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1.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 36(2): 80-85, mar.-abr. 2024. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231497

RESUMO

La diabetes, especialmente la tipo 2, está considerada como una situación de riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerosa (ECVA). Los sujetos con diabetes tipo 2 tienen una mortalidad por ECVA 3 veces superior a la de la población general, atribuida a la hiperglucemia y a la frecuente asociación de otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular, como la dislipidemia aterogénica. Numerosas sociedades científicas han establecido una clasificación de riesgo de ECVA en la diabetes basada en 3 grados (moderado, alto y muy alto). Los objetivos del control de la dislipidemia están claramente definidos y aceptados, y varían dependiendo del riesgo cardiovascular previamente establecido. En el riesgo moderado o intermedio, las guías proponen una intervención menos intensiva, manteniendo cifras de c-LDL<100mg/dL y de c-no-HDL<130mg/dL, y esperar 10 años hasta alcanzar la categoría de alto riesgo para iniciar un tratamiento más intensivo. Sin embargo, durante la década de seguimiento preconizada en las guías, el depósito de colesterol en la pared arterial va aumentando, facilitando el desarrollo de una placa de ateroma inestable e inflamatoria, y el desarrollo de ECVA. Alternativamente, se podría considerar desde el inicio que la diabetes conlleva una situación de alto riesgo y el objetivo debería ser c-LDL<70mg/dL. Además, mantener cifras de c-LDL<70mg/dL contribuye a reducir y estabilizar la placa de ateroma, evitando o disminuyendo episodios de mortalidad por ECVA durante esos años de evolución de la diabetes. ¿Deberíamos mantener los objetivos propuestos en los sujetos con diabetes y riesgo moderado durante una década hasta alcanzar la fase de alto riesgo cardiovascular o, por el contrario, adoptar desde el inicio una postura más intensiva buscando reducir el riesgo cardiovascular en la mayoría de los pacientes con diabetes? ¿Es mejor esperar o prevenir con medidas terapéuticas efectivas desde el primer momento? (AU)


Diabetes, especially type 2, is considered a risk situation for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Subjects with diabetes type 2 have a mortality rate due to ASCVD 3 times higher than that found in the general population, attributed to hyperglycemia and the frequent association of other cardiovascular risk factors, such as atherogenic dyslipidemia. Numerous scientific societies have established a risk classification for ASCVD in diabetes based on 3 degrees (moderate, high and very high). The objectives of dyslipidemia control are clearly defined and accepted, and vary depending on the previously established cardiovascular risk. In moderate or intermediate risk, the guidelines propose a less intensive intervention, maintaining LDL-C levels<100mg/dL and NO-HDL-C levels<130mg/dL, and waiting 10 years until reaching the high-risk category to initiate more intensive treatment. However, during the decade of follow-up recommended in the guidelines, cholesterol deposition in the arterial wall increases, facilitating the development of an unstable and inflammatory atheromatous plaque, and the development of ASCVD. Alternatively, diabetes could be considered from the outset to be a high-risk situation and the goal should be LDL-C<70mg/dL. Furthermore, maintaining LDL-C levels<70mg/dL contributes to reducing and stabilizing atheromatous plaque, avoiding or reducing mortality episodes due to ASCVD during those years of diabetes evolution. Should we maintain the proposed objectives in subjects with diabetes and moderate risk for a decade until reaching the high cardiovascular risk phase or, on the contrary, should we adopt a more intensive stance from the beginning seeking to reduce cardiovascular risk in the majority of patients with diabetes? Is it better to wait or prevent with effective therapeutic measures from the first moment? (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Arteriosclerose/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Dislipidemias
2.
JAMA ; 331(13): 1135-1144, 2024 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563834

RESUMO

Importance: The association of tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) abundance in breast cancer tissue with cancer recurrence and death in patients with early-stage triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) who are not treated with adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy is unclear. Objective: To study the association of TIL abundance in breast cancer tissue with survival among patients with early-stage TNBC who were treated with locoregional therapy but no chemotherapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective pooled analysis of individual patient-level data from 13 participating centers in North America (Rochester, Minnesota; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada), Europe (Paris, Lyon, and Villejuif, France; Amsterdam and Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Milan, Padova, and Genova, Italy; Gothenburg, Sweden), and Asia (Tokyo, Japan; Seoul, Korea), including 1966 participants diagnosed with TNBC between 1979 and 2017 (with follow-up until September 27, 2021) who received treatment with surgery with or without radiotherapy but no adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Exposure: TIL abundance in breast tissue from resected primary tumors. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was invasive disease-free survival [iDFS]. Secondary outcomes were recurrence-free survival [RFS], survival free of distant recurrence [distant RFS, DRFS], and overall survival. Associations were assessed using a multivariable Cox model stratified by participating center. Results: This study included 1966 patients with TNBC (median age, 56 years [IQR, 39-71]; 55% had stage I TNBC). The median TIL level was 15% (IQR, 5%-40%). Four-hundred seventeen (21%) had a TIL level of 50% or more (median age, 41 years [IQR, 36-63]), and 1300 (66%) had a TIL level of less than 30% (median age, 59 years [IQR, 41-72]). Five-year DRFS for stage I TNBC was 94% (95% CI, 91%-96%) for patients with a TIL level of 50% or more, compared with 78% (95% CI, 75%-80%) for those with a TIL level of less than 30%; 5-year overall survival was 95% (95% CI, 92%-97%) for patients with a TIL level of 50% or more, compared with 82% (95% CI, 79%-84%) for those with a TIL level of less than 30%. At a median follow-up of 18 years, and after adjusting for age, tumor size, nodal status, histological grade, and receipt of radiotherapy, each 10% higher TIL increment was associated independently with improved iDFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.92 [0.89-0.94]), RFS (HR, 0.90 [0.87-0.92]), DRFS (HR, 0.87 [0.84-0.90]), and overall survival (0.88 [0.85-0.91]) (likelihood ratio test, P < 10e-6). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with early-stage TNBC who did not undergo adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy, breast cancer tissue with a higher abundance of TIL levels was associated with significantly better survival. These results suggest that breast tissue TIL abundance is a prognostic factor for patients with early-stage TNBC.


Assuntos
Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Colúmbia Britânica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia
5.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 162(5): 213-219, Mar. 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-230914

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivos: En España carecemos de datos poblacionales de hospitalizaciones por insuficiencia cardiaca (IC) según sea sistólica o diastólica. Analizamos las diferencias clínicas, en mortalidad intrahospitalaria y reingresos de causa cardiovascular a los 30 días entre ambos tipos. Métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de pacientes dados de alta con el diagnóstico principal de IC de los hospitales del Sistema Nacional de Salud entre 2016 y 2019, distinguiendo entre IC sistólica y diastólica. La fuente de datos fue el conjunto mínimo básico de datos del Ministerio de Sanidad. Se calcularon las razones de mortalidad intrahospitalaria y de reingreso a los 30 días estandarizadas por riesgo usando sendos modelos de regresión logística multinivel de ajuste de riesgo. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 190.200 episodios de IC. De ellos, 163.727 (86,1%) fueron por IC diastólica y se caracterizaron por presentar mayor edad, mayor proporción de mujeres, de diabetes y de insuficiencia renal que los de IC sistólica. Según los modelos de ajuste de riesgo la IC diastólica, frente a la sistólica, se comportó como un factor protector de mortalidad intrahospitalaria (odds ratio [OR]: 0,79; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC 95%]: 0,75-0,83; p<0,001) y de reingreso de causa cardiovascular a los 30 días (OR: 0,93; IC 95%: 0,88-0,97; p0,002). Conclusiones: En España, entre 2016 y 2019, los episodios de hospitalización por IC fueron mayoritariamente por IC diastólica. Según los modelos de ajuste de riesgo la IC diastólica, con respecto a la sistólica, fue un factor protector de mortalidad intrahospitalaria y de reingreso de causa cardiovascular a los 30 días.(AU)


Background and purpose: In Spain there is a lack of population data that specifically compare hospitalization for systolic and diastolic heart failure (HF). We assessed clinical characteristics, in-hospital mortality and 30-day cardiovascular readmission rates differentiating by HF type. Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients discharged with the principal diagnosis of HF from The National Health System’ acute hospital during 2016-2019, distinguishing between systolic and diastolic HF. The source of the data was the Minimum Basic Data Set. The risk-standardized in-hospital mortality ratio and risk-standardized 30-day cardiovascular readmission ratio were calculated using multilevel risk adjustment models. Results: The 190,200 episodes of HF were selected. Of these, 163,727 (86.1%) were classified as diastolic HF and were characterized by older age, higher proportion of women, diabetes mellitus, dementia and renal failure than those with systolic HF. In the multilevel risk adjustment models, diastolic HF was a protective factor for both in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75-0.83; P<.001) and 30-day cardiovascular readmission versus systolic HF (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88-0.97; P=.002). Conclusions: In Spain, between 2016 and 2019, hospitalization episodes for HF were mostly due to diastolic HF. According to the multilevel risk adjustment models, diastolic HF compared to systolic HF was a protective factor for both in-hospital mortality and 30-day cardiovascular readmission.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/diagnóstico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medicina Clínica , Espanha , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/mortalidade
6.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 48(3): 133-141, Mar. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231019

RESUMO

Objective To analyze characteristics, changes in oxygenation, and pulmonary mechanics, in mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS due to SARS-CoV-2 treated with prone position and evaluate the response to this maneuver.Design Cohort study including patients with PaO2/FiO2 <150mmHg requiring prone position over 18 months. We classified patients according to PaO2/FiO2 changes from basal to 24h after the first prone cycle as: 1) no increase 2) increase <25%, 3) 25%–50% increase 4) increase >50%. Setting 33-bed medical-surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in Argentina. Patients 273 patients. Interventions None. Main variables of interest Epidemiological characteristics, respiratory mechanics and oxygenation were compared between survivors and non-survivors. Independent factors associated with in-hospital mortality were identified. Results Baseline PaO2/FiO2 was 116 [97–135]mmHg (115 [94–136] in survivors vs. 117 [98–134] in non-survivors; p=0.50). After prone positioning, 22 patients (8%) had similar PaO2/FiO2 values; 46(16%) increased PaO2/FiO2 ≤25%; 55 (21%) increased it 25%–50%; and 150 (55%), >50%. Mortality was 86%, 87%, 72% and 50% respectively (p<0.001). Baseline PaO2/FiO2, <100mmHg did not imply that patients were refractory to prone position. Factors independently associated with mortality were age, percentage increase in PaO2/FiO2 after 24h being in prone, and number of prone cycles. Conclusions Older patients unable to improve PaO2/FiO2 after 24h in prone position and who require >1 cycle might early receive additional treatments for refractory hypoxemia. After the first 24h in the prone position, a low percentage of PaO2/FiO2 increase over baseline, beyond the initial value, was independently associated with higher mortality. (AU)


Objetivo Analizar las características, cambios en la oxigenación y mecánica pulmonar, en pacientes ventilados mecánicamente con SDRA por SARS-CoV-2 tratados con posición prona, y evaluar la respuesta a esta maniobra. Diseño Estudio de cohorte que incluyó pacientes con PaO2/FiO2 <150mmHg que requirieron posición prona durante 18 meses. Se clasificaron los pacientes según los cambios de PaO2/FiO2 desde el basal y 24horas después del primer ciclo prono como: 1) Sin aumento 2) Aumento <25%, 3) 25–50% de aumento 4) Aumento >50%. Ambito Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) médico-quirúrgica de 33 camas en Argentina. Pacientes 273 pacientes. Intervenciones Ninguna. Principales variables de interés Se compararon características epidemiológicas, mecánica respiratoria y oxigenación entre sobrevivientes y no sobrevivientes. Se identificaron factores independientes asociados a la mortalidad hospitalaria. Resultados La PaO2/FiO2 basal fue de 116 [97–135]mmHg (115 [94–136] en sobrevivientes vs. 117 [98–134] en no sobrevivientes; p=0,50). Después de la posición prona, 22 pacientes (8%) tenían valores similares de PaO2/FiO2; 46 (16%) aumentaron PaO2/FiO2 ≤25%; 55 (21%) lo aumentaron 25%–50%; y 150 (55%), >50%. La mortalidad fue de 86%, 87%, 72% y 50% respectivamente (p<0,001). La PaO2/FiO2 basal, <100mmHg no implicó que los pacientes fueran refractarios a la posición prona. Los factores asociados independientemente con la mortalidad fueron la edad, el aumento porcentual de PaO2/FiO2 después de 24horas en prona, y el número de ciclos prono. Conclusiones Los pacientes mayores que no pueden mejorar PaO2/FiO2 después de 24 horas en posición prona y que requieren más de 1 ciclo podrían recibir tratamientos adicionales para la hipoxemia refractaria. Después de las primeras 24horas en decúbito prono, un bajo porcentaje de aumento de PaO2/FiO2 sobre el valor basal, más allá del valor inicial, se asoció de forma independiente con una mayor mortalidad. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Decúbito Ventral , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/terapia , /epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial , Mecânica Respiratória , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade , Oxigenação , Argentina/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
7.
Reumatol. clín. (Barc.) ; 20(3): 150-154, Mar. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231128

RESUMO

La artritis reumatoide (AR) presenta una mortalidad de 1,3-3 veces superior a la población general donde destaca la mortalidad de origen cardiovascular con un 40-50%. Actualmente se considera la enfermedad cardiovascular como una manifestación extraarticular de la AR, siendo un factor de riesgo independiente de los tradicionales, con un riesgo elevado de enfermedad cardiovascular (OR: 1,5-4,0). La medición ecográfica del grosor íntimo medial (GIM) de la arteria carótida común y la presencia de placas ateromatosas es un método no invasivo y marcador subrogado de arterioesclerosis subclínica. Objetivo: Establecer si los hallazgos de arterioesclerosis subclínica por ecografía carotídea pueden ser un buen predictor del desarrollo de eventos cardiovasculares (ECV) en una cohorte de pacientes con AR a 10 años. Metodología: Se evaluó una cohorte de pacientes con AR atendidos en consulta externa de Reumatología de una hospital de Castilla-La Mancha durante el año 2013. Se realizó una evaluación para el desarrollo de ECV a los 10 años siguientes de comenzado el estudio y se analizó su correlación con los hallazgos ecográficos previos de GIM y placas ateromatosas. Resultados: Ocho (24%) pacientes presentaron un ECV. Tres (9%), episodio de fallo cardiaco; 3 (9%) accidente cerebrovascular y 2 (6%) episodio de infarto agudo al miocardio. Los pacientes con AR que desarrollaron un ECV habían presentado un GIM mayor (0,97±0,08mm) en comparación con los pacientes con AR que no tuvieron complicaciones cardiovasculares (0,74±0,15mm) (p=0,003). La presencia de un GIM≥0,9mm y placas ateromatosas representó un riesgo relativo de 12,25 (p=0,012) y 18,66 (p=0,003), respectivamente, para el desarrollo de un ECV. Conclusiones: La ecografía carotídea en pacientes con AR nos podría permitir la detección precoz de aterosclerosis subclínica antes del desarrollo de ECV, siendo fundamentalmente el GIM≥0,9mm el hallazgo más asociado a ECV y no influenciado por la edad.(AU)


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has a mortality rate 1.3–3 times higher than the general population, with cardiovascular mortality accounting for 40%–50% of cases. Currently, cardiovascular disease is considered an extra-articular manifestation of RA (OR: 1.5–4.0). Ultrasound measurement of the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery and the presence of atherosclerotic plaques is a non-invasive method and a surrogate marker of subclinical arteriosclerosis. Objective: To determine if subclinical arteriosclerosis findings through carotid ultrasound can serve as a good predictor of cardiovascular events (CVE) development in a cohort of RA patients over a 10-year period. Methodology: A cohort of RA patients seen in the rheumatology outpatient clinic of a hospital in Castilla-La Mancha in 2013 was evaluated. A prospective evaluation for the development of CVE over the following 10 years was conducted, and its correlation with previous ultrasound findings of IMT and atherosclerotic plaques was analyzed. Results: Eight (24%) patients experienced a CVE. Three (9%) had heart failure, three (9%) had a stroke, and two (6%) experienced acute myocardial infarction. RA patients who developed a CVE had a higher IMT (0.97±0.08mm) compared to the RA patients without cardiovascular complications (0.74±0.15mm) (P=.003). The presence of IMT≥0.9mm and atherosclerotic plaques had a relative risk of 12.25 (P=.012) and 18.66 (P=.003), respectively, for the development of a CVE. Conclusions: Carotid ultrasound in RA patients may allow for early detection of subclinical atherosclerosis before the development of CVE, with IMT≥0.9mm being the most closely associated finding with CVE, unaffected by age.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Arteriosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Placa Aterosclerótica , Reumatologia , Doenças Reumáticas , Espanha , Estudos de Coortes , Artrite Reumatoide/mortalidade
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(3): e05202023, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451646

RESUMO

This ecological study examined time series, from 2002 to 20121, of age-adjusted coefficients of cervical cancer mortality, in Brazil, in women aged 20 years or more, by race. The information sources were Brazil's mortality information system (Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade - SIM) and the official bureau of statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE). Annual changes in age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated using the Prais-Winsten linear regression method. Black women die more and the rate is decreasing less. Racial inequality has increased over the years. In 2002, there were 0.08 more deaths per 100,000 women in the black population than among white women; in 2021, the number was one death. Health policymaking should consider racial differences in the implementation of strategies and goals.


O objetivo desse artigo é analisar séries temporais da mortalidade por câncer de colo do útero segundo raça/cor no Brasil de 2002 a 2021. Estudo ecológico de séries temporais com dados do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade e informações populacionais do IBGE. Variações anuais das taxas de mortalidade ajustadas por idade de mulheres de 20 anos ou mais foram estimadas pelo modelo de regressão linear simples com correção de Prais-Winsten. Foram registrados 133.429 óbitos por câncer de colo de útero, destes, 51,2% foram de mulheres negras. As mulheres negras morrem mais e têm menor queda do coeficiente. Houve aumento da desigualdade racial ao longo dos anos. Em 2002, ocorriam 0,08 óbitos/100 mil mulheres a mais na população negra comparada com a população branca; em 2021 esse número é de aproximadamente 1 óbito. Para a elaboração de políticas de saúde da mulher devem ser consideradas as diferenças raciais na implementação de estratégias e metas.


Assuntos
Iniquidades em Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Feminino , Humanos , População Negra , Brasil/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Formulação de Políticas , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade
9.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 39(3): e6068, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429957

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Data regarding the trends in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mortality in the modern European Union (EU-27) member states are lacking. We assess the sex- and age-specific trends in AD mortality in the EU-27 member states between years 2012 and 2020. METHODS: Data on cause-specific deaths and population numbers by sex for each country of the EU-27 were retrieved through publicly available European Statistical Office (EUROSTAT) dataset from 2012 to 2020. AD-related deaths were ascertained when the ICD-10 code G30 was listed as the primary cause of death in the medical death certificate. To calculate annual trends, we assessed the average annual percent change (AAPC) with relative 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Joinpoint regression. RESULTS: During the study period, 751,493 deaths (1.7%, 233,271 males and 518,222 females) occurred in the EU-27 because of AD. Trends in the proportion of AD-related deaths per 1000 total deaths slightly increased from 16.8% to 17.5% (p for trend <0.001). The age-adjusted mortality rate was higher in women over the entire study period. Joinpoint regression analysis revealed a stagnation in age-adjusted AD-related mortality from 2012 to 2020 among EU-27 Member States (AAMR: -0.1% [95% CI: -1.8-1.79], p = 0.94). Stratification by Country showed relevant regional disparities, especially in the Northern and Eastern EU-27 member states. CONCLUSIONS: Over the last decade, the age-adjusted AD-related mortality rate has plateaued in EU-27. Important disparities still exist between Western and Eastern European countries.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Estatísticas Vitais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Alzheimer/mortalidade , União Europeia , Mortalidade
10.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e073765, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to characterise oxycodone's distribution and opioid-related overdoses in the USA by state from 2000 to 2021. DESIGN: This is an observational study. SETTING: More than 80 000 Americans died of an opioid overdose in 2021 as the USA continues to struggle with an opioid crisis. Prescription opioids play a substantial role, introducing patients to opioids and providing a supply of drugs that can be redirected to those seeking to misuse them. METHODS: The Drug Enforcement Administration annual summary reports from the Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders System provided weights of oxycodone distributed per state by business type (pharmacies, hospitals and practitioners). Weights were converted to morphine milligram equivalents (MME) per capita and normalised for population. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging ONline Data for Epidemiologic Research provided mortality data for heroin, other opioids, methadone, other synthetic narcotics and other/unspecified narcotics. RESULTS: There was a sharp 280.13% increase in total MME/person of oxycodone from 2000 to 2010, followed by a slower 54.34% decrease from 2010 to 2021. Florida (2007-2011), Delaware (2003-2020) and Tennessee (2012-2021) displayed consistent and substantial elevations in combined MME/person compared with other states. In the peak year (2010), there was a 15-fold difference between the highest and lowest states. MME/person from only pharmacies, which constituted >94% of the total, showed similar results. Hospitals in Alaska (2000-2001, 2008, 2010-2021), Colorado (2008-2021) and DC (2000-2011) distributed substantially more MME/person over many years compared with other states. Florida stood out in practitioner-distributed oxycodone, with an elevation of almost 15-fold the average state from 2006 to 2010. Opioid-related deaths increased +806% from 2000 to 2021, largely driven by heroin, other opioids and other synthetic narcotics. CONCLUSIONS: Oxycodone distribution across the USA showed marked differences between states and business types over time. Investigation of opioid policies in states of interest may provide insight for future actions to mitigate opioid misuse.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Overdose de Drogas , Overdose de Opiáceos , Oxicodona , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Heroína , Entorpecentes , Overdose de Opiáceos/mortalidade , Oxicodona/envenenamento , Tennessee , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
JAMA ; 331(10): 850-860, 2024 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470385

RESUMO

Importance: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased risks of adverse health outcomes including premature death, but it is unclear whether ADHD pharmacotherapy influences the mortality risk. Objective: To investigate whether initiation of ADHD pharmacotherapy was associated with reduced mortality risk in individuals with ADHD. Design, Setting, and Participants: In an observational nationwide cohort study in Sweden applying the target trial emulation framework, we identified individuals aged 6 through 64 years with an incident diagnosis of ADHD from 2007 through 2018 and no ADHD medication dispensation prior to diagnosis. Follow-up started from ADHD diagnosis until death, emigration, 2 years after ADHD diagnosis, or December 31, 2020, whichever came first. Exposures: ADHD medication initiation was defined as dispensing of medication within 3 months of diagnosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: We assessed all-cause mortality within 2 years of ADHD diagnosis, as well as natural-cause (eg, physical conditions) and unnatural-cause mortality (eg, unintentional injuries, suicide, and accidental poisonings). Results: Of 148 578 individuals with ADHD (61 356 females [41.3%]), 84 204 (56.7%) initiated ADHD medication. The median age at diagnosis was 17.4 years (IQR, 11.6-29.1 years). The 2-year mortality risk was lower in the initiation treatment strategy group (39.1 per 10 000 individuals) than in the noninitiation treatment strategy group (48.1 per 10 000 individuals), with a risk difference of -8.9 per 10 000 individuals (95% CI, -17.3 to -0.6). ADHD medication initiation was associated with significantly lower rate of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.88) and unnatural-cause mortality (2-year mortality risk, 25.9 per 10 000 individuals vs 33.3 per 10 000 individuals; risk difference, -7.4 per 10 000 individuals; 95% CI, -14.2 to -0.5; HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.86), but not natural-cause mortality (2-year mortality risk, 13.1 per 10 000 individuals vs 14.7 per 10 000 individuals; risk difference, -1.6 per 10 000 individuals; 95% CI, -6.4 to 3.2; HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.05). Conclusions and Relevance: Among individuals diagnosed with ADHD, medication initiation was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality, particularly for death due to unnatural causes.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Mortalidade Prematura , Suécia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico
12.
N Engl J Med ; 390(12): 1080-1091, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ribociclib has been shown to have a significant overall survival benefit in patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer. Whether this benefit in advanced breast cancer extends to early breast cancer is unclear. METHODS: In this international, open-label, randomized, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative early breast cancer in a 1:1 ratio to receive ribociclib (at a dose of 400 mg per day for 3 weeks, followed by 1 week off, for 3 years) plus a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI; letrozole at a dose of 2.5 mg per day or anastrozole at a dose of 1 mg per day for ≥5 years) or an NSAI alone. Premenopausal women and men also received goserelin every 28 days. Eligible patients had anatomical stage II or III breast cancer. Here we report the results of a prespecified interim analysis of invasive disease-free survival, the primary end point; other efficacy and safety results are also reported. Invasive disease-free survival was evaluated with the use of the Kaplan-Meier method. The statistical comparison was made with the use of a stratified log-rank test, with a protocol-specified stopping boundary of a one-sided P-value threshold of 0.0128 for superior efficacy. RESULTS: As of the data-cutoff date for this prespecified interim analysis (January 11, 2023), a total of 426 patients had had invasive disease, recurrence, or death. A significant invasive disease-free survival benefit was seen with ribociclib plus an NSAI as compared with an NSAI alone. At 3 years, invasive disease-free survival was 90.4% with ribociclib plus an NSAI and 87.1% with an NSAI alone (hazard ratio for invasive disease, recurrence, or death, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.62 to 0.91; P = 0.003). Secondary end points - distant disease-free survival and recurrence-free survival - also favored ribociclib plus an NSAI. The 3-year regimen of ribociclib at a 400-mg starting dose plus an NSAI was not associated with any new safety signals. CONCLUSIONS: Ribociclib plus an NSAI significantly improved invasive disease-free survival among patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative stage II or III early breast cancer. (Funded by Novartis; NATALEE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03701334.).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Inibidores da Aromatase , Neoplasias da Mama , Letrozol , Feminino , Humanos , Aminopiridinas/administração & dosagem , Aminopiridinas/efeitos adversos , Aminopiridinas/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Letrozol/administração & dosagem , Letrozol/efeitos adversos , Letrozol/uso terapêutico , Purinas/administração & dosagem , Purinas/efeitos adversos , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Estrogênio , Receptores de Progesterona , Gosserrelina/administração & dosagem , Gosserrelina/efeitos adversos , Gosserrelina/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Hormonais , Masculino
13.
JAMA ; 331(11): 951-958, 2024 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502069

RESUMO

Importance: Child maltreatment, which includes child abuse and neglect, can have profound effects on health, development, survival, and well-being throughout childhood and adulthood. The prevalence of child maltreatment in the US is uncertain and likely underestimated. In 2021, an estimated 600 000 children were identified by Child Protective Services as experiencing abuse or neglect and an estimated 1820 children died of abuse and neglect. Objective: The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review to evaluate benefits and harms of primary care-feasible or referable behavioral counseling interventions to prevent child maltreatment in children and adolescents younger than 18 years without signs or symptoms of maltreatment. Population: Children and adolescents younger than 18 years who do not have signs or symptoms of or known exposure to maltreatment. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to determine the balance of benefits and harms of primary care interventions to prevent child maltreatment in children and adolescents younger than 18 years without signs or symptoms of or known exposure to maltreatment. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of primary care interventions to prevent child maltreatment. (I statement).


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Comitês Consultivos , Terapia Comportamental , Maus-Tratos Infantis/mortalidade , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
JAMA ; 331(7): 592-600, 2024 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497697

RESUMO

Importance: Residential evictions may have increased excess mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To estimate excess mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic for renters who received eviction filings (threatened renters). Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used an excess mortality framework. Mortality based on linked eviction and death records from 2020 through 2021 was compared with projected mortality estimated from similar records from 2010 through 2016. Data from court records between January 1, 2020, and August 31, 2021, were collected via the Eviction Lab's Eviction Tracking System. Similar data from court records between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2016, also collected by the Eviction Lab, were used to estimate projected mortality during the pandemic. We also constructed 2 comparison groups: all individuals living in the study area and a subsample of those individuals living in high-poverty, high-filing tracts. Exposures: Eviction filing. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause mortality in a given month. The difference between observed mortality and projected mortality was used as a measure of excess mortality associated with the pandemic. Results: The cohort of threatened renters during the pandemic period consisted of 282 000 individuals (median age, 36 years [IQR, 28-47]). Eviction filings were 44.7% lower than expected during the study period. The composition of threatened renters by race, ethnicity, sex, and socioeconomic characteristics during the pandemic was comparable with the prepandemic composition. Expected cumulative age-standardized mortality among threatened renters during this 20-month period of the pandemic was 116.5 (95% CI, 104.0-130.3) per 100 000 person-months, and observed mortality was 238.6 (95% CI, 230.8-246.3) per 100 000 person-months or 106% higher than expected. In contrast, expected mortality for the population living in similar neighborhoods was 114.6 (95% CI, 112.1-116.8) per 100 000 person-months, and observed mortality was 142.8 (95% CI, 140.2-145.3) per 100 000 person-months or 25% higher than expected. In the general population across the study area, expected mortality was 83.5 (95% CI, 83.3-83.8) per 100 000 person-months, and observed mortality was 91.6 (95% CI, 91.4-91.8) per 100 000 person-months or 9% higher than expected. The pandemic produced positive excess mortality ratios across all age groups among threatened renters. Conclusions and Relevance: Renters who received eviction filings experienced substantial excess mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Instabilidade Habitacional , Mortalidade , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541263

RESUMO

We conducted a comparative historical study to interrogate Professor Peter Doherty's warning to Australians in April 2020 that 'COVID-19 is just as lethal as the Spanish flu'. We identified the epicentres of both pandemics, namely, metropolitan Sydney in 1919 and metropolitan Melbourne in 2020 and compared the lethality of the Spanish Flu and COVID-19 in these two cities. Lethality was measured by the number and rate of hospital admissions, death rates, age-specific death rates and age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs). Using these measures, we demonstrated the strikingly different waves of infection, their severity at various points in time and the cumulative impact of the viruses by the end of our study period, i.e., 30 September in 1919 and 2020. Hospital admissions and deaths from the Spanish Flu in 1919 were more than 30 times higher than those for COVID-19 in 2020. The ASMR per 100,000 population for the Spanish Flu was 383 compared to 7 for COVID-19: The former was about 55 times higher than the latter. These results suggest that the Spanish Flu was more lethal than COVID-19. Professor Doherty's warning was perhaps taken seriously and that partly explains the findings of this study. Containing infection in 1919 and 2020 threw the burden on nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as 'protective sequestration' (quarantine), contact tracing, lockdowns and masks. It is likely that the persistent and detailed contact tracing scheme provides the best possible explanation for why NPIs in 2020 were more effective than in 1919 and therefore contributed to the lower lethality of the COVID-19 pandemic in its first year.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919 , Humanos , Austrália , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , COVID-19/mortalidade , História do Século XX , Pandemias
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