development of functional SCCs for synergistic cancer therapy is crucial. While some pioneering reviews have explored the bioapplications of SCCs, often categorized by a specific function or focusing on the specific metal or ligand types, a comprehensive exploration of their synergistic multifunctionality is a critical gap in the current literature.In this Account, we focus on platinum-based SCCs and their applications in cancer therapy. While other metals, such as Pd-, Rh-, Ru-, and Ir-based SCCs, have been explored for cancer therapy by Therrien and Casini et al., platinum-based SCCs have garnered significant interest, owing to their unique advantages in antitumor therapy. These platinum-based SCCs, which enhance antitumor efficacy, are considered prominent candidates for cancer therapies owing to their desirable properties, such as potent antitumor activity, exceptionally low systemic toxicity, active tumor-targeting ability, and enhanced cellular uptake. Furthermore, diverse diagnostic and therapeutic modalities (e.g., chemotherapy, photothermal therapy, and photodynamic therapy) can be integrated into a single platform based on platinum-based SCCs for cancer therapy. Consequently, herein, we summarize our recent research on platinum-based SCCs for synergistic cancer therapy with particular emphasis on the cooperative interplay between different therapeutic methods. In the Conclusions section, we present the key advancements achieved on the basis of our research findings and propose future directions that may significantly impact the field.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação , Neoplasias , Humanos , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/uso terapêutico , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Platina/química
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(15): 6781-6792, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560895

RESUMO

Predicting the hotspots of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in aquatics is crucial for managing associated risks. We developed an integrated modeling framework toward predicting the spatiotemporal abundance of antibiotics, indicator bacteria, and their corresponding antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), as well as assessing the potential AMR risks to the aquatic ecosystem in a tropical reservoir. Our focus was on two antibiotics, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP), and on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and its variant resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (EC_SXT). We validated the predictive model using withheld data, with all Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values above 0.79, absolute relative difference (ARD) less than 25%, and coefficient of determination (R2) greater than 0.800 for the modeled targets. Predictions indicated concentrations of 1-15 ng/L for SMX, 0.5-5 ng/L for TMP, and 0 to 5 (log10 MPN/100 mL) for E. coli and -1.1 to 3.5 (log10 CFU/100 mL) for EC_SXT. Risk assessment suggested that the predicted TMP could pose a higher risk of AMR development than SMX, but SMX could possess a higher ecological risk. The study lays down a hybrid modeling framework for integrating a statistic model with a process-based model to predict AMR in a holistic manner, thus facilitating the development of a better risk management framework.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ecossistema , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Bactérias
6.
Biosci Rep ; 44(4)2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563086

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to evaluate the combination of synthetic peptides based on the γ-core motif of defensin PvD1 with amphotericin B (AmB) at different concentrations against Candida albicans. We applied the checkerboard assay using different concentrations of the commercial drug AmB and the synthetic peptides γ31-45PvD1++ and γ33-41PvD1++ against C. albicans, aiming to find combinations with synergistic interactions. Between these two interactions involving γ31-45PvD1++ and AmB, an additive effect was observed. One such interaction occurred at concentrations of 0.009 µM of peptide γ31-45PvD1++ and 13.23 µM of AmB and another condition of 0.019 µM of peptide γ31-45PvD1++ and 6.61 µM of AmB. The other two concentrations of the interaction showed a synergistic effect in the combination of synthetic peptide γ31-45PvD1++ and AmB, where the concentrations were 1.40 µM peptide γ31-45PvD1++ and 0.004 µM AmB and 0.70 µM γ31-45PvD1++ peptide and 0.002 µM AmB. We proceeded with analysis of the mechanism of action involving synergistic effects. This examination unveiled a range of impactful outcomes, including the impairment of mitochondrial functionality, compromise of cell wall integrity, DNA degradation, and a consequential decline in cell viability. We also observed that both synergistic combinations were capable of causing damage to the plasma membrane and cell wall, causing leakage of intracellular components. This discovery demonstrates for the first time that the synergistic combinations found between the synthetic peptide γ31-45PvD1++ and AmB have an antifungal effect against C. albicans, acting on the integrity of the plasma membrane and cell wall.


Assuntos
Anfotericina B , Candida albicans , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Membrana Celular , Parede Celular , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(8): e034322, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a global health issue associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate contemporary hypertension identification and management trends following the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2017 to 2020 were analyzed. Participants between 20 and 79 years of age were included. Participants were stratified into different treatment groups based on indication and guideline adherence. Descriptive statistics were used to compare medication use, diagnosis rates, and blood pressure control. A total of 265 402 026 people met the inclusion criteria, of which 19.0% (n=50 349 209) were undergoing guideline antihypertensive management. In the guideline antihypertensive management group, a single antihypertensive class was used to treat 45.7% of participants, and 55.2% had uncontrolled blood pressure. Participants not undergoing guideline antihypertensive management qualified for primary prevention in 11.5% (n=24 741 999) of cases and for secondary prevention in 2.4% (n=5 070 044) of cases; of these, 66.3% (n=19 774 007) did not know they may have hypertension and were not on antihypertensive medication. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to guidelines for antihypertensive management is suboptimal. Over half of patients undergoing guideline treatment had uncontrolled blood pressure. One-third of qualifying participants may not be receiving treatment. Education and medical management were missing for 2 in 3 qualifying participants. Addressing these deficiencies is crucial for improving blood pressure control and reducing cardiovascular event outcomes.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Hipertensão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , American Heart Association
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(8): e033628, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) increases cardiac output (CO) by 35% to 40% in healthy people and people with heart failure. The mechanisms underlying the effects of 3-OHB on myocardial contractility and loading conditions as well as the cardiovascular effects of its enantiomeric forms, D-3-OHB and L-3-OHB, remain undetermined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three groups of 8 pigs each underwent a randomized, crossover study. The groups received 3-hour infusions of either D/L-3-OHB (racemic mixture), 100% L-3-OHB, 100% D-3-OHB, versus an isovolumic control. The animals were monitored with pulmonary artery catheter, left ventricle pressure-volume catheter, and arterial and coronary sinus blood samples. Myocardial biopsies were evaluated with high-resolution respirometry, coronary arteries with isometric myography, and myocardial kinetics with D-[11C]3-OHB and L-[11C]3-OHB positron emission tomography. All three 3-OHB infusions increased 3-OHB levels (P<0.001). D/L-3-OHB and L-3-OHB increased CO by 2.7 L/min (P<0.003). D-3-OHB increased CO nonsignificantly (P=0.2). Circulating 3-OHB levels correlated with CO for both enantiomers (P<0.001). The CO increase was mediated through arterial elastance (afterload) reduction, whereas contractility and preload were unchanged. Ex vivo, D- and L-3-OHB dilated coronary arteries equally. The mitochondrial respiratory capacity remained unaffected. The myocardial 3-OHB extraction increased only during the D- and D/L-3-OHB infusions. D-[11C]3-OHB showed rapid cardiac uptake and metabolism, whereas L-[11C]3-OHB demonstrated much slower pharmacokinetics. CONCLUSIONS: 3-OHB increased CO by reducing afterload. L-3-OHB exerted a stronger hemodynamic response than D-3-OHB due to higher circulating 3-OHB levels. There was a dissocitation between the myocardial metabolism and hemodynamic effects of the enantiomers, highlighting L-3-OHB as a potent cardiovascular agent with strong hemodynamic effects.


Assuntos
Hidroxibutiratos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , Suínos , Animais , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Hidroxibutiratos/farmacologia , Coração , Corpos Cetônicos/metabolismo
9.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 665: 855-862, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564949

RESUMO

Bacterial infections are the primary causes of infectious diseases in humans. In recent years, the abuse of antibiotics has led to the widespread enhancement of bacterial resistance. Concerns have been raised about the identification of a common treatment platform for bacterial infections. In this study, a composite nanomaterial was used for near-infrared II (NIR-II) photothermal antibacterial treatment. Red blood cell membrane was peeled and coated onto the surface of the Au/polydopamine nanoparticle-containing aptamer. The composite nanomaterials based on Au/polydopamine exhibit highest photothermal conversion capability. Moreover, these assembled nanoparticles can quickly enter the body's circular system with a specific capability to recognise bacteria. In vivo experiments demonstrated that the composites could kill bacteria from infected blood while significantly reducing the level of bacteria in various organs. Such assemblies offer a paradigm for the treatment of bacterial infections caused by the side effects of antibiotics.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Indóis , Nanopartículas , Polímeros , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Bactérias , Membrana Celular
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 926: 172111, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565354

RESUMO

Phages can influence the horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) through transduction, but their profiles and effects on the transmission of ARGs are unclear, especially in complex swine sludge. In this study, we investigated the characterization of phage and ARG profiles in sludge generated from anoxic/oxic (A/O) wastewater treatment processes on swine farms using metagenomes and viromes. The results demonstrated that 205-221 subtypes of ARGs could be identified in swine sludge, among which sul1, tet(M), and floR were the dominant ARGs, indicating that sludge is an important reservoir of ARGs, especially in sludge (S) tanks. The greater abundance of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the S tank could significantly contribute to the greater abundance of ARGs there compared to the anoxic (A) and oxic (O) tanks (P < 0.05). However, when we compared the abundances of ARGs and MGEs in the A and O tanks, we observed opposite significant differences (P < 0.05), suggesting that MGEs are not the only factor influencing the abundance of ARGs. The high proportion of lysogenic phages in sludge from the S tank can also have a major impact on the ARG profile. Siphoviridae, Myoviridae, and Podoviridae were the dominant phage families in sludge, and a network diagram of bacteria-ARG-phages revealed that dominant phages and bacteria acted simultaneously as potential hosts for ARGs, which may have led to phage-mediated HGT of ARGs. Therefore, the risk of phage-mediated HGT of ARGs cannot be overlooked.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Purificação da Água , Humanos , Suínos , Animais , Esgotos/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias , Genes Bacterianos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriófagos/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética
11.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 59(4): e14558, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566368

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate the effects of rumen-protected lysine (RPL) supplementation during the close-up period on uterine involution and the resumption of ovarian function in dairy cows. Fifty-two multiparous Holstein cows were categorized based on parity and expected calving date and randomly assigned to the RPL or control (CON) groups. The RPL group received 80 g of RPL daily from day 21 before the expected calving date until parturition. Blood samples were obtained twice weekly from pre-supplementation to 6 weeks postpartum. The onset of luteal activity postpartum was determined via ultrasonography twice weekly for up to 6 weeks postpartum. Uterine involution was tracked at 3 and 5 weeks postpartum through the vaginal discharge score, percentage of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) in endometrial cytology samples, presence of intrauterine fluid, and gravid horn diameter via ultrasonography. Before supplementation, the RPL group showed amino acid imbalance, which was improved by RPL supplementation. There were no significant differences in the onset of luteal activity, percentage of PMN, intrauterine fluid, or the diameter of the uterine horn between the two groups. The vaginal discharge score in the RPL group decreased from 3 to 5 weeks postpartum, whereas that in the CON groups did not decrease. The number of cows with clinical endometritis was lower in the RPL group. Overall, RPL supplementation during the close-up period enhanced vaginal discharge clearance, potentially averting clinical endometritis, but did not affect the first ovulation in dairy cows.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Endometrite , Descarga Vaginal , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Gravidez , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Endometrite/prevenção & controle , Endometrite/veterinária , Endometrite/metabolismo , Lactação , Luteína/análise , Luteína/metabolismo , Lisina/farmacologia , Leite/química , Período Pós-Parto , Rúmen/metabolismo , Descarga Vaginal/veterinária
12.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 59(3)2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the GABAB receptor constitute a new class of GABAB-receptor ligands. GABAB PAMs reproduce several pharmacological effects of the orthosteric GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, although displaying a better safety profile. AIMS: This paper reviews the reducing or, frequently, even suppressing effects of all GABAB PAMs tested to date on multiple alcohol-related behaviours in laboratory rodents exposed to validated experimental models of human alcohol use disorder. RESULTS: Acute or repeated treatment with CGP7930, GS39783, BHF177, rac-BHFF, ADX71441, CMPPE, COR659, ASP8062, KK-92A, and ORM-27669 reduced excessive alcohol drinking, relapse- and binge-like drinking, operant alcohol self-administration, reinstatement of alcohol seeking, and alcohol-induced conditioned place preference in rats and mice. CONCLUSIONS: These effects closely mirrored those of baclofen; notably, they were associated to remarkably lower levels of tolerance and toxicity. The recent transition of ASP8062 to clinical testing will soon prove whether these highly consistent preclinical data translate to AUD patients.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Animais , Camundongos , Ratos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Baclofeno/farmacologia , Baclofeno/uso terapêutico , Agonistas dos Receptores de GABA-B/farmacologia , Agonistas dos Receptores de GABA-B/uso terapêutico , Receptores de GABA-B
14.
Arch Oral Biol ; 162: 105962, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the impact of an anti-sclerostin monoclonal antibody (Scl-Ab)-based osteoporosis drug on the post-extraction alveolar repair of ovariectomized rats. DESIGN: Fifteen female rats were randomly distributed into three groups: CTR (healthy animals), OST (osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy), and OST+Scl-Ab (osteoporosis induction followed by Scl-Ab treatment). Ovariectomy or sham surgery was performed 30 days before baseline, and Scl-Ab or a vehicle was administered accordingly in the groups. After seven days, all rats underwent the first lower molar extraction and were euthanized 15 days later. Computed microtomography, histological analysis, and collagen content measurement were performed on post-extraction sockets and intact mandibular and maxillary bone areas. RESULTS: Microtomographic analyses of the sockets and mandibles did not reveal significant differences between groups on bone morphometric parameters (p > 0.05), while maxillary bone analyses resulted in better maintenance of bone architecture in OST+Scl-Ab, compared to OST (p < 0.05). Descriptive histological analysis and polarization microscopy indicated better post-extraction socket repair characteristics and collagen content in OST+Scl-Ab compared to OST (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Scl-Ab-based medication did not accelerate alveolar bone formation but exhibited better post-extraction repair characteristics, and collagen content compared to ovariectomized animals only.


Assuntos
Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas , Osteoporose , Ratos , Feminino , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Marcadores Genéticos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Colágeno
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 926: 172115, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569972

RESUMO

Manure composting in traditional small-scale pig farms leads to the migration and diffusion of antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) along the chain of transmission to the surrounding environment, increasing the risk of environmental resistance. Understanding the transmission patterns, driving factors, and health risks of ARGs on small-scale pig farms is important for effective control of ARGs transmission. This study was conducted on a small pig farm and its surrounding environment. The cross-media transmission of ARGs and their risks in the farming habitat were investigated using Metagenomic annotation and qPCR quantitative detection. The results indicate that ARGs in farms spread with manure pile-soil-channel sediment-mudflat sediment. Pig farm manure contributed 22.49 % of the mudflat sediment ARGs. Mobile genetic elements mediate the spread of ARGs across different media. Among them, tnpA and IS26 have the highest degree. Transmission of high-risk ARGs sul1 and tetM resulted in a 50 % and 116 % increase in host risk for sediment, respectively. This study provides a basis for farm manure management and control of the ARGs spread.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Genes Bacterianos , Animais , Suínos , Fazendas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Esterco/análise , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(15): 6552-6563, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571383

RESUMO

Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) ubiquitously encapsulate microbes and play crucial roles in various environmental processes. However, understanding their complex interactions with dynamic bacterial behaviors, especially during the disinfection process, remains very limited. In this work, we investigated the impact of EPS on bacterial disinfection kinetics by developing a permanent EPS removal strategy. We genetically disrupted the synthesis of exopolysaccharides, the structural components of EPS, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a well-known EPS-producing opportunistic pathogen found in diverse environments, creating an EPS-deficient strain. This method ensured a lasting absence of EPS while maintaining bacterial integrity and viability, allowing for real-time in situ investigations of the roles of EPS in disinfection. Our findings indicate that removing EPS from bacteria substantially lowered their susceptibility threshold to disinfectants such as ozone, chloramine B, and free chlorine. This removal also substantially accelerated disinfection kinetics, shortened the resistance time, and increased disinfection efficiency, thereby enhancing the overall bactericidal effect. The absence of EPS was found to enhance bacterial motility and increase bacterial cell vulnerability to disinfectants, resulting in greater membrane damage and intensified reactive oxygen species (ROS) production upon exposure to disinfectants. These insights highlight the central role of EPS in bacterial defenses and offer promising implications for developing more effective disinfection strategies.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Desinfecção , Desinfecção/métodos , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Cloro/farmacologia , Cinética
17.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573833

RESUMO

In the 1940s and 1950s, researchers seeking safe and novel ways to eliminate airborne pathogens from enclosed spaces, investigated glycol vapours as a method of disinfection. More recently, the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need for a non-toxic aerial disinfectant that can be used in the presence of people. This scoping review is intended to analyse the early and more recent literature on glycol disinfection, scrutinizing the methodologies used, and to determine if the use of glycols as modern-day disinfectants is justified PRISMA-ScR guidelines were used to assess the 749 articles retrieved from the Web of Science platform, with 46 articles retained after the search strategy was applied. Early studies generally demonstrated good disinfection capabilities against airborne bacteria and viruses, particularly with propylene glycol (PG) vapour. Vapour pressure, relative humidity, and glycol concentration were found to be important factors affecting the efficacy of glycol vapours. Contact times depended mainly on the glycol application method (i.e. aerosolization or liquid formulation), although information on how glycol efficacy is impacted by contact time is limited. Triethylene glycol (TEG) is deemed to have low toxicity, carcinogenicity, and mutagenicity and is registered for use in air sanitization and deodorization by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Glycols are also used in liquid formulations for their antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms, although when used as a non-active excipient in products, their contribution to antimicrobial efficacy is rarely assessed. The appropriate use of liquid glycol-containing formulations was found to positively impact the antimicrobial capabilities of disinfectants when used at temperatures <0, food preservatives, and dental medicaments. Providing modern delivery technology can accurately control environmental conditions, the use of aerosolized glycol formulations should lead to successful disinfection, aiding infection prevention, and control regimens.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Desinfetantes , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Propilenoglicol/farmacologia , Gases
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(15): 6793-6803, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574343

RESUMO

Current disinfection processes pose an emerging environmental risk due to the ineffective removal of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially disinfection residual bacteria (DRB) carrying multidrug-resistant plasmids (MRPs). However, the characteristics of DRB-carried MRPs are poorly understood. In this study, qPCR analysis reveals that the total absolute abundance of four plasmids in postdisinfection effluent decreases by 1.15 log units, while their relative abundance increases by 0.11 copies/cell compared to investigated wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent. We obtain three distinctive DRB-carried MRPs (pWWTP-01-03) from postdisinfection effluent, each carrying 9-11 antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs). pWWTP-01 contains all 11 ARGs within an ∼25 Kbp chimeric genomic island showing strong patterns of recombination with MRPs from foodborne outbreaks and hospitals. Antibiotic-, disinfectant-, and heavy-metal-resistant genes on the same plasmid underscore the potential roles of disinfectants and heavy metals in the coselection of ARGs. Additionally, pWWTP-02 harbors an adhesin-type virulence operon, implying risks of both antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity upon entering environments. Furthermore, some MRPs from DRB are capable of transferring and could confer selective advantages to recipients under environmentally relevant antibiotic pressure. Overall, this study advances our understanding of DRB-carried MRPs and highlights the imminent need to monitor and control wastewater MRPs for environmental security.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Genes Bacterianos , Bactérias/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Plasmídeos/genética
19.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 87(11): 457-470, 2024 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576186

RESUMO

Glutamate is one of the predominant excitatory neurotransmitters released from the central nervous system; however, at high concentrations, this substance may induce excitotoxicity. This phenomenon is involved in numerous neuropathologies. At present, clinically available pharmacotherapeutic agents to counteract glutamatergic excitotoxicity are not completely effective; therefore, research to develop novel compounds is necessary. In this study, the main objective was to determine the pharmacotherapeutic potential of the hydroalcoholic extract of Psidium guajava (PG) in a model of oxidative stress-induced by exposure to glutamate utilizing Danio rerio larvae (zebrafish) as a model. Data showed that treatment with glutamate produced a significant increase in oxidative stress, chromatin damage, apoptosis, and locomotor dysfunction. All these effects were attenuated by pre-treatment with the classical antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Treatment with PG inhibited oxidative stress responsible for cellular damage induced by glutamate. However, exposure to PG failed to prevent glutamate-initiated locomotor damage. Our findings suggest that under conditions of oxidative stress, PG can be considered as a promising candidate for treatment of glutamatergic excitotoxicity and consequent neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Psidium , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Glutamatos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta
20.
Biochemistry ; 63(8): 1000-1015, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577872

RESUMO

PI31 (Proteasome Inhibitor of 31,000 Da) is a 20S proteasome binding protein originally identified as an in vitro inhibitor of 20S proteasome proteolytic activity. Recently reported cryo-electron microscopy structures of 20S-PI31 complexes have revealed that the natively disordered proline-rich C-terminus of PI31 enters the central chamber in the interior of the 20S proteasome and interacts directly with the proteasome's multiple catalytic threonine residues in a manner predicted to inhibit their enzymatic function while evading its own proteolysis. Higher eukaryotes express an alternative form of the 20S proteasome (termed "immuno-proteasome") that features genetically and functionally distinct catalytic subunits. The effect of PI31 on immuno-proteasome function is unknown. We examine the relative inhibitory effects of PI31 on purified constitutive (20Sc) and immuno-(20Si) 20S proteasomes in vitro and show that PI31 inhibits 20Si hydrolytic activity to a significantly lesser degree than that of 20Sc. Unlike 20Sc, 20Si hydrolyzes the carboxyl-terminus of PI31 and this effect contributes to the reduced inhibitory activity of PI31 toward 20Si. Conversely, loss of 20Sc inhibition by PI31 point mutants leads to PI31 degradation by 20Sc. These results demonstrate unexpected differential interactions of PI31 with 20Sc and 20Si and document their functional consequences.


Assuntos
Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Inibidores de Proteassoma , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Proteínas/química , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Antivirais
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