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1.
Arch. Soc. Esp. Oftalmol ; 99(2): 49-55, Feb. 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-230165

RESUMO

Objetivo: Determinar la correlación entre la infestación por especies de Demodex y la ocurrencia de chalaziones primarios y recurrentes. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo y observacional. Se incluyeron pacientes con chalaziones primarios o recurrentes. Se tomó muestra de pestañas para determinar la presencia microscópica de Demodex spp. Se determinó la correlación entre la recurrencia del chalazión y la infestación por ácaros Demodex spp. mediante la prueba del coeficiente de correlación de rangos de Spearman. Resultados: Se incluyeron 68 pacientes adultos con diagnóstico de chalazión. En 63,2% del total de los casos se documentó la presencia de uno o más parásitos del género Demodex spp. En el estudio parasitológico cuantitativo se encontró que el 25% de todos los casos presentó infestación por Demodex spp. definida por un índice superior o igual a 0,5 parásitos por pestaña. La especie más frecuentemente encontrada fue Demodex folliculorum. De los 14 pacientes con chalazión recurrente el 50% presentó infestación por Demodex spp. y en el 91,7% de los casos la infestación fue por Demodex folliculorum. Existe una correlación positiva y directamente proporcional de (rø=+0,665; p<0,05) entre estos factores. De los pacientes con chalazión primario, solo 18,5% presentaron infestación por Demodex spp., y en el 81,6% de ellos fue causada por Demodex folliculorum. No existe una correlación significativa entre estos factores. Conclusión: Existe una correlación directa, alta y estadísticamente significativa entre la recurrencia del chalazión y la infestación por Demodex spp., no existe una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre los chalaziones primarios y la presencia de Demodex spp.(AU)


Objective: To determine the correlation between the infestation by species of Demodex spp. and the occurrence of primary and recurrent chalazia. Methods: Prospective and observational study. Patients with primary or recurrent chalazia were included. Eyelash samples were taken to determine the microscopic presence of Demodex spp. The correlation between the recurrence of the chalazia and the infestation by Demodex spp. mites was determined using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test. Results: Sixty-eight adult patients diagnosed with chalazia were included. In 63.2% of the total cases, the presence of one or more parasites of the genus Demodex spp. was documented. In the quantitative parasitological study, it was found that 25% of all cases presented infestation by Demodex spp. defined by an index greater than or equal to 0.5 parasites per eyelash. The most frequently found species was Demodex folliculorum. Of the 14 patients with recurrent chalazia, 50% presented infestation by Demodex spp. and in 91.7% of the cases the infestation was by D. folliculorum. There is a positive, directly proportional correlation between these factors (rθ=+0.665, P<.05). In the group of patients with primary chalazion, only 18.5% presented infestation by Demodex spp., and in 81.6% of these cases it was caused by D. folliculorum. There is a non-statistically significant correlation between these two factors. Conclusion: There is a direct, high and statistically significant correlation between the recurrence of the chalazion and the infestation by Demodex spp., there is no statistically significant correlation between the primary chalazia and the presence of Demodex spp.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Terçol/tratamento farmacológico , Blefarite , Calázio/diagnóstico , Ácaros , Infecções Oculares , Oftalmologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Correlação de Dados , Olho/microbiologia
2.
Int. microbiol ; 27(1): 81-90, Feb. 2024. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230245

RESUMO

For the control of biofouling, some paints based on compounds that are toxic to marine organisms have been used. There is an intensive search for biodegradable solutions that are friendly to non-target organisms. Bacteria have been shown to be a source of compounds with antifouling potential. In this work, the antifouling activity of a strain of Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated. Extracts activity against biofilm-forming bacteria and the toxicity against Artemia franciscana were evaluated. The extracts were incorporated in a hard gel and a paint matrix, and they were exposed to the sea. In both the laboratory and field, we found that the compounds produced by S. aureus have antifouling activity. The non-toxicity of the tested extracts against Artemia franciscana nauplii suggests that the extracts obtained from S. aureus could have a low ecological impact over non-target organisms. Significant differences were found in the percentage of organisms cover in hard gels with extracts and control. After 90 days, important differences were also observed between the percentage of organisms cover of the paints that contained extracts and the control. Dichloromethane extract is the most effective for the inhibition or delay of the settlement of organisms For this reason, they could be used in matrices with different applications, such as in the shipping industry, aquaculture, or any other in which biofouling is a cause of inconvenience.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus/química , Incrustação Biológica , Meio Ambiente , Biofilmes , Pintura/toxicidade , Microbiologia , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Toxicidade , Pintura/microbiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2722, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302693

RESUMO

Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) affects 2-5% of the global population, with imbalances in the skin microbiome implicated in its development. This study assessed the impact of an oily suspension containing Lactobacillus crispatus P17631 and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei I1688 (termed EUTOPLAC) on SD symptoms and the skin mycobiome-bacteriome modulation. 25 SD patients were treated with EUTOPLAC for a week. Symptom severity and skin mycobiome-bacteriome changes were measured at the start of the treatment (T0), after seven days (T8), and three weeks post-treatment (T28). Results indicated symptom improvement post-EUTOPLAC, with notable reductions in the Malassezia genus. Concurrently, bacterial shifts were observed, including a decrease in Staphylococcus and an increase in Lactobacillus and Lacticaseibacillus. Network analysis highlighted post-EUTOPLAC instability in fungal and bacterial interactions, with increased negative correlations between Malassezia and Lactobacillus and Lacticaseibacillus genera. The study suggests EUTOPLAC's potential as a targeted SD treatment, reducing symptoms and modulating the mycobiome-bacteriome composition.


Assuntos
Dermatite Seborreica , Malassezia , Microbiota , Micobioma , Probióticos , Humanos , Dermatite Seborreica/terapia , Dermatite Seborreica/microbiologia , Pele , Bactérias , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2819, 2024 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307921

RESUMO

Viruses are a key component of the colon microbiome, but the relationship between virome and colorectal cancer (CRC) remains poorly understood. We seek to identify alterations in the viral community that is characteristic of CRC and examine if they persist after surgery. Forty-nine fecal samples from 25 non-cancer (NC) individuals and 12 CRC patients, before and 6-months after surgery, were collected for metagenomic analysis. The fecal virome of CRC patients demonstrated an increased network connectivity as compared to NC individuals. Co-exclusion of influential viruses to bacterial species associated with healthy gut status was observed in CRC, suggesting an altered virome induced a change in the healthy gut bacteriome. Network analysis revealed lower connectivity within the virome and trans-kingdom interactions in NC. After surgery, the number of strong correlations decreased for trans-kingdom and within the bacteria and virome networks, indicating lower connectivity within the microbiome. Some co-occurrence patterns between dominant viruses and bacteria were also lost after surgery, suggesting a possible return to the healthy state of gut microbiome. Microbial signatures characteristic of CRC include an altered virome besides an altered bacterial composition. Elevated viral correlations and network connectivity were observed in CRC patients relative to healthy individuals, alongside distinct changes in the cross-kingdom correlation network unique to CRC patients. Some patterns of dysbiosis persist after surgery. Future studies should seek to verify if dysbiosis truly persists after surgery in a larger sample size with microbiome data collected at various time points after surgery to explore if there is field-change in the remaining colon, as well as to examine if persistent dysbiosis correlates with patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Microbiota , Vírus , Humanos , Viroma , Disbiose/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2777, 2024 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307981

RESUMO

Periodontitis is known to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and gargling with mouthwash is known to reduce the incidence of periodontitis by inhibiting periodontal pathogens. However, the effects of mouthwash on oral and systemic conditions in patients with T2DM remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of gargling with mouthwash on the number of red complex species, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia, and HbA1c levels in patients with T2DM. Patients were instructed to gargle with water for 6 months, followed by gargling with mouthwash containing chlorhexidine gluconate for the subsequent 6 months. At each clinic visit, saliva was collected and bacterial DNA was extracted to detect red complex species using the polymerase chain reaction technique. The HbA1c level was determined using a blood sample. The number of red complex species significantly decreased in younger or male patients who gargled with mouthwash. Furthermore, HbA1c levels significantly decreased in younger patients or patients with higher HbA1c levels who gargled with mouthwash. These results suggest that gargling with mouthwash reduces the number of red complex species and improves the hyperglycemic status in patients with T2DM, especially younger patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Periodontite , Humanos , Masculino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Controle Glicêmico , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , Periodontite/microbiologia
6.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 44, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A multimodal approach for diagnostic tests under anesthesia is required to diagnose nasal cavity pathology (NP) reliably in dogs. Blood test results may provide clues to the suspected NP. METHODS: This prospective blinded study assessed 72 dogs with chronic nasal discharge due to NPs, and 10 healthy dogs as the control group (CG). NPs were diagnosed using whole-body computed tomography (CT), upper airway endoscopy, examination of nasal mucosal swabs by bacterial and fungal culture, and histopathological examination of nasal mucosa biopsies. The exclusion criteria were the presence of any additional diseases or corticosteroid pre-treatment. In consideration of these exclusion criteria, 55 dogs entered the study. Dogs were classified into benign (benign tumors, idiopathic rhinitis (IR), and others) and malignant (carcinomas and sarcomas) NP groups. Blood count and blood chemistry tests were performed. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR) were calculated and compared. RESULTS: 25 dogs with malignant NP (13 and 12 with carcinomas and sarcomas, respectively) and 30 dogs with benign NP (seven with benign tumors,13 with IR, and 10 others) were included. In general, in dogs with NP there were only slight abnormalities in complete blood count. However, PLR was significantly higher in dogs with malignant NP (carcinoma and sarcoma) than in those with benign NP and in the CG. Compared with the CG, the NLR was significantly increased in all dogs with NP, and the AGR was mild but significantly lower, except in dogs with sarcomas and benign tumors. CONCLUSIONS: In dogs with nasal disease alone, there are usually no marked abnormalities in blood count. However, while mildly increased NLR and decreased AGR can be observed in almost all NPs, an increased PLR may indicate a malignant NP and can be used as an additional screening tool in dogs with nasal discharge due to nasal cavity pathology.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Doenças do Cão , Globulinas , Rinite , Sarcoma , Cães , Animais , Neutrófilos/patologia , Cavidade Nasal/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Rinite/diagnóstico , Rinite/microbiologia , Rinite/veterinária , Linfócitos , Mucosa Nasal , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Sarcoma/veterinária , Albuminas , Carcinoma/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia
7.
J Med Microbiol ; 73(2)2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362908

RESUMO

Introduction. Infectious gastroenteritis is a common reason for consulting a physician. Although most cases of gastrointestinal illness are self-limiting, the identification of the etiologic pathogen by stool specimen analysis is important in cases of more severe illness and for epidemiological reasons.Due to the broad range of causative pathogens, the conventional examination of a stool specimen is labour-intensive and usually requires different diagnostic methods. Multiplex PCR tests [e.g. BioFire Gastrointestinal (GI) Panel] allow the rapid detecting of up to 22 pathogens in one test.Hypothesis. Using a multiplex PCR panel to test stool specimens for infectious gastroenteritis pathogens can improve the detection rate, reduce the time-to-result and hands-on time and lower the costs of a microbiology laboratory.Aim. This study was aimed at evaluating the detection rate, the workflow and associated costs of stool specimen management using the BioFire GI Panel versus conventional methods.Methodology. Stool specimens were evaluated prospectively during the routine operation. Pathogen detection rate, hands-on time, time-to-result and material and personnel costs were determined for the BioFire GI Panel and conventional methods-the latter based on physician request and excluding viral testing.Results. Analysing 333 specimens collected between 2019 and 2020, the detection rate of enteropathogens was significantly higher with a positivity rate of 39.9 % using the multiplex PCR panel compared with 15.0 % using the conventional methods. The BioFire GI Panel presented results in a median time of 2.2 h compared with 77.5 h for culture and 22.1 h for antigen testing, noting that no tests were performed at weekends except for toxinogenic Clostridioides difficile. Based on list prices, the BioFire GI Panel was nine times more expensive compared with conventional methods, whereas hands-on-time was significantly lower using the BioFire GI Panel.Conclusion. Multiplex PCR panels are valuable tools for laboratory identification of infectious agents causing diarrhoea. The higher costs of such a multiplex PCR panel might be outweighed by the higher detection rate, ease of handling, rapid results and most likely improved patient management. However, these panels do not provide information on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Therefore, if this is necessary for targeted therapy or if outbreak monitoring and control is required, specimens must still be cultured.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Humanos , Fluxo de Trabalho , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Diarreia , Fezes/microbiologia
8.
J Med Microbiol ; 73(2)2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362924

RESUMO

Introduction. We have examined four burials from the St Mary Magdalen mediaeval leprosarium cemetery in Winchester, Hampshire, UK. One (Sk.8) was a male child, two (Sk.45 and Sk.52) were adolescent females and the fourth (Sk.512) was an adult male. The cemetery was in use between the 10th and 12th centuries. All showed skeletal lesions of leprosy. Additionally, one of the two females (Sk.45) had lesions suggestive of multi-cystic tuberculosis and the second (Sk.52) of leprogenic odontodysplasia (LO), a rare malformation of the roots of the permanent maxillary incisors.Gap statement. Relatively little is known of the manifestations of lepromatous leprosy (LL) in younger individuals from the archaeological record.Aims and Methodology. To address this, we have used ancient DNA testing and osteological examination of the individuals, supplemented with X-ray and microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) scan as necessary to assess the disease status.Results and Conclusions. The presence of Mycobacterium leprae DNA was confirmed in both females, and genotyping showed SNP type 3I-1 strains but with a clear genotypic variation. We could not confirm Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA in the female individual SK.45. High levels of M. leprae DNA were found within the pulp cavities of four maxillary teeth from the male child (Sk.8) with LO, consistent with the theory that the replication of M. leprae in alveolar bone may interfere with root formation at key stages of development. We report our biomolecular findings in these individuals and review the evidence this site has contributed to our knowledge of mediaeval leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Multibacilar , Hanseníase , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Reino Unido
9.
J Med Microbiol ; 73(2)2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362900

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most versatile bacteria with renowned pathogenicity and extensive drug resistance. The diverse habitats of this bacterium include fresh, saline and drainage waters, soil, moist surfaces, taps, showerheads, pipelines, medical implants, nematodes, insects, plants, animals, birds and humans. The arsenal of virulence factors produced by P. aeruginosa includes pyocyanin, rhamnolipids, siderophores, lytic enzymes, toxins and polysaccharides. All these virulent elements coupled with intrinsic, adaptive and acquired antibiotic resistance facilitate persistent colonization and lethal infections in different hosts. To date, treating pulmonary diseases remains complicated due to the chronic secondary infections triggered by hospital-acquired P. aeruginosa. On the contrary, this bacterium can improve plant growth by suppressing phytopathogens and insects. Notably, P. aeruginosa is one of the very few bacteria capable of trans-kingdom transmission and infection. Transfer of P. aeruginosa strains from plant materials to hospital wards, animals to humans, and humans to their pets occurs relatively often. Recently, we have identified that plant-associated P. aeruginosa strains could be pathologically similar to clinical isolates. In this review, we have highlighted the genomic and metabolic factors that facilitate the dominance of P. aeruginosa across different biological kingdoms and the varying roles of this bacterium in plant and human health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Pseudomonas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Animais , Humanos , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Virulência/genética , Genômica , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia
10.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(3): 99, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363373

RESUMO

Koumiss, a five-thousand-year-old fermented mare's milk beverage, is widely recognized for its beneficial nutrient and medicinal properties. The microbiota of Chinese and Mongolian koumiss have been largely characterized in recent years, but little is known concerning Kazakh koumiss despite this drink historically originates from the modern Kazakhstan territory. In addition, while koumiss is regarded as a drink with therapeutic potential, there are also no data on koumiss anti-Candida activity. In this context, the aims of the present study were to investigate the bacterial diversity and anti-Candida albicans activity of homemade Kazakh koumiss samples as well as fermented whey and cow's milk, derived from koumiss and propagated for several months. Koumiss bacterial communities were largely dominated by lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus sensu lato spp. (69% of total reads), Streptococcus (8.0%) and Lactococcus (6.1%), while other subdominant genera included Acetobacter (2.6%), Enterobacter (2.4%), and Klebsiella (1.5%). Several but not all koumiss samples as well as fermented whey and cow's milk showed antagonistic activities towards C. albicans. Linear discriminant effect size (LEfSe) analysis showed that their bacterial communities were characterized by a significantly higher abundance of amplicon sequence variants (ASV) belonging to the genus Acetobacter. In conclusion, this study allowed to identify the key microorganisms of Kazakh koumiss and provided new information on the possible underestimated contribution of acetic acid bacteria to its probiotic properties.


Assuntos
Kumis , Lactobacillales , Bovinos , Animais , Cavalos , Feminino , Kumis/análise , Kumis/microbiologia , Candida albicans/genética , Bactérias/genética , Leite/microbiologia , Lactobacillales/genética
11.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(3): 104, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363376

RESUMO

In previous studies, two strains isolated from the maize phyllosphere were identified as Bacillus subtilis (EM-A7) and Bacillus velezensis (EM-A8) and selected as potential biocontrol agents against Exserohilum turcicum. This study aimed to assess the ability of EM-A7 and EM-A8 to form biofilm and have antagonistic activity under varying light conditions. LED sources were custom-designed so that each corresponded to a given spectrum at a specific photosynthetically active photon flux density. Significant differences were observed in growth parameters (generation time and constant growth rate) under different LED sources. Blue light inhibited the growth of both strains. Red increased k rate in EM-A8, while the g values increased in EM-A7. Red and white light generally increased biofilm formation, and blue light inhibited it. EM-A7 and EM-A8 significantly reduced their ability to swim under blue LED, but it was not affected by red, green, or white light. The ability to swarm was negatively affected. Fungal growth decreased significantly compared to the control when the bacterium growing on the same plate had been previously incubated under red and white light or in the dark. These results indicate that different light wavelengths clearly influenced the aspects assessed in B. subtilis and B. velezensis, with the effects of blue light being overall negative and those of red and white overall positive. Given that, all these factors can be important for the establishment and survival of Bacillus strains on leaves, as well as for their effectiveness against pathogens, light could be a significant factor to consider in the design of biocontrol strategies.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Bacillus , Zea mays/microbiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298245, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363754

RESUMO

The gut microbiota maintains a deeply symbiotic relationship with host physiology, intricately engaging with both internal (endogenous) and external (exogenous) factors. Anurans, especially those in temperate regions, face the dual challenges of significant external influences like hibernation and complex internal variances tied to different life histories. In our research, we sought to determine whether different life stages (juvenile versus adult) of the Japanese wrinkled frog (Glandirana rugosa) lead to distinct shifts in gut bacterial communities during winter (hibernation) and its subsequent transition to spring. As hypothesized, we observed a more pronounced variability in the gut bacterial diversity and abundance in juvenile frogs compared to their adult counterparts. This suggests that the gut environment may be more resilient or stable in adult frogs during their hibernation period. However, this pronounced difference was confined to the winter season; by spring, the diversity and abundance of gut bacteria in both juvenile and adult frogs aligned closely. Specifically, the variance in gut bacterial diversity and composition between winter and spring appears to mirror the frogs' ecological adaptations. During the hibernation period, a dominance of Proteobacteria suggests an emphasis on supporting intracellular transport and maintaining homeostasis, as opposed to active metabolism in the frogs. Conversely, come spring, an uptick in bacterial diversity coupled with a dominance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes points to an upsurge in metabolic activity post-hibernation, favoring enhanced nutrient assimilation and energy metabolism. Our findings highlight that the relationship between the gut microbiome and its host is dynamic and bidirectional. However, the extent to which changes in gut bacterial diversity and composition contribute to enhancing hibernation physiology in frogs remains an open question, warranting further investigation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hibernação , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hibernação/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Anuros , Bactérias/genética , Ranidae/microbiologia
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(8): e2315190121, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363865

RESUMO

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion transporter required for epithelial homeostasis in the lung and other organs, with CFTR mutations leading to the autosomal recessive genetic disease CF. Apart from excessive mucus accumulation and dysregulated inflammation in the airways, people with CF (pwCF) exhibit defective innate immune responses and are susceptible to bacterial respiratory pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here, we investigated the role of CFTR in macrophage antimicrobial responses, including the zinc toxicity response that is used by these innate immune cells against intracellular bacteria. Using both pharmacological approaches, as well as cells derived from pwCF, we show that CFTR is required for uptake and clearance of pathogenic Escherichia coli by CSF-1-derived primary human macrophages. CFTR was also required for E. coli-induced zinc accumulation and zinc vesicle formation in these cells, and E. coli residing in macrophages exhibited reduced zinc stress in the absence of CFTR function. Accordingly, CFTR was essential for reducing the intramacrophage survival of a zinc-sensitive E. coli mutant compared to wild-type E. coli. Ectopic expression of the zinc transporter SLC30A1 or treatment with exogenous zinc was sufficient to restore antimicrobial responses against E. coli in human macrophages. Zinc supplementation also restored bacterial killing in GM-CSF-derived primary human macrophages responding to P. aeruginosa, used as an in vitro macrophage model relevant to CF. Thus, restoration of the zinc toxicity response could be pursued as a therapeutic strategy to restore innate immune function and effective host defense in pwCF.


Assuntos
Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística , Fibrose Cística , Humanos , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Zinco/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(7): e36954, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal nontuberculous mycobacteriosis due to nontuberculous mycobacteria infection has clinical manifestations similar to intestinal tuberculosis and inflammatory bowel disease, causing difficulties in clinical diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old male patient was admitted to the Sino-Japanese Friendship Hospital of Jilin University in June 2021 for diarrhea and intermittent hematochezia since April 2021. He was diagnosed with inflammatory intestinal disease by colonoscopy and midtransverse colon biopsy. However, the symptoms did not relieve after 2 months of mesalazine treatment. In August 2021, the patient was admitted to the outpatient department for suspected "intestinal tuberculosis." A diagnosis of intestinal nontuberculous mycobacteriosis was confirmed based on pathology and nucleotide-based matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). After 2 weeks of antimycobacterial therapy, the patient's diarrhea was relieved, and hematochezia no longer appeared. In November 2021, recolonoscopy revealed scattered erosions and ulcers in ileocecal valve and ascending colon, while both nucleotide-based MALDI-TOF MS and next-generation sequencing could still detect Mycobacterium intracellulare. CONCLUSION: This study reported a patient with an intestinal nontuberculous mycobacteriosis diagnosed by colonoscopy biopsy and nucleotide-based MALDI-TOF MS, and symptoms were relieved after antimycobacterial treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Diarreia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Nucleotídeos
15.
ISME J ; 18(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365229

RESUMO

Coastal shelf sediments are hot spots of organic matter mineralization. They receive up to 50% of primary production, which, in higher latitudes, is strongly seasonal. Polar and temperate benthic bacterial communities, however, show a stable composition based on comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing despite different microbial activity levels. Here, we aimed to resolve this contradiction by identifying seasonal changes at the functional level, in particular with respect to algal polysaccharide degradation genes, by combining metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and glycan analysis in sandy surface sediments from Isfjorden, Svalbard. Gene expressions of diverse carbohydrate-active enzymes changed between winter and spring. For example, ß-1,3-glucosidases (e.g. GH30, GH17, GH16) degrading laminarin, an energy storage molecule of algae, were elevated in spring, while enzymes related to α-glucan degradation were expressed in both seasons with maxima in winter (e.g. GH63, GH13_18, and GH15). Also, the expression of GH23 involved in peptidoglycan degradation was prevalent, which is in line with recycling of bacterial biomass. Sugar extractions from bulk sediments were low in concentrations during winter but higher in spring samples, with glucose constituting the largest fraction of measured monosaccharides (84% ± 14%). In porewater, glycan concentrations were ~18-fold higher than in overlying seawater (1107 ± 484 vs. 62 ± 101 µg C l-1) and were depleted in glucose. Our data indicate that microbial communities in sandy sediments digest and transform labile parts of photosynthesis-derived particulate organic matter and likely release more stable, glucose-depleted residual glycans of unknown structures, quantities, and residence times into the ocean, thus modulating the glycan composition of marine coastal waters.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Água do Mar , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Glucose , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia
16.
ISME J ; 18(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365227

RESUMO

Tailocins are headless phage tail structures that mediate interbacterial antagonism. Although the prototypical tailocins, R- and F-pyocins, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and other predominantly R-type tailocins have been studied, their presence in Alphaproteobacteria remains unexplored. Here, we report the first alphaproteobacterial F-type tailocin, named rhizoviticin, as a determinant of the biocontrol activity of Allorhizobium vitis VAR03-1 against crown gall. Rhizoviticin is encoded by a chimeric prophage genome, one providing transcriptional regulators and the other contributing to tail formation and cell lysis, but lacking head formation genes. The rhizoviticin genome retains a nearly intact early phage region containing an integrase remnant and replication-related genes critical for downstream gene transcription, suggesting an ongoing transition of this locus from a prophage to a tailocin-coding region. Rhizoviticin is responsible for the most antagonistic activity in VAR03-1 culture supernatant against pathogenic A. vitis strain, and rhizoviticin deficiency resulted in a significant reduction in the antitumorigenic activity in planta. We identified the rhizoviticin-coding locus in eight additional A. vitis strains from diverse geographical locations, highlighting a unique survival strategy of certain Rhizobiales bacteria in the rhizosphere. These findings advance our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of tailocins and provide a scientific foundation for employing rhizoviticin-producing strains in plant disease control.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Vitis , Tumores de Planta/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Bacteriófagos/genética , Vitis/microbiologia
17.
ISME J ; 18(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365239

RESUMO

Coral microhabitats are colonized by a myriad of microorganisms, including diverse bacteria which are essential for host functioning and survival. However, the location, transmission, and functions of individual bacterial species living inside the coral tissues remain poorly studied. Here, we show that a previously undescribed bacterial symbiont of the coral Pocillopora acuta forms cell-associated microbial aggregates (CAMAs) within the mesenterial filaments. CAMAs were found in both adults and larval offspring, suggesting vertical transmission. In situ laser capture microdissection of CAMAs followed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomics produced a near complete metagenome-assembled genome. We subsequently cultured the CAMA bacteria from Pocillopora acuta colonies, and sequenced and assembled their genomes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the CAMA bacteria belong to an undescribed Endozoicomonadaceae genus and species, which we propose to name Candidatus Sororendozoicomonas aggregata gen. nov sp. nov. Metabolic pathway reconstruction from its genome sequence suggests this species can synthesize most amino acids, several B vitamins, and antioxidants, and participate in carbon cycling and prey digestion, which may be beneficial to its coral hosts. This study provides detailed insights into a new member of the widespread Endozoicomonadaceae family, thereby improving our understanding of coral holobiont functioning. Vertically transmitted, tissue-associated bacteria, such as Sororendozoicomonas aggregata may be key candidates for the development of microbiome manipulation approaches with long-term positive effects on the coral host.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Gammaproteobacteria , Animais , Antozoários/microbiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Bactérias/genética , Metagenoma , Gammaproteobacteria/genética , Recifes de Corais , Simbiose
18.
ISME J ; 18(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365249

RESUMO

In Burkholderia-Riptortus symbiosis, the host bean bug Riptortus pedestris harbors Burkholderia symbionts in its symbiotic organ, M4 midgut, for use as a nutrient source. After occupying M4, excess Burkholderia symbionts are moved to the M4B region, wherein they are effectively digested and absorbed. Previous studies have shown that M4B has strong symbiont-specific antibacterial activity, which is not because of the expression of antimicrobial peptides but rather because of the expression of digestive enzymes, mainly cathepsin L protease. However, in this study, inhibition of cathepsin L activity did not reduce the bactericidal activity of M4B, indicating that there is an unknown digestive mechanism that renders specifically potent bactericidal activity against Burkholderia symbionts. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the lumen of symbiotic M4B was filled with a fibrillar matter in contrast to the empty lumen of aposymbiotic M4B. Using chromatographic and electrophoretic analyses, we found that the bactericidal substances in M4B existed as high-molecular-weight (HMW) complexes that were resistant to protease degradation. The bactericidal HMW complexes were visualized on non-denaturing gels using protein- and polysaccharide-staining reagents, thereby indicating that the HMW complexes are composed of proteins and polysaccharides. Strongly stained M4B lumen with Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reagent in M4B paraffin sections confirmed HMW complexes with polysaccharide components. Furthermore, M4B smears stained with Periodic acid-Schiff revealed the presence of polysaccharide fibers. Therefore, we propose a key digestive mechanism of M4B: bacteriolytic fibers, polysaccharide fibers associated with digestive enzymes such as cathepsin L, specialized for Burkholderia symbionts in Riptortus gut symbiosis.


Assuntos
Burkholderia , Heterópteros , Animais , Catepsina L/metabolismo , Catepsina L/farmacologia , Simbiose/fisiologia , Ácido Periódico/metabolismo , Ácido Periódico/farmacologia , Insetos , Heterópteros/microbiologia , Bactérias , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Burkholderia/fisiologia
19.
ISME J ; 18(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365255

RESUMO

Filamentous prophages are widespread among bacteria and play crucial functions in virulence, antibiotic resistance, and biofilm structures. The filamentous Pf4 particles, extruded by an important pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, can protect producing cells from adverse conditions. Contrary to the conventional belief that the Pf4-encoding cells resist reinfection, we herein report that the Pf4 prophage is reciprocally and commonly exchanged within P. aeruginosa colonies, which can repair defective Pf4 within the community. By labeling the Pf4 locus with antibiotic resistance and fluorescence markers, we demonstrate that the Pf4 locus is frequently exchanged within colony biofilms, in artificial sputum media, and in infected mouse lungs. We further show that Pf4 trafficking is a rapid process and capable of rescuing Pf4-defective mutants. The Pf4 phage is highly adaptable and can package additional DNA doubling its genome size. We also report that two clinical P. aeruginosa isolates are susceptible to the Pf4-mediated exchange, and the Pf5 prophage can be exchanged between cells as well. These findings suggest that the genetic exchanging interactions by filamentous prophages may facilitate defect rescue and the sharing of prophage-dependent benefits and costs within the P. aeruginosa community.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Animais , Camundongos , Prófagos/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Bacteriófagos/genética , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Virulência , Biofilmes
20.
ISME J ; 18(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365261

RESUMO

In marine sediments, microbial degradation of organic matter under anoxic conditions is generally thought to proceed through fermentation to volatile fatty acids, which are then oxidized to CO2 coupled to the reduction of terminal electron acceptors (e.g. nitrate, iron, manganese, and sulfate). It has been suggested that, in environments with a highly variable oxygen regime, fermentation mediated by facultative anaerobic bacteria (uncoupled to external terminal electron acceptors) becomes the dominant process. Here, we present the first direct evidence for this fermentation using a novel differentially labeled glucose isotopologue assay that distinguishes between CO2 produced from respiration and fermentation. Using this approach, we measured the relative contribution of respiration and fermentation of glucose in a range of permeable (sandy) and cohesive (muddy) sediments, as well as four bacterial isolates. Under anoxia, microbial communities adapted to high-energy sandy or bioturbated sites mediate fermentation via the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, in a manner uncoupled from anaerobic respiration. Prolonged anoxic incubation suggests that this uncoupling lasts up to 160 h. In contrast, microbial communities in anoxic muddy sediments (smaller median grain size) generally completely oxidized 13C glucose to 13CO2, consistent with the classical redox cascade model. We also unexpectedly observed that fermentation occurred under oxic conditions in permeable sediments. These observations were further confirmed using pure cultures of four bacteria isolated from permeable sediments. Our results suggest that microbial communities adapted to variable oxygen regimes metabolize glucose (and likely other organic molecules) through fermentation uncoupled to respiration during transient anoxic conditions.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Glucose , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/metabolismo
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