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1.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 30(3): 16, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717564

RESUMO

Australia II became the first foreign yacht to win the America's Cup in 1983. The boat had a revolutionary wing keel and a better underwater hull form. In official documents, Ben Lexcen is credited with the design. He is also listed as the sole inventor of the wing keel in a patent application submitted on February 5, 1982. However, as reported in New York Times, Sydney Morning Herald, and Professional Boatbuilder, the wing keel was in fact designed by engineer Peter van Oossanen at the Netherlands Ship Model Basin in Wageningen, assisted by Dr. Joop Slooff at the National Aerospace Laboratory in Amsterdam. Based on telexes, letters, drawings, and other documents preserved in his personal archive, this paper presents van Oossanen's account of how the revolutionary wing keel was designed. This is followed by an ethical analysis by Martin Peterson, in which he applies the American NSPE and Dutch KIVI codes of ethics to the information provided by van Oossanen. The NSPE and KIVI codes give conflicting advice about the case, and it is not obvious which document is most relevant. This impasse is resolved by applying a method of applied ethics in which similarity-based reasoning is extended to cases that are not fully similar. The key idea, presented in Peterson's book The Ethics of Technology (Peterson, The ethics of technology: A geometric analysis of five moral principles, Oxford University Press, 2017), is to use moral paradigm cases as reference points for constructing a "moral map".


Assuntos
Engenharia , Engenharia/ética , Humanos , Códigos de Ética/história , Análise Ética , Países Baixos , Desenho de Equipamento/ética , Navios , Austrália , Invenções/ética , Invenções/história
3.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300749, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723036

RESUMO

This paper aims to re-examine the dietary practices of individuals buried at Sigatoka Sand Dunes site (Fiji) in Burial Ground 1 excavated by Simon Best in 1987 and 1988 using two approaches and a reassessment of their archaeological, bioarchaeological and chronological frame. First, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis was applied to document dietary changes between childhood and adulthood using an intra-individual approach on paired bone-tooth. Second, the potential adaptation of the individuals to their environment was evaluated through regional and temporal comparisons using inter-individual bone analysis. Ten AMS radiocarbon dates were measured directly on human bone collagen samples, placing the series in a range of approximately 600 years covering the middle of the first millennium CE (1,888 to 1,272 cal BP). δ13C and δ15N ratios were measured on bone and tooth collagen samples from 38 adult individuals. The results show that δ15N values from tooth are higher than those s from bone while bone and tooth δ13C values are similar, except for females. Fifteen individuals were included in an intra-individual analysis based on paired bone and tooth samples, which revealed six dietary patterns distinguished by a differential dietary intake of marine resources and resources at different trophic levels. These highlight sex-specific differences not related to mortuary practices but to daily life activities, supporting the hypothesis of a sexual division of labour. Compared to other Southwest Pacific series, Sigatoka diets show a specific trend towards marine food consumption that supports the hypothesis of a relative food self-sufficiency requiring no interactions with other groups.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos , Sepultamento , Isótopos de Carbono , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Humanos , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Feminino , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Masculino , Sepultamento/história , Osso e Ossos/química , Adulto , Fiji , Arqueologia , Dieta/história , Colágeno , História Antiga , Dente/química , Criança , Datação Radiométrica/métodos
5.
Cuad Bioet ; 35(113): 71-88, 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734924

RESUMO

This study presents the most representative notions of the transhumanism concept in light of its temporal development, starting from the first time that there is a record of a similar conception, with the aim of drawing a common thread between all of them and elucidating the relationship that these may have. For this, the works of Dante, Julian Huxley, FM-2030, Max More, Nick Bostrom and Raymond Kurzweil will be reviewed. From this analysis it will be extracted that all these different conceptions of transhumanism are united by their search for transcendence in the human being and the longing for a future state of divinity; Likewise, they differ in the way these common elements are understood. Such common and divergent notions allow a deeper understanding of what transhumanism is and promote a new perspective to understand these cutting-edge ideas.


Assuntos
Humanismo , Humanos , Humanismo/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XIX , História do Século XVIII
6.
Harefuah ; 163(5): 321-322, 2024 May.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734947

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In his important article, Prof. G. Eshel describes the story of three Jewish physicians who returned to Nazi Germany to complete their MD thesis despite laws prohibiting Jewish students from German Universities. The three physicians completed their MD thesis examination with the help of three German Professors who supported them regardless of the laws banning Jewish students. The three physicians risked their lives by returning to Nazi Germany, as did the three professors who supported them. The three physicians returned to Palestine upon completion of the requirement for their medical licensing and continued to contribute to the medical system for many years in the State of Israel. The determination of the three Jewish physicians and their courage teaches us an important lesson on the motivation of young doctors to complete their education and practice medicine. The support of the German professors created some lights in the great darkness of the Nazi regime. Generations of physicians took a stand on non-medical issues and contributed to social justice and the wellbeing of individuals beyond medical care. We should all continue this legacy.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Judeus , Socialismo Nacional , Médicos , Socialismo Nacional/história , Judeus/história , Humanos , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Médicos/história , Educação Médica/história , Israel
7.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 140(2): 121-124, 2024.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742508

RESUMO

This article, composed using literary sources and archival materials, is dedicated to the 155th anniversary of Alexander Grigoryevich Lyutkevich - a prominent Russian ophthalmologist of the late 19th and early 20th centuries (12.09.1867-18.04.1928) and one of the founders of the Voronezh Medical Institute. The paper traces the main stages of his biography, notes his work in rapid-reaction emergency care units, and pays attention to his teaching activities. The importance of Lyutkevich's doctoral dissertation on the treatment of high myopia is emphasized. The article also highlights his important role as editor of the classic textbook "Course of eye diseases" by A.A. Kryukov. In Lyutkevich's public activities, his contribution to the establishment of the Society of Ophthalmologists in Moscow is particularly noteworthy. Lyutkevich's high organizational skills are highlighted, which were clearly manifested in the Yuriev University and in the creation of the medical faculty of the Voronezh University.


Assuntos
Oftalmologia , Saúde Pública , Oftalmologia/história , Humanos , História do Século XX , História do Século XIX , Saúde Pública/história , Federação Russa , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais
9.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 65(1): E98-E104, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706760

RESUMO

In recent years, diphtheria has re-emerged in areas with inadequate vaccination coverage, and Europe has not been spared with several cases among migrants. Diphtheria is a potentially fatal infection caused mainly by toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Due to the high mortality rate, especially among young children, the fight against diphtheria is considered one of the first conquests of immunization. In the history of medicine, there is a unique case of an unconventional response to a diphtheria outbreak in which sled dogs were used to overcome the supply difficulties of diphtheria antitoxin. The mass media followed the medical response to the outbreak and raised audience awareness of public health issues. The facts of Nome, Alaska, in 1925 can serve as a catalyst to rethink conventional responses to diphtheria outbreaks in low-income countries today and promote mass media awareness of public health importance.


Assuntos
Difteria , Difteria/prevenção & controle , Difteria/história , Animais , Humanos , História do Século XX , Cães , Alaska , Togo , Corynebacterium diphtheriae , Surtos de Doenças , Antitoxina Diftérica/história , Estações do Ano
10.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 65(1): E105-E112, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706758

RESUMO

In the spring of 1964, polio vaccination with the oral vaccine developed by Albert Sabin began in Italy. Polio was feared in the world and in Italy. Thus, between 1957 and the beginning of 1958, Italian children began receiving the "Salk vaccine", though the results were not particularly convincing. In July 1960, the international scientific community was able to verify the data from the mass testing of the Sabin vaccine. It became clear that the OPV, could prevent the virus from multiplying, thereby providing greater protection and determining the eradication of the disease. In 1960 over 70 million people in the USSR alone had already received the oral vaccine and mass vaccination in the USA would start in March 1961. However, in Italy there was no similar initiative; only later the new vaccine was accepted but was not made compulsory at the beginning. As a result of the commission's report, registration of the "Polioral" vaccine, was authorized in September 1962 but the sale of the vaccine was not authorized until November 1963. At the beginning of 1964, the production of "Polioral" started and the product was marketed and on the 1 st of March 1964, anti-polio vaccination with the "Sabin anti-polio vaccine" also began in Italy. This manuscript focuses on a crucial issue about a historical delay for public health and it points out as the preparation and diffusion of the Sabin polio vaccine demonstrates that decisions regarding health treatments, and specifically vaccination campaigns, must be based exclusively on the results of clinical studies and on independent evaluation by the scientific community. This process ensures trust in vaccines, adequate protection of public health andcitizens' well-being.


Assuntos
Poliomielite , Vacina Antipólio Oral , Itália , Humanos , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Poliomielite/história , Vacina Antipólio Oral/história , História do Século XX , Vacinação/história , Erradicação de Doenças/história
11.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 65(1): E93-E97, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706766

RESUMO

Cancer is often wrongly considered to be a modern disease in many popular medical venues. Cancers have been known to humanity since ancient times. In fact, its antiquity can be identified through the application of palaeopathological methodologies. The present perspective demonstrates by means of a historical and palaeopathological analysis how oncological manifestations were present long before the emergence of anatomically modern humans and addresses the epidemiological transition from ancient times to the contemporary world. The final section of the article examines breast cancer and its identification in ancient human remains.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias , Paleopatologia , Humanos , História Antiga , Neoplasias/história , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/história , Feminino , História Medieval , História do Século XIX , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XX , História do Século XV
12.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302788, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722837

RESUMO

Research has identified Northwest Turkey as a key region for the development of dairying in the seventh millennium BCE, yet little is known about how this practice began or evolved there. This research studies Barcin Höyük, a site located in Bursa's Yenisehir Valley, which ranges chronologically from 6600 BCE, when the first evidence of settled life appears in the Marmara Region, to 6000 BCE, when Neolithic habitation at the site ceases. Using pottery sherds diagnostic by vessel category and type, this paper aims at identifying which ones may have been primarily used to store, process, or consume dairy products. Organic residue analysis of selected samples helped address the process of adoption and intensification of milk processing in this region over time. The lipid residue data discussed in this paper derive from 143 isotopic results subsampled from 173 organic residues obtained from 805 Neolithic potsherds and suggest that bowls and four-lugged pots may have been preferred containers for processing milk. The discovery of abundant milk residues even among the earliest ceramics indicates that the pioneer farmers arrived in the region already with the knowhow of dairying and milk processing. In fact, these skills and the reliance on secondary products may have given them one of the necessary tools to successfully venture into the unfarmed lands of Northwest Anatolia in the first place.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Turquia , Indústria de Laticínios/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Animais , Leite/química
13.
Spinal Cord Ser Cases ; 10(1): 34, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714676

RESUMO

Professor Robert Lipschitz, MB, ChB, PhD(Med), FRCS(Edin) was a pioneer who established the Spinal Cord Injury Unit, at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa. A brief description of his academic and clinical accomplishments is given.


Assuntos
Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , África do Sul , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/história , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Humanos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI
15.
Development ; 151(9)2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690760

RESUMO

Thibaut Brunet is a group leader at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, France, where he works on choanoflagellates (known as 'choanos' for short). These unicellular organisms are close relatives of animals that have the potential to form multicellular assemblies under certain conditions, and Thibaut's lab are leveraging them to gain insights into how animal morphogenesis evolved. We met with Thibaut over Zoom to discuss his career path so far, and learnt how an early interest in dinosaurs contributed to his life-long fascination with evolutionary biology.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Coanoflagelados , Biologia do Desenvolvimento , Animais , Biologia do Desenvolvimento/história , História do Século XXI , Morfogênese , História do Século XX
16.
JAMA Dermatol ; 160(5)2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748039
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11074, 2024 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745048

RESUMO

Medieval Iberia witnessed the complex negotiation of religious, social, and economic identities, including the formation of religious orders that played a major role in border disputes and conflicts. While archival records provide insights into the compositions of these orders, there have been few direct dietary or osteoarchaeological studies to date. Here, we analysed 25 individuals discovered at the Zorita de los Canes Castle church cemetery, Guadalajara, Spain, where members of one of the first religious orders, the Order of Calatrava knights, were buried between the 12th to 15th centuries CE. Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analyses of bone collagen reveal dietary patterns typical of the Medieval social elite, with the Bayesian R model, 'Simmr' suggesting a diet rich in poultry and marine fish in this inland population. Social comparisons and statistical analyses further support the idea that the order predominantly comprised the lower nobility and urban elite in agreement with historical sources. Our study suggests that while the cemetery primarily served the order's elite, the presence of individuals with diverse dietary patterns may indicate complexities of temporal use or wider social interaction of the medieval military order.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Humanos , Espanha , História Medieval , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Osso e Ossos/química , Arqueologia , Militares/história , Dieta/história , Masculino , Feminino , Classe Social/história , Cemitérios/história , Colágeno/análise , Teorema de Bayes
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