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1.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1984105, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632957

RESUMO

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (Ace2) is expressed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and a receptor for SARS-CoV-2, making the GI tract a potential infection site. This study investigated the effects of commensal intestinal microbiota on colonic Ace2 expression using a humanized mouse model. We found that colonic Ace2 expression decreased significantly upon microbial colonization. Humanization with healthy volunteer or dysbiotic microbiota from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients resulted in similar Ace2 expression. Despite the differences in microbiota, no associations between α-diversity, ß-diversity or individual taxa, and Ace2 were noted post-humanization. These results highlight that commensal microbiota play a key role in regulating intestinal Ace2 expression and the need to further examine the underlying mechanisms of this regulation.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Colo/microbiologia , Disbiose , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Vida Livre de Germes , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Camundongos , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(42): 1472-1477, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673748

RESUMO

During December 2018-February 2019, a multistate investigation identified 101 patients with vaccination-associated adverse events among an estimated 940 persons in Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio who had received influenza; hepatitis A; pneumococcal; or tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines at the workplace during September 11-November 28, 2018. These vaccines had been administered by staff members of a third-party health care company contracted by 24 businesses. Company A provided multiple vaccine types during workplace vaccination events across 54 locations in these adjoining states. Injection-site wound isolates from patients yielded Mycobacterium porcinum, a nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species in the Mycobacterium fortuitum group; subtyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of all 28 available isolates identified two closely related clusters. Site visits to company A and interviews with staff members identified inadequate hand hygiene, improper vaccine storage and handling, lack of appropriate medical record documentation, and lack of reporting to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Vaccination-associated adverse events can be prevented by training health care workers responsible for handling or administering vaccines in safe vaccine handling, administration, and storage practices, timely reporting of any suspected vaccination-associated adverse events to VAERS, and notifying public health authorities of any adverse event clusters.


Assuntos
Mycobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Indiana/epidemiologia , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ohio/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612810

RESUMO

Introduction. The emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium strains has increased the need for safe, alternative therapies from natural sources with antibacterial properties.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. There are no published data regarding the use of chitosan propolis nanocomposite (CPNP) either alone or in combination with antibiotics as antimicrobials against S. Typhimurium, especially in Egypt.Aim. This study evaluated the antibacterial activities of five antimicrobials [apramycin, propolis, chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs), chitosan propolis nanocomposite (CPNP) and CPNP +apramycin] against ten virulent and multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. Typhimurium field strains recovered from diarrheic rabbits through in vitro and in vivo study.Methodology. The expression levels of three virulence genes of S. Typhimurium strains were determined by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) after exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of apramycin, propolis, CNPs, CPNP alone, and CPNP +apramycin. Additionally, 90 New Zealand rabbits were divided into control and experimentally S. Typhimurium-infected groups. The infected rabbits were orally administered saline solution (infected-untreated); 10 mg apramycin/kg (infected-apramycin-treated); 50 mg propolis/kg (infected-propolis-treated); 15 mg CPNP/kg (infected-CPNP-treated) and 15 mg CPNP +10 mg apramycin/kg (infected-CPNP +apramycin-treated) for 5 days.Results. The RT-qPCR analysis revealed different degrees of downregulation of all screened genes. Furthermore, the treatment of infected rabbits with CPNP or CPNP +apramycin significantly improved performance parameters, and total bacterial and Salmonella species counts, while also modulating both oxidative stress and altered liver and kidney parameters.Conclusion. This work demonstrates the use of CPNP alone or in combination with apramycin in the treatment of S. Typhimurium in rabbits.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Quitosana/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanocompostos/uso terapêutico , Própole/química , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/farmacologia , Quitosana/uso terapêutico , Chlorocebus aethiops , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanocompostos/química , Nebramicina/análogos & derivados , Nebramicina/farmacologia , Nebramicina/uso terapêutico , Própole/farmacologia , Própole/uso terapêutico , Coelhos , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade , Células Vero , Virulência/genética
4.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623230

RESUMO

Introduction. Candida albicans can produce a complex, dynamic and resistant biofilm on the surface of dental materials, especially denture base acrylic resins and temporary soft liners. This biofilm is the main aetiological factor for denture stomatitis, an oral inflammatory condition characterized by chronic and diffuse erythema and oedema of the denture bearing mucosa.Gap Statement. There is no consensus in the literature regarding the best method to detach biofilms from dental materials. In order to assess the antifungal efficacy of new materials and treatments, the biofilm needs to be properly detached and quantified.Aim. This study compared different methods of detaching C. albicans biofilm from denture base acrylic resin (Vipi Cril) and temporary soft liner (Softone) specimens.Methodology. Specimens of each material were immersed in an inoculum of C. albicans SC5314 and remained for 90 min in orbital agitation at 75 r.p.m. and 37 °C. After the removal of non-adherent cells, the specimens were immersed in RPMI-1640 medium for 48 h. Biofilm formation was evaluated with confocal laser scanning microscopy (n=5). Then, other specimens (n=7) were fabricated, contaminated and immersed in 3 ml of sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and vortexed or sonicated for 1, 2, 5, or 10 min to detach the biofilm. The quantification of detached biofilm was performed by colony-forming unit (c.f.u.) ml-1 count. Results were submitted to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)/Tukey HSD test (α=0.05).Results. A mature and viable biofilm was observed on the surfaces of both materials. For both materials, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among detachment methods.Conclusion. Any of the tested methods could be used to detach C. albicans biofilm from hard and soft acrylic materials.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Materiais Dentários , Resinas Acrílicas/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Materiais Dentários/farmacologia , Dentaduras/microbiologia , Humanos , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/farmacologia
5.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596013

RESUMO

Introduction. Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces quorum sensing signalling molecules including 2-alkyl-4-quinolones (AQs), which regulate virulence factor production in the cystic fibrosis (CF) airways.Hypothesis/Gap statement. Culture can lead to condition-dependent artefacts which may limit the potential insights and applications of AQs as minimally-invasive biomarkers of bacterial load.Aim. We aimed to use culture-independent methods to explore the correlations between AQ levels and live P. aeruginosa load in adults with CF.Methodology. Seventy-five sputum samples at clinical stability and 48 paired sputum samples obtained at the beginning and end of IV antibiotics for a pulmonary exacerbation in adults with CF were processed using a viable cell separation technique followed by quantitative P. aeruginosa polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Live P. aeruginosa qPCR load was compared with the concentrations of three AQs (HHQ, NHQ and HQNO) detected in sputum, plasma and urine.Results. At clinical stability and the beginning of IV antibiotics for pulmonary exacerbation, HHQ, NHQ and HQNO measured in sputum, plasma and urine were consistently positively correlated with live P. aeruginosa qPCR load in sputum, compared to culture. Following systemic antibiotics live P. aeruginosa qPCR load decreased significantly (P<0.001) and was correlated with a reduction in plasma NHQ (plasma: r=0.463, P=0.003).Conclusion. In adults with CF, AQ concentrations correlated more strongly with live P. aeruginosa bacterial load measured by qPCR compared to traditional culture. Prospective studies are required to assess the potential of systemic AQs as biomarkers of P. aeruginosa bacterial burden.


Assuntos
4-Quinolonas/isolamento & purificação , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Infecções por Pseudomonas/complicações , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Percepção de Quorum , 4-Quinolonas/sangue , 4-Quinolonas/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Carga Bacteriana , Biomarcadores , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Escarro/química , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Oral Sci ; 13(1): 31, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593756

RESUMO

Ulcerative Colitis (UC) has been reported to be related to Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). Porphyromonas gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase (PPAD), a virulence factor released by P. gingivalis, is known to induce inflammatory responses. To explore the pathological relationships between PPAD and UC, we used homologous recombination technology to construct a P. gingivalis strain in which the PPAD gene was deleted (Δppad) and a Δppad strain in which the PPAD gene was restored (comΔppad). C57BL/6 mice were orally gavaged with saline, P. gingivalis, Δppad, or comΔppad twice a week for the entire 40 days (days 0-40), and then, UC was induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) solution for 10 days (days 31-40). P. gingivalis and comΔppad exacerbated DDS-induced colitis, which was determined by assessing the parameters of colon length, disease activity index, and histological activity index, but Δppad failed to exacerbate DDS-induced colitis. Flow cytometry and ELISA revealed that compared with Δppad, P. gingivalis, and comΔppad increased T helper 17 (Th17) cell numbers and interleukin (IL)-17 production but decreased regulatory T cells (Tregs) numbers and IL-10 production in the spleens of mice with UC. We also cocultured P. gingivalis, Δppad, or comΔppad with T lymphocytes in vitro and found that P. gingivalis and comΔppad significantly increased Th17 cell numbers and decreased Treg cell numbers. Immunofluorescence staining of colon tissue paraffin sections also confirmed these results. The results suggested that P. gingivalis exacerbated the severity of UC in part via PPAD.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Desiminases de Arginina em Proteínas , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Porphyromonas gingivalis/enzimologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 208, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603589

RESUMO

Acinetobacter ursingii is an anaerobic gram negative opportunistic coccobacillus, rarely isolated in bacteremic patients. It is mainly found in immunocompromised and severely ill patients with no identifiable source of infection. When isolated into the bloodstream, it usually displays resistance to at least two antimicrobial agents. To date only seven cases of bacteremia due to this microorganism have been reported in adults, of which, this accounts for the second one associated to renal replacement therapy and the first case of a documented catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) in a patient with a hemodialysis catheter. A 78-year-old male presented into the emergency department with acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis, later developing bacteremia due to Acinetobacter ursingii.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/diagnóstico , Acinetobacter/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Diálise Renal/métodos
8.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(38): 7878-7908, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611689

RESUMO

Infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi and their global spread pose a great threat to human health. The 2019 World Health Organization report predicted that infection-related mortality will be similar to cancer mortality by 2050. Particularly, the global cumulative numbers of the recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have reached 110.7 million cases and over 2.4 million deaths as of February 23, 2021. Moreover, the crisis of these infectious diseases exposes the many problems of traditional diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, such as time-consuming and unselective detection methods, the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, serious side effects, and poor drug delivery. There is an urgent need for rapid and sensitive diagnosis as well as high efficacy and low toxicity treatments. The emergence of nanomedicine has provided a promising strategy to greatly enhance detection methods and drug treatment efficacy. Owing to their unique optical, magnetic, and electrical properties, nanoparticles (NPs) have great potential for the fast and selective detection of bacteria, viruses, and fungi. NPs exhibit remarkable antibacterial activity by releasing reactive oxygen species and metal ions, exerting photothermal effects, and causing destruction of the cell membrane. Nano-based delivery systems can further improve drug permeability, reduce the side effects of drugs, and prolong systemic circulation time and drug half-life. Moreover, effective drugs against COVID-19 are still lacking. Recently, nanomedicine has shown great potential to accelerate the development of safe and novel anti-COVID-19 drugs. This article reviews the fundamental mechanisms and the latest developments in the treatment and diagnosis of bacteria, viruses, and fungi and discusses the challenges and perspectives in the application of nanomedicine.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Nanomedicina , Anti-Infecciosos/química , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
10.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 3119958, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594160

RESUMO

Fish and fish products are considered a fundamental part of the human diet due to their high nutritional value. Food-borne diseases are considered a major public health challenge worldwide due to their incidence, associated mortality, and negative economic repercussions. Food safety is the guarantee that foods will not cause harm to the health of those who consume them, and it is a fundamental property of food quality. Food safety can be at risk of being lost at any stage of the food chain if the food is contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms. Many diverse bacteria are present in the environment and as part of the microbiota of food that can be transmitted to humans during the handling and consumption of food. Plesiomonas shigelloides has been mainly associated with outbreaks of gastrointestinal diseases due to the consumption of fish. This bacterium inhabits the environment and aquatic animals and is associated with the microbiota of fish such as tilapia, a fish of importance in fishing, aquaculture, commercialization, and consumption worldwide. The purpose of this document is to provide, through a bibliographic review of databases (Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, among others), a general informative perspective on food-borne diseases and, in particular, the consumption of fish and tilapia. Diseases derived from contamination by Plesiomonas shigelloides are included, and control and prevention actions and sanitary regulations for fishery products established in several countries around the world are discussed to promote the safety of foods of aquatic origin intended for human consumption and to protect public health.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Plesiomonas/isolamento & purificação , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Tilápia/microbiologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Carga Bacteriana , Criopreservação , Reservatórios de Doenças , Produtos Pesqueiros/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/etiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Humanos , Plesiomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prevalência , Controle de Qualidade , Poluição da Água
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639082

RESUMO

Pseudomonas donghuensis HYS is more virulent than P. aeruginosa toward Caenorhabditis elegans but the mechanism underlying virulence is unclear. This study is the first to report that the specific gene cluster gtrA/B/II in P. donghuensis HYS is involved in the virulence of this strain toward C. elegans, and there are no reports of GtrA, GtrB and GtrII in any Pseudomonas species. The pathogenicity of P. donghuensis HYS was evaluated using C. elegans as a host. Based on the prediction of virulence factors and comparative genomic analysis of P. donghuensis HYS, we identified 42 specific virulence genes in P. donghuensis HYS. Slow-killing assays of these genes showed that the gtrAB mutation had the greatest effect on the virulence of P. donghuensis HYS, and GtrA, GtrB and GtrII all positively affected P. donghuensis HYS virulence. Two critical GtrII residues (Glu47 and Lys480) were identified in P. donghuensis HYS. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that GtrA, GtrB and GtrII were involved in the glucosylation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen in P. donghuensis HYS. Furthermore, colony-forming unit (CFU) assays showed that GtrA, GtrB and GtrII significantly enhanced P. donghuensis HYS colonization in the gut of C. elegans, and glucosylation of LPS O-antigen and colonization in the host intestine contributed to the pathogenicity of P. donghuensis HYS. In addition, experiments using the worm mutants ZD101, KU4 and KU25 revealed a correlation between P. donghuensis HYS virulence and the TIR-1/SEK-1/PMK-1 pathways of the innate immune p38 MAPK pathway in C. elegans. In conclusion, these results reveal that the specific virulence gene cluster gtrA/B/II contributes to the unique pathogenicity of HYS compared with other pathogenic Pseudomonas, and that this process also involves C. elegans innate immunity. These findings significantly increase the available information about GtrA/GtrB/GtrII-based virulence mechanisms in the genus Pseudomonas.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Família Multigênica , Pseudomonas/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639087

RESUMO

Bacterial infections of skin and wounds may seriously decrease the quality of life and even cause death in some patients. One of the largest concerns in their treatment is the growing antimicrobial resistance of bacterial infectious agents and the spread of resistant strains not only in the hospitals but also in the community. This trend encourages researchers to seek for new effective and safe therapeutical agents. The pharmaceutical industry, focusing mainly on libraries of synthetic compounds as a drug discovery source, is often failing in the battle with bacteria. In contrast, many of the natural compounds, and/or the whole and complex plants extracts, are effective in this field, inactivating the resistant bacterial strains or decreasing their virulence. Natural products act comprehensively; many of them have not only antibacterial, but also anti-inflammatory effects and may support tissue regeneration and wound healing. The European legislative is in the field of natural products medicinal use formed by European Medicines Agency (EMA), based on the scientific work of its Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC). HMPC establishes EU monographs covering the therapeutic uses and safe conditions for herbal substances and preparations, mostly based on folk medicine, but including data from scientific research. In this review, the medicinal plants and their active constituents recommended by EMA for skin disorders are discussed in terms of their antibacterial effect. The source of information about these plant products in the review is represented by research articles listed in scientific databases (Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, etc.) published in recent years.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639088

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies in the Western world and intestinal dysbiosis might contribute to its pathogenesis. The mucosal colon microbiome and C-C motif chemokine 2 (CCL2) were investigated in 20 healthy controls (HC) and 20 CRC patients using 16S rRNA sequencing and immunoluminescent assay, respectively. A total of 10 HC subjects were classified as overweight/obese (OW/OB_HC) and 10 subjects were normal weight (NW_HC); 15 CRC patients were classified as OW/OB_CRC and 5 patients were NW_CRC. Results: Fusobacterium nucleatum and Escherichia coli were more abundant in OW/OB_HC than in NW_HC microbiomes. Globally, Streptococcus intermedius, Gemella haemolysans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis and Escherichia coli were significantly increased in CRC patient tumor/lesioned tissue (CRC_LT) and CRC patient unlesioned tissue (CRC_ULT) microbiomes compared to HC microbiomes. CCL2 circulating levels were associated with tumor presence and with the abundance of Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis and Gemella haemolysans. Our data suggest that mucosal colon dysbiosis might contribute to CRC pathogenesis by inducing inflammation. Notably, Fusobacterium nucleatum, which was more abundant in the OW/OB_HC than in the NW_HC microbiomes, might represent a putative link between obesity and increased CRC risk.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Biomarcadores/análise , Quimiocina CCL2/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639117

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a neglected infectious disease caused by pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira. The acute disease is well-described, and, although it resembles other tropical diseases, it can be diagnosed through the use of serological and molecular methods. While the chronic renal disease, carrier state, and kidney fibrosis due to Leptospira infection in humans have been the subject of discussion by researchers, the mechanisms involved in these processes are still overlooked, and relatively little is known about the establishment and maintenance of the chronic status underlying this infectious disease. In this review, we highlight recent findings regarding the cellular communication pathways involved in the renal fibrotic process, as well as the relationship between renal fibrosis due to leptospirosis and CKD/CKDu.


Assuntos
Fibrose/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Leptospira/fisiologia , Leptospirose/complicações , Animais , Fibrose/microbiologia , Humanos , Nefropatias/microbiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639149

RESUMO

Fungal enzymes degrading the plant cell wall, such as xylanases, can activate plant immune responses. The Fusarium graminearum FGSG_03624 xylanase, previously shown to elicit necrosis and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in wheat, was investigated for its ability to induce disease resistance. To this aim, we transiently and constitutively expressed an enzymatically inactive form of FGSG_03624 in tobacco and Arabidopsis, respectively. The plants were challenged with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci or pv. maculicola and Botrytis cinerea. Symptom reduction by the bacterium was evident, while no reduction was observed after B. cinerea inoculation. Compared to the control, the presence of the xylanase gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants did not alter the basal expression of a set of defense-related genes, and, after the P. syringae inoculation, a prolonged PR1 expression was detected. F. graminearum inoculation experiments of durum wheat spikes exogenously treated with the FGSG_03624 xylanase highlighted a reduction of symptoms in the early phases of infection and a lower fungal biomass accumulation than in the control. Besides, callose deposition was detected in infected spikes previously treated with the xylanase and not in infected control plants. In conclusion, our results highlight the ability of FGSG_03624 to enhance plant immunity, thus decreasing disease severity.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/imunologia , Botrytis/patogenicidade , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Fusarium/enzimologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Pseudomonas syringae/patogenicidade , Tabaco/imunologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/microbiologia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639153

RESUMO

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major health concern with clinical manifestations being acknowledged to cause severe reproductive impairment. Research in infectious diseases has been centered around the known major pathogens for decades. However, we have just begun to understand that the microbiota of the female genital tract is of particular importance for disease initiation, infection progression, and pathological outcome. Thus, we are now aware that many poorly described, partially not yet known, or cultured bacteria may pave the way for an infection and/or contribute to disease severity. While sequencing-based methods are an important step in diagnosing STIs, culture-based methods are still the gold-standard method in diagnostic routine, providing the opportunity to distinguish phenotypic traits of bacteria. However, current diagnostic culture routines suffer from several limitations reducing the content of information about vaginal microbiota. A detailed characterization of microbiota-associated factors is needed to assess the impact of single-bacterial isolates from the vaginal community on vaginal health and the containment of STIs. Here we provide current concepts to enable modern culture routines and create new ideas to improve diagnostic approaches with a conjunct usage of bioinformatics. We aim to enable scientists and physicians alike to overcome long-accepted limitations in culturing bacteria of interest to the human health. Eventually, this may improve the quality of culture-based diagnostics, facilitate a research interface, and lead to a broader understanding of the role of vaginal microbiota in reproductive health and STIs.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Microbiota , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Vagina/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639158

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common human pathogen belonging to the ESKAPE group. The multidrug resistance of bacteria is a considerable problem in treating patients and may lead to increased morbidity and mortality rate. The natural resistance in these organisms is caused by the production of specific enzymes and biofilm formation, while acquired resistance is multifactorial. Precise recognition of potential antibiotic resistance on different molecular levels is essential. Metabolomics tools may aid in the observation of the flux of low molecular weight compounds in biochemical pathways yielding additional information about drug-resistant bacteria. In this study, the metabolisms of two P. aeruginosa strains were compared-antibiotic susceptible vs. resistant. Analysis was performed on both intra- and extracellular metabolites. The 1H NMR method was used together with multivariate and univariate data analysis, additionally analysis of the metabolic pathways with the FELLA package was performed. The results revealed the differences in P. aeruginosa metabolism of drug-resistant and drug-susceptible strains and provided direct molecular information about P. aeruginosa response for different types of antibiotics. The most significant differences were found in the turnover of amino acids. This study can be a valuable source of information to complement research on drug resistance in P. aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Humanos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 327, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bashbay sheep (Bbs) has a certain degree of resistance to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (Mo), however, Argali hybrid sheep (Ahs) is susceptible to Mo. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the difference of the susceptibility for Mo infection, RNA-sequencing technology was used to compare the transcriptomic response of the lung tissue of Mo-infected Bbs and Ahs. RESULTS: Six Bbs and six Ahs were divided into experimental group and control group respectively, all of them were experimentally infected with Mo by intratracheal injection. For collecting lung tissue samples, three Bbs and three Ahs were sacrificed on day 4 post-infection, and the others were sacrificed on day 14 post-infection. Total RNA extracted from lung tissue were used for transcriptome analyses based on high-throughput sequencing technique and bioinformatics. The results showed that 212 (146 up-regulated, 66 down-regulated) DEGs were found when comparing transcriptomic data of Bbs and Ahs at 4th dpi, besides, 311 (158 up-regulated, 153 down-regulated) DEGs were found at 14th dpi. After GO analysis, three main GO items protein glycosylation, immune response and positive regulation of gene expression were found related to Mo infection. In addition, there were 20 DEGs enriched in these above items, such as SPLUC1 (BPIFA1), P2X7R, DQA, HO-1 and SP-A (SFTPA-1). CONCLUSIONS: These selected 20 DEGs associated with Mo infection laid the foundation for further study on the underlying molecular mechanism involved in high level of resistance to Mo expressed by Bbs, meanwhile, provided deeper understandings about the development of pathogenicity and host-pathogen interactions.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Pulmão/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae/fisiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Hibridização Genética , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pneumopatias/metabolismo , Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , RNA/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
19.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e178, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635196

RESUMO

In October 2019, public health surveillance systems in Scotland identified an increase in the number of reported infections of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26:H11 involving bloody diarrhoea. Ultimately, across the United Kingdom (UK) 32 cases of STEC O26:H11 stx1a were identified, with the median age of 27 years and 64% were male; six cases were hospitalised. Among food exposures there was an association with consuming pre-packed sandwiches purchased at outlets belonging to a national food chain franchise (food outlet A) [odds ratio (OR) = 183.89, P < 0.001]. The common ingredient identified as a component of the majority of the sandwiches sold at food outlet A was a mixed salad of Apollo and Iceberg lettuce and spinach leaves. Microbiological testing of food and environmental samples were negative for STEC O26:H11, although STEC O36:H19 was isolated from a mixed salad sample taken from premises owned by food outlet A. Contamination of fresh produce is often due to a transient event and detection of the aetiological agent in food that has a short-shelf life is challenging. Robust, statistically significant epidemiological analysis should be sufficient evidence to direct timely and targeted on-farm investigations. A shift in focus from testing the microbiological quality of the produce to investigating the processes and practices through the supply chain and sampling the farm environment is recommended.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Fast Foods/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fast Foods/envenenamento , Fast Foods/provisão & distribuição , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Saladas/microbiologia , Saladas/envenenamento , Saladas/provisão & distribuição , Sorogrupo , Toxina Shiga/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(10): 615-617, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) are susceptible to superimposed infections. OBJECTIVES: To describe COVID-19 patients who presented with complications due to Candida bloodstream co-infection (candidemia) and their outcome in a single center in northern Israel (Emek Medical Center) during the second outbreak of COVID-19 in Israel (15 June 2020 to 20 September 2020). METHODS: A retrospective study of COVID-19 patients presenting with candidemia was conducted, including clinical and laboratory data. The incidence of candidemia among hospitalized COVID-19 patients was compared to a historical cohort of non-COVID-19 controls. RESULTS: Three COVID-19 patients complicated with candidemia were documented. All three patients died shortly after the detection of candidemia. Three different Candida sp. were isolated from the blood cultures: C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. glabrata. The incidence of candidemia among COVID-19 patients was 0.679 episodes per 1000 hospital days. CONCLUSIONS: Our small sample suggests a much higher incidence of candidemia among COVID-19 patients compared to a historical cohort of non-COVID-19 controls. All clinicians treating COVID-19 patients in GICU should be aware of this complication.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia , Caspofungina/administração & dosagem , Coinfecção , Infecção Hospitalar , Idoso , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/terapia , Candidemia/complicações , Candidemia/diagnóstico , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/terapia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Respiração Artificial/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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