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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115778, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202165

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Several medicinal plants, including the endemic herb Cirsum ehrenbergii (Asteraceae), have been documented in manuscripts, medical and botanical books written in Mexico since the XVI century until the present. This unique circumstance is a real window in the time that allows to investigate historical and contemporary ethnopharmacological knowledge. AIM OF THE STUDY: To examine the persistence, disappearance, and transformation of ethnomedicinal knowledge of C. ehrenbergii along time. Also, to investigate the chemistry and pharmacology of this species in relation to its historical and present day main ethnomedical applications related to Central Nervous System and inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A thorough review was performed of written sources of medicinal plants from XVI and onwards. For the pharmacological studies, the organic extracts were tested in mice models to assess its antidepressant and anti-inflammatory properties. The active extracts were studied chemically. The isolated compounds were identified by 1H, 13C NMR, or characterized by GC-MS. RESULTS: Cirsum ehrenbergii was illustrated for the first time (1552) in the Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis (Booklet of Medicinal Plants of the Indians) and named in the Nahuatl native language as huitzquilitl (edible thistle). It was there recommended as nigris sanguinis remedium (remedy for black blood), and for the treatment of illnesses with an inflammatory component. Nigris sanguinis was well known in the European medicine of that time and currently it has been interpreted as "depression". At the present time, peasants and native population in Mexico mainly name C. ehrenbergii in Spanish as cardo Santo (holy thistle). Its original Nahuatl name has been almost forgotten. However, these communities use this species, among other maladies, to heal "nervios" (anxiety and/or depression) and for anti-inflammatory purposes. These ailments and treatments resemble those recorded in the Libellus and in several medicinal plant books along centuries. The ethanol extract of C. ehrenbergii roots showed antidepressant-like activity in mice administered at 300 mg/kg, as indicated by the forced swim test (FST). The glycosylated flavonoid linarin was identified as antidepressant principle and was active at the doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg in the FST. Regarding to anti-inflammatory activity, the most active was the methylene chloride extract of the aerial parts, which contains taraxasterol, pseudotaraxasterol, ß-sitosterol and stigmasterol. CONCLUSIONS: Cirsium ehrenbergii extracts possess antidepressant-like (roots, EtOH) and anti-inflammatory (aerial parts, CH2Cl2) properties, containing active compounds. Our results sustain historical and present day ethnomedical applications of this species documented along five centuries.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Cirsium , Plantas Medicinais , Camundongos , Animais , Centaurea benedicta , México , Medicina Tradicional/história , Etnofarmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia
2.
Ambio ; 52(1): 155-170, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36136262

RESUMO

Marine social-ecological systems (SES) have been providing important cultural, social, and economic services for many centuries. They are, however, increasingly threatened by fast changing environmental, ecological, and socio-economic conditions. As historical marine research is increasingly developing into a multidisciplinary endeavour, it offers outstanding points of departure to analyse historic events and the response and adaptation of the respective SES. Such knowledge helps to inform today's fisheries management and promotes successful management of changing ecosystems. Here, we compile and analyse historical data (1890-1950) of the German Western Baltic Sea fishery SES. This period is characterised by a series of strong impacts due to political, technological, economic, and ecological changes, such as two world wars, a global economic crisis, and other economic or ecological disasters. In our opinion, potential negative effects of those events were in the past attenuated by the system's high capacity to adapt. However, most of the fishers´ historic options on how to respond and adapt have recently become no longer available. New threats (e.g. climate change) have emerged instead. We conclude that today's fisheries management needs to integrate options of adaptation by exhausting all present or future opportunities. Adaptive fisheries management should not only focus on environmental change but need to include socio-economic change as well.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Pesqueiros/história , Pesqueiros/tendências , Oceanos e Mares , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 44(4): 54, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326954

RESUMO

This paper examines the efforts in evolution research to understand form's structure that developed in Italy during the first half of the twentieth century. In particular, it analyzes how the organic approach in biology and the study of organic form merged in the morphological research agendas of Giuseppe Colosi (1892-1975) and Giuseppe Levi (1872-1965). These biologists sought to understand form's inner composition and structure. First, I will briefly outline the morphological practices and frameworks used to study form changes and structures in the early twentieth century. Second, I will discuss what the Italian biologist Antonio Pensa (1874-1970) called the morphological problem. Third, I will examine Colosi's response to the morphological problem. Fourth, I will analyze Levi's morphological research program. As a result, this paper paves the way for a more nuanced and varied picture of the so-called "organicism movement" in the first half of the twentieth century by calling attention to morphology as practiced in Italian-speaking biology. In fact, alongside dialectical materialism and holistic biology, two of the main strands within organicism, the architectural approach to evolution as practiced in Italy and elsewhere had a profound impact on twentieth- and twenty-first-century organicism specifically and on evolutionary biology generally.


Assuntos
Biologia , Idioma , História do Século XX , Itália , Biologia/história
4.
Technol Cult ; 63(4): 1106-1136, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341609

RESUMO

Applying a gendered lens to the torpedo boat's adoption (ca. 1860-1900) in the United States and Britain, this article explores the cultural dynamics of military innovation. In the nineteenth century, armored or "ironclad" warships disrupted the ideals of elite "naval manhood": an emphasis inherited from preindustrial officers on physical bravery, seamanship, and endurance. In response, a group of Anglo-American officials, artists, and authors repurposed the torpedo boat to prop up masculine heroism under threat from technical shifts. Ironically, it was a radical technology that preserved old values. This nostalgic effort explains how, in under a generation, the torpedo morphed from an "unchivalrous" weapon into an attractive investment. By refashioning cultural representations of the torpedo boat, advocates both insulated elite "naval manhood" from industrialization and upended modern naval force structures. The adoption of the torpedo boat was as much a gendered reaction to the ironclad revolution as a tactical calculation.


Assuntos
Militares , Navios , Animais , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Torpedo , Reino Unido , Militares/história , Homens
8.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(3): E476-E481, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415292

RESUMO

Over the centuries, the oldest universities have amassed an extraordinary patrimony of material and immaterial cultural assets, which have been created or acquired for the purposes of research or teaching. Now on display in museums, they testify to the evolution of knowledge and its diversification in various disciplines. In order to safeguard, conserve and study this precious heritage, we need to implement a cultural project that activates that "process of awareness" on which cataloging is based. This is a "reasoned awareness" that enables an object to be framed within a system of scientific knowledge and historical-critical relationships, which are essential to its conservation and, consequently, to its public exploitation. Through this process, we can uncover the history of an object, its characteristics and its uniqueness. This is the case, for example, of an optical microscope on display in the Museo di Strumentaria medica (Medical Equipment Museum), which is part of the Museum System of the University of Siena.


Assuntos
Museus , Vacinologia , Humanos , Museus/história , Higiene , Universidades
13.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0274953, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355795

RESUMO

Most European hunter-gatherers slowly assimilated into farming communities during the Neolithic period. In the north these groups persisted far longer. In this paper, we present evidence from what may be one of the most recent non-agricultural sites in the region, where a marine hunter-gatherer lifestyle may have continued until as late as the 15th-16th centuries AD. The isotope composition of incremental dental analysis suggests a significant, long-term dependence on seals. This indicates that vestiges of this means of subsistence might have been present in Europe for much longer than previously thought.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Cemitérios , Finlândia , Agricultura/história , Fazendas , Europa (Continente)
14.
Hist Psychiatry ; 33(4): 459-466, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408545

RESUMO

This article explores the relationship between the Catholic Church and animal magnetism. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Catholic Church had first tried to stem the rise of animal magnetism in a vague manner, but after a few decades, it eventually put a genuine veto in place. This measure was founded upon the dangers to morality and faith arising from the progressive polarization of the original doctrine in forms related to esotericism. Among the causes of the condemnation by the Congregation of the Holy Office, the primary ones were the naturalist interpretation of the miracles described in the Gospels and in the New Testament, and the possibility of falling under the control of a demonic spirit.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Humanos , Animais , Catolicismo/história , Itália
15.
Hist Psychiatry ; 33(4): 412-428, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408551

RESUMO

This study examines criminal cases related to blasphemy under the absolute monarchy of Denmark-Norway, and presents the evaluation of mental states within a forensic context between 1713 and 1733. First, the article explains how the legal framework and normative guidelines for pastoral care envisaged the interplay between judges, priests and doctors in evaluating mental states. Then, an examination of selected cases is provided, showing the dynamics and the role assignment in the evaluation of mental states in practice. Covering a period characterized by a gradual differentiation of theology, law and medicine, this case study enhances understanding of what preceded the development of psychiatry as a medical speciality during the nineteenth century.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Psiquiatria Legal/história , Noruega , Dinamarca
16.
Hist Psychiatry ; 33(4): 475-489, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408554

RESUMO

The little-known writing by Frederik Lange translated in this Classic Text belongs to what can be called the prolegomenal history of the construction of the concept of schizophrenia. It describes one effort to capture the convergence of certain words of diverse coinage (dementia praecox, acquired idiocy, hebephrenia, heboidophrenia, etc.) with some newly accepted concepts (e.g. the temporalization of madness and the view that adolescence was an independent period of life), and with some old behaviours (which for centuries had been called madness, the portmanteau soon to be rebaptized as psychosis). This convergence culminated in the work of Kraepelin, who was to call it 'dementia praecox'. Lange's transitional efforts and pangs can be sensed as he struggles to describe a new form of madness that affects young people.


Assuntos
Demência , Psiquiatria , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adolescente , Humanos , Psiquiatria/história , Esquizofrenia Hebefrênica/história , Redação
17.
Hist Psychiatry ; 33(4): 446-458, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408553

RESUMO

The British government in Malaya conducted treatment for women suffering mental illness in an effort to deal with the increasing number of cases in the Federated Malay States in 1930-57. This paper explores the role of mental asylums and society in contributing to methods of treatment during the twentieth century.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes , Humanos , Feminino , Malásia , Psicoterapia , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos Mentais/história
18.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 96: 141-153, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332523

RESUMO

Functionalism is the view that being x is to play the role of x. This paper defends a functionalist account of three-dimensional entities in the context of Wave Function Realism (WFR), that can explain in details how we can recover three-dimensional entities out of the wavefunction. In particular, the essay advocates for a novel version of WFR in terms of a functional reductionist approach in the style of David Lewis. This account entails reduction of the upper entities to the bottom ones, when the latter behave appropriately. As applied to WFR, it shows how the wavefunction can turn out to be identical to three-dimensional objects, provided certain conditions. The first major goal of the paper is thus to put forward an improved and more rigorous version of WFR, which dissolves several extant issues about the theory, and can serve as a starting point for the future literature about the topic. Moreover, the second major goal of the article is to take WFR as a case study to demonstrate the pros of functional reductionism, especially in the form defended here, thereby helping to bring this view back in the philosophy of science debate. The positive upshots of this paper suggest a possible application of functional reductionism also to other contexts.


Assuntos
Filosofia , Filosofia/história
19.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 96: 154-173, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334437

RESUMO

The present paper revisits conventionalism about the geometry of classical and relativistic spacetimes. By means of critically examining a recent evaluation of conventionalism, we clarify key themes of, and rectify common misunderstandings about, conventionalism. Reichenbach's variant is demarcated from conventionalism simpliciter, associated primarily with Poincaré. We carefully outline the latter's core tenets-as a selective anti-realist response to a particular form of theory underdetermination. A subsequent double defence of geometric conventionalism is proffered: one line of defence employs (and thereby, to some extent, rehabilitates) a plausible reading of Reichenbach's idea of universal forces; another consists in independent support for conventionalism, unrelated to Reichenbach. Conventionalism, we maintain, remains a live option in contemporary philosophy of spacetime physics, worthy of serious consideration.


Assuntos
Filosofia , Filosofia/história
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