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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251970, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345559

RESUMO

Abstract In order to better understand the ossification processes in anurans our study was carried out on tadpoles and adults of Lithobates catesbeianus. In this sense, we characterized the kinetic properties of alkaline phosphatase with p-nitrophenylphosphatase (pNPP) and pyrophosphate (PPi) and evaluated the activities of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and acid phosphatase. The enzyme extracts were obtained from tadpoles and adult femurs, which were divided into epiphysis and diaphysis. After homogenization, the samples were submitted to differential centrifugation to obtain cell membranes and, further, to phospholipase C (PIPLC) treatment, to remove membrane-bound proteins anchored by phosphatidylinositol. The average of specific activity for pNPP hydrolysis (at pH 10.5) by alkaline phosphatase released by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC) from Bacillus cereus among different bone regions at different animal ages was 1,142.57 U.mg-1, while for PPi hydrolysis (at pH 8.0), it was 1,433.82 U.mg-1. Among the compounds tested for enzymatic activity, the one that influenced the most was EDTA, with approximately 67% of inhibition for pNPPase activity and 77% for PPase activity. In the case of kinetic parameters, the enzyme showed a "Michaelian" behavior for pNPP and PPi hydrolysis. The Km value was around 0.6mM for pNPPase activity and ranged from 0.01 to 0.11mM for PPase activity, indicating that the enzyme has a higher affinity for this substrate. The study of pNPP and PPi hydrolysis by the enzyme revealed that the optimum pH of actuation for pNPP was 10.5, while for PPi, which is considered the true substrate of alkaline phosphatase, was 8.0, close to the physiological value. The results show that regardless of the ossification type that occurs, the same enzyme or isoenzymes act on the different bone regions and different life stages of anurans. The similarity of the results of studies with other vertebrates shows that anurans can be considered excellent animal models for the study of biological calcification.


Resumo Para melhor compreender o processo de ossificação em anuros, nosso estudo foi conduzido em girinos e adultos de Lithobates catesbeianus. Nesse sentido, as propriedades cinéticas da fosfatase alcalina com p-nitrofenilfosfato (pNPP) e pirofosfato (PPi) foram caracterizadas, e as atividades enzimáticas das fosfatases ácida e ácida tartarato resistente foram avaliadas. Os extratos enzimáticos foram obtidos de fêmur de girinos e adultos, divididos em epífise e diáfise. Após a homogeneização as amostras foram submetidas à centrifugação diferencial para obter membrana celular e, em seguida, ao tratamento com fosfolipase C (PIPLC), para remover as proteínas de membrana ancoradas por fosfatidilinositol. A média da atividade específica da fosfatase alcalina, liberada pela PIPLC de Bacillus cereus, para a hidrólise de pNPP (pH 10,5) nas diferentes regiões do fêmur e idades dos animais foi de 1.142,57 U.mg-1, enquanto para a hidrólise do PPi (pH 8,0) foi de 1.433,82 U.mg-1. Entre os compostos testados para a atividade enzimática, o de maior influência foi o EDTA, inibindo aproximadamente 67% e 77% das atividades de pNPPase e PPase, respectivamente. Quanto aos parâmetros cinéticos, a enzima apresentou comportamento Michaeliano para a hidrólise dos dois substratos. O valor de Km foi de 0,6 mM para a atividade de pNPPase e variou de 0,01 a 0,11 para a atividade de PPase, indicando uma maior afinidade por esse substrato. O estudo da hidrólise de pNPP e PPi revelou que o pH ótimo aparente de atuação foi de 10,5 para o pNPP e 8,0 para o PPi, próximo ao fisiológico, sendo que esse é considerado o substrato natural da fosfatase alcalina. Os resultados demonstram que, apesar do tipo de ossificação que ocorre, a mesma enzima ou isoenzimas, atuam nos diferentes locais do osso e estágios de vida dos anuros. A similaridade dos estudos com os realizados com outros vertebrados apontam que os anuros podem ser considerados excelentes modelos animais para o estudo da calcificação biológica.


Assuntos
Animais , Osteogênese , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Rana catesbeiana , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Cinética
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253696, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355862

RESUMO

Abstract Transplanting time and genotype contribute to improving crop yield and quality of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). A field experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of foliar applied of triacontanol (TRIA) and eggplant genotypes 25919, Nirala, 28389 and Pak-10927,transplanted on 1 March,15 March, and 1 April on exposure to high air temperature conditions. The experiment was performed according to Randomized Complete Block Design and the data was analyzed by using Tuckey,s test . The TRIA was applied at 10µM at flowering stage; distilled water was used as the control. Rate of photosynthesis and transpiration, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and effects on antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) were evaluated. The 10µM TRIA increased photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency and yield was improved in all genotypes transplanted at the different dates. Foliar application of 10µM TRIA increased antioxidative enzyme activities (SOD, POD & CAT) and improved physiological as well as biochemical attributes of eggplant genotypes exposed to high heat conditions. Highest activity of dismutase enzyme 5.41mg/1g FW was recorded in Nirala genotype in second transplantation. Whereas, lowest was noted in PAK-10927 (2.30mg/g FW). Maximum fruit yield was found in accession 25919 (1.725kg per plant) at 1st transplantation with Triacontanol, whereas accession PAK-10927 gave the lowest yield (0.285 kg per plant) at control treatment on 3rd transplantation. Genotype, transplanting date and application of TRIA improved growth, yield and quality attributes under of heat stress in eggplant.


Resumo O tempo de transplante e o genótipo contribuem para melhorar a produtividade e a qualidade da cultura da berinjela (Solanum melongena L.). Um experimento de campo foi conduzido para investigar o impacto da aplicação foliar de triacontanol (TRIA) e genótipos de berinjela 25919, Nirala, 28389 e Pak-10927, transplantados em 1 de março, 15 de março e 1 de abril de exposição a condições de alta temperatura do ar. O experimento foi realizado de acordo com o Randomized Complete Block Design e os dados foram analisados pelo teste de Tuckey. O TRIA foi aplicado a 10 µM na fase de floração; água destilada foi utilizada como controle. Taxa de fotossíntese e transpiração, condutância estomática, eficiência do uso da água e efeitos sobre as enzimas antioxidantes (superóxido dismutase, catalase e peroxidase) foram avaliados. O TRIA 10 µM aumentou a taxa de fotossíntese e a eficiência do uso da água e o rendimento foi melhorado em todos os genótipos transplantados nas diferentes datas. A aplicação foliar de TRIA 10µM aumentou as atividades das enzimas antioxidantes (SOD, POD e CAT) e melhorou os atributos fisiológicos e bioquímicos de genótipos de berinjela expostos a condições de alto calor. A atividade mais elevada da enzima dismutase 5,41mg / 1g FW foi registrada no genótipo Nirala no segundo transplante. Considerando que o mais baixo foi observado em PAK-10927 (2,30 mg / g FW). A produtividade máxima de frutos foi encontrada no acesso 25919 (1,725 ​​kg por planta) no 1º transplante com Triacontanol, enquanto o acesso PAK-10927 deu a menor produção (0,285 kg por planta) no tratamento de controle no 3º transplante. Genótipo, data de transplante e aplicação de TRIA, melhoramento do crescimento, rendimento e atributos de qualidade sob estresse térmico em berinjela.


Assuntos
Solanum melongena/genética , Solanum melongena/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Álcoois Graxos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257739, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355883

RESUMO

Abstract Under salt stress conditions, plant growth is reduced due to osmotic, nutritional and oxidative imbalance. However, salicylic acid acts in the mitigation of this abiotic stress by promoting an increase in growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, synthesis of osmoregulators and antioxidant enzymes. In this context, the objective was to evaluate the effect of salicylic acid doses on the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings under salt stress. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, where the treatments were distributed in randomized blocks using a central composite matrix Box with five levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (CEw) (0.50; 1.08; 2.50; 3.92 and 4.50 dS m-1), associated with five doses of salicylic acid (SA) (0.00; 0.22; 0.75; 1.28 and 1.50 mM), with four repetitions and each plot composed of three plants. At 40 days after sowing, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, electrolyte leakage, relative water content, and total dry mass were determined. ECw and SA application influenced the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings. Increasing the ECw reduced growth in the absence of SA. Membrane damage with the use of SA remained stable up to 3.9 dS m-1 of ECw. The relative water content independent of the CEw increased with 1.0 mM of SA. The use of SA at the concentration of 1.0 mM mitigated the deleterious effect of salinity on seedling growth up to 2.50 dS m-1 of ECw.


Resumo Em condições de estresse salino, o crescimento das plantas é reduzido, em virtude, do desequilíbrio osmótico, nutricional e oxidativo. Contudo, o ácido salicílico atua na mitigação desse estresse abiótico por promover incremento no crescimento, fotossíntese, metabolismo do nitrogênio, síntese de osmorreguladores e enzimas antioxidantes. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de doses de ácido salicílico sobre o crescimento e alterações fisiológicas de mudas de berinjela sob estresse salino. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, onde os tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso utilizando uma matriz composta central Box com cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa) (0,50; 1,08; 2,50; 3,92 e 4,50 dS m-1), associada a cinco doses de ácido salicílico (AS) (0,00; 0,22; 0,75; 1,28 e 1,50 mM), com quatro repetições e cada parcela composta por três plantas. Aos 40 dias após a semeadura, foram determinados a altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, área foliar, vazamento de eletrólito, teor relativo de água e massa seca total. A CEa e a aplicação de AS influenciaram no crescimento e nas alterações fisiológicas das mudas de berinjela. O aumento da CEa reduziu o crescimento na ausência de AS. O dano de membrana com o uso de AS manteve-se estável até 3,9 dS m-1 de CEa. O conteúdo relativo de água independentemente da CEa aumentou com 1 mM de SA. O uso de AS na concentração de 1 mM mitigou o efeito deletério da salinidade no crescimento das mudas até 2,50 dS m-1 de CEa.


Assuntos
Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Solanum melongena/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Estresse Fisiológico , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal , Antioxidantes/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 398: 133936, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027659

RESUMO

This study investigated the impact of seed coats from peas (PC) and chickpeas (CC) (at 15 % and 30 % levels) on rice-based co-extruded snacks. Using PC and CC reduced the content of soluble (29 %) and cell-wall bound phenolic acids (21 %), but it enhanced the amount and the profile of flavonoids of rice-based snacks (up to 16 times with PC), resulting in significantly higher antioxidant activity (134 %). Snacks with 15 % CC showed a higher section area (about 335 versus 191 mm2) and a lower average pore radius (20.1 versus 23.9 mm) than PC-snacks; however, such features did not affect either texture or porosity. At 30 % level, PC resulted in a more porous structure (porosity: 73.1 versus 66.7 %) with smaller pores (17.2 versus 27.3 mm) and high firmness (55.9 versus 40.1 N). Consumers' acceptability evaluation revealed that samples containing pulse seed coat were comparable and preferred to the control (i.e., 100 % polished rice).


Assuntos
Cicer , Oryza , Cicer/química , Oryza/química , Ervilhas/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Sementes , Lanches
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2519: 53-63, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066709

RESUMO

Many apoptosis assays are available since there are many proteins regulated at multiple points and involved in apoptosis signaling cascade. To detect apoptosis accurately, two or more assays should be used since there are many overlapped features between apoptosis and necrosis. There are six major groups of available assays to detect apoptosis: membrane alteration, mitochondrial assays, cytomorphological alterations, DNA fragmentation, detection of caspase, cleaved substrate, inhibitors and regulators, and detection of apoptosis in whole mounts. Among those assay, early apoptosis could be detected through annexin V, which is based on the loss of the cellular membrane integrity. Also, there are many assays that can detect midphase of apoptosis using caspase activation and molecular processing including PARP degradation. Late phase of apoptosis could be detected with DNA fragmentation assays. Combinations of these assays allow us to identify the mechanisms of apoptosis induction after specific stimulus. This chapter will introduce three apoptosis detection assays including annexin assay, DNA/chromatin condensation assays, and TUNEL assay.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Caspases , Anexina A5/metabolismo , Caspases/metabolismo , Fragmentação do DNA , Humanos , Necrose
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2519: 73-82, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066711

RESUMO

Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is the exchange event of genetic material between two identical sister chromatid. Elevation of SCE frequency is considered as a result of replication stress from genetic defects, ROS stress, and genomic damages. SCE staining needs extra processes compared to regular Giemsa staining. Usually two rounds of cell cycle progress are required to observe SCE under microscope. SCE can be visualized with the fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) staining method or fluorescence staining methods with immunocytochemistry to BrdU or Click reaction to EdU which provide more clear images of SCE. This chapter will provide the detailed method for the SCE staining and measurement for the traditional FPG staining, BrdU monoclonal antibody staining method, and newly developed EdU Click reaction staining method.


Assuntos
Cromátides , Troca de Cromátide Irmã , Bromodesoxiuridina/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , Divisão Celular , Cromátides/genética , Cromátides/metabolismo
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2519: 141-153, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066719

RESUMO

Epigenome research has employed various methods to identify the genomic location of proteins of interest, such as transcription factors and histone modifications. CUT&Tag is a recently established method used in epigenome research to determine the genomic location of proteins of interest, such as transcription factors and histone modifications. In CUT&Tag method, cells are bound and hold on concanavalin A (con A)-coated magnetic beads, then a Protein-A Tn5 transposase fusion protein cuts the genome and inserts adapter sequences nearby the target protein. Here we describe the updated CUT&Tag procedure using "home-made" con A-conjugated magnetic beads. This method is free of poor suspendability and severe aggregation, hence providing improved sensitivity.


Assuntos
Genoma , Código das Histonas , Concanavalina A , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2519: 155-161, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066720

RESUMO

Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of histones, such as lysine acetylation and ubiquitination, regulate chromatin structure and gene expression. In living organisms, histone PTMs are catalyzed by histone-modifying enzymes. Here, we describe an entirely chemical method to introduce histone modifications in living cells without genetic manipulation. The chemical catalyst PEG-LANA-DSSMe activates a thioester acetyl donor, N,S-diacetylcysteamine (NAC-Ac), and promotes regioselective, synthetic histone acetylation at H2BK120 in living cells.


Assuntos
Histonas , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Acetilação , Catálise , Histonas/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2519: 163-185, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066721

RESUMO

Posttranslational modifications of histone are intimately related to chromatin/chromosome-mediated cellular events. Among all, the roles of histone modifications including acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, and SUMOylation of lysine or arginine residue of nucleosome core histones in gene expression have been intensively studied. Genome-wide profiles of histone modification marks revealed their combinatorial organization in the functional features of chromatin. Analysis of histone modification by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is one of the standard assays to examine chromatin states. Although high-throughput sequencing analysis (ChIP-seq) is now widely conducted, classical ChIP-qPCR analysis has advantages in investigation of multiple histone modification marks at a target site simply through the use of relatively small numbers of cells. Since ChIP-qPCR is devoid of biases caused by overamplification and inaccurate mapping of sequencing reads, it is a more reliable quantification method than genome-wide ChIP-seq especially for analyses of the low-mappability regions, which harbor many repetitive sequences and/or highly homologous segmental multiplications as found in gene clusters. We have recently analyzed histone H3 and H4 modifications of the Zscan4 family gene loci in an 880 kb gene cluster and found that the atypical enhancer-like structure is formed upon derepression of Zscan4. In this chapter, we describe the detailed protocols for histone modification ChIP-assay of repeat-enriched gene cluster regions. The protocol here we applied to mouse ES cells, but the protocol is perfectly applicable to human cultured cells and specimens.


Assuntos
Código das Histonas , Histonas , Animais , Cromatina/genética , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina/métodos , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
10.
Food Chem ; 399: 133948, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994855

RESUMO

M. oleifera known as "miracle tree" is increasingly used in nutraceuticals for the reported health effects and nutritional value of its leaves. This study presents the first metabolome profiling of M. oleifera leaves of African origin using different solvent polarities via HR-UPLC/MS based molecular networking followed by multivariate data analyses for samples classification. 119 Chemicals were characterized in both positive and negative modes belonging to 8 classes viz. phenolic acids, flavonoids, peptides, fatty acids/amides, sulfolipids, glucosinolates and carotenoids. New metabolites i.e., polyphenolics, fatty acids, in addition to a new class of sulfolipids were annotated for the first time in Moringa leaves. In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-aging bioassays of the leaf extracts were assessed and in correlation to their metabolite profile via multivariate data analyses. Kaempferol, quercetin and apigenin-O/C-glycosides, fatty acyl amides and carotenoids appeared crucial for biological activities and leaves origin discrimination.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Amidas , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Quimiometria , Ácidos Graxos , Metaboloma , Moringa oleifera/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
11.
Food Chem ; 399: 133799, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998490

RESUMO

Flesh quality is evaluated according to nutritional value and sensory quality. Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) improves mammalian meat quality, but research relating this to aquaculture is scarce. In this study, five doses of CIN (0, 36, 72, 108, 144 mg/kg diet) were fed to grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) for 60 days. The results show that CIN supplementation increased nutritional value by increasing crude protein content. CIN also improved the sensory quality by increasing the pH and collagen content, decreasing shear force, lactate, and cooking loss. These changes may be related to changes in muscle fiber growth by increasing myofiber diameter. The increased myofiber diameter induced by CIN is associated with TOR mRNA and protein levels, and down-regulated FOXO3a mRNA levels, which might be associated with PTP1B/IGF1/PI3K/AKTs-TOR/FOXO3a signaling. Based on muscle crude protein content, optimal CIN supplementation dosage was 88.01 mg/kg.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carpas/genética , Carpas/metabolismo , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Mamíferos/genética , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Food Chem ; 399: 133952, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998492

RESUMO

Although excessive pharmaceutical activities of curcumin have been reported, the poor solubility, low stability and low bioavailability greatly limited its application. In this study, the interaction between protein Z (PZ) and curcumin, and the effects of PZ on the stability and bioavailability of curcumin were investigated. Fluorescence quenching results indicated that curcumin molecule binds PZ with a stoichiometry of 4:1, and the binding affinity is stronger than other reported protein carriers. Molecular dynamics simulation results suggested that curcumin binds in the hydrophobic region of PZ, and the interaction was maintained mainly by hydrogen-bond (Pro-287, Asn-340 and Tyr-234). PZ-curcumin complex possessed better encapsulation efficiency (64.10 %) and loading capacity (5.49 µg/mg) for curcumin. In addition, binding with PZ not only improved the thermal, light and digestive stability of curcumin significantly, but lowered its toxic effect on Caco-2 cells and improved relative bioavailability (305 %) compared with that of curcumin only.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Hordeum , Nanopartículas , Disponibilidade Biológica , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Células CACO-2 , Curcumina/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Solubilidade
13.
Food Chem ; 399: 133974, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998493

RESUMO

In this research, two sequential Dendrobium officinale water extracts (WDOE and WDOP1) were shown to significantly ameliorate type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) in a mouse model. WDOP1 was identified as a glucomannan with a backbone of 1,4-linked Manp and 1,4-linked Glcp and an average molecular weight of 731 kDa. We also found that both WDOE and WDOP1 could significantly alleviate glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, oxidative stress injury, serum lipid metabolism disturbances, and histopathological damage in T2DM mice. In addition, we demonstrated that WDOE and WDOP1 reversed gut dysbiosis by reshaping the microbiota spectrum in T2DM mice. It should be emphasized that both Dendrobium officinale extracts afforded beneficial effects in T2DM mice comparable to metformin, despite differences in examined dosages. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Dendrobium officinale derivatives have potential as T2DM management nutraceuticals.


Assuntos
Dendrobium , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
14.
Food Chem ; 399: 133949, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998496

RESUMO

This study demonstrated that solvent-free gas bubbling system enhanced production efficiency of pyridoxine monolaurate in the esterification catalyzed by immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Lipozyme 435). Volumetric productivity in solvent-free gas bubbling system (41.24 mmol/L/h) was 3.7 and 2.1-fold higher than those in conventional organic solvent system (11.10 mmol/L/h) and solvent-free system (19.86 mmol/L/h) using magnetic stirring, respectively. Among the three bioreactor systems, solvent-free gas bubbling system provided the best reusability of the lipase retaining 94.45 % of initial activity for six batch reactions. In the bioreactor system, 5-O-lauroyl-pyridoxine was regioselectively produced with maximum production of 371.17 mmol/L at 70 °C and 0.10 of substrate molar ratio ([pyridoxine]/[lauric acid]) for 9 h. Pyridoxine monolaurate exhibited interfacial activity at oil-water interfaces, suggesting it had emulsifying properties. Pyridoxine monolaurate is expected to be applied as a multi-functional emulsifier with nutritional values to replace both small molecule emulsifiers and pyridoxine hydrochloride in fortified beverages.


Assuntos
Enzimas Imobilizadas , Piridoxina , Reatores Biológicos , Catálise , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Esterificação , Lipase/metabolismo , Solventes/química
15.
Food Chem ; 399: 133865, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998498

RESUMO

An efficient and attractive platform for synthesizing phosphatidylserine is indispensable for driving large-scale industrial applications. Given the interfacial effect of phospholipase D (PLD), an adequate oil-water interface surface is essential for the catalytic efficiency of PLD. Herein, a simple ball-milling method with ionic liquid was successfully applied to produce cellulose nanofibrils and immobilized PLD with the cellulose-binding domain through a one-step procedure. Each droplet in the Pickering reaction system was regarded as a microreactor to provide sufficient oil-water interface to the active sites of PLD. The constructed Pickering emulsion system exhibited outstanding catalytic activity, achieving 95.4 % conversion after 2 h with the minimal amount of catalyst (0.8 wt% of CNF-CBD1 addition amount), which was 6-fold higher than the previously reported immobilized MCC-CBD1 and 21-fold higher than free PLD-CBD1. These results demonstrated a sustainable and high-performance biocatalysis method, paving the way for the efficient synthesis of novel phospholipids.


Assuntos
Celulose , Fosfolipase D , Biocatálise , Celulose/química , Emulsões/química , Fosfatidilserinas , Fosfolipase D/metabolismo , Água/química
16.
Food Chem ; 399: 133959, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001928

RESUMO

Advances in understanding the biological effects of dietary flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods have been reported. Improving knowledge about their beneficial effects, and mechanisms of action, is crucial for better utilization. However, mechanisms responsible for their health benefits are still unclear. Previous research considered has suggested that gut microbiota might be linked to the metabolism of dietary flavonoids. To understand the bioactivities of dietary flavonoids/flavonoid-rich foods better, and the role of microbiota, we explored systematically 1) types of dietary flavonoids and associated health benefits, 2) low bioaccessibilities and metabolic characteristics, 3) gut microbiota role in regulation, and 4) crosstalk between regulation mechanisms. Current challenges and future perspectives were also considered, offering new research directions and identifying trends in the development of flavonoid-rich food products.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Promoção da Saúde , Polifenóis/farmacologia
17.
Food Chem ; 399: 133966, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007444

RESUMO

Tropomyosin, a myofibrillar muscle protein, has been recognized as a finfish allergen. In this study, tropomyosin from Atlantic cod fillets (Gadus morhua, CTM) was purified using a two-step purification strategy (isoelectric precipitation and anion-exchange chromatography). CTM structural configuration in two sample matrices (impure and pure) were elaborated using different polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native, non-reducing, and reducing PAGE). Their corresponding immunoblots were conducted to investigate CTM antigenicity under three conditions. Overall, CTM retained solubility, integrity, and antigenicity after heat treatment. Three CTM monomeric α-type isoforms (33 kDa) were identified using two-dimensional PAGE. Under native condition, the vast majority of CTM existed in the disulfide-reduced dimeric form (66 kDa). Under non-reducing condition, sodium dodecyl sulfate (anionic surfactant) broke CTM dimers, leaving monomers and disulfide-induced tetramers. Under reducing condition, ß-mercaptoethanol (thiol reducing agent) dissociated disulfide-linked CTM tetramers (132 kDa) into monomers (33 kDa). CTM retained antigenicity regardless of structural configuration under different conditions.


Assuntos
Gadus morhua , Animais , Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Peixes , Gadus morhua/metabolismo , Tropomiosina/metabolismo
18.
Food Chem ; 399: 133926, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007446

RESUMO

Pigmented rice, particularly black rice, has attracted widespread global interest due to its high nutritional value. To obtain a better understanding of differential metabolites between pigmented rice and white rice, we used a widely-targeted metabolomics-based approach to investigate the metabolite profiling of black, red, glutinous, and common white rice. In total, 732 metabolites were identified, of which 281, 305, 241, 267, and 265 differential metabolites were screened by comparing the following group: glutinous/white vs black, glutinous/white vs red, and red vs black. Venn diagram demonstrated that 69 metabolites were shared between pigmented and non-pigmented rice, and 117 between glutinous/white/red vs black. Additionally, metabolic pathways analysis of differential metabolites in glutinous/white/red vs black revealed that the flavonoid biosynthesis, anthocyanin biosynthesis, and flavone and flavonol biosynthesis are differential enrichment metabolic pathways. As such, identifying these different metabolites contribute to a better understanding of the function and nutritional value of various rice strains.


Assuntos
Oryza , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo
19.
Food Chem ; 399: 133993, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36029678

RESUMO

At present, uncovering how to preventandcontrol hyperuricemia has become an important public health issue. Fermented traditionalChinesemedicine has exhibited promising applications in the clinical management of hyperuricemia. In this study, we generated a hyperuricemic mouse model to explore the potent therapeutic ability of Bacillus subtilis-fermented Astragalus membranaceus (BFA) on this condition by multi-omics analysis. We found that the serum uric acid level was decreased in hyperuricemic mice after BFA treatment. BFA effectively attenuated renal inflammation and regulated the expression of urate transporters. Additionally, we found that BFA could increase the abundances of butyrate-producing bacteria, including Butyricimonas synergistica, Odoribacter splanchnicus, and Collinsella tanakaei, and probiotics, including Lactobacillus intestinalis and Bacillus mycoides, in hyperuricemic mice. Therefore, we believe that BFA has the potential to become a novel safe and valid functional food for addressing hyperuricemia.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hiperuricemia , Animais , Astragalus propinquus/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperuricemia/genética , Rim , Camundongos , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo
20.
Food Chem ; 399: 133897, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037683

RESUMO

Many angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides are used to prevent and manage hypertension. In this study, ACE inhibitory peptides were isolated from an insect protein that is attracting attention for it potential antihypertensive activity. Protaetia brevitarsis larva protein was enzymatically hydrolyzed by Flavourzyme®, and the hydrolysate was shown to inhibit ACE. Subsequent fractionation, using ultrafiltration and gel permeation chromatography followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, identified four previously unknown peptides with significant ACE inhibition characteristics (Ser-Tyr, Pro-Phe, Tyr-Pro-Tyr, and Trp-Ile). The highest inhibition activity observed for Trp-Ile. These peptides stimulated production of NO in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and, based on molecular docking analysis, exerted their inhibitory effects via hydrogen bonding with the ACE receptor active site. Thus, the identified peptides can be considered as promising candidates for ACE inhibition and have potential to be used as functional food ingredients.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Angiotensinas , Animais , Endopeptidases , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Larva/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química
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