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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(2): e15, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the incidence of rhinovirus (RV) is inversely related to the intensity of non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs), such as universal mask wearing and physical distancing. METHODS: Using RV surveillance data, changes in the effect of NPIs were investigated in South Korea during the pandemic. The time to the first visible effect of NPIs after the onset of NPIs (T1), time to the maximum effect (T2), and duration of the maximum effect (T3) were measured for each surge. For each week, the RVdiff [(RV incidence during the pandemic) - (RV incidence within 5 years before the pandemic)] was calculated, and number of weeks for RVdiff to be below zero after NPIs (time to RVdiff ≤ 0) and number of weeks RVdiff remains below zero after NPIs (duration of RVdiff ≤ 0) were measured for each surge. RESULTS: During the study period, four surges of COVID-19 were reported. As the pandemic progressed, T1 and T2 increased, but T3 decreased. Additionally, the "time to RVdiff of ≤ 0" increased and "duration of RVdiff of ≤ 0" decreased. These changes became more pronounced during the third surge (mid-November 2020), before the introduction of the COVID-19 vaccine, and from the emergence of the delta variant. CONCLUSION: The effect of NPIs appears slower, the duration of the effect becomes shorter, and the intensity also decreases less than a year after the onset of the pandemic owing to people's exhaustion in implementing NPIs. These findings suggest that the COVID-19 response strategy must be completely overhauled.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Resfriado Comum/epidemiologia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Bocavirus Humano/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , Quarentena , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2
2.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(3): 41, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018552

RESUMO

The most crucial and expensive fragment in the broiler chicken production industry is the feed. Because of the rising demand, finding a cheap and effective feed is an urgent necessity. Fermentation of broiler feed by probiotic fungal starters can enhance the nutrient's availability and digestibility while preventing pathogenic growth. In this study different Rhizopus spp. have been isolated from agricultural soils around Izmir, Turkey, and tested for their probiotic potential and fermentative capacity. The isolated Rhizopus strains first underwent microscopical fluorescent investigation to exclude endofungal bacterial presence, then, those without endofungal bacteria (totally 82) were tested for antimicrobial activity counter bacterial and fungal pathogens. The ones with wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity (totally 10) were tested for gastrointestinal tolerance and antioxidant ability. Upon phenotypic and genotypic identification, the 10 isolates were found to belong to Rhizopus oryzae species. While all 10 strains showed variable gastrointestinal tolerance and antioxidant activities, three of them (92/1, 236/2, and 284) had relatively high antioxidant activity. Upon fermentative capacity assay, compared to unfermented commercial feed, there was a general decrease in crude fiber content by 56% after fermentation by 92/1 isolate for 4 days and 236/2 isolate for 2 days. The highest increase in crude protein content (by 14.5%) occurred after a 4-day fermentation period by 236/2 isolate. The highest increase in metabolizable energy was 8.64%, by the 284 isolate after 2 days of fermentation. In conclusion, the three strains showed good probiotic properties and fermentative capacities hence can be beneficial for the poultry industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Fermentação , Probióticos , Rhizopus oryzae/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Rhizopus oryzae/genética , Rhizopus oryzae/isolamento & purificação , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
3.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 6478434, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35035611

RESUMO

Background: Since the beginning of the pandemic, clinicians and researchers have been searching for alternative tests to improve the screening and diagnosis of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Currently, the gold standard for virus identification is the nasopharyngeal (NP) swab. Saliva samples, however, offer clear, practical, and logistical advantages but due to a lack of collection, transport, and storage solutions, high-throughput saliva-based laboratory tests are difficult to scale up as a screening or diagnostic tool. With this study, we aimed to validate an intralaboratory molecular detection method for SARS-CoV-2 on saliva samples collected in a new storage saline solution, comparing the results to NP swabs to determine the difference in sensitivity between the two tests. Methods: In this study, 156 patients (cases) and 1005 asymptomatic subjects (controls) were enrolled and tested simultaneously for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 viral genome by RT-PCR on both NP swab and saliva samples. Saliva samples were collected in a preservative and inhibiting saline solution (Biofarma Srl). Internal method validation was performed to standardize the entire workflow for saliva samples. Results: The identification of SARS-CoV-2 conducted on saliva samples showed a clinical sensitivity of 95.1% and specificity of 97.8% compared to NP swabs. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 81% while the negative predictive value (NPV) was 99.5%. Test concordance was 97.6% (Cohen's Kappa = 0.86; 95% CI 0.81-0.91). The LoD of the test was 5 viral copies for both samples. Conclusions: RT-PCR assays conducted on a stored saliva sample achieved similar performance to those on NP swabs, and this may provide a very effective tool for population screening and diagnosis. Collection of saliva in a stabilizing solution makes the test more convenient and widely available; furthermore, the denaturing properties of the solution reduce the infective risks belonging to sample manipulation.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , Saliva/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(1): 49-56, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978405

RESUMO

The development of low-cost, non-toxic, scalable antimicrobial textiles is needed to address the spread of deadly pathogens. Here, we report a polysiloxane textile coating that possesses two modes of antimicrobial inactivation, passive contact inactivation through amine/imine functionalities and active photodynamic inactivation through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This material can be coated and cross-linked onto natural and synthetic textiles through a simple soak procedure, followed by UV cure to afford materials exhibiting no aqueous leaching and only minimal leaching in organic solvents. This coating minimally impacts the mechanical properties of the fabric while also imparting hydrophobicity. Passive inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is achieved with >98% inactivation after 24 h, with a 23× and 3× inactivation rate increase against E. coli and MRSA, respectively, when green light is used to generate ROS. Up to 90% decrease in the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 after 2 h of irradiated incubation with the material is demonstrated. These results show that modifying textiles with dual-functional polymers results in robust and highly antimicrobial materials that are expected to find widespread use in combating the spread of deadly pathogens.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Polímeros/química , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Têxteis/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/química , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Têxteis/toxicidade , Raios Ultravioleta
5.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 70(1): 66-73, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980736

RESUMO

Despite the precise mechanisms for renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) are poorly understood, nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways were considered as the important targets. Leonurine (LEO) is a special alkaloid extracted from Chinese motherwort (Leonurus japonicus Houtt), which has an anti-inflammatory effect and reduces oxidative stress. We conducted the study to explore the efficacy of LEO against I/R-induced AKI in rats and further investigated the underlying mechanisms. Ischemic renal injury was induced by temporary vascular clamping for 45 min. We have measured the levels of inflammation-related biomarkers and antioxidative stress markers. Next, Western blot analysis and Real-time PCR were performed to analyze whether the Nrf2 and TLR4/nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) pathways were involved in this process. We found that LEO pretreatment remarkably decreased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in I/R rats and attenuated acute tubular damage. In addition, LEO markedly increased the expression of antioxidant proteins and decreased the levels of inflammatory factors. Further study revealed that LEO promoted Nrf2 into the nucleus, promoted the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1), and suppressed the TLR4/NF-κB signal pathway in kidney tissues of ischemic AKI rats. The study reveals that LEO has a protective effect to prevent ischemic AKI through activation of Nrf2 nuclear translocation resisting oxidative stress injury and inhibition of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway mediated inflammatory gene expression.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Leonurus/química , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Ácido Gálico/química , Ácido Gálico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Pentobarbital/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
6.
N Engl J Med ; 386(1): 47-56, 2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue causes yaws. Strategies to better control, eliminate, and eradicate yaws are needed. METHODS: In an open-label, cluster-randomized, community-based trial conducted in a yaws-endemic area of Papua New Guinea, we randomly assigned 38 wards (i.e., clusters) to receive one round of mass administration of azithromycin followed by two rounds of target treatment of active cases (control group) or three rounds of mass administration of azithromycin (experimental group); round 1 was administered at baseline, round 2 at 6 months, and round 3 at 12 months. The coprimary end points were the prevalence of active cases of yaws, confirmed by polymerase-chain-reaction assay, in the entire trial population and the prevalence of latent yaws, confirmed by serologic testing, in a subgroup of asymptomatic children 1 to 15 years of age; prevalences were measured at 18 months, and the between-group differences were calculated. RESULTS: Of the 38 wards, 19 were randomly assigned to the control group (30,438 persons) and 19 to the experimental group (26,238 persons). A total of 24,848 doses of azithromycin were administered in the control group (22,033 were given to the participants at round 1 and 207 and 2608 were given to the participants with yaws-like lesions and their contacts, respectively, at rounds 2 and 3 [combined]), and 59,852 doses were administered in the experimental group. At 18 months, the prevalence of active yaws had decreased from 0.46% (102 of 22,033 persons) at baseline to 0.16% (47 of 29,954 persons) in the control group and from 0.43% (87 of 20,331 persons) at baseline to 0.04% (10 of 25,987 persons) in the experimental group (relative risk adjusted for clustering, 4.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90 to 8.76). The prevalence of other infectious ulcers decreased to a similar extent in the two treatment groups. The prevalence of latent yaws at 18 months was 6.54% (95% CI, 5.00 to 8.08) among 994 children in the control group and 3.28% (95% CI, 2.14 to 4.42) among 945 children in the experimental group (relative risk adjusted for clustering and age, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.12 to 3.70). Three cases of yaws with resistance to macrolides were found in the experimental group. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in the community prevalence of yaws was greater with three rounds of mass administration of azithromycin at 6-month intervals than with one round of mass administration of azithromycin followed by two rounds of targeted treatment. Monitoring for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is needed. (Funded by Fundació "la Caixa" and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03490123.).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Bouba/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Haemophilus ducreyi/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Úlcera Cutânea/microbiologia , Treponema/isolamento & purificação , Bouba/epidemiologia
7.
Malar J ; 21(1): 9, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria incidence has declined in Ethiopia in the past 10 years. Current malaria diagnostic tests, including light microscopy and rapid antigen-detecting diagnostic tests (RDTs) cannot reliably detect low-density infections. Studies have shown that nucleic acid amplification tests are highly sensitive and specific in detecting malaria infection. This study took place with the aim of evaluating the performance of multiplex real time PCR for the diagnosis of malaria using patient samples collected from health facilities located at malaria elimination targeted low transmission settings in Ethiopia. METHODS: A health facility-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in selected malaria sentinel sites. Malaria-suspected febrile outpatients referred to laboratory for malaria testing between December 2019 and March 2020 was enrolled into this study. Sociodemographic information and capillary blood samples were collected from the study participants and tested at spot with RDTs. Additionally, five circles of dry blood spot (DBS) samples on Whatman filter paper and thick and thin smear were prepared for molecular testing and microscopic examination, respectively. Multiplex real time PCR assay was performed at Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) malaria laboratory. The performance of multiplex real time PCR assay, microscopy and RDT for the diagnosis of malaria was compared and evaluated against each other. RESULTS: Out of 271 blood samples, multiplex real time PCR identified 69 malaria cases as Plasmodium falciparum infection, 16 as Plasmodium vivax and 3 as mixed infections. Of the total samples, light microscopy detected 33 as P. falciparum, 18 as P. vivax, and RDT detected 43 as P. falciparum, 17 as P. vivax, and one mixed infection. Using light microscopy as reference test, the sensitivity and specificity of multiplex real time PCR were 100% (95% CI (93-100)) and 83.2% (95% CI (77.6-87.9)), respectively. Using multiplex real time PCR as a reference, light microscopy and RDT had sensitivity of 58% (95% CI 46.9-68.4) and 67% (95% CI 56.2-76.7); and 100% (95% CI 98-100) and 98.9% (95% CI 96-99.9), respectively. Substantial level of agreement was reported between microscopy and multiplex real time PCR results with kappa value of 0.65. CONCLUSIONS: Multiplex real-time PCR had an advanced performance in parasite detection and species identification on febrile patients' samples than did microscopy and RDT in low malaria transmission settings. It is highly sensitive malaria diagnostic method that can be used in malaria elimination programme, particularly for community based epidemiological samples. Although microscopy and RDT had reduced performance when compared to multiplex real time PCR, still had an acceptable performance in diagnosis of malaria cases on patient samples at clinical facilities.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Vivax/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/estatística & dados numéricos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 490, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017530

RESUMO

Based on the findings from the Phase III clinical trials of inactivated SARS COV-2 Vaccine, (BBIBP-CORV) emergency use authorization (EUA) was granted for the vaccine to frontline workers in the UAE. A prospective cohort study was conducted among frontline workers to estimate the incidence rate and risk of symptomatic COVID-19 infection 14 days after the second dose of inoculation with BBIBP-CORV inactivated vaccine. Those who received two doses of the BBIBP-CORV vaccine in the period from 14th of September 2020 (first dose) to 21st of December 2020 (second dose) were followed up for COVID-19 infections. 11,322 individuals who received the two-dose BBIBP-CORV vaccine were included and were followed up post the second dose plus fourteen days. The incidence rate of symptomatic infection was 0.08 per 1000-person days (95% CI 0.07, 0.10). The estimated absolute risk of developing symptomatic infection was 0.97% (95% CI 0.77%, 1.17%). The confirmed seroconversion rate was 92.8%. There were no serious adverse events reported and no individuals suffered from severe disease. Our findings show that vaccinated individuals are likely to remain protected against symptomatic infection or becoming PCR positive for SARS COV 2 following the second dose of the vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cefaleia/etiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/efeitos adversos
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 536, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017617

RESUMO

To evaluate the effect of the combination of linagliptin and insulin on metabolic control and prognosis in hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and hyperglycemia. A parallel double-blind randomized clinical trial including hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hyperglycemia, randomized to receive 5 mg linagliptin + insulin (LI group) or insulin alone (I group) was performed. The main outcomes were the need for assisted mechanical ventilation and glucose levels during hospitalization. Subjects were screened for eligibility at hospital admission if they were not with assisted mechanical ventilation and presented hyperglycemia, and a total of 73 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hyperglycemia were randomized to the LI group (n = 35) or I group (n = 38). The average hospital stay was 12 ± 1 vs 10 ± 1 days for the I and LI groups, respectively (p = 0.343). There were no baseline clinical differences between the study groups, but the percentage of males was higher in the LI group (26 vs 18, p = 0.030). The improvements in fasting and postprandial glucose levels were better in the LI group that the I group (122 ± 7 vs 149 ± 10, p = 0.033; and 137 ± 7 vs 173 ± 12, p = 0.017, respectively), and insulin requirements tended to be lower in the LI group than the I group. Three patients in the LI group and 12 in the I group required assisted mechanical ventilation (HR 0.258, CI 95% 0.092-0.719, p = 0.009); 2 patients in the LI group and 6 in the I group died after a follow-up of 30 days (p = 0.139). No major side effects were observed. The combination of linagliptin and insulin in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hyperglycemia reduced the relative risk of assisted mechanical ventilation by 74% and improved better pre and postprandial glucose levels with lower insulin requirements, and no higher risk of hypoglycemia.This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT04542213 on 09/03/2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Linagliptina/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/análise , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/virologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
10.
Vopr Virusol ; 66(6): 417-424, 2022 01 08.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019248

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Currently, the basis for molecular diagnostics of most infections is the use of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Technologies based on reverse transcription isothermal loop amplification (RT-LAMP) can be used as an alternative to RT-PCR for diagnostic purposes. In this study, we compared the RTLAMP and RT-PCR methods in order to analyze both the advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the study, we used reagent kits based on RT-PCR and RT-LAMP. The biological material obtained by taking swabs from the mucous membrane of the oropharynx and nasopharynx in patients with symptoms of a new coronavirus infection was used. RESULTS: We tested 381 RNA samples of the SARS-CoV-2 virus (Coronaviridae: Coronavirinae: Betacoronavirus; Sarbecovirus) from various patients. The obtained values of the threshold cycle (Ct) for RT-PCR averaged 20.0 ± 3.7 s (1530 ± 300 s), and for RT-LAMP 12.8 ± 3.7 s (550 ± 160 s). Proceeding from the theoretical assumptions, a linear relationship between values obtained in two kits was proposed as a hypothesis; the correlation coefficient was approximately 0.827. At the same time, for samples with a low viral load (VL), the higher Ct values in RT-LAMP did not always correlated with those obtained in RT-PCR. DISCUSSION: We noted a significant gain in time for analysis using RT-LAMP compared to RT-PCR, which can be important in the context of testing a large number of samples. Being easy to use and boasting short turnaround time, RT-LAMP-based test systems can be used for mass screening in order to identify persons with medium and high VLs who pose the greatest threat of the spread of SARS-CoV-2, while RT-PCR-based diagnostic methods are also suitable for estimation of VL and its dynamics in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261958, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030179

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multicenter studies involving patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with the disease caused by the new coronavirus (COVID-19) and treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT) in developing countries are scarce. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the demographic profile, clinical picture, risk factors for mortality, and outcomes of critically ill patients with AKI requiring dialysis (AKI-RRT) and with COVID-19 in the megalopolis of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective, observational study was conducted in the intensive care units of 13 public and private hospitals in the metropolitan region of the municipality of São Paulo. Patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit, aged ≥ 18 years, and treated with RRT due to COVID-19-associated AKI were included. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 375 patients (age 64.1 years, 68.8% male). Most (62.1%) had two or more comorbidities: 68.8%, arterial hypertension; 45.3%, diabetes; 36.3%, anemia; 30.9%, obesity; 18.7%, chronic kidney disease; 15.7%, coronary artery disease; 10.4%, heart failure; and 8.5%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Death occurred in 72.5% of the study population (272 patients). Among the 103 survivors, 22.3% (23 patients) were discharged on RRT. In a multiple regression analysis, the independent factors associated with death were the number of organ dysfunctions at admission and RRT efficiency. CONCLUSION: AKI-RRT associated with COVID-19 occurred in patients with an elevated burden of comorbidities and was associated with high mortality (72.5%). The number of organ dysfunctions during hospitalization and RRT efficiency were independent factors associated with mortality. A meaningful portion of survivors was discharged while dependent on RRT (22.3%).


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/complicações , COVID-19/complicações , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
12.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262600, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030224

RESUMO

In patients with severe forms of COVID-19, thromboelastometry has been reported to display a hypercoagulant pattern. However, an algorithm to differentiate severe COVID-19 patients from nonsevere patients and healthy controls based on thromboelastometry parameters has not been developed. Forty-one patients over 18 years of age with positive qRT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 were classified according to the severity of the disease: nonsevere (NS, n = 20) or severe (S, n = 21). A healthy control (HC, n = 9) group was also examined. Blood samples from all participants were tested by extrinsic (EXTEM), intrinsic (INTEM), non-activated (NATEM) and functional assessment of fibrinogen (FIBTEM) assays of thromboelastometry. The thrombodynamic potential index (TPI) was also calculated. Severe COVID-19 patients exhibited a thromboelastometry profile with clear hypercoagulability, which was significantly different from the NS and HC groups. Nonsevere COVID-19 cases showed a trend to thrombotic pole. The NATEM test suggested that nonsevere and severe COVID-19 patients presented endogenous coagulation activation (reduced clotting time and clot formation time). TPI data were significantly different between the NS and S groups. The maximum clot firmness profile obtained by FIBTEM showed moderate/elevated accuracy to differentiate severe patients from NS and HC. A decision tree algorithm based on the FIBTEM-MCF profile was proposed to differentiate S from HC and NS. Thromboelastometric parameters are a useful tool to differentiate the coagulation profile of nonsevere and severe COVID-19 patients for therapeutic intervention purposes.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea , COVID-19/sangue , Tromboelastografia , Trombofilia/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Trombofilia/diagnóstico , Trombofilia/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 34, 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Banana fruits are rich in various high-value metabolites and play a key role in the human diet. Of these components, carotenoids have attracted considerable attention due to their physiological role and human health care functions. However, the accumulation patterns of carotenoids and genome-wide analysis of gene expression during banana fruit development have not been comprehensively evaluated. RESULTS: In the present study, an integrative analysis of metabolites and transcriptome profiles in banana fruit with three different development stages was performed. A total of 11 carotenoid compounds were identified, and most of these compounds showed markedly higher abundances in mature green and/or mature fruit than in young fruit. Results were linked to the high expression of carotenoid synthesis and regulatory genes in the middle and late stages of fruit development. Co-expression network analysis revealed that 79 differentially expressed transcription factor genes may be responsible for the regulation of LCYB (lycopene ß-cyclase), a key enzyme catalyzing the biosynthesis of α- and ß-carotene. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the study provided new insights into the understanding of dynamic changes in carotenoid content and gene expression level during banana fruit development.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Musa/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Ontologia Genética , Liases Intramoleculares/genética , Liases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Musa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Musa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
15.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(2): 25, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989904

RESUMO

A total of 272 isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from 22 samples of naturally fermented milk products of Sikkim in India viz. dahi, soft-variety chhurpi, hard-variety chhurpi, mohi and philu, out of which, 68 LAB isolates were randomly grouped on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, and were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Leuconostoc mesenteroides was the most dominant genus, followed by Leuc. mesenteroides subsp. jonggajibkimchii, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lc. lactis, Lc. lactis subsp. hordniae, Lc. lactis subsp. tructae, Enterococcus faecalis, E. italicus and E. pseudoavium. LAB strains were tested for probiotics attributes by in vitro and genetic screening, based on marker genes. LAB strains showed tolerance to pH 3.0, bile salt, resistance to lysozyme and ß-galactosidase activity. Enterococcus faecalis YS4-11 and YS4-14 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SC3 showed more than 85% of hydrophobicity. Genes clp L and tdc encoding for low pH tolerance, agu A and Ir1516 encoding for bile tolerance, LBA1446 gene encoding for BSH activity, map A, apf, mub 1 and msa encoding for mucosal binding property were detected. Gene mesY for bacteriocin production was detected only in Leuconostoc spp. Based on the in vitro and genetic screening of probiotic attributes, Leuc. mesenteroides; Leuc. mesenteroides subsp. jonggajibkimchii and Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris were tentatively selected for possible probiotic candidates.


Assuntos
Produtos Fermentados do Leite/microbiologia , Fermentação , Testes Genéticos , Lactobacillales/classificação , Lactobacillales/genética , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Probióticos , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriocinas , Bovinos , Enterococcus faecalis , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Índia , Lactococcus , Leuconostoc/isolamento & purificação , Leite , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Siquim
16.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(2): 35, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989919

RESUMO

Aiming to broaden the base of knowledge about wild yeasts, four new indigenous strains were isolated from corn residues, and phylogenetic-tree assemblings on ITS and LSU regions indicated they belong to Meyerozyma caribbica. Yeasts were cultivated under full- and micro-aerobiosis, starting with low or high cell-density inoculum, in synthetic medium or corn hydrolysate containing glucose and/or xylose. Cells were able to assimilate both monosaccharides, albeit by different metabolic routes (fermentative or respiratory). They grew faster in glucose, with lag phases ~ 10 h shorter than in xylose. The hexose exhaustion occurred between 24 and 34 h, while xylose was entirely consumed in the last few hours of cultivation (44-48 h). In batch fermentation in synthetic medium with high cell density, under full-aerobiosis, 18-20 g glucose l-1 were exhausted in 4-6 h, with a production of 6.5-7.0 g ethanol l-1. In the xylose medium, cells needed > 12 h to consume the carbohydrate, and instead of ethanol, cells released 4.4-6.4 g l-1 xylitol. Under micro-aerobiosis, yeasts were unable to assimilate xylose, and glucose was more slowly consumed, although the ethanol yield was the theoretical maximum. When inoculated into the hydrolysate, cells needed 4-6 h to deplete glucose, and xylose had a maximum consumption of 57%. Considering that the hydrolysate contained ~ 3 g l-1 acetic acid, it probably has impaired sugar metabolism. Thus, this study increases the fund of knowledge regarding indigenous yeasts and reveals the biotechnological potential of these strains.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Xilose/metabolismo , Zea mays/microbiologia , Ácido Acético , Aerobiose , Biomassa , Meios de Cultura/química , Fermentação , Lignina , Filogenia , Saccharomycetales/classificação , Saccharomycetales/genética , Saccharomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Xilitol/biossíntese
17.
Virol J ; 19(1): 3, 2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a communicable disease caused by a virus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Pandemics are associated with the high level of mental stress. In many countries, general people reported the high level of depression, anxiety, psychological distress, post-traumatic stress disorder during recent a pandemic. This study aims to investigate the mental health status of people who survived through this alarming situation of COVID-19. METHODS: In this study, seventy individuals (either gender) between the age of 18-60 years, who contracted COVID-19 previously and then recovered as indicated by negative PCR results, were included. Data was collected by using three tools: impact of event scale (IES-R), patient health questionnaire-9(PHQ-9) and corona anxiety scale (CAS). People with other systemic/mental disorders, ongoing malignancies, upper/lower motor disorders and inability to give consent were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 26.29 + 11.79. All the 70 responders suffered from COVID-19. Among these 23 (32.9%) were asymptomatic and 47(67.1%) had common symptoms related to COVID-19 53 (75.7%) responders also had symptoms post-recovery. Most of the people who suffered COVID-19 had mild depression. Twenty-nine participants (41.4%) reported the highest impact of this traumatic event on their mental health. After suffering from COVID-19, 74.3% reported no anxiety as measured through corona anxiety scale (CAS). CONCLUSION: High level of post-traumatic stress was seen among participants who recovered from COVID-19, especially those patients who were symptomatic. Mild depression and anxiety were also noted among them.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
18.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 142(1): 11-15, 2022.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980746

RESUMO

The polio eradication program, launched in 1988, has successfully decreased the number of poliomyelitis patients worldwide. However, in areas with immunization gaps where oral polio vaccine coverage has dropped, outbreaks of more virulent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) have become a threat to public health. In Japan, inactivated polio vaccine replaced oral polio vaccine as the routine immunization in 2012. Polio environmental surveillance (ES) has been conducted nationwide since 2013 to efficiently monitor the wild type poliovirus or VDPV, which may be imported from overseas. ES may also be utilized to detect other viruses in stool samples. We propose a method of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection based on the polio ES network, and establish a procedure to detect fragments of SARS-CoV-2 genome in wastewater solids. Our findings suggest that polio ES can be used to simultaneously monitor SARS-CoV-2 RNA fragments in sewage waters.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Esgotos/virologia , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Erradicação de Doenças , Humanos , Japão , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/genética
19.
J Med Chem ; 65(1): 876-884, 2022 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981929

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a global health threat, was caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 papain-like cysteine protease (PLpro) was recognized as a promising drug target because of multiple functions in virus maturation and antiviral immune responses. Inhibitor GRL0617 occupied the interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) C-terminus-binding pocket and showed an effective antiviral inhibition. Here, we described a novel peptide-drug conjugate (PDC), in which GRL0617 was linked to a sulfonium-tethered peptide derived from PLpro-specific substrate LRGG. The EM-C and EC-M PDCs showed a promising in vitro IC50 of 7.40 ± 0.37 and 8.63 ± 0.55 µM, respectively. EC-M could covalently label PLpro active site C111 and display anti-ISGylation activities in cellular assays. The results represent the first attempt to design PDCs composed of stabilized peptide inhibitors and GRL0617 to inhibit PLpro. These novel PDCs provide promising opportunities for antiviral drug design.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Benzamidas/química , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Desenho de Fármacos , Naftalenos/química , Peptídeos/química , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Compostos de Anilina/metabolismo , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas/metabolismo , Benzamidas/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/química , Citocinas/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Naftalenos/metabolismo , Naftalenos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Ubiquitinas/química
20.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 194(1): 291-301, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988845

RESUMO

Corona virus pandemic outbreak also known as COVID-19 has created an imbalance in this world. Scientists have adopted the use of natural or alternative medicines which are consumed mostly as dietary supplements to boost the immune system as herbal remedies. India is famous for traditional medicinal formulations which includes 'Trikadu'-a combination of three acrids, namely Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum and Piper longum which have antioxidant properties that boost our immune system hence acting as a strong preventive measure. In this study, AutoDock 4.0 was used to study interaction between the phytocompounds of Trikadu with RNA-dependent polymerase protein and enveloped protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Analysis of the results showed that coumarin, coumaperine and bisdemethoxycurcumin showed strong bonding interactions with both the proteins. We can conclude that Trikadu has the potential molecules; hence, it can be incorporated in the diet to boost the immune system as a preventive measure against the virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/virologia , Simulação por Computador , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/química , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gengibre/química , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Índia , Ligantes , Medicina Tradicional , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Piper/química , Piper nigrum/química , Preparações de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais/química , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/efeitos dos fármacos
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