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2.
JAMA ; 328(18): 1849-1861, 2022 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346411

RESUMO

Importance: Hypertension, defined as persistent systolic blood pressure (SBP) at least 130 mm Hg or diastolic BP (DBP) at least 80 mm Hg, affects approximately 116 million adults in the US and more than 1 billion adults worldwide. Hypertension is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (coronary heart disease, heart failure, and stroke) and death. Observations: First-line therapy for hypertension is lifestyle modification, including weight loss, healthy dietary pattern that includes low sodium and high potassium intake, physical activity, and moderation or elimination of alcohol consumption. The BP-lowering effects of individual lifestyle components are partially additive and enhance the efficacy of pharmacologic therapy. The decision to initiate antihypertensive medication should be based on the level of BP and the presence of high atherosclerotic CVD risk. First-line drug therapy for hypertension consists of a thiazide or thiazidelike diuretic such as hydrochlorothiazide or chlorthalidone, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker such as enalapril or candesartan, and a calcium channel blocker such as amlodipine and should be titrated according to office and home SBP/DBP levels to achieve in most people an SBP/DBP target (<130/80 mm Hg for adults <65 years and SBP <130 mm Hg in adults ≥65 years). Randomized clinical trials have established the efficacy of BP lowering to reduce the risk of CVD morbidity and mortality. An SBP reduction of 10 mm Hg decreases risk of CVD events by approximately 20% to 30%. Despite the benefits of BP control, only 44% of US adults with hypertension have their SBP/DBP controlled to less than 140/90 mm Hg. Conclusions and Relevance: Hypertension affects approximately 116 million adults in the US and more than 1 billion adults worldwide and is a leading cause of CVD morbidity and mortality. First-line therapy for hypertension is lifestyle modification, consisting of weight loss, dietary sodium reduction and potassium supplementation, healthy dietary pattern, physical activity, and limited alcohol consumption. When drug therapy is required, first-line therapies are thiazide or thiazidelike diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blockers, and calcium channel blockers.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Adulto , Humanos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Hidroclorotiazida/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Hipertensão/terapia , Potássio/uso terapêutico , Redução de Peso
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18555, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329070

RESUMO

Females are known to have a better survival rate than males in the general population, but previous studies have shown that this superior survival is diminished in patients on dialysis. This study aimed to investigate the risk of mortality in relation to sex among Korean patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). A total of 4994 patients with kidney failure who were receiving dialysis were included for a prospective nationwide cohort study. Cox multivariate proportional hazard models were used to determine the association between sex and the risk of cause-specific mortality according to dialysis modality. During a median follow-up of 5.8 years, the death rate per 100 person-years was 6.4 and 8.3 in females and males, respectively. The female-to-male mortality rate in patients on dialysis was 0.77, compared to 0.85 in the general population. In adjusted analyses, the risk of all-cause mortality was significantly lower for females than males in the entire population (hazard ratio [HR] 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.87, P < 0.001). No significant differences in the risk of cardiovascular and infection-related deaths were observed according to sex. The risk of mortality due to sudden death, cancer, other, or unknown causes was significantly lower for females than males in the entire population (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.56-0.78, P < 0.001), in patients on HD (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.90, P = 0.003), and in patients on PD (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.34-0.70, P < 0.001). The survival advantage of females in the general population was maintained in Korean dialysis patients, which was attributed to a lower risk of noncardiovascular and noninfectious death.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00931970.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Coreia (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(166)2022 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strongly age-dependent, we aimed to identify population subgroups at an elevated risk for adverse outcomes from COVID-19 using age-/gender-adjusted data from European cohort studies with the aim to identify populations that could potentially benefit from booster vaccinations. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to investigate the role of underlying medical conditions as prognostic factors for adverse outcomes due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), including death, hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation within three separate settings (community, hospital and ICU). Cohort studies that reported at least age and gender-adjusted data from Europe were identified through a search of peer-reviewed articles published until 11 June 2021 in Ovid Medline and Embase. Results are presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and absolute risk differences in deaths per 1000 COVID-19 patients. FINDINGS: We included 88 cohort studies with age-/gender-adjusted data from 6 653 207 SARS-CoV-2 patients from Europe. Hospital-based mortality was associated with high and moderate certainty evidence for solid organ tumours, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, liver disease and obesity, while a higher risk, albeit with low certainty, was noted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure. Community-based mortality was associated with a history of heart failure, stroke, diabetes and end-stage renal disease. Evidence of high/moderate certainty revealed a strong association between hospitalisation for COVID-19 and solid organ transplant recipients, sleep apnoea, diabetes, stroke and liver disease. INTERPRETATION: The results confirmed the strong association between specific prognostic factors and mortality and hospital admission. Prioritisation of booster vaccinations and the implementation of nonpharmaceutical protective measures for these populations may contribute to a reduction in COVID-19 mortality, ICU and hospital admissions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hospitalização , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino
5.
Science ; 378(6619): 459-461, 2022 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378986
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20048, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414650

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) can be asymptomatic or lead to a wide symptom spectrum, including multi-organ damage and death. Here, we explored the potential of microRNAs in delineating patient condition and predicting clinical outcome. Plasma microRNA profiling of hospitalized COVID-19 patients showed that miR-144-3p was dynamically regulated in response to COVID-19. Thus, we further investigated the biomarker potential of miR-144-3p measured at admission in 179 COVID-19 patients and 29 healthy controls recruited in three centers. In hospitalized patients, circulating miR-144-3p levels discriminated between non-critical and critical illness (AUCmiR-144-3p = 0.71; p = 0.0006), acting also as mortality predictor (AUCmiR-144-3p = 0.67; p = 0.004). In non-hospitalized patients, plasma miR-144-3p levels discriminated mild from moderate disease (AUCmiR-144-3p = 0.67; p = 0.03). Uncontrolled release of pro-inflammatory cytokines can lead to clinical deterioration. Thus, we explored the added value of a miR-144/cytokine combined analysis in the assessment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. A miR-144-3p/Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) combined score discriminated between non-critical and critical hospitalized patients (AUCmiR-144-3p/EGF = 0.81; p < 0.0001); moreover, a miR-144-3p/Interleukin-10 (IL-10) score discriminated survivors from nonsurvivors (AUCmiR-144-3p/IL-10 = 0.83; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, circulating miR-144-3p, possibly in combination with IL-10 or EGF, emerges as a noninvasive tool for early risk-based stratification and mortality prediction in COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico , Interleucina-10 , MicroRNAs/sangue
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20050, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414767

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common postoperative disorder that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Although the role of AKI as an independent risk factor for mortality has been well characterized in major surgeries, its effect on postoperative outcomes in plastic and reconstructive surgery has not been evaluated. This study explored the association between postoperative AKI and mortality in patients undergoing plastic and reconstructive surgery. Consecutive adult patients who underwent plastic and reconstructive surgery without end-stage renal disease (n = 7059) at our institution from January 2011 to July 2019 were identified. The patients were divided into two groups according to occurrence of postoperative AKI: 7000 patients (99.2%) in the no AKI group and 59 patients (0.8%) in the AKI group. The primary outcome was mortality during the first year, and overall mortality and 30-days mortality were also compared. After inverse probability weighting, mortality during the first year after plastic and reconstructive surgery was significantly increased in the AKI group (1.9% vs. 18.6%; hazard ratio, 6.69; 95% confidence interval, 2.65-16.85; p < 0.001). In this study, overall and 30-day mortalities were shown to be higher in the AKI group, and further studies are needed on postoperative AKI in plastic and reconstructive surgery.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Adulto , Humanos , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Incidência , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Physiol Rep ; 10(22): e15512, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397298

RESUMO

Previous studies suggested that ongoing treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor drugs may alter the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and promote the development of more severe forms of the disease. The authors conducted a comparative, observational study to retrospectively analyze data collected from 394 patients admitted to ICU due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. The primary aim of the study was to establish an association between the use of RAAS inhibitor drugs and mortality in the ICU. The secondary aims of the study were to establish an association between the use of RAAS inhibitor drugs and clinical severity at ICU admission, the need for tracheal intubation, total days of mechanical ventilation, and the ICU length of stay. The authors found no statistically significant difference in ICU mortality between patients on RAAS inhibitor drugs at admission and those who were not (31.3% versus 26.2% mortality, p-value 0.3). However, the group of patients taking RAAS inhibitor drugs appeared to be more critical at ICU admission, and this difference became statistically significant in the subgroup of non-hypertensive patients. ICU mortality in the subgroup of non-hypertensive patients treated with RAAS inhibitor drugs also tended to be higher. Overexpression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in human cells, induced by RAAS inhibitor drugs, promotes viral entry-replication of SARS-CoV-2 and alters the basal balance of the RAAS, which may explain the findings observed in the present study. These phenomena may be amplified in non-hypertensive patients treated with RAAS inhibitor therapy.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , COVID-19 , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Humanos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Hospitalização
9.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 449, 2022 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that moderate coffee and tea consumption are associated with lower risk of mortality. However, the association between the combination of coffee and tea consumption with the risk of mortality remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the separate and combined associations of coffee and tea consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 498,158 participants (37-73 years) from the UK Biobank between 2006 and 2010. Coffee and tea consumption were assessed at baseline using a self-reported questionnaire. All-cause and cause-specific mortalities, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease, and digestive disease mortality, were obtained from the national death registries. Cox regression analyses were conducted to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 12.1 years, 34,699 deaths were identified. The associations of coffee and tea consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality attributable to CVD, respiratory disease, and digestive disease were nonlinear (all P nonlinear < 0.001). The association between separate coffee consumption and the risk of all-cause mortality was J-shaped, whereas that of separate tea consumption was reverse J-shaped. Drinking one cup of coffee or three cups of tea per day seemed to link with the lowest risk of mortality. In joint analyses, compared to neither coffee nor tea consumption, the combination of < 1-2 cups/day of coffee and 2-4 cups/day of tea had lower mortality risks for all-cause (HR, 0.78; 95% CI: 0.73-0.85), CVD (HR, 0.76; 95% CI: 0.64-0.91), and respiratory disease (HR, 0.69; 95% CI: 0.57-0.83) mortality. Nevertheless, the lowest HR (95% CI) of drinking both < 1-2 cup/day of coffee and ≥ 5 cups/day of tea for digestive disease mortality was 0.42 (0.34-0.53). CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective study, separate and combined coffee and tea consumption were inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality.


Assuntos
Café , Mortalidade , Chá , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/mortalidade , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Reino Unido
10.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 222(9): 549-562, nov. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-ADZ-904

RESUMO

El término trastornos inespecíficos de la repolarización ventricular se refiere a un conjunto de alteraciones menores del segmento ST y/o la onda T. Durante mucho tiempo han sido de escaso interés clínico al no traducir diagnósticos específicos. De forma extrema, se ha aseverado que constituyen hallazgos electrocardiográficos benignos. Su presencia se ha reportado en diversos estados patológicos cardiovasculares y no cardiovasculares. Sin embargo, con frecuencia se identifica en personas asintomáticas aparentemente sanas. Un creciente número de estudios demuestran su importancia como predictores de morbimortalidad cardiovascular, expandiendo su espectro hacia la prevención cardiovascular. A la luz de las evidencias científicas acumuladas se impone un cambio en la visión tradicional que se ha tenido con los trastornos inespecíficos de la repolarización ventricular. (AU)


The term nonspecific ventricular repolarization abnormalities refers to a set of minor alterations of the ST segment and/or the T wave. For a long time, they have been of little clinical interest as they do not translate into specific diagnoses. It has even been asserted that they constitute benign electrocardiographic findings. Their presence has been reported in various cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases. However, it is frequently identified in apparently healthy asymptomatic people. A growing number of studies demonstrate their importance as predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, expanding their spectrum towards cardiovascular prevention. In light of the body of scientific evidence, it is imperative that the traditional view of nonspecific ventricular repolarization abnormalities changes. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Disfunção Ventricular , Disfunção Ventricular/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular/classificação , Disfunção Ventricular/mortalidade , Eletrocardiografia
11.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276774, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318528

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) in patients with COVID-19 varies, as well as their risks of mortality. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of asthma, COPD, and ACO as comorbidities, and to determine their risks of mortality in patients with COVID-19 using a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically reviewed clinical studies that reported the comorbidities of asthma, COPD, and ACO in patients with COVID-19. We searched various databases including PubMed (from inception to 27 September 2021) for eligible studies written in English. A meta-analysis was performed using the random-effect model for measuring the prevalence of asthma, COPD, and ACO as comorbidities, and the mortality risk of asthma, COPD, and ACO in patients with COVID-19 was estimated. A stratified analysis was conducted according to country. RESULTS: One hundred one studies were eligible, and 1,229,434 patients with COVID-19 were identified. Among them, the estimated prevalence of asthma, COPD, and ACO using a meta-analysis was 10.04% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.79-11.30), 8.18% (95% CI, 7.01-9.35), and 3.70% (95% CI, 2.40-5.00), respectively. The odds ratio for mortality of pre-existing asthma in COVID-19 patients was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.55-1.4; p = 0.630), while that in pre-existing COPD in COVID-19 patients was 3.79 (95% CI, 2.74-5.24; p<0.001). France showed the highest prevalence of asthma followed by the UK, while that of COPD was highest in the Netherlands followed by India. CONCLUSION: Pre-existing asthma and COPD are associated with the incidence of COVID-19. Having COPD significantly increases the risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19. These differences appear to be influenced by the difference of locations of disease pathophysiology and by the daily diagnosis and treatment policy of each country.


Assuntos
Asma , COVID-19 , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Asma/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
12.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 1123, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer incidence is rising globally, while mortality rates show a geographical heterogenous pattern. Early detection and treatment have been proven to have a profound impact on breast cancer prognosis. The aim of his study was to compare breast cancer incidence, mortality, and survival rates in two contrasting corners of Europe, Sweden and Crete, to better understand cancer determinants with focus on disease burden and sociocultural factors. METHODS: Breast cancer data from Sweden and Crete was derived from registries. Incidence and mortality were expressed as Age-Standardized Incidence Rates (ASIR), Age-Standardized Mortality Rates (ASMR). FINDINGS: Breast cancer incidence has for decades risen in Sweden and on Crete. In 2019, ASIR was 217.5 in Sweden and 58.9 on Crete, (p < 0.001). Mortality rates showed opposite trends. ASMR in Sweden was reduced from 25.5 to 16.8 (2005-2019) while on Crete, ASMR increased from 22.1 to 25.3. A successive rise in survival rate in Sweden with a 5-year survival rate of 92% since 2015, but a converse development on Crete with 85% 5-year survival rate the same year. INTERPRETATION: The incidence of breast cancer is slowly rising in both studied regions, but mortality increases on Crete in contrast to Sweden with sinking mortality rates. The interpretation of these findings is that differences in health care systems and health policies including differences in early detection like screening programs and early treatment, as well as sociocultural factors in the two countries might play an important role on the differences found in breast cancer burden.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Incidência , Mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suécia/epidemiologia , Grécia/epidemiologia
13.
JAMA ; 328(17): 1747-1765, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318128

RESUMO

Importance: It is uncertain whether hormone therapy should be used for the primary prevention of chronic conditions such as heart disease, osteoporosis, or some types of cancers. Objective: To update evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force on the benefits and harms of hormone therapy in reducing risks for chronic conditions. Data Sources: PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and trial registries from January 1, 2016, through October 12, 2021; surveillance through July 2022. Study Selection: English-language randomized clinical trials and prospective cohort studies of fair or good quality. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Dual review of abstracts, full-text articles, and study quality; meta-analyses when at least 3 similar studies were available. Main Outcomes and Measures: Morbidity and mortality related to chronic conditions; health-related quality of life. Results: Twenty trials (N = 39 145) and 3 cohort studies (N = 1 155 410) were included. Participants using estrogen only compared with placebo had significantly lower risks for diabetes over 7.1 years (1050 vs 903 cases; 134 fewer [95% CI, 18-237]) and fractures over 7.2 years (1024 vs 1413 cases; 388 fewer [95% CI, 277-489]) per 10 000 persons. Risks per 10 000 persons were statistically significantly increased for gallbladder disease over 7.1 years (1113 vs 737 cases; 377 more [95% CI, 234-540]), stroke over 7.2 years (318 vs 239 cases; 79 more [95% CI, 15-159]), venous thromboembolism over 7.2 years (258 vs 181 cases; 77 more [95% CI, 19-153]), and urinary incontinence over 1 year (2331 vs 1446 cases; 885 more [95% CI, 659-1135]). Participants using estrogen plus progestin compared with placebo experienced significantly lower risks, per 10 000 persons, for colorectal cancer over 5.6 years (59 vs 93 cases; 34 fewer [95% CI, 9-51]), diabetes over 5.6 years (403 vs 482 cases; 78 fewer [95% CI, 15-133]), and fractures over 5 years (864 vs 1094 cases; 230 fewer [95% CI, 66-372]). Risks, per 10 000 persons, were significantly increased for invasive breast cancer (242 vs 191 cases; 51 more [95% CI, 6-106]), gallbladder disease (723 vs 463 cases; 260 more [95% CI, 169-364]), stroke (187 vs 135 cases; 52 more [95% CI, 12-104]), and venous thromboembolism (246 vs 126 cases; 120 more [95% CI, 68-185]) over 5.6 years; probable dementia (179 vs 91 cases; 88 more [95% CI, 15-212]) over 4.0 years; and urinary incontinence (1707 vs 1145 cases; 562 more [95% CI, 412-726]) over 1 year. Conclusions and Relevance: Use of hormone therapy in postmenopausal persons for the primary prevention of chronic conditions was associated with some benefits but also with an increased risk of harms.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Estrogênios , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Pós-Menopausa , Progestinas , Feminino , Humanos , Comitês Consultivos/normas , Comitês Consultivos/tendências , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Hormônios/efeitos adversos , Hormônios/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Primária , Progestinas/efeitos adversos , Progestinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos , Incontinência Urinária/induzido quimicamente , Tromboembolia Venosa/induzido quimicamente
16.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(12): 4313-4319, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207199

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) on hospital mortality and non-home discharge for patients undergoing cardiac surgery over a 16-year period in Australia and New Zealand. DESIGN: A retrospective, multicenter cohort study covering the period January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2019. SETTING: One hundred one hospitals in Australia and New Zealand that submitted data to the Australia New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients (aged >18) who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, valve surgery, or combined valve + coronary artery surgery. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors analyzed 252,948 cardiac surgical patients from 101 hospitals, with a median age of 68.3 years (IQR 60-75.5), of whom 74.2% (187,632 of 252,948) were male patients. A U-shaped relationship was observed between ICU LOS and hospital mortality, with significantly elevated mortality at short (<20 hours) and long (>5 days) ICU LOS, which persisted after adjustment for illness severity and across clinically important subgroups (odds ratio for mortality with ICU LOS >5 days = 3.21, 95% CI 2.88-3.58, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged duration of ICU LOS after cardiac surgery is associated with increased hospital mortality in a U-shaped relationship. An ICU LOS >5 days should be considered a meaningful definition for prolonged ICU stay after cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Austrália/epidemiologia
17.
Nature ; 611(7935): 312-319, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261521

RESUMO

Infectious diseases are among the strongest selective pressures driving human evolution1,2. This includes the single greatest mortality event in recorded history, the first outbreak of the second pandemic of plague, commonly called the Black Death, which was caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis3. This pandemic devastated Afro-Eurasia, killing up to 30-50% of the population4. To identify loci that may have been under selection during the Black Death, we characterized genetic variation around immune-related genes from 206 ancient DNA extracts, stemming from two different European populations before, during and after the Black Death. Immune loci are strongly enriched for highly differentiated sites relative to a set of non-immune loci, suggesting positive selection. We identify 245 variants that are highly differentiated within the London dataset, four of which were replicated in an independent cohort from Denmark, and represent the strongest candidates for positive selection. The selected allele for one of these variants, rs2549794, is associated with the production of a full-length (versus truncated) ERAP2 transcript, variation in cytokine response to Y. pestis and increased ability to control intracellular Y. pestis in macrophages. Finally, we show that protective variants overlap with alleles that are today associated with increased susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, providing empirical evidence for the role played by past pandemics in shaping present-day susceptibility to disease.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Imunidade , Peste , Seleção Genética , Yersinia pestis , Humanos , Aminopeptidases/genética , Aminopeptidases/imunologia , Peste/genética , Peste/imunologia , Peste/microbiologia , Peste/mortalidade , Yersinia pestis/imunologia , Yersinia pestis/patogenicidade , Seleção Genética/imunologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Imunidade/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Londres/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16466, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183006

RESUMO

The prognosis of non-metastatic gallbladder adenocarcinoma (NM-GBA) patients is affected by the status of metastatic lymph nodes. The purpose of this study was to explore the prognostic value of the log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) and develop a novel nomogram to predict the overall survival in NM-GBA patients. A total of 1035 patients confirmed to have NM-GBA were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database and further divided into training and validation cohorts. The discrimination and calibration of the nomogram were evaluated using the concordance index (C-index), the area under the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve (time-dependent AUC), and calibration plots. The net benefits and clinical utility of the nomogram were quantified and compared with those of the 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) staging system using decision curve analysis (DCA), net reclassification index (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). The risk stratifications of the nomogram and the TNM-staging system were compared. LODDS showed the highest accuracy in predicting OS for NM-GBA. The C-index (0.730 for the training cohort and 0.746 for the validation cohort) and the time-dependent AUC (> 0.7) indicated the satisfactory discriminative ability of the nomogram. The calibration plots showed a high degree of consistency. The DCA, NRI, and IDI indicated that the nomogram performed significantly better than the TNM-staging (P < 0.05). A novel LODDS-included nomogram was developed and validated to assist clinicians in evaluating the prognosis of NM-GBA patients.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar , Linfonodos , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/cirurgia , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nomogramas , Prognóstico , Programa de SEER
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 364, 2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selecting American mink (Neovison vison) for tolerance to Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) has gained popularity in recent years, but data on the outcomes of this activity are scant. The objectives of this study were to determine the long-term changes in viremia, seroconversion and survival in infected mink. Mink were inoculated intranasally with a local isolate of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) over 4 years (n = 1742). The animals had been selected for tolerance to AMDV for more than 20 years (TG100) or were from herds free of AMDV (TG0). The progenies of TG100 and TG0, and their crosses with 25, 50 and 75% tolerance ancestry were also used. Blood samples were collected from each mink up to 14 times until 1211 days post-inoculation (dpi) and were tested for viremia by PCR and for anti-AMDV antibodies by counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP). Viremia and CIEP status were not considered when selecting replacements. Low-performing animals were pelted and the presence of antibodies in their blood and antibody titer were measured by CIEP, and viremia and viral DNA in seven organs (n = 936) were tested by PCR. RESULTS: The peak incidences of viremia (66.7%) and seropositivity (93.5%) were at 35 dpi. The incidence of viremia decreased over time while the incidence of seroconversion increased. The least-squares means of the incidence of PCR positive of lymph node (0.743) and spleen (0.656) were significantly greater than those of bone marrow, liver, kidneys, lungs and small intestine (0.194 to 0.342). Differences in tolerant ancestry were significant for every trait measured. Incidences of viremia over time, terminal viremia, seropositivity over time, AMDV DNA in organs and antibody titer were highest in the susceptible groups (TG0 or TG25) and lowest in the tolerant groups (TG100 or TG75). CONCLUSION: Previous history of selection for tolerance resulted in mink with reduced viral replication and antibody titer. Viremia had a negative effect and antibody production had a positive effect on survival and productivity.


Assuntos
Vírus da Doença Aleutiana do Vison , Doença Aleutiana do Vison , Anticorpos Antivirais , Formação de Anticorpos , Vison , Viremia , Doença Aleutiana do Vison/sangue , Doença Aleutiana do Vison/imunologia , Doença Aleutiana do Vison/mortalidade , Doença Aleutiana do Vison/virologia , Vírus da Doença Aleutiana do Vison/genética , Vírus da Doença Aleutiana do Vison/imunologia , Vírus da Doença Aleutiana do Vison/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , DNA Viral/análise , Feminino , Masculino , Vison/sangue , Vison/imunologia , Vison/virologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Viremia/sangue , Viremia/imunologia , Viremia/veterinária , Viremia/virologia , Replicação Viral
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