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1.
BMC Emerg Med ; 24(1): 57, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal injuries exert a significant impact on global morbidity and mortality. The aggregation of mortality data and its determinants across different regions holds immense importance for designing informed healthcare strategies. Hence, this study assessed the pooled mortality rate and its predictors across sub-Saharan Africa. METHOD: This meta-analysis employed a comprehensive search across multiple electronic databases including PubMed, Africa Index Medicus, Science Direct, and Hinari, complemented by a search of Google Scholar. Subsequently, data were extracted into an Excel format. The compiled dataset was then exported to STATA 17 statistical software for analysis. Utilizing the Dersimonian-Laird method, a random-effect model was employed to estimate the pooled mortality rate and its associated predictors. Heterogeneity was evaluated via the I2 test, while publication bias was assessed using a funnel plot along with Egger's, and Begg's tests. RESULT: This meta-analysis, which includes 33 full-text studies, revealed a pooled mortality rate of 9.67% (95% CI; 7.81, 11.52) in patients with abdominal injuries across sub-Saharan Africa with substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 87.21%). This review also identified significant predictors of mortality. As a result, the presence of shock upon presentation demonstrated 6.19 times (95% CI; 3.70-10.38) higher odds of mortality, followed by ICU admission (AOR: 5.20, 95% CI; 2.38-11.38), blunt abdominal injury (AOR: 8.18, 95% CI; 4.97-13.45), post-operative complications (AOR: 8.17, 95% CI; 4.97-13.44), and the performance of damage control surgery (AOR: 4.62, 95% CI; 1.85-11.52). CONCLUSION: Abdominal injury mortality is notably high in sub-Saharan Africa. Shock at presentation, ICU admission, blunt abdominal injury, postoperative complications, and use of damage control surgery predict mortality. Tailored strategies to address these predictors could significantly reduce deaths in the region.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais , Humanos , Traumatismos Abdominais/mortalidade , África Subsaariana/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Hospitalização , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Prevalência
4.
JAMA ; 331(13): 1135-1144, 2024 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563834

RESUMO

Importance: The association of tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) abundance in breast cancer tissue with cancer recurrence and death in patients with early-stage triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) who are not treated with adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy is unclear. Objective: To study the association of TIL abundance in breast cancer tissue with survival among patients with early-stage TNBC who were treated with locoregional therapy but no chemotherapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective pooled analysis of individual patient-level data from 13 participating centers in North America (Rochester, Minnesota; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada), Europe (Paris, Lyon, and Villejuif, France; Amsterdam and Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Milan, Padova, and Genova, Italy; Gothenburg, Sweden), and Asia (Tokyo, Japan; Seoul, Korea), including 1966 participants diagnosed with TNBC between 1979 and 2017 (with follow-up until September 27, 2021) who received treatment with surgery with or without radiotherapy but no adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Exposure: TIL abundance in breast tissue from resected primary tumors. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was invasive disease-free survival [iDFS]. Secondary outcomes were recurrence-free survival [RFS], survival free of distant recurrence [distant RFS, DRFS], and overall survival. Associations were assessed using a multivariable Cox model stratified by participating center. Results: This study included 1966 patients with TNBC (median age, 56 years [IQR, 39-71]; 55% had stage I TNBC). The median TIL level was 15% (IQR, 5%-40%). Four-hundred seventeen (21%) had a TIL level of 50% or more (median age, 41 years [IQR, 36-63]), and 1300 (66%) had a TIL level of less than 30% (median age, 59 years [IQR, 41-72]). Five-year DRFS for stage I TNBC was 94% (95% CI, 91%-96%) for patients with a TIL level of 50% or more, compared with 78% (95% CI, 75%-80%) for those with a TIL level of less than 30%; 5-year overall survival was 95% (95% CI, 92%-97%) for patients with a TIL level of 50% or more, compared with 82% (95% CI, 79%-84%) for those with a TIL level of less than 30%. At a median follow-up of 18 years, and after adjusting for age, tumor size, nodal status, histological grade, and receipt of radiotherapy, each 10% higher TIL increment was associated independently with improved iDFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.92 [0.89-0.94]), RFS (HR, 0.90 [0.87-0.92]), DRFS (HR, 0.87 [0.84-0.90]), and overall survival (0.88 [0.85-0.91]) (likelihood ratio test, P < 10e-6). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with early-stage TNBC who did not undergo adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy, breast cancer tissue with a higher abundance of TIL levels was associated with significantly better survival. These results suggest that breast tissue TIL abundance is a prognostic factor for patients with early-stage TNBC.


Assuntos
Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Colúmbia Britânica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia
5.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 36(2): 80-85, mar.-abr. 2024. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231497

RESUMO

La diabetes, especialmente la tipo 2, está considerada como una situación de riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerosa (ECVA). Los sujetos con diabetes tipo 2 tienen una mortalidad por ECVA 3 veces superior a la de la población general, atribuida a la hiperglucemia y a la frecuente asociación de otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular, como la dislipidemia aterogénica. Numerosas sociedades científicas han establecido una clasificación de riesgo de ECVA en la diabetes basada en 3 grados (moderado, alto y muy alto). Los objetivos del control de la dislipidemia están claramente definidos y aceptados, y varían dependiendo del riesgo cardiovascular previamente establecido. En el riesgo moderado o intermedio, las guías proponen una intervención menos intensiva, manteniendo cifras de c-LDL<100mg/dL y de c-no-HDL<130mg/dL, y esperar 10 años hasta alcanzar la categoría de alto riesgo para iniciar un tratamiento más intensivo. Sin embargo, durante la década de seguimiento preconizada en las guías, el depósito de colesterol en la pared arterial va aumentando, facilitando el desarrollo de una placa de ateroma inestable e inflamatoria, y el desarrollo de ECVA. Alternativamente, se podría considerar desde el inicio que la diabetes conlleva una situación de alto riesgo y el objetivo debería ser c-LDL<70mg/dL. Además, mantener cifras de c-LDL<70mg/dL contribuye a reducir y estabilizar la placa de ateroma, evitando o disminuyendo episodios de mortalidad por ECVA durante esos años de evolución de la diabetes. ¿Deberíamos mantener los objetivos propuestos en los sujetos con diabetes y riesgo moderado durante una década hasta alcanzar la fase de alto riesgo cardiovascular o, por el contrario, adoptar desde el inicio una postura más intensiva buscando reducir el riesgo cardiovascular en la mayoría de los pacientes con diabetes? ¿Es mejor esperar o prevenir con medidas terapéuticas efectivas desde el primer momento? (AU)


Diabetes, especially type 2, is considered a risk situation for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Subjects with diabetes type 2 have a mortality rate due to ASCVD 3 times higher than that found in the general population, attributed to hyperglycemia and the frequent association of other cardiovascular risk factors, such as atherogenic dyslipidemia. Numerous scientific societies have established a risk classification for ASCVD in diabetes based on 3 degrees (moderate, high and very high). The objectives of dyslipidemia control are clearly defined and accepted, and vary depending on the previously established cardiovascular risk. In moderate or intermediate risk, the guidelines propose a less intensive intervention, maintaining LDL-C levels<100mg/dL and NO-HDL-C levels<130mg/dL, and waiting 10 years until reaching the high-risk category to initiate more intensive treatment. However, during the decade of follow-up recommended in the guidelines, cholesterol deposition in the arterial wall increases, facilitating the development of an unstable and inflammatory atheromatous plaque, and the development of ASCVD. Alternatively, diabetes could be considered from the outset to be a high-risk situation and the goal should be LDL-C<70mg/dL. Furthermore, maintaining LDL-C levels<70mg/dL contributes to reducing and stabilizing atheromatous plaque, avoiding or reducing mortality episodes due to ASCVD during those years of diabetes evolution. Should we maintain the proposed objectives in subjects with diabetes and moderate risk for a decade until reaching the high cardiovascular risk phase or, on the contrary, should we adopt a more intensive stance from the beginning seeking to reduce cardiovascular risk in the majority of patients with diabetes? Is it better to wait or prevent with effective therapeutic measures from the first moment? (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Arteriosclerose/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Dislipidemias
6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1294819, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38495794

RESUMO

Background: Reducing the occurrence of diabetes is considered a primary criterion for evaluating the effectiveness of interventions for prediabetes. There is existing evidence that early lifestyle-based interventions can significantly decrease the incidence of diabetes. However, whether effective interventions can reduce long-term outcomes in patients, including all-cause mortality, cardiovascular risks, and the occurrence of microvascular complications, which are the most concerning issues for both patients and clinicians, remains a subject of inconsistent research findings. And there is no direct evidence to answer whether effective intervention has long-term benefits for prediabetic patients. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the relationship between early effective intervention and macrovascular and microvascular complications in prediabetic patients. Methods: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for the randomized controlled trials of lifestyle or/and drugs intervention in prediabetes from inception to 2023.9.15. Two investigators independently reviewed the included studies and extracted relevant data. Random or fixed effects model meta-analysis to derive overall relative risk (RR) with 95% CI for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events, and microvascular complications. Results: As of September 15, 2023, a total of 7 effective intervention studies were included, comprising 26 articles out of 25,671 articles. These studies involved 26,389 patients with a total follow-up duration of 178,038.6 person-years. The results indicate that effective intervention can significantly reduce all-cause mortality in prediabetic patients without a history of cardiovascular disease by 17% (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98). Additionally, effective intervention reduced the incidence of retinopathy by 38% (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.70-0.98). Furthermore, the study results suggest that women and younger individuals have lower all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. Subsequently, we conducted an in-depth analysis of patients without a history of cardiovascular disease. The results revealed that prediabetic patients with a 10-year cardiovascular risk >10% experienced more significant benefits in terms of all-cause mortality (P=0.01). When comparing the results of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality from the Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Outcome Study longitudinally, it was evident that the duration of follow-up is a key factor influencing long-term benefits. In other words, the beneficial effects become more pronounced as the intervention duration reaches a certain threshold. Conclusion: Early effective intervention, which significantly reduces the incidence of diabetes, can effectively lower all-cause mortality in prediabetic patients without a history of cardiovascular disease (especially those with a 10-year cardiovascular risk >10%), with women and younger individuals benefiting more significantly. Additionally, the duration of follow-up is a key factor influencing outcomes. The conclusions of this study can provide evidence-based guidance for the clinical treatment of prediabetic patients to prevent cardiovascular and microvascular complications. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero, identifier CRD42020160985.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Mortalidade , Estado Pré-Diabético , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Incidência , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Risco
7.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e073765, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to characterise oxycodone's distribution and opioid-related overdoses in the USA by state from 2000 to 2021. DESIGN: This is an observational study. SETTING: More than 80 000 Americans died of an opioid overdose in 2021 as the USA continues to struggle with an opioid crisis. Prescription opioids play a substantial role, introducing patients to opioids and providing a supply of drugs that can be redirected to those seeking to misuse them. METHODS: The Drug Enforcement Administration annual summary reports from the Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders System provided weights of oxycodone distributed per state by business type (pharmacies, hospitals and practitioners). Weights were converted to morphine milligram equivalents (MME) per capita and normalised for population. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging ONline Data for Epidemiologic Research provided mortality data for heroin, other opioids, methadone, other synthetic narcotics and other/unspecified narcotics. RESULTS: There was a sharp 280.13% increase in total MME/person of oxycodone from 2000 to 2010, followed by a slower 54.34% decrease from 2010 to 2021. Florida (2007-2011), Delaware (2003-2020) and Tennessee (2012-2021) displayed consistent and substantial elevations in combined MME/person compared with other states. In the peak year (2010), there was a 15-fold difference between the highest and lowest states. MME/person from only pharmacies, which constituted >94% of the total, showed similar results. Hospitals in Alaska (2000-2001, 2008, 2010-2021), Colorado (2008-2021) and DC (2000-2011) distributed substantially more MME/person over many years compared with other states. Florida stood out in practitioner-distributed oxycodone, with an elevation of almost 15-fold the average state from 2006 to 2010. Opioid-related deaths increased +806% from 2000 to 2021, largely driven by heroin, other opioids and other synthetic narcotics. CONCLUSIONS: Oxycodone distribution across the USA showed marked differences between states and business types over time. Investigation of opioid policies in states of interest may provide insight for future actions to mitigate opioid misuse.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Overdose de Drogas , Overdose de Opiáceos , Oxicodona , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Heroína , Entorpecentes , Overdose de Opiáceos/mortalidade , Oxicodona/envenenamento , Tennessee , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
JAMA ; 331(10): 850-860, 2024 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470385

RESUMO

Importance: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased risks of adverse health outcomes including premature death, but it is unclear whether ADHD pharmacotherapy influences the mortality risk. Objective: To investigate whether initiation of ADHD pharmacotherapy was associated with reduced mortality risk in individuals with ADHD. Design, Setting, and Participants: In an observational nationwide cohort study in Sweden applying the target trial emulation framework, we identified individuals aged 6 through 64 years with an incident diagnosis of ADHD from 2007 through 2018 and no ADHD medication dispensation prior to diagnosis. Follow-up started from ADHD diagnosis until death, emigration, 2 years after ADHD diagnosis, or December 31, 2020, whichever came first. Exposures: ADHD medication initiation was defined as dispensing of medication within 3 months of diagnosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: We assessed all-cause mortality within 2 years of ADHD diagnosis, as well as natural-cause (eg, physical conditions) and unnatural-cause mortality (eg, unintentional injuries, suicide, and accidental poisonings). Results: Of 148 578 individuals with ADHD (61 356 females [41.3%]), 84 204 (56.7%) initiated ADHD medication. The median age at diagnosis was 17.4 years (IQR, 11.6-29.1 years). The 2-year mortality risk was lower in the initiation treatment strategy group (39.1 per 10 000 individuals) than in the noninitiation treatment strategy group (48.1 per 10 000 individuals), with a risk difference of -8.9 per 10 000 individuals (95% CI, -17.3 to -0.6). ADHD medication initiation was associated with significantly lower rate of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.88) and unnatural-cause mortality (2-year mortality risk, 25.9 per 10 000 individuals vs 33.3 per 10 000 individuals; risk difference, -7.4 per 10 000 individuals; 95% CI, -14.2 to -0.5; HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.86), but not natural-cause mortality (2-year mortality risk, 13.1 per 10 000 individuals vs 14.7 per 10 000 individuals; risk difference, -1.6 per 10 000 individuals; 95% CI, -6.4 to 3.2; HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.05). Conclusions and Relevance: Among individuals diagnosed with ADHD, medication initiation was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality, particularly for death due to unnatural causes.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Mortalidade Prematura , Suécia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico
9.
JAMA ; 331(11): 951-958, 2024 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502069

RESUMO

Importance: Child maltreatment, which includes child abuse and neglect, can have profound effects on health, development, survival, and well-being throughout childhood and adulthood. The prevalence of child maltreatment in the US is uncertain and likely underestimated. In 2021, an estimated 600 000 children were identified by Child Protective Services as experiencing abuse or neglect and an estimated 1820 children died of abuse and neglect. Objective: The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review to evaluate benefits and harms of primary care-feasible or referable behavioral counseling interventions to prevent child maltreatment in children and adolescents younger than 18 years without signs or symptoms of maltreatment. Population: Children and adolescents younger than 18 years who do not have signs or symptoms of or known exposure to maltreatment. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to determine the balance of benefits and harms of primary care interventions to prevent child maltreatment in children and adolescents younger than 18 years without signs or symptoms of or known exposure to maltreatment. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of primary care interventions to prevent child maltreatment. (I statement).


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Comitês Consultivos , Terapia Comportamental , Maus-Tratos Infantis/mortalidade , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
N Engl J Med ; 390(12): 1080-1091, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ribociclib has been shown to have a significant overall survival benefit in patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer. Whether this benefit in advanced breast cancer extends to early breast cancer is unclear. METHODS: In this international, open-label, randomized, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative early breast cancer in a 1:1 ratio to receive ribociclib (at a dose of 400 mg per day for 3 weeks, followed by 1 week off, for 3 years) plus a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI; letrozole at a dose of 2.5 mg per day or anastrozole at a dose of 1 mg per day for ≥5 years) or an NSAI alone. Premenopausal women and men also received goserelin every 28 days. Eligible patients had anatomical stage II or III breast cancer. Here we report the results of a prespecified interim analysis of invasive disease-free survival, the primary end point; other efficacy and safety results are also reported. Invasive disease-free survival was evaluated with the use of the Kaplan-Meier method. The statistical comparison was made with the use of a stratified log-rank test, with a protocol-specified stopping boundary of a one-sided P-value threshold of 0.0128 for superior efficacy. RESULTS: As of the data-cutoff date for this prespecified interim analysis (January 11, 2023), a total of 426 patients had had invasive disease, recurrence, or death. A significant invasive disease-free survival benefit was seen with ribociclib plus an NSAI as compared with an NSAI alone. At 3 years, invasive disease-free survival was 90.4% with ribociclib plus an NSAI and 87.1% with an NSAI alone (hazard ratio for invasive disease, recurrence, or death, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.62 to 0.91; P = 0.003). Secondary end points - distant disease-free survival and recurrence-free survival - also favored ribociclib plus an NSAI. The 3-year regimen of ribociclib at a 400-mg starting dose plus an NSAI was not associated with any new safety signals. CONCLUSIONS: Ribociclib plus an NSAI significantly improved invasive disease-free survival among patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative stage II or III early breast cancer. (Funded by Novartis; NATALEE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03701334.).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Inibidores da Aromatase , Neoplasias da Mama , Letrozol , Feminino , Humanos , Aminopiridinas/administração & dosagem , Aminopiridinas/efeitos adversos , Aminopiridinas/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Letrozol/administração & dosagem , Letrozol/efeitos adversos , Letrozol/uso terapêutico , Purinas/administração & dosagem , Purinas/efeitos adversos , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Estrogênio , Receptores de Progesterona , Gosserrelina/administração & dosagem , Gosserrelina/efeitos adversos , Gosserrelina/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Hormonais , Masculino
11.
JAMA ; 331(7): 592-600, 2024 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497697

RESUMO

Importance: Residential evictions may have increased excess mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To estimate excess mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic for renters who received eviction filings (threatened renters). Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used an excess mortality framework. Mortality based on linked eviction and death records from 2020 through 2021 was compared with projected mortality estimated from similar records from 2010 through 2016. Data from court records between January 1, 2020, and August 31, 2021, were collected via the Eviction Lab's Eviction Tracking System. Similar data from court records between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2016, also collected by the Eviction Lab, were used to estimate projected mortality during the pandemic. We also constructed 2 comparison groups: all individuals living in the study area and a subsample of those individuals living in high-poverty, high-filing tracts. Exposures: Eviction filing. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause mortality in a given month. The difference between observed mortality and projected mortality was used as a measure of excess mortality associated with the pandemic. Results: The cohort of threatened renters during the pandemic period consisted of 282 000 individuals (median age, 36 years [IQR, 28-47]). Eviction filings were 44.7% lower than expected during the study period. The composition of threatened renters by race, ethnicity, sex, and socioeconomic characteristics during the pandemic was comparable with the prepandemic composition. Expected cumulative age-standardized mortality among threatened renters during this 20-month period of the pandemic was 116.5 (95% CI, 104.0-130.3) per 100 000 person-months, and observed mortality was 238.6 (95% CI, 230.8-246.3) per 100 000 person-months or 106% higher than expected. In contrast, expected mortality for the population living in similar neighborhoods was 114.6 (95% CI, 112.1-116.8) per 100 000 person-months, and observed mortality was 142.8 (95% CI, 140.2-145.3) per 100 000 person-months or 25% higher than expected. In the general population across the study area, expected mortality was 83.5 (95% CI, 83.3-83.8) per 100 000 person-months, and observed mortality was 91.6 (95% CI, 91.4-91.8) per 100 000 person-months or 9% higher than expected. The pandemic produced positive excess mortality ratios across all age groups among threatened renters. Conclusions and Relevance: Renters who received eviction filings experienced substantial excess mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Instabilidade Habitacional , Mortalidade , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
N Engl J Med ; 390(10): 900-910, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microplastics and nanoplastics (MNPs) are emerging as a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease in preclinical studies. Direct evidence that this risk extends to humans is lacking. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study involving patients who were undergoing carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid artery disease. The excised carotid plaque specimens were analyzed for the presence of MNPs with the use of pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, stable isotope analysis, and electron microscopy. Inflammatory biomarkers were assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical assay. The primary end point was a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from any cause among patients who had evidence of MNPs in plaque as compared with patients with plaque that showed no evidence of MNPs. RESULTS: A total of 304 patients were enrolled in the study, and 257 completed a mean (±SD) follow-up of 33.7±6.9 months. Polyethylene was detected in carotid artery plaque of 150 patients (58.4%), with a mean level of 21.7±24.5 µg per milligram of plaque; 31 patients (12.1%) also had measurable amounts of polyvinyl chloride, with a mean level of 5.2±2.4 µg per milligram of plaque. Electron microscopy revealed visible, jagged-edged foreign particles among plaque macrophages and scattered in the external debris. Radiographic examination showed that some of these particles included chlorine. Patients in whom MNPs were detected within the atheroma were at higher risk for a primary end-point event than those in whom these substances were not detected (hazard ratio, 4.53; 95% confidence interval, 2.00 to 10.27; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, patients with carotid artery plaque in which MNPs were detected had a higher risk of a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from any cause at 34 months of follow-up than those in whom MNPs were not detected. (Funded by Programmi di Ricerca Scientifica di Rilevante Interesse Nazionale and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT05900947.).


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas , Microplásticos , Placa Aterosclerótica , Humanos , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/etiologia , Estenose das Carótidas/patologia , Microplásticos/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Placa Aterosclerótica/química , Placa Aterosclerótica/etiologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/mortalidade , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Plásticos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/etiologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Seguimentos
18.
Clin Invest Med ; 47(1): 4-12, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546383

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to investigate the association of iron metabolism-related parameters with 60-day mortality in critically ill patients with sepsis. METHODS: Serum or urine concentrations of iron metabolism-related parameters on intensive care unit admission were measured in a prospective cohort of 133 eligible patients with sepsis according to the Sepsis-3 criteria, and these values were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors, categorized according to their 60-day survival status. Cox regression analyses were performed to examine the association between iron parameters and 60-day mortality. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to illustrate the differences in survival between different iron parameters. RESULTS: Of the 133 patients included in the study, 61 (45.8%) had died by day 60. After adjusting for confounding variables, higher concentrations of serum iron (cut-off 9.5 µmol/mL) and higher concentrations of urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL; cut-off 169.3 ng/mL) were associated with a significantly greater risk of death in the Cox regression analysis. These two biomarkers combined with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores increased the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve to 0.85. DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that higher concentrations of serum iron and uNGAL are each associated with higher 60-day mortality, and they add significant accuracy to this prediction in combination with SOFA. Abbreviations: uNGAL: urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; ICU: intensive care unit; SOFA: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; APACHE II: the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II; ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HR: hazard ratio; CIs: confidence intervals; WBC: white blood cell; TBIL: total bilirubin.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Ferro , Lipocalina-2 , Sepse , Humanos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Ferro/sangue , Lipocalina-2/urina , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/mortalidade
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