Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 519.854
Filtrar
1.
N Engl J Med ; 385(10): 921-929, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469647

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections underlie a wide spectrum of both benign and malignant epithelial diseases. In this report, we describe the case of a young man who had encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus during adolescence and currently presented with multiple recurrent skin and mucosal lesions caused by HPV. The patient was found to have a pathogenic germline mutation in the X-linked interleukin-2 receptor subunit gamma gene (IL2RG), which was somatically reverted in T cells but not in natural killer (NK) cells. Allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation led to restoration of NK cytotoxicity, with normalization of the skin microbiome and persistent remission of all HPV-related diseases. NK cytotoxicity appears to play a role in containing HPV colonization and the ensuing HPV-related hyperplastic or dysplastic lesions. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center Flow Cytometry Shared Resources.).


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células Matadoras Naturais/fisiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/terapia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Encefalite/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Células T Matadoras Naturais/fisiologia , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Linhagem , Pele/microbiologia , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491156

RESUMO

Introduction. The increase of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and associated treatment failure in populations at risk is driving us to look for new treatments.Hypothesis. The CIN-102 compound, derived from cinnamon essential oil, could be a new antifungal class with an activity, in particular, on strains resistant to current antifungals but also on biofilms, a factor of virulence and resistance of fungi.Aim. The aim of this study is to show the activity of CIN-102 on various strains resistant to current antifungals, on the biofilm and to determine the possibility of resistance induced with this compound.Methodology. We studied the MIC of CIN-102 and of current antifungals (voriconazole and amphotericin B) using CLSI techniques against eight different strains of three genera of filamentous fungi involved in IFIs and having resistance phenotypes to current antifungals. We also determined their effects on biofilm formation, and the induced resistance by voriconazole (VRC) and CIN-102.Results. MIC values determined for CIN-102 were between 62.5 and 250 µg ml-1. We demonstrated the antifungal effect of CIN-102 on biofilm, and more particularly on its formation, with 100 % inhibition achieved for most of the strains. CIN-102 at a sub-inhibitory concentration in the medium did not induce resistance in our strains, even after 30 generations.Conclusions. In this study we show that CIN-102 is effective against resistant filamentous fungi and against biofilm formation. In addition, our strains did not acquire a resistance phenotype against CIN-102 over time, unlike with VRC. CIN-102 is therefore an interesting candidate for the treatment of IFIs, including in cases of therapeutic failure linked to resistance, although further studies on its efficacy, safety and mechanism of action are needed.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Micoses , Terpenos/farmacologia , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/microbiologia , Voriconazol/farmacologia
5.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516365

RESUMO

Introduction. The identification of enteropathogens is critical for the clinical management of patients with suspected gastrointestinal infection. The FLOW multiplex PCR system (FMPS) is a semi-automated platform (FLOW System, Roche) for multiplex real-time PCR analysis.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. FMPS has greater sensitivity for the detection of enteric pathogens than standard methods such as culture, biochemical identification, immunochromatography or microscopic examination.Aim.The diagnostic performance of the FMPS was evaluated and compared to that of traditional microbiological procedures.Methodology. A total of 10 659 samples were collected and analysed over a period of 7 years. From 2013 to 2018 (every July to September), samples were processed using standard microbiological culture methods. In 2019, the FMPS was implemented using real-time PCR to detect the following enteropathogens: Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis, Cryptosporidum spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, adenovirus, norovirus and rotavirus. Standard microbiological culture methods (2013-2018) included stool culture, microscopy and immunochromatography.Results. A total of 1078 stool samples were analysed prospectively using the FMPS from July to September (2019): bacterial, parasitic and viral pathogens were identified in 15.3, 9.71 and 5.29 % of cases, respectively. During the same period of 6 years (2013-2018), the proportion of positive identifications using standard microbiological methods from 2013 to 2018 was significantly lower. A major significant recovery improvement was observed for all bacteria species tested: Shigella spp./enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) (P <0.05), Salmonella spp. (P <0.05) and Campylobacter spp. (P <0.05). Marked differences were also observed for the parasites G. intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and D. fragilis.Conclusion. These results support the value of multiplex real-time PCR analysis for the detection of enteric pathogens in laboratory diagnosis with outstanding performance in identifying labile micro-organisms. The identification of unsuspected micro-organisms for less specific clinical presentations may also impact on clinical practice and help optimize patient management.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Blastocystis hominis/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Dientamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba histolytica/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Shigella/isolamento & purificação
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 84, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466186

RESUMO

The treatment of acute osteomyelitis is becoming more challenging since the emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We collected data on all patients with acute osteomyelitis caused by this germ over a period of 21 years (January 1995-December 2016) and we analyzed the peculiarities of this disorder. Our case series includes 15 children, with an average age of 9 years. All patients had affected lower limb. Local trauma was reported in 8 cases and skin carriage in 4 cases. Acute onset was reported in 12 cases associated with pseudo-paralysis of the affected limb. One patient had Staphylococcus aureus pulmonary infection with signs of septicopyemia. Blood culture was positive in 8 cases. In one case PCR assay for detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin was performed with positive result. All these patients underwent surgical debridement and received secondarily adapted empirical antibiotic therapy. Outcome was good in 8 cases and poor in the other cases, with transition to a chronic state in 6 cases and one case of death. Pathological fracture was reported in 3 cases. Osteomyelitis cause by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is associated with a pejorative outcome. Recognizing the clinical and paraclinical signs of these infections is essential for a specific and early therapeutic management.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/terapia , Desbridamento/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Osteomielite/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 412, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) is a compendium of pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungal strains. Pathogenic strains may cause vascular wilt disease and produce considerable losses in commercial tomato plots. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating resistance to Fol in tomato, the aim of our study was to characterize the transcriptional response of three cultivars (CT1, CT2 and IAC391) to a pathogenic (Fol-pt) and a non-pathogenic (Fo-npt) strain of Fo. RESULTS: All cultivars exhibited differentially expressed genes in response to each strain of the fungus at 36 h post-inoculation. For the pathogenic strain, CT1 deployed an apparent active defense response that included upregulation of WRKY transcription factors, an extracellular chitinase, and terpenoid-related genes, among others. In IAC391, differentially expressed genes included upregulated but mostly downregulated genes. Upregulated genes mapped to ethylene regulation, pathogenesis regulation and transcription regulation, while downregulated genes potentially impacted defense responses, lipid transport and metal ion binding. Finally, CT2 exhibited mostly downregulated genes upon Fol-pt infection. This included genes involved in transcription regulation, defense responses, and metal ion binding. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that CT1 mounts a defense response against Fol-pt. IAC391 exhibits an intermediate phenotype whereby some defense response genes are activated, and others are suppressed. Finally, the transcriptional profile in the CT2 hints towards lower levels of resistance. Fo-npt also induced transcriptional changes in all cultivars, but to a lesser extent. Results of this study will support genetic breeding programs currently underway in the zone.


Assuntos
Fusarium/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Colômbia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Etilenos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(36): e27186, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516520

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae made the treatment difficult, which has become a significant issue of public health. A sharp increase of carbapenem-resistance rate in Klebsiella pneumoniae was observed in a maternity and child health care hospital in Zunyi, China, in 2014.In 2015 to 2016, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp) isolated from all the clinical samples were analyzed to identify the carbapenem-resistance genes. They were then fingerprinted in order to determine their genetic relationship. Clinical data such as usage of imipenem in 2012 to 2016 and the nosocomial infection surveillance data were analyzed.Thirty-five isolates of CRKp out of 4328 various pathogens were obtained, and blaNDM-1 was identified to be the most common resistant gene present in the CRKp isolates. The fingerprint analysis identified 15 major clusters of CRKp isolates. The bacteria with close proximity relationship tended to be from the same wards. However, a few CRKp isolates from different wards were found to be genetically highly related. The clinical data showed a significantly higher usage of carbapenems in 2012 to 2013 before the CRKp rate sharply increased in 2014. The nosocomial infection surveillance showed an unexpectedly high rate of failures to meet the requirement of the hospital environment hygiene and hand hygiene in the neonatal ward.The increasing isolation rate of CRKp was associated with poorly regulated usage of carbapenems, impropriate medical practices, and the poor hospital environmental hygiene and hand hygiene.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/isolamento & purificação , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Imipenem/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imipenem/farmacologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Controle de Infecções , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Gravidez
9.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(8): 1104-1106, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516417

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a common zoonotic infection. Brucellosis typically presents with fever, weakness, night sweats, and arthralgias. Symptoms associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and infection with Brucella spp. are similar to one another, which may lead to delayed diagnosis of the latter condition. There are no previous reports of brucellosis in a patient previously diagnosed with COVID-19. We present here the case of a 20-year-old male who we diagnosed with brucellosis after joint pains and fever that persisted after resolution of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Brucelose/diagnóstico , COVID-19/complicações , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Animais , Artralgia/microbiologia , Brucelose/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Febre/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/microbiologia
11.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 64, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial superinfections associated with COVID-19 are common in ventilated ICU patients and impact morbidity and lethality. However, the contribution of antimicrobial resistance to the manifestation of bacterial infections in these patients has yet to be elucidated. METHODS: We collected 70 Gram-negative bacterial strains, isolated from the lower respiratory tract of ventilated COVID-19 patients in Zurich, Switzerland between March and May 2020. Species identification was performed using MALDI-TOF; antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined by EUCAST disk diffusion and CLSI broth microdilution assays. Selected Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were analyzed by whole-genome sequencing. RESULTS: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (46%) and Enterobacterales (36%) comprised the two largest etiologic groups. Drug resistance in P. aeruginosa isolates was high for piperacillin/tazobactam (65.6%), cefepime (56.3%), ceftazidime (46.9%) and meropenem (50.0%). Enterobacterales isolates showed slightly lower levels of resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam (32%), ceftriaxone (32%), and ceftazidime (36%). All P. aeruginosa isolates and 96% of Enterobacterales isolates were susceptible to aminoglycosides, with apramycin found to provide best-in-class coverage. Genotypic analysis of consecutive P. aeruginosa isolates in one patient revealed a frameshift mutation in the transcriptional regulator nalC that coincided with a phenotypic shift in susceptibility to ß-lactams and quinolones. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable levels of antimicrobial resistance may have contributed to the manifestation of bacterial superinfections in ventilated COVID-19 patients, and may in some cases mandate consecutive adaptation of antibiotic therapy. High susceptibility to amikacin and apramycin suggests that aminoglycosides may remain an effective second-line treatment of ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia, provided efficacious drug exposure in lungs can be achieved.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , COVID-19/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Suíça
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494946

RESUMO

Six yeast isolates were obtained from rotting wood samples in Brazil and frass of a cerambycid beetle larva in French Guiana. Sequence analysis of the ITS-5.8S region and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene showed that the isolates represent a novel species of Cyberlindnera. This novel species is related to Cyberlindnera japonica, Cyberlindnera xylosilytica, Candida easanensis and Candida maesa. It is heterothallic and produces asci with two or four hat-shaped ascospores. The name Cyberlindnera dasilvae sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate the novel species. The holotype of Cy. dasilvae is CBS 16129T and the designated paratype is CBS 16584. The MycoBank number is 838252. All isolates of Cy. dasilvae were able to convert xylose into xylitol with maximum xylitol production within 60 and 72 h. The isolates produced xylitol with values ranging from 12.61 to 31.79 g l-1 in yeast extract-peptone-xylose medium with 5% xylose. When the isolates were tested in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate containing around 35-38 g l-1d-xylose, isolate UFMG-CM-Y519 showed maximum xylitol production.


Assuntos
Besouros/microbiologia , Filogenia , Saccharomycetales/classificação , Madeira , Xilitol , Animais , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico , Fezes/microbiologia , Larva/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Saccharomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Madeira/microbiologia , Xilitol/metabolismo
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9970817, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527747

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples or lung biopsy specimens from which suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients have no sputum or negative smear. Materials and Methods: Sputum-scarce or smear-negative cases with suspected PTB (n = 107) were analyzed from January 2018 to June 2020. We collected BALF or lung tissue biopsy samples with these cases of suspected TB during hospitalization. The diagnostic accuracy of mNGS for these samples was compared with those of conventional tests or the T-SPOT.TB assay. Results: 46 cases of PTB patients and 61 cases of non-PTB patients were finally enrolled and analyzed. mNGS exhibited a sensitivity of 89.13%, which was higher than conventional tests (67.39%) but equivalent to those of the T-SPOT.TB assay alone (76.09%) or T-SPOT.TB assay in combination with conventional tests (91.30%). The specificity of mNGS was 98.36%, similar to conventional tests (95.08%) but significantly higher than those of the T-SPOT.TB assay alone (65.57%) or the T-SPOT.TB assay in combination with conventional tests (63.93%). There was no significant difference in the diagnostic accuracy of mNGS in BALF samples and lung biopsy tissue specimens. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that mNGS could offer improved detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in BALF or lung tissue biopsy samples in sputum-scarce or smear-negative cases with suspected PTB.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Pulmão/microbiologia , Metagenoma , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Microscopia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499598

RESUMO

A novel species within the genus Eikenella is described, based on the phenotypical, biochemical and genetic characterization of a strain of a facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium. Strain S3360T was isolated from the throat swab of a patient sampled during routine care at a hospital. Phylogenetic analyses (full-length 16S rRNA gene and whole-genome sequences) placed the strain in the genus Eikenella, separate from all recognized species but with the closest relationship to Eikenella longinqua (NML 02-A-017T). Eikenella is one of the genera in the HACEK group known to be responsible for rare cases of endocarditis in humans. Until the recent descriptions of Eikenella exigua, Eikenella halliae and Eikenella longinqua, Eikenella corrodens had been the only validly published species in this genus since its description as Bacteroides corrodens in 1958. Unlike these species, strain S3360T is able to metabolize carbohydrates (glucose). The average nucleotide identities of strain S3360T with E. longinqua (NML 02-A-017T) and E. corrodens (NCTC 10596T), the type species of the genus, were 90.5 and 84.7 %, respectively, and the corresponding genome-to-genome distance values were 41.3 and 29.0 %, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain S3360T was 58.4 mol%. Based on the phenotypical, biochemical and genetic findings, strain S3360T is considered to represent a novel species within the genus Eikenella, for which the name Eikenella glucosivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S3360T (DSM 110714T=CCOS 1935T=CCUG 74293T). In addition, an emendation of the genus Eikenella is proposed to include species which are saccharolytic.


Assuntos
Eikenella , Faringe , Filogenia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Eikenella/classificação , Eikenella/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/química , Humanos , Faringe/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361718

RESUMO

Several classes of polysaccharides have been described to have hypocholesterolemic potential, namely cholesterol bioaccessibility and bioavailability. This review will highlight the main mechanisms by which polysaccharides are known to affect cholesterol homeostasis at the intestine, namely the effect (i) of polysaccharide viscosity and its influence on cholesterol bioaccessibility; (ii) on bile salt sequestration and its dependence on the structural diversity of polysaccharides; (iii) of bio-transformations of polysaccharides and bile salts by the gut microbiota. Different quantitative structure-hypocholesterolemic activity relationships have been explored depending on the mechanism involved, and these were based on polysaccharide physicochemical properties, such as sugar composition and ramification degree, linkage type, size/molecular weight, and charge. The information gathered will support the rationalization of polysaccharides' effect on cholesterol homeostasis and highlight predictive rules towards the development of customized hypocholesterolemic functional food.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/química , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/química , Colesterol/química , Alimento Funcional/análise , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Anticolesterolemiantes/metabolismo , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biotransformação , Colesterol/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Peso Molecular , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Eletricidade Estática
16.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361722

RESUMO

Off-flavors produced by undesirable microbial spoilage are a major concern in wineries, as they affect wine quality. This situation is worse in warm areas affected by global warming because of the resulting higher pHs in wines. Natural biotechnologies can aid in effectively controlling these processes, while reducing the use of chemical preservatives such as SO2. Bioacidification reduces the development of spoilage yeasts and bacteria, but also increases the amount of molecular SO2, which allows for lower total levels. The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, such as Lachancea thermotolerans, results in effective acidification through the production of lactic acid from sugars. Furthermore, high lactic acid contents (>4 g/L) inhibit lactic acid bacteria and have some effect on Brettanomyces. Additionally, the use of yeasts with hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase (HCDC) activity can be useful to promote the fermentative formation of stable vinylphenolic pyranoanthocyanins, reducing the amount of ethylphenol precursors. This biotechnology increases the amount of stable pigments and simultaneously prevents the formation of high contents of ethylphenols, even when the wine is contaminated by Brettanomyces.


Assuntos
Brettanomyces/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Carboxiliases/metabolismo , Fermentação , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Dióxido de Enxofre/farmacologia , Vitis/metabolismo , Vitis/microbiologia , Vinho/microbiologia
17.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361723

RESUMO

Genito-urinary tract infections have a high incidence in the general population, being more prevalent among women than men. These diseases are usually treated with antibiotics, but very frequently, they are recurrent and lead to the creation of resistance and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. For this reason, it is necessary to develop new compounds for their treatment. In this work, our objective is to review the characteristics of the compounds of a new formulation called Itxasol© that is prescribed as an adjuvant for the treatment of UTIs and composed of ß-arbutin, umbelliferon and n-acetyl cysteine. This formulation, based on biomimetic principles, makes Itxasol© a broad-spectrum antibiotic with bactericidal, bacteriostatic and antifungal properties that is capable of destroying the biofilm and stopping its formation. It also acts as an anti-inflammatory agent, without the adverse effects associated with the recurrent use of antibiotics that leads to renal nephrotoxicity and other side effects. All these characteristics make Itxasol© an ideal candidate for the treatment of UTIs since it behaves like an antibiotic and with better characteristics than other adjuvants, such as D-mannose and cranberry extracts.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Arbutina/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Umbeliferonas/uso terapêutico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Acetilcisteína/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Arbutina/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Biológicos/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/uso terapêutico , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/patogenicidade , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/patogenicidade , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Umbeliferonas/química , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/patologia
18.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361725

RESUMO

This study investigated supercritical solvent impregnation of polyamide microfiltration membranes with carvacrol and the potential application of the modified membranes in ventilation of open surgical wounds. The impregnation process was conducted in batch mode at a temperature of 40 °C under pressures of 10, 15, and 20 MPa for contact times from 1 to 6 h. FTIR was applied to confirm the presence of carvacrol on the membrane surface. In the next step, the impact of the modification on the membrane structure was studied using scanning electron and ion beam microscopy and cross-filtration tests. Further, the release of carvacrol in carbon dioxide was determined, and finally, an open thoracic cavity model was applied to evaluate the efficiency of carvacrol-loaded membranes in contamination prevention. Carvacrol loadings of up to 43 wt.% were obtained under the selected operating conditions. The swelling effect was detectable. However, its impact on membrane functionality was minor. An average of 18.3 µg of carvacrol was released from membranes per liter of carbon dioxide for the flow of interest. Membranes with 30-34 wt.% carvacrol were efficient in the open thoracic cavity model applied, reducing the contamination levels by 27% compared to insufflation with standard membranes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cimenos/farmacologia , Nylons/química , Agentes Molhantes/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Bandagens/microbiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Cimenos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Insuflação , Cinética , Manequins , Membranas Artificiais , Ferida Cirúrgica/reabilitação , Molhabilidade , Agentes Molhantes/química
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 771, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vibrio vulnificus has been reported as the leading causative pathogen of necrotizing fasciitis (NF) and related fatality in the coastal area. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and V. vulnificus have high mortality rates. The purpose of this prospective study was to clarify the clinical characteristics between death and survival NF patients, to investigate bacteriologic profile and mortality of NF patients, and to compare risk indicators of MRSA and V. vulnificus NF patients. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in 184 consecutive NF patients over a period of three years in a tertiary coastal hospital. Differences in mortality, laboratory findings, microbiology and clinical outcomes were compared between the death and survival groups, and the V. vulnificus and MRSA subgroups. RESULTS: Twenty patients died, resulting in a mortality rate of 10.9%, and there were 108 patients with a monomicrobial infection (58.7%). The death group had a significantly higher incidence of shock at emergency room and bacteremia than did the survival group. Vibrio species (40 cases) and S. aureus (31 cases) were the two major pathogens. Significant differences with respect to hepatic dysfunction, shock, the event with seawater or seafood contact, bacteremia, C-reactive protein, mean platelet counts, and the Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC) score were observes between V. vulnificus and MRSA groups. CONCLUSIONS: NF patients with both hepatic dysfunction and diabetes mellitus, bacteremia and shock have significantly higher mortality. We should be aware of the increasing incidence of monomicrobial NF and higher mortality rates of Gram-negative pathogens in the warm coastal area. LRINEC score is not a suitable diagnostic indicator for V. vulnificus NF, which is more rapidly progressive and fulminant than MRSA NF. NF needed team works by early suspicion, immediate surgical intervention and aggressive care, which can successfully decrease mortality.


Assuntos
Fasciite Necrosante , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Vibrioses , Vibrio vulnificus , Fasciite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Fasciite Necrosante/microbiologia , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Staphylococcus aureus , Vibrioses/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 776, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nocardiosis is known as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts, but it occasionally has been reported in immunocompetent patient. The Nocardia exalbida is first-reported in 2006 from Japan, and a few cases of have been reported in only immunocompromised host, and the characteristic is still unclear. We herein describe the first case of pulmonary nocardiosis caused by N. exalbida in an immunocompetent patient. CASE PRESENTATION: A77 -year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital on November 2, 2018. He was a lifelong non-smoker with no childhood history of respiratory disease. He had a medical history of dyslipidemia. One month before this admission fevers, sputum, mild cough were developed and he was evaluated in a clinic near our hospital. His diagnosis was community acquired pneumonia within his right middle lobe. He was treated with ceftriaxone 1 g/day intravenously for a week, however his symptoms relapsed a few days later. So, the physician retried ceftriaxone for another 3 days, but his symptoms did not improve. He was referred to our hospital. He was treated with sitafloxacin as an outpatient for a week, however his symptoms got worse. The chest CT showed consolidation and atelectasis in his right middle lobe. Low density area was scattered in consolidation, and right pleural effusion was observed. The patient was diagnosed with pulmonary abscess and he was admitted. Administration of piperacillin/tazobactam improved his condition. We switched antibiotics to amoxicillin/clavulanate, and he was discharged. After 2 weeks, he relapsed and was admitted again. After administration of piperacillin/tazobactam for 3 weeks, we perform bronchoscopy and Nocardia species were cultured from samples of the bronchial wash. The isolates were identified as N. exalbida using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We prescribed Trimethoprim / Sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) for 4 months. Then we switched to minocycline for renal dysfunction caused from TMP-SMX for 1 more month. After 5 months therapy, Consolidation on CT disappeared, and Nocardiosis was cured. CONCLUSION: we reported the first case of pulmonary nocardiosis caused by N. exalbida in an immunocompetent patient. N. exalbida infection might be associated with a good response to treatment.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias , Nocardiose , Nocardia , Idoso , Humanos , Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Masculino , Nocardia/genética , Nocardia/patogenicidade , Nocardiose/diagnóstico , Nocardiose/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...