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1.
N Engl J Med ; 390(6): 510-521, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of monoclonal antibodies has changed the treatment of several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis. However, these large proteins must be administered by injection. JNJ-77242113 is a novel, orally administered interleukin-23-receptor antagonist peptide that selectively blocks interleukin-23 signaling and downstream cytokine production. METHODS: In this phase 2 dose-finding trial, we randomly assigned patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis to receive JNJ-77242113 at a dose of 25 mg once daily, 25 mg twice daily, 50 mg once daily, 100 mg once daily, or 100 mg twice daily or placebo for 16 weeks. The primary end point was a reduction from baseline of at least 75% in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score (PASI 75 response; PASI scores range from 0 to 72, with higher scores indicating greater extent or severity of psoriasis) at week 16. RESULTS: A total of 255 patients underwent randomization. The mean PASI score at baseline was 19.1. The mean duration of psoriasis was 18.2 years, and 78% of the patients across all the trial groups had previously received systemic treatments. At week 16, the percentages of patients with a PASI 75 response were higher among those in the JNJ-77242113 groups (37%, 51%, 58%, 65%, and 79% in the 25-mg once-daily, 25-mg twice-daily, 50-mg once-daily, 100-mg once-daily, and 100-mg twice-daily groups, respectively) than among those in the placebo group (9%), a finding that showed a significant dose-response relationship (P<0.001). The most common adverse events included coronavirus disease 2019 (in 12% of the patients in the placebo group and in 11% of those across the JNJ-77242113 dose groups) and nasopharyngitis (in 5% and 7%, respectively). The percentages of patients who had at least one adverse event were similar in the combined JNJ-77242113 dose group (52%) and the placebo group (51%). There was no evidence of a dose-related increase in adverse events across the JNJ-77242113 dose groups. CONCLUSIONS: After 16 weeks of once- or twice-daily oral administration, treatment with the interleukin-23-receptor antagonist peptide JNJ-77242113 showed greater efficacy than placebo in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; FRONTIER 1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT05223868.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Psoríase , Receptores de Interleucina , Humanos , Método Duplo-Cego , Interleucina-23/imunologia , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Psoríase/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Receptores de Interleucina/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1261, 2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341416

RESUMO

While CD4+ T cells are a prerequisite for CD8+ T cell-mediated protection against intracellular hepatotropic pathogens, the mechanisms facilitating the transfer of CD4-help to intrahepatic CD8+ T cells are unknown. Here, we developed an experimental system to investigate cognate CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to a model-antigen expressed de novo in hepatocytes and reveal that after initial priming, effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells migrate into portal tracts and peri-central vein regions of the liver where they cluster with type-1 conventional dendritic cells. These dendritic cells are locally licensed by CD4+ T cells and expand the number of CD8+ T cells in situ, resulting in larger effector and memory CD8+ T cell pools. These findings reveal that CD4+ T cells promote intrahepatic immunity by amplifying the CD8+ T cell response via peripheral licensing of hepatic type-1 conventional dendritic cells and identify intrahepatic perivascular compartments specialized in facilitating effector T cell-dendritic cell interactions.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Fígado , Tecido Linfoide , Antígenos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Humanos , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia
5.
N Engl J Med ; 390(7): 589-600, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The CD40-CD40L costimulatory pathway regulates adaptive and innate immune responses and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Frexalimab is a second-generation anti-CD40L monoclonal antibody being evaluated for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. METHODS: In this phase 2, double-blind, randomized trial, we assigned, in a 4:4:1:1 ratio, participants with relapsing multiple sclerosis to receive 1200 mg of frexalimab administered intravenously every 4 weeks (with an 1800-mg loading dose), 300 mg of frexalimab administered subcutaneously every 2 weeks (with a 600-mg loading dose), or the matching placebos for each active treatment. The primary end point was the number of new gadolinium-enhancing T1-weighted lesions seen on magnetic resonance imaging at week 12 relative to week 8. Secondary end points included the number of new or enlarging T2-weighted lesions at week 12 relative to week 8, the total number of gadolinium-enhancing T1-weighted lesions at week 12, and safety. After 12 weeks, all the participants could receive open-label frexalimab. RESULTS: Of 166 participants screened, 129 were assigned to a trial group; 125 participants (97%) completed the 12-week double-blind period. The mean age of the participants was 36.6 years, 66% were women, and 30% had gadolinium-enhancing lesions at baseline. At week 12, the adjusted mean number of new gadolinium-enhancing T1-weighted lesions was 0.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1 to 0.4) in the group that received 1200 mg of frexalimab intravenously and 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1 to 0.6) in the group that received 300 mg of frexalimab subcutaneously, as compared with 1.4 (95% CI, 0.6 to 3.0) in the pooled placebo group. The rate ratios as compared with placebo were 0.11 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.38) in the 1200-mg group and 0.21 (95% CI, 0.08 to 0.56) in the 300-mg group. Results for the secondary imaging end points were generally in the same direction as those for the primary analysis. The most common adverse events were coronavirus disease 2019 and headaches. CONCLUSIONS: In a phase 2 trial involving participants with multiple sclerosis, inhibition of CD40L with frexalimab had an effect that generally favored a greater reduction in the number of new gadolinium-enhancing T1-weighted lesions at week 12 as compared with placebo. Larger and longer trials are needed to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of frexalimab in persons with multiple sclerosis. (Funded by Sanofi; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04879628.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Antígenos CD40 , Ligante de CD40 , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ligante de CD40/antagonistas & inibidores , Ligante de CD40/imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Gadolínio , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antígenos CD40/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígenos CD40/imunologia , Administração Intravenosa , Injeções Subcutâneas
6.
N Engl J Med ; 390(7): 623-629, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354141

RESUMO

Wolman's disease, a severe form of lysosomal acid lipase deficiency, leads to pathologic lipid accumulation in the liver and gut that, without treatment, is fatal in infancy. Although continued enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT) in combination with dietary fat restriction prolongs life, its therapeutic effect may wane over time. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a more definitive solution but carries a high risk of death. Here we describe an infant with Wolman's disease who received high-dose ERT, together with dietary fat restriction and rituximab-based B-cell depletion, as a bridge to early HSCT. At 32 months, the infant was independent of ERT and disease-free, with 100% donor chimerism in the peripheral blood.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta , Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Fatores Imunológicos , Rituximab , Doença de Wolman , Humanos , Lactente , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Quimerismo , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Transplante Homólogo , Doença de Wolman/dietoterapia , Doença de Wolman/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Wolman/imunologia , Doença de Wolman/terapia
7.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1229, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336876

RESUMO

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are an integral part of the mammalian genome. The role of immune control of ERVs in general is poorly defined as is their function as anti-cancer immune targets or drivers of autoimmune disease. Here, we generate mouse-strains where Moloney-Murine Leukemia Virus tagged with GFP (ERV-GFP) infected the mouse germline. This enables us to analyze the role of genetic, epigenetic and cell intrinsic restriction factors in ERV activation and control. We identify an autoreactive B cell response against the neo-self/ERV antigen GFP as a key mechanism of ERV control. Hallmarks of this response are spontaneous ERV-GFP+ germinal center formation, elevated serum IFN-γ levels and a dependency on Age-associated B cells (ABCs) a subclass of T-bet+ memory B cells. Impairment of IgM B cell receptor-signal in nucleic-acid sensing TLR-deficient mice contributes to defective ERV control. Although ERVs are a part of the genome they break immune tolerance, induce immune surveillance against ERV-derived self-antigens and shape the host immune response.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B , Retrovirus Endógenos , Animais , Camundongos , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Mamíferos/genética
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339158

RESUMO

With the advent of cancer immunotherapy, there is a growing interest in vaccine development as a means to activate the cellular immune system against cancer. Despite the promise of DNA vaccines in this regard, their effectiveness is hindered by poor immunogenicity, leading to modest therapeutic outcomes across various cancers. The role of Type 1 conventional dendritic cells (cDC1), capable of cross-presenting vaccine antigens to activate CD8+T cells, emerges as crucial for the antitumor function of DNA vaccines. To address the limitations of DNA vaccines, a promising approach involves targeting antigens to cDC1 through the fusion of XCL1, a ligand specific to the receptor XCR1 on the surface of cDC1. Here, female C57BL/6 mice were selected for tumor inoculation and immunotherapy. Additionally, recognizing the complexity of cancer, this study explored the use of combination therapies, particularly the combination of cDC1-targeted DNA vaccine with the chemotherapy drug Gemcitabine (Gem) and the anti-PD1 antibody in a mouse lung cancer model. The study's findings indicate that fusion antigens with XCL1 effectively enhance both the immunogenicity and antitumor effects of DNA vaccines. Moreover, the combination of the cDC1-targeted DNA vaccine with Gemcitabine and anti-PD1 antibody in the mouse lung cancer model demonstrates an improved antitumor effect, leading to the prolonged survival of mice. In conclusion, this research provides important support for the clinical investigation of cDC1-targeting DNA vaccines in combination with other therapies.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Vacinas de DNA , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Células Dendríticas , Gencitabina , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico
13.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1305586, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322252

RESUMO

Introduction: One of the unexpected outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic was the relatively low levels of morbidity and mortality in Africa compared to the rest of the world. Nigeria, Africa's most populous nation, accounted for less than 0.01% of the global COVID-19 fatalities. The factors responsible for Nigeria's relatively low loss of life due to COVID-19 are unknown. Also, the correlates of protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and the impact of pre-existing immunity on the outcome of the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa are yet to be elucidated. Here, we evaluated the natural and vaccine-induced immune responses from vaccinated, non-vaccinated and convalescent individuals in Southern Nigeria throughout the three waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. We also examined the pre-existing immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 from samples collected prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We used spike RBD and N- IgG antibody ELISA to measure binding antibody responses, SARS-CoV-2 pseudotype assay protocol expressing the spike protein of different variants (D614G, Delta, Beta, Omicron BA1) to measure neutralizing antibody responses and nucleoprotein (N) and spike (S1, S2) direct ex vivo interferon gamma (IFNγ) T cell ELISpot to measure T cell responses. Result: Our study demonstrated a similar magnitude of both binding (N-IgG (74% and 62%), S-RBD IgG (70% and 53%) and neutralizing (D614G (49% and 29%), Delta (56% and 47%), Beta (48% and 24%), Omicron BA1 (41% and 21%)) antibody responses from symptomatic and asymptomatic survivors in Nigeria. A similar magnitude was also seen among vaccinated participants. Interestingly, we revealed the presence of preexisting binding antibodies (N-IgG (60%) and S-RBD IgG (44%)) but no neutralizing antibodies from samples collected prior to the pandemic. Discussion: These findings revealed that both vaccinated, non-vaccinated and convalescent individuals in Southern Nigeria make similar magnitude of both binding and cross-reactive neutralizing antibody responses. It supported the presence of preexisting binding antibody responses among some Nigerians prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Lastly, hybrid immunity and heterologous vaccine boosting induced the strongest binding and broadly neutralizing antibody responses compared to vaccine or infection-acquired immunity alone.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , População da África Ocidental , Humanos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , COVID-19/imunologia , ELISPOT , Imunoglobulina G , Nigéria , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 52(1): 44-59, 01 jan. 2024. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229175

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcome of lightened version of egg oral immunotherapy (OIT) and to analyze egg allergen component-specific antibody levels during short up-dosing with egg white powder and maintenance by egg in daily diet. Patients and methods: Eighteen egg-allergic children received egg powder with short up--dosing and they maintained tolerance using egg in daily diet. Seventeen egg-allergic children served as a control group. Component-resolved analysis of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), IgA1, IgA2, and IgG4 levels were determined at inclusion, after up-dosing and after 1 year of immunotherapy. Skin-prick tests were performed at inclusion and after 1 year of therapy. Results: All 18 patients in the egg OIT group were successfully desensitized. Desensitization was achieved on average in 4.5 months. In the control group, only two children tolerated egg in oral food challenge after 1 year. Of the measured immune markers, smaller wheal diameters in skin-prick testing, reduction in component-specific IgE levels, and increase in component-specific IgA1, IgA2, and IgG4 levels were associated with desensitization. Conclusion: A lightened egg OIT is effective and safe in children with egg allergy. Increase in all egg component-specific IgA1, IgA2 and IgG4 levels and decrease in all egg component--specific IgE levels were observed after 12 months of OIT (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Imunoterapia/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/terapia , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia
15.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 52(1): 65-70, 01 jan. 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229176

RESUMO

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a relapsing, chronic cutaneous inflammatory disease with onset, in general, in early childhood. Chronic skin inflammation is associated with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Oxidative stress, an imbalance between the production of free radicals and antioxidant defense, results in tissue inflammation due to the upregulation of genes that encode inflammatory cytokines. This condition plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. Objective: To compare the antioxidant defense in children and adolescents with AD with that of healthy individuals and to verify the association of antioxidant defense with disease severity and nutritional status. Methods: Cross-sectional study that evaluated 48 children and adolescents with AD and 25 controls for nutritional assessment (body mass index z score [BMIZ] and height for age z score [HAZ]) and levels of vitamins A, C, E, and D, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPx]), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 33 (IL-33). Results: There was no significant difference in the comparison between AD and control groups for serum levels of vitamins (A, D, C, and E), copper, and antioxidant enzymes. Serum zinc levels were higher in the AD group (β = 24.20; 95% CI 13.95–34.91; P < 0.001) even after adjusting the BMIZ, HAZ, gender, IL-33, and CRP. Children and adolescents with moderate or severe AD compared to mild AD (SCORAD – 36.7±17.4 vs 11.8 ± 3.9; P < 0.001) had lower values of the vitamin E/total lipid ratio (3.68 [0.29;12.63] vs 5.92 [3.27;17.37]; P = 0.013) (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Antioxidantes/sangue , Dermatite Atópica/sangue , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Vitamina E/sangue , Vitamina K/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estudos Transversais , Interleucina-33/imunologia , Vitamina A/sangue
17.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 6, 2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38177099

RESUMO

Induction of tumor vascular normalization is a crucial measure to enhance immunotherapy efficacy. cGAS-STING pathway is vital for anti-tumor immunity, but its role in tumor vasculature is unclear. Herein, using preclinical liver cancer models in Cgas/Sting-deficient male mice, we report that the interdependence between tumor cGAS and host STING mediates vascular normalization and anti-tumor immune response. Mechanistically, TET2 mediated IL-2/STAT5A signaling epigenetically upregulates tumor cGAS expression and produces cGAMP. Subsequently, cGAMP is transported via LRRC8C channels to activate STING in endothelial cells, enhancing recruitment and transendothelial migration of lymphocytes. In vivo studies in male mice also reveal that administration of vitamin C, a promising anti-cancer agent, stimulates TET2 activity, induces tumor vascular normalization and enhances the efficacy of anti-PD-L1 therapy alone or in combination with IL-2. Our findings elucidate a crosstalk between tumor and vascular endothelial cells in the tumor immune microenvironment, providing strategies to enhance the efficacy of combinational immunotherapy for liver cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas , Microambiente Tumoral , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Interleucina-2 , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
18.
J Med Virol ; 96(1): e29369, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180269

RESUMO

Broad-spectrum antivirals (BSAs) have the advantageous property of being effective against a wide range of viruses with a single drug, offering a promising therapeutic solution for the largely unmet need in treating both existing and emerging viral infections. In this review, we summarize the current strategies for the development of novel BSAs, focusing on either targeting the commonalities during the replication of multiple viruses or the systemic immunity of humans. In comparison to BSAs that target viral replication, these immuno-modulatory agents possess an expanded spectrum of antiviral activity. However, antiviral immunity is a double-edged sword, and maintaining immune homeostasis ultimately dictates the health status of hosts during viral infections. Therefore, establishing an ideal goal for immuno-modulation in antiviral interventions is crucial. Herein we propose a bionic approach for immuno-modulation inspired by mimicking bats, which possess a more robust immune system for combating viral invasions, compared to humans. In addition, we discuss an empirical approach to treat diverse viral infections using traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), mainly through bidirectional immuno-modulation to restore the disrupted homeostasis. Advancing our understanding of both the immune system of bats and the mechanisms underlying antiviral TCMs will significantly contribute to the future development of novel BSAs.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Viroses , Animais , Humanos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Quirópteros/imunologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Homeostase , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos
19.
Theranostics ; 14(3): 1010-1028, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38250037

RESUMO

Background: CD93 reportedly facilitates tumor angiogenesis. However, whether CD93 regulates antitumor immunity remains undeciphered. Methods: Lung tumor tissues, malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) were obtained from lung cancer patients. Blood was obtained from healthy volunteers and lung cancer patients with anti-PD-1 therapy. Furthermore, p53fl/flLSL-KrasG12D, Ccr7-/-, Cd93-/- mice and CD11c-DTR mice were generated. Specifically, EM, NTA and western blotting were utilized to identify Tumor extracellular vesicles (TEVs). EV labeling, detection of EV uptake in vitro and in vivo, degradation of EV proteins and RNAs were performed to detect the role of TEVs in tumor progression. Pleural mesothelial cells (pMCs) were isolated to investigate related signaling pathways. Recombinant proteins and antibodies were generated to test which antibody was the most effective one to increase CCL21a in p-pMCs. RNA-Seq, MiRNA array, luciferase reporter assay, endothelial tube formation assay, protein labeling and detection, transfection of siRNAs and the miRNA mimic and inhibitor, chemotaxis assay, immunohistochemical staining, flow cytometry, Real-time PCR, and ELISA experiments were performed. Results: We show that CD93 of pMCs reduced lung tumor migration of dendritic cells by preventing pMCs from secreting CCL21, thereby suppressing systemic anti-lung tumor T-cell responses. TEV-derived miR-5110 promotes CCL21 secretion by downregulating pMC CD93, whereas C1q, increasing in tumor individuals, suppresses CD93-mediated CCL21 secretion. CD93-blocking antibodies (anti-CD93) inhibit lung tumor growth better than VEGF receptor-blocking antibodies because anti-CD93 inhibit tumor angiogenesis and promote CCL21 secretion from pMCs. Anti-CD93 also overcome lung tumor resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy. Furthermore, lung cancer patients with higher serum EV-derived miR-5193 (human miR-5110 homolog) are more sensitive to anti-PD-1 therapy, while patients with higher serum C1q are less sensitive, consistent with their regulatory functions on CD93. Conclusions: Our study identifies a crucial role of CD93 in controlling anti-lung tumor immunity and suggests a promising approach for lung tumor therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , MicroRNAs , Receptores de Complemento , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Anticorpos , Anticorpos Bloqueadores , Complemento C1q , Imunidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Receptores de Complemento/genética
20.
J Virol ; 98(1): e0078923, 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38168677

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection caused neurological complications and male infertility, leading to the accumulation of antigen-specific immune cells in immune-privileged organs (IPOs). Thus, it is important to understand the immunological responses to ZIKV in IPOs. We extensively investigated the ZIKV-specific T cell immunity in IPOs in Ifnar1-/- mice, based on an immunodominant epitope E294-302 tetramer. The distinct kinetics and functions of virus-specific CD8+ T cells infiltrated into different IPOs were characterized, with late elevation in the brain and spinal cord. Single epitope E294-302-specific T cells can account for 20-60% of the total CD8+ T cells in the brain, spinal cord, and testicle and persist for at least 90 days in the brain and spinal cord. The E294-302-specific TCRαßs within the IPOs are featured with the majority of clonotypes utilizing TRAV9N-3 paired with diverse TRBV chains, but with distinct αß paired clonotypes in 7 and 30 days post-infection. Specific chemokine receptors, Ccr2 and Ccr5, were selectively expressed in the E294-302-specific CD8+ T cells within the brain and testicle, indicating an IPO-oriented migration of virus-specific CD8+ T cells after infection. Overall, this study adds to the understanding of virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses for controlling and clearing ZIKV infection in IPOs.IMPORTANCEThe immune-privileged organs (IPOs), such as the central nervous system and testicles, presented pathogenicity and inflammation after Zika virus (ZIKV) infection with infiltrated CD8+ T cells. Our data show that CD8+ T cells keep up with virus increases and decreases in immune-privileged organs. Furthermore, our study provides the first ex vivo comparative analyses of the composition and diversity related to TCRα/ß clonotypes across anatomical sites and ZIKV infection phases. We show that the vast majority of TCRα/ß clonotypes in tissues utilize TRAV9N-3 with conservation. Specific chemokine expression, including Ccr2 and Ccr5, was found to be selectively expressed in the E294-302-specific CD8+ T cells within the brain and testicle, indicating an IPO-oriented migration of the virus-specific CD8+ T cells after the infection. Our study adds insights into the anti-viral immunological characterization and chemotaxis mechanism of virus-specific CD8+ T cells after ZIKV infection in different IPOs.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Privilégio Imunológico , Infecção por Zika virus , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Zika virus , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Camundongos Knockout , Testículo/imunologia , Testículo/virologia
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