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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 147: 165-178, 2025 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003037

RESUMO

In this study, two wheat-derived cadmium (Cd)-immobilizing endophytic Pseudomonas paralactis M14 and Priestia megaterium R27 were evaluated for their effects on wheat tissue Cd uptake under hydroponic conditions. Then, the impacts of the biochar (BC), M14+R27 (MR), and BC+MR treatments on wheat Cd uptake and the mechanisms involved were investigated at the jointing, heading, and mature stages of wheat plants under field-plot conditions. A hydroponic experiment showed that the MR treatment significantly decreased the above-ground tissue Cd content compared with the M14 or R27 treatment. The BC+MR treatment reduced the grain Cd content by 51.5%-67.7% and Cd translocation factor at the mature stage of wheat plants and increased the organic matter-bound Cd content by 31%-75% in the rhizosphere soils compared with the BC or MR treatment. Compared with the BC or MR treatment, the relative abundances of the biomarkers associated with Gemmatimonas, Altererythrobacter, Gammaproteobacteria, Xanthomonadaceae, Phenylobacterium, and Nocardioides in the BC+MR-treated rhizosphere microbiome decreased and negatively correlated with the organic matter-bound Cd contents. In the BC+MR-treated root interior microbiome, the relative abundance of the biomarker belonging to Exiguobacterium increased and negatively correlated with the Cd translocation factor, while the relative abundance of the biomarker belonging to Pseudonocardiaceae decreased and positively correlated with the Cd translocation factor. Our findings suggested that the BC+MR treatment reduced Cd availability and Cd transfer through affecting the abundances of these specific biomarkers in the rhizosphere soil and root interior microbiomes, leading to decreased wheat grain Cd uptake in the contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Carvão Vegetal , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Triticum , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Cádmio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Endófitos/fisiologia , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 147: 310-321, 2025 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003049

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of different salinity gradients and addition of compatible solutes on anaerobic treated effluent water qualities, sludge characteristics and microbial communities were investigated. The increase in salinity resulted in a decrease in particle size of the granular sludge, which was concentrated in the range of 0.5-1.0 mm. The content of EPS (extracellular polymeric substances) in the granular sludge gradually increased with increasing salinity and the addition of betaine (a typical compatible solute). Meanwhile, the microbial community structure was significantly affected by salinity, with high salinity reducing the diversity of bacteria. At higher salinity, Patescibacteria and Proteobacteria gradually became the dominant phylum, with relative abundance increasing to 13.53% and 12.16% at 20 g/L salinity. Desulfobacterota and its subordinate Desulfovibrio, which secrete EPS in large quantities, dominated significantly after betaine addition.Their relative abundance reached 13.65% and 7.86% at phylum level and genus level. The effect of these changes on the treated effluent was shown as the average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate decreased from 82.10% to 79.71%, 78.01%, 68.51% and 64.55% when the salinity gradually increased from 2 g/L to 6, 10, 16 and 20 g/L. At the salinity of 20 g/L, average COD removal increased to 71.65% by the addition of 2 mmol/L betaine. The gradient elevated salinity and the exogenous addition of betaine played an important role in achieving stability of the anaerobic system in a highly saline environment, which provided a feasible strategy for anaerobic treatment of organic saline wastewater.


Assuntos
Betaína , Salinidade , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Betaína/metabolismo , Esgotos/microbiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Anaerobiose , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 147: 268-281, 2025 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003046

RESUMO

The study of microbial hydrocarbons removal is of great importance for the development of future bioremediation strategies. In this study, we evaluated the removal of a gaseous mixture containing toluene, m-xylene, ethylbenzene, cyclohexane, butane, pentane, hexane and heptane in aerated stirred bioreactors inoculated with Rhodococcus erythropolis and operated under non-sterile conditions. For the real-time measurement of hydrocarbons, a novel systematic approach was implemented using Selected-Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS). The effect of the carbon source (∼9.5 ppmv) on (i) the bioreactors' performance (BR1: dosed with only cyclohexane as a single hydrocarbon versus BR2: dosed with a mixture of the 8 hydrocarbons) and (ii) the evolution of microbial communities over time were investigated. The results showed that cyclohexane reached a maximum removal efficiency (RE) of 53% ± 4% in BR1. In BR2, almost complete removal of toluene, m-xylene and ethylbenzene, being the most water-soluble and easy-to-degrade carbon sources, was observed. REs below 32% were obtained for the remaining compounds. By exposing the microbial consortium to only the five most recalcitrant hydrocarbons, REs between 45% ± 5% and 98% ± 1% were reached. In addition, we observed that airborne microorganisms populated the bioreactors and that the type of carbon source influenced the microbial communities developed. The abundance of species belonging to the genus Rhodococcus was below 10% in all bioreactors at the end of the experiments. This work provides fundamental insights to understand the complex behavior of gaseous hydrocarbon mixtures in bioreactors, along with a systematic approach for the development of SIFT-MS methods.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Reatores Biológicos , Hidrocarbonetos , Rhodococcus , Rhodococcus/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/metabolismo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Tolueno/metabolismo , Xilenos/metabolismo , Butanos/metabolismo , Derivados de Benzeno , Pentanos
4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 147: 404-413, 2025 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003058

RESUMO

Salinity was considered to have effects on the characteristics, performance microbial communities of aerobic granular sludge. This study investigated granulation process with gradual increase of salt under different gradients. Two identical sequencing batch reactors were operated, while the influent of Ra and Rb was subjected to stepwise increments of NaCl concentrations (0-4 g/L and 0-10 g/L). The presence of filamentous bacteria may contribute to granules formed under lower salinity conditions, potentially leading to granules fragmentation. Excellent removal efficiency achieved in both reactors although there was a small accumulation of nitrite in Rb at later stages. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in Ra were 95.31%, 93.70% and 88.66%, while the corresponding removal efficiencies in Rb were 94.19%, 89.79% and 80.74%. Salinity stimulated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secretion and enriched EPS producing bacteria to help maintain the integrity and stability of the aerobic granules. Heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria were responsible for NH4+-N and NO2--N oxidation of salinity systems and large number of denitrifying bacteria were detected, which ensure the high removal efficiency of TN in the systems.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Nitrogênio , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Esgotos/microbiologia , Fósforo/metabolismo , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio , Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbiota , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio
5.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 147: 582-596, 2025 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003073

RESUMO

As an emerging environmental contaminant, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in tap water have attracted great attention. Although studies have provided ARG profiles in tap water, research on their abundance levels, composition characteristics, and potential threat is still insufficient. Here, 9 household tap water samples were collected from the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) in China. Additionally, 75 sets of environmental sample data (9 types) were downloaded from the public database. Metagenomics was then performed to explore the differences in the abundance and composition of ARGs. 221 ARG subtypes consisting of 17 types were detected in tap water. Although the ARG abundance in tap water was not significantly different from that found in drinking water plants and reservoirs, their composition varied. In tap water samples, the three most abundant classes of resistance genes were multidrug, fosfomycin and MLS (macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin) ARGs, and their corresponding subtypes ompR, fosX and macB were also the most abundant ARG subtypes. Regarding the potential mobility, vanS had the highest abundance on plasmids and viruses, but the absence of key genes rendered resistance to vancomycin ineffective. Generally, the majority of ARGs present in tap water were those that have not been assessed and are currently not listed as high-threat level ARG families based on the World Health Organization Guideline. Although the current potential threat to human health posed by ARGs in tap water is limited, with persistent transfer and accumulation, especially in pathogens, the potential danger to human health posed by ARGs should not be ignored.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Metagenômica , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Água Potável/microbiologia , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Microbiologia da Água
6.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 147: 538-549, 2025 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003069

RESUMO

The multi-soil-layering (MSL) systems is an emerging solution for environmentally-friendly and cost-effective treatment of decentralized rural domestic wastewater. However, the role of the seemingly simple permeable layer has been overlooked, potentially holding the breakthroughs or directions to addressing suboptimal nitrogen removal performance in MSL systems. In this paper, the mechanism among diverse substrates (zeolite, green zeolite and biological ceramsite) coupled microorganisms in different systems (activated bacterial powder and activated sludge) for rural domestic wastewater purification was investigated. The removal efficiencies performed by zeolite coupled with microorganisms within 3 days were 93.8% for COD, 97.1% for TP, and 98.8% for NH4+-N. Notably, activated sludge showed better nitrification and comprehensive performance than specialized nitrifying bacteria powder. Zeolite attained an impressive 89.4% NH4+-N desorption efficiency, with a substantive fraction of NH4+-N manifesting as exchanged ammonium. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that aerobic and parthenogenetic anaerobic bacteria dominated the reactor, with anaerobic bacteria conspicuously absent. And the heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification (HN-AD) process was significant, with the presence of denitrifying phosphorus-accumulating organisms (DPAOs) for simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal. This study not only raises awareness about the importance of the permeable layer and enhances comprehension of the HN-AD mechanism in MSL systems, but also provides valuable insights for optimizing MSL system construction, operation, and rural domestic wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Solo/química , Desnitrificação , Águas Residuárias/química , Esgotos/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Zeolitas/química , Fósforo/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Bactérias/metabolismo
7.
Int Wound J ; 21(7): e14961, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949168

RESUMO

Patients with chronic limb-threatening ischaemia (CLTI) are at risk of foot infections, which is associated with an increase in amputation rates. The use of antibiotics may lead to a higher incidence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in subsequent episodes of ischaemic foot infections (IFI). This retrospective single-centre cohort study included 130 patients with IFI undergoing endovascular revascularisation. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the two most common pathogens, accounting for 20.5% and 10.8% of cases, respectively. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and multi-drug resistance did not significantly increase between episodes (10.2% vs. 13.4%, p = 0.42). In 59% of subsequent episodes, the identified pathogens were unrelated to the previous episode. However, the partial concordance of identified pathogens significantly increased to 66.7% when S. aureus was identified (p = 0.027). Subsequent episodes of IFI in the same patient are likely to differ in causative pathogens. However, in the case of S. aureus, the risk of reinfection, particularly with S. aureus, is increased. Multi-drug resistance does not appear to change between IFI episodes. Therefore, recommendations for empirical antimicrobial therapy should be based on local pathogen and resistance statistics without the need to broaden the spectrum of antibiotics in subsequent episodes.


Assuntos
Isquemia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia/epidemiologia , Isquemia/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0294853, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38950318

RESUMO

Feral populations of aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) occur in Texas bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) habitat and pose several conceptual ecological threats to bighorn sheep re-establishment efforts. The potential threat of disease transmission from aoudad to bighorn sheep may exacerbate these issues, but the host competency of aoudad and subsequent pathophysiology and transmissibility of pneumonic pathogens involved in the bighorn sheep respiratory disease complex is largely unknown. Because the largest population-limiting diseases of bighorn sheep involve pathogens causing bronchopneumonia, we evaluated the host competency of aoudad for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and leukotoxigenic Pasteurellaceae. Specifically, we described the shedding dynamics, pathogen carriage, seroconversion, clinical patterns, and pathological effects of experimental infection among wild aoudad held in captivity. We found that aoudad are competent hosts capable of maintaining and intraspecifically transmitting Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurellaceae and can shed the bacteria for 53 days after exposure. Aoudad developed limited clinical signs and pathological findings ranged from mild chronic lymphohistiocytic bronchointerstitial pneumonia to severe and acute suppurative pneumonia, similarly, observed in bighorn sheep infected with Mycoplasma spp. and Pasteurellaceae bacteria, respectively. Furthermore, as expected, clinical signs and lesions were often more severe in aoudad inoculated with a combination of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurellaceae as compared to aoudad inoculated with only Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae. There may be evidence of interindividual susceptibility, pathogenicity, and/or transmissibility, indicated by individual aoudad maintaining varying severities of chronic infection who may be carriers continuously shedding pathogens. This is the first study to date to demonstrate that aoudad are a conceptual disease transmission threat to sympatric bighorn sheep populations due to their host competency and intraspecific transmission capabilities.


Assuntos
Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae , Pasteurellaceae , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma , Animais , Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae/patogenicidade , Pasteurellaceae/patogenicidade , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Ovinos , Carneiro da Montanha/microbiologia , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/transmissão , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/veterinária , Feminino
9.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 18: 2531-2553, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952486

RESUMO

The WHO Global Status Report on Oral Health 2022 reveals that oral diseases caused by infection with oral pathogenic microorganisms affect nearly 3.5 billion people worldwide. Oral health problems are caused by the presence of S. mutans, S. sanguinis, E. faecalis and C. albicans in the oral cavity. Synthetic anti-infective drugs have been widely used to treat oral infections, but have been reported to cause side effects and resistance. Various strategies have been implemented to overcome this problem. Synthetic anti-infective drugs have been widely used to treat oral infections, but they have been reported to cause side effects and resistance. Therefore, it is important to look for safe anti-infective alternatives. Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies suggest that Red Betel leaf (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) could be a potential source of oral anti-infectives. This review aims to discuss the pathogenesis mechanism of several microorganisms that play an important role in causing health problems, the mechanism of action of synthetic oral anti-infective drugs in inhibiting microbial growth in the oral cavity, and the potential of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) as an herbal oral anti-infective drug. This study emphasises the importance of researching natural components as an alternative treatment for oral infections that is more effective and can meet global needs.


Assuntos
Piper , Humanos , Piper/química , Doenças da Boca/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças da Boca/microbiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Boca/microbiologia
10.
Iran J Med Sci ; 49(6): 369-376, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952643

RESUMO

Background: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a fatal complication of ascites fluid infection. The causes of SBP in children differ from those in adults, and these bacteria are frequently resistant to antibiotics. Therefore, this study investigated the clinical findings, bacterial etiology, and antimicrobial resistance in children with SBP. Methods: This study was conducted on all new pediatric ascites patients, who were admitted to the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Namazi Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran) from 2021 to 2022. Required data such as demographic information, and clinical information such as complete blood count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), Gram staining, blood culture by Automated Blood Culture System (BACTEC), and antibiogram of ascites fluids by disc diffusion method were all collected. Finally, the data were statistically analyzed using SPSS Software (version 26). Besides, the t test, Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney, and Chi square tests were used for data analysis. In all tests, P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The present study examined 62 children with ascites of which 18 (29%) had SBP. The median (IQR) age was 2.5 (8.1) years. Thirty-four (54.8%) of the participants were girls. Abdominal pain was the most common clinical manifestation in patients (54%), and there was a significant association between abdominal pain and SBP (P=0.02). In 12 positive ascites fluid cultures, coagulase-negative staphylococci had the highest frequency (25%), followed by Escherichia coli (16.7%). Third-generation cephalosporins had a 25% sensitivity in the total positive cultures. This sensitivity was 33.3% for Gram-negative cultures and 16.6% for Gram-positive cultures. Conclusion: Although third-generation cephalosporins are recommended as the primary antibiotic for the empirical treatment of SBP, the present study found high bacterial resistance. Finally, empirical therapy should be tailored to each region's bacterial resistance features.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Peritonite , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Humanos , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Peritonite/microbiologia , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Irã (Geográfico) , Pré-Escolar , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Lactente , Adolescente , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Can Vet J ; 65(7): 698-702, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952754

RESUMO

Objective: The present study reports the first isolation and whole-genome sequencing of a Trueperella abortisuis bacterium from a goat. Animals and sample: The T. abortisuis was isolated from the uterus of a goat following an abortion. Procedure: The T. abortisuis was identified by pure culture phenotype and MALDI-TOF analysis and further characterized by whole-genome sequencing. Results: This isolate was reliably identified as T. abortisuis and showed similar properties to type strain T. abortisuis DSM 19515T, which was recovered from a sow following an abortion. The assembled genome of this isolate was 2 564 866 bp long with a GC content of 63.9%. A total of 30 virulence-related genes were determined, suggesting the pathogenic potential of this organism. Conclusion and clinical relevance: This study details the first isolation of T. abortisuis from goats. The genotypic findings of this isolate will serve as a baseline description for any similar future studies.


Premier isolement et séquençage du génome entier de Trueperella abortisuis provenant d'une chèvre au Canada. Objectif: La présente étude rapporte le premier isolement et séquençage du génome entier d'un isolat de Trueperella abortisuis provenant d'une chèvre. Animaux et échantillon: Le T. abortisuis a été isolé de l'utérus d'une chèvre à la suite d'un avortement. Procédure: Le T. abortisuis a été identifié par un phénotype de culture pure et analyse par MALDI-TOF, puis caractérisé par séquençage du génome entier. Résultats: Cet isolat a été identifié de manière fiable comme étant T. abortisuis et a montré des propriétés similaires à la souche type T. abortisuis DSM 19515T, qui a été récupérée chez une truie après un avortement. Le génome assemblé de cet isolat mesurait 2 564 866 pb avec une teneur en GC de 63,9 %. Au total, 30 gènes liés à la virulence ont été déterminés, suggérant le potentiel pathogène de cet organisme. Conclusion et pertinence clinique: Cette étude détaille le premier isolement de T. abortisuis chez la chèvre. Les résultats génotypiques de cet isolat serviront de description de base pour toute étude future similaire.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Cabras , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Actinomycetales/veterinária , Infecções por Actinomycetales/microbiologia , Actinomycetaceae/isolamento & purificação , Actinomycetaceae/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Canadá , Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Gravidez
12.
Can Vet J ; 65(7): 707-711, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952762

RESUMO

A swine production system had 3 sections located a few kilometers apart. Sections A and C contained several thousand sows and nursery and finishing pigs. Section B, located between the other 2 sections, was the smallest and had 6 finishing sites and 2 sow sites. The entire system was infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Section B was depopulated, cleaned, disinfected, and repopulated with negative gilts. Despite extreme measures, recontamination occurred for each pathogen, with aerosol considered the most plausible contamination source.


Transmission suspectée d'agents pathogènes porcins par aérosol : un cas de terrainUn système de production porcine comportait 3 sections situées à quelques kilomètres l'une de l'autre. Les sections A et C contenaient plusieurs milliers de truies et de porcs en maternité et en finition. La section B, située entre les 2 autres sections, était la plus petite et comptait 6 sites de finition et 2 sites de truies. L'ensemble du système était infecté par le virus du syndrome reproducteur et respiratoire porcin, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae et Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. La section B a été dépeuplée, nettoyée, désinfectée et repeuplée de cochettes négatives. Malgré des mesures extrêmes, une recontamination s'est produite pour chaque agent pathogène, les aérosols étant considérés comme la source de contamination la plus plausible.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , Aerossóis , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Actinobacillus/veterinária , Infecções por Actinobacillus/transmissão , Infecções por Actinobacillus/microbiologia , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/transmissão , Feminino , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/transmissão , Criação de Animais Domésticos
13.
PeerJ ; 12: e17587, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952963

RESUMO

Watermelon is commonly affected by Fusarium wilt in a monoculture cropping system. Wheat intercropping alleviates the affection of Fusarium wilt of watermelon. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of wheat and watermelon intercropping on watermelon growth and Fusarium wilt. Our results showed that wheat and watermelon intercropping promoted growth, increased chlorophyll content, and photosynthesis of watermelon. Meanwhile, wheat and watermelon intercropping inhibited watermelon Fusarium wilt occurrence, decreased spore numbers, increased root vigor, increased antioxidant enzyme activities, and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in watermelon roots. Additionally, wheat and watermelon intercropping enhanced the bacterial colonies and total microbes growth in soil, decreased fungi and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON) colonies, and increased soil enzyme activities in watermelon rhizosphere soil. Our results indicated that wheat and watermelon intercropping enhanced watermelon growth and decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt in watermelon. These effects could be due to intercropping inducing physiological changes, regulating soil enzyme activities, and/or modulating soil microbial communities.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Fusarium , Doenças das Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo , Triticum , Citrullus/microbiologia , Citrullus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/microbiologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
PeerJ ; 12: e17502, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952971

RESUMO

Background: Desserts with vegetable ingredients are a constantly expanding global market due to the search for alternatives to cow's milk. Fermentation of these matrices by lactic acid bacteria can add greater functionality to the product, improving its nutritional, sensory, and food safety characteristics, as well as creating bioactive components with beneficial effects on health. Concern for health and well-being has aroused interest in byproducts of the industry that have functional properties for the body, such as mature coconut water, a normally discarded residue that is rich in nutrients. This study aimed to develop a probiotic gelatin based on pulp and water from mature coconuts and evaluate the physicochemical characteristics, viability of the Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus LR32 strain in the medium, as well as the texture properties of the product. Methods: After collection and cleaning, the physicochemical characterization, mineral analysis, analysis of the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of mature coconut water were carried out, as well as the centesimal composition of its pulp. Afterwards, the gelling was developed with the addition of modified corn starch, gelatin, sucrose, and probiotic culture, being subjected to acidity analysis, texture profile and cell count, on the first day and every 7 days during 21 days of storage, under refrigeration at 5 °C. An analysis of the centesimal composition was also carried out. Results: The main minerals in coconut water were potassium (1,932.57 mg L-1), sodium (19.57 mg L-1), magnesium (85.13 mg L-1) calcium (279.93 mg L-1) and phosphorus (11.17 mg L- 1), while the pulp had potassium (35.96 g kg-1), sodium (0.97 g kg-1), magnesium (2.18 g kg-1), 37 calcium (1.64 g kg-1), and phosphorus (3.32 g kg-1). The phenolic content of the water and pulp was 5.72 and 9.77 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) 100 g-1, respectively, and the antioxidant capacity was 1.67 and 0.98 39 g of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) mg-1, respectively. The coconut pulp had 2.81 g 100 g-1of protein, 1.11 g 100 g-1 of 40 ash, 53% moisture, and 5.81 g 100 g-1 of carbohydrates. The gelatin produced during the storage period presented firmness parameters ranging from 145.82 to 206.81 grams-force (gf), adhesiveness from 692.85 to 1,028.63 gf sec, cohesiveness from 0.604 to 0.473, elasticity from 0.901 to 0.881, gumminess from 86.27 to 97.87 gf, and chewiness from 77.72 to 91.98 gf. Regarding the viability of the probiotic microorganism, the dessert had 7.49 log CFU g-1 that remained viable during the 21-day storage, reaching 8.51 CFU g-1. Acidity ranged from 0.15 to 0.64 g of lactic acid 100 g-1. The centesimal composition of the product showed 4.88 g 100 g-1 of protein, 0.54 g 100 g-1 of ash, 85.21% moisture, and 5.37g 100 g-1 of carbohydrates. The development of the gelatin made it possible to obtain a differentiated product, contributing to diversification in the food sector, providing a viable alternative for maintaining consumer health and reducing costs compared to desserts already available on the market.


Assuntos
Cocos , Gelatina , Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus , Probióticos , Cocos/química , Cocos/microbiologia , Gelatina/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Fermentação
15.
PeerJ ; 12: e17620, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952982

RESUMO

Background: This study examined the effects of microbial agents on the enzyme activity, microbial community construction and potential functions of inter-root soil of aubergine (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.). This study also sought to clarify the adaptability of inter-root microorganisms to environmental factors to provide a theoretical basis for the stability of the microbiology of inter-root soil of aubergine and for the ecological preservation of farmland soil. Methods: Eggplant inter-root soils treated with Bacillus subtilis (QZ_T1), Bacillus subtilis (QZ_T2), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (QZ_T3), Verticillium thuringiensis (QZ_T4) and Verticillium purpureum (QZ_T5) were used to analyse the effects of different microbial agents on the inter-root soils of aubergine compared to the untreated control group (QZ_CK). The effects of different microbial agents on the characteristics and functions of inter-root soil microbial communities were analysed using 16S rRNA and ITS (internal transcribed spacer region) high-throughput sequencing techniques. Results: The bacterial diversity index and fungal diversity index of the aubergine inter-root soil increased significantly with the application of microbial fungicides; gas exchange parameters and soil enzyme activities also increased. The structural and functional composition of the bacterial and fungal communities in the aubergine inter-root soil changed after fungicide treatment compared to the control, with a decrease in the abundance of phytopathogenic fungi and an increase in the abundance of beneficial fungi in the soil. Enhancement of key community functions, reduction of pathogenic fungi, modulation of environmental factors and improved functional stability of microbial communities were important factors contributing to the microbial stability of fungicide-treated aubergine inter-root soils.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Fotossíntese , Microbiologia do Solo , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum melongena/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Solo/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
16.
PeerJ ; 12: e17518, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952990

RESUMO

Potato farming is a vital component of food security and the economic stability especially in the under developing countries but it faces many challenges in production, blackleg disease caused by Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pa) is one of the main reason for damaging crop yield of the potato. Effective management strategies are essential to control these losses and to get sustainable potato crop yield. This study was focused on characterizing the Pa and the investigating new chemical options for its management. The research was involved a systematic survey across the three district of Punjab, Pakistan (Khanewal, Okara, and Multan) to collect samples exhibiting the black leg symptoms. These samples were analyzed in the laboratory where gram-negative bacteria were isolated and identified through biochemical and pathogenicity tests for Pa. DNA sequencing further confirmed these isolates of Pa strains. Six different chemicals were tested to control blackleg problem in both vitro and vivo at different concentrations. In vitro experiment, Cordate demonstrated the highest efficacy with a maximum inhibition zones of 17.139 mm, followed by Air One (13.778 mm), Profiler (10.167 mm), Blue Copper (7.7778 mm), Spot Fix (7.6689 mm), and Strider (7.0667 mm). In vivo, Cordate maintained its effectiveness with the lowest disease incidence of 14.76%, followed by Blue Copper (17.49%), Air One (16.98%), Spot Fix (20.67%), Profiler (21.45%), Strider (24.99%), and the control group (43.00%). The results highlight Cordate's potential as a most effective chemical against Pa, offering promising role for managing blackleg disease in potato and to improve overall productivity.


Assuntos
Pectobacterium , Doenças das Plantas , Solanum tuberosum , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Pectobacterium/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Paquistão
17.
PeerJ ; 12: e17461, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952992

RESUMO

Agricultural soils contaminated with heavy metals poison crops and disturb the normal functioning of rhizosphere microbial communities. Different crops and rhizosphere microbial communities exhibit different heavy metal resistance mechanisms. Here, indoor pot studies were used to assess the mechanisms of grain and soil rhizosphere microbial communities on chromium (Cr) stress. Millet grain variety 'Jingu 21' (Setaria italica) and soil samples were collected prior to control (CK), 6 hours after (Cr_6h), and 6 days following (Cr_6d) Cr stress. Transcriptomic analysis, high-throughput sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used for sample determination and data analysis. Cr stress inhibited the expression of genes related to cell division, and photosynthesis in grain plants while stimulating the expression of genes related to DNA replication and repair, in addition to plant defense systems resist Cr stress. In response to chromium stress, rhizosphere soil bacterial and fungal community compositions and diversity changed significantly (p < 0.05). Both bacterial and fungal co-occurrence networks primarily comprised positively correlated edges that would serve to increase community stability. However, bacterial community networks were larger than fungal community networks and were more tightly connected and less modular than fungal networks. The abundances of C/N functional genes exhibited increasing trends with increased Cr exposure. Overall, these results suggest that Cr stress primarily prevented cereal seedlings from completing photosynthesis, cell division, and proliferation while simultaneously triggering plant defense mechanisms to resist the toxic effects of Cr. Soil bacterial and fungal populations exhibited diverse response traits, community-assembly mechanisms, and increased expression of functional genes related to carbon and nitrogen cycling, all of which are likely related to microbial survival during Cr stress. This study provides new insights into resistance mechanisms, microbial community structures, and mechanisms of C/N functional genes responses in cereal plants to heavy metal contaminated agricultural soils. Portions of this text were previously published as part of a preprint (https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-2891904/v1).


Assuntos
Cromo , Grão Comestível , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Cromo/toxicidade , Cromo/efeitos adversos , Cromo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/genética , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/metabolismo
19.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1406794, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953030

RESUMO

Introduction: Equine asthma (EA) is a common lower airway disease in horses, but whether its pathogenesis is allergic is ambiguous. Extrinsic stimuli like hay dust induce acute exacerbation of clinical signs and sustained local neutrophilic inflammation in susceptible horses. Aspergillus fumigatus is an EA stimulus, but it is unclear if it merely acts as an IgE-provoking allergen. We aimed to comprehensively analyze immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes in EA, elucidating their binding to different A. fumigatus antigens, and their quantities systemically in serum and locally in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Methods: Serum and BALF from healthy horses (HE, n = 18) and horses with mild-moderate asthma (MEA, n = 20) or severe asthma (SEA, n = 24) were compared. Ig isotype (IgG1, IgG3/5, IgG4/7, IgG6, IgA, and IgE) binding to nine antigens (A. fumigatus lysate, and recombinant Asp f 1, Asp f 7, Asp f 8, dipeptidyl-peptidase 5, class II aldolase/adducin domain protein, glucoamylase, beta-hexosaminidase, and peptide hydrolase) was compared by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Total Ig isotype contents were determined by bead-based assays. Results: MEA and SEA differed from HE but hardly from each other. Compared to HE, asthmatic horses showed increased anti-A. fumigatus binding of IgG (BALF and serum) and IgA (BALF). Serum and BALF IgE binding and total IgE contents were similar between HE and EA. Single antigens, as well as A. fumigatus lysate, yielded similar Ig binding patterns. Serum and BALF IgG1 binding to all antigens was increased in SEA and to several antigens in MEA. Serum IgG4/7 binding to two antigens was increased in SEA. BALF IgA binding to all antigens was increased in SEA and MEA. Total BALF IgG1 and IgG4/7 contents were increased in SEA, and serum IgG4/7 content was increased in MEA compared to HE. Yet, total isotype contents differentiated EA and HE less clearly than antigen-binding Ig. Discussion: A. fumigatus immunogenicity was confirmed without identification of single dominant antigens here. A. fumigatus provoked elevated BALF IgG1 and IgA binding, and these isotypes appear relevant for neutrophilic EA, which does not support allergy. BALF Ig isotype differentiation beyond IgE is crucial for a comprehensive analysis of immune responses to fungi in EA pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Fungos , Aspergillus fumigatus , Asma , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Doenças dos Cavalos , Imunoglobulina A , Imunoglobulina G , Animais , Cavalos/imunologia , Aspergillus fumigatus/imunologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Asma/imunologia , Asma/microbiologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Antígenos de Fungos/imunologia , Masculino , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Anticorpos Antifúngicos/imunologia , Anticorpos Antifúngicos/sangue
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