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1.
Biomed Res ; 45(3): 103-113, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839353

RESUMO

Kidney stone disease is a serious disease due to the severe pain it causes, high morbidity, and high recurrence rate. Notably, calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of kidney stone. Calcium oxalate appears in two forms in kidney stones: the stable phase, monohydrate (COM), and the metastable phase, dihydrate (COD). Particularly, COM stones with concentric structures are hard and difficult to treat. However, the factor determining the growth of either COM or COD crystals in the urine, which is supersaturated for both phases, remains unclear. This study shows that calcium phosphate ingredients preferentially induce COM crystal nucleation and growth, by observing and analyzing kidney stones containing both COM and COD crystals. The forms of calcium phosphate are not limited to Randall's plaques (1-2 mm size aggregates, which contain calcium phosphate nanoparticles and proteins, and form in the renal papilla). For example, aggregates of strip-shaped calcium phosphate crystals and fields of dispersed calcium phosphate microcrystals (nano to micrometer order) also promote the growth of concentric COM structures. This suggests that patients who excrete urine with a higher quantity of calcium phosphate crystals may be more prone to forming hard and troublesome COM stones.


Assuntos
Oxalato de Cálcio , Fosfatos de Cálcio , Cristalização , Cálculos Renais , Fosfatos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Oxalato de Cálcio/química , Oxalato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Oxalato de Cálcio/urina , Cálculos Renais/química , Cálculos Renais/metabolismo , Humanos , Animais
2.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 53(3): 447-454, 2024 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a solid phase extraction-ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of six bisphenols(bisphenol S, bisphenol F, bisphenol A, 2, 2'-methylenediphenol, bisphenol AF, bisphenol AP) in urine. METHODS: After enzymolysis of urine sample, the target substances were quickly purified and extracted by WAX solid phase extraction column. On ACQUITY BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 µm), the mobile phase of water and methanol was used to separate. Finally, multi-reaction detection was carried out under electrospray negative ion scanning, and quantification was carried out by internal standard method. RESULTS: The correlation coefficients(r) of the target compounds were all more than 0.998 in the range of 0.1-50.0 ng/mL, the linearity was good, and the detection limits were all lower than 0.1 ng/mL. The recoveries of the three standard concentrations(0.5, 5.0 and 50.0 ng/mL) were all between 80% and 120%, and the relative standard deviation was less than 20%(n=5). The standard reference material was detected and the concentration was within the reference range. CONCLUSION: This method can be used to detect six bisphenols in urine quickly and accurately, is suitable for the trace analysis of bisphenol compounds in human urine.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Fenóis , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Humanos , Fenóis/urina , Fenóis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Sulfonas/urina
3.
Arch Esp Urol ; 77(4): 353-358, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a common chronic disease, and its aetiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. This study aimed to identify potential urine and serum biomarkers in patients with IC/BPS to further understand the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the disease. METHODS: Patients with IC/BPS diagnosed and treated in the First Hospital of Hebei Medical University from 1 July 2021 to 30 July 2023 were selected. The urine and serum biomarkers of 50 patients with IC/BPS were investigated and compared with the urine and serum samples of 50 healthy controls. IBM SPSS Statistics 26.0 was used for statistical analysis of the recorded data by using chi-square test, T-test and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 50 patients with IC/BPS (mean age, 54.20 ± 8.15 years) were included in the study. Those with history of urinary diseases, anxiety or depression were susceptible to IC/BPS. Levels of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nerve growth factor, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in urine, as well as IL-8, TNF-α, and PGE2 in serum, were found to significantly increase in patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). These differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Multifactor analysis showed that anxiety, depression, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and PEG2 are risk factors for patients with IC/BPS. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple biomarkers were identified in the urine and serum of patients with IC/BPS, suggesting a potential close relationship to the pathogenesis of IC/BPS.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Cistite Intersticial , Humanos , Cistite Intersticial/sangue , Cistite Intersticial/urina , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-6/urina
4.
Adv Rheumatol ; 64(1): 45, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831360

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sjögren's disease (SD) is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease that affects epithelial tissues, mainly salivary and lacrimal glands. It also presents extraglandular manifestations. The main renal manifestation is tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN), which can manifest as renal tubular acidosis (RTA). Urinary citrate may be a biomarker of RTA in these patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether hypocitraturia is a predictive biomarker of RTA in a sample of patients with SD in a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil. METHODS: All patients with SD who met the inclusion criteria and who participated in the rheumatology outpatient clinic of the Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre were included. Demographic, SD, serological and urinary data were obtained. RTA was considered in those patients who persistently presented urinary pH above 5.5 and serum pH below 7.35. Patients who persistently had urinary pH above 5.5 underwent a urinary acidification test with furosemide and fludrocortisone. These patients received 1 mg of fludrocortisone and 40 mg of furosemide and had their urine samples tested 2, 4 and 6 h after taking the medications. The test was stopped at any urine sample with pH 5.5 or less. The variables were expressed as mean and standard deviation or interquartile range. The association between hypocitraturia and RTA was assessed using the chi-square. RESULTS: Forty-two patients were included, 95.2% female with a median age of 61.73 years. The prevalence of complete distal RTA was 4.88%. Twenty-eight patients underwent urine acidification testing. Five patients had hypocitraturia, and two of them had complete distal RTA. The association between hypocitraturia and RTA was statistically significant (p < 0.012), with a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 91.2% and accuracy of 91.7%. The negative predictive value was 100%. The global renal assessment of the population demonstrated two patients with RTA, one patient with decreased renal function and six patients with proteinuria greater than 0.5 g/24 h. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of RTA in the studied population was 4.88%. Hypocitraturia had high sensitivity and accuracy for the diagnosis of RTA.


Assuntos
Acidose Tubular Renal , Biomarcadores , Ácido Cítrico , Furosemida , Síndrome de Sjogren , Humanos , Acidose Tubular Renal/diagnóstico , Acidose Tubular Renal/urina , Acidose Tubular Renal/etiologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Síndrome de Sjogren/urina , Síndrome de Sjogren/diagnóstico , Feminino , Biomarcadores/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Furosemida/uso terapêutico , Furosemida/administração & dosagem , Ácido Cítrico/urina , Fludrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Idoso , Brasil
5.
Can Vet J ; 65(6): 544-546, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827601

RESUMO

Lymphoma represents up to 30% of neoplasms diagnosed in cats. Diagnosis of lymphoma in the urinary system by examination of urine sediment has been described in a dog, but apparently not previously in cats. Concurrent samples of serum, EDTA whole blood, and urine were submitted from a 15-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat exhibiting weight loss, polyuria, and polydipsia. Hematology and biochemical abnormalities included a mild normocytic, normochromic, non-regenerative anemia; an inflammatory leukogram; and azotemia. Urinalysis evaluation revealed inadequate urine concentration and marked proteinuria. Wet-mount urine sediment examination revealed moderate numbers of leukocytes and erythrocytes. A uniform population of intermediate-to-large lymphocytes was observed on a fresh, Wright-Giemsa-stained preparation from cytocentrifuged urine. The cat was euthanized and necropsy was completed. Bilateral renomegaly was identified and characterized by multifocal, pale-yellow, coalescing, poorly defined, homogenous nodules. Microscopically, these nodules were composed of dense sheets of CD3-positive round cells, consistent with T-cell renal lymphoma. Key clinical message: Lymphoma is a common neoplasm in cats that can affect many organ systems, including the upper urinary tract. This case represents an uncommon method of identifying neoplastic lymphocytes via evaluation of cytocentrifuged urine, and emphasizes the benefits of examining Romanowsky-stained urine sediment in animals.


Diagnostic du lymphome rénal chez un chat par évaluation d'urine cytocentrifugée avec coloration Wright-Giemsa. Le lymphome représente jusqu'à 30 % des néoplasmes diagnostiqués chez le chat. Le diagnostic d'un lymphome du système urinaire par examen des sédiments urinaires a été décrit chez un chien, mais apparemment pas à ce jour chez le chat. Des échantillons simultanés de sérum, de sang total dans un tube avec EDTA et d'urine ont été soumis provenant d'une chatte domestique à poils courts stérilisée de 15 ans présentant une perte de poids, une polyurie et une polydipsie. Les anomalies hématologiques et biochimiques comprenaient une légère anémie normocytaire, normochrome et non régénérative; une formule leucocytaire inflammatoire; et une azotémie. L'analyse d'urine a révélé une concentration urinaire insuffisante et une protéinurie marquée. L'examen microscopique des sédiments urinaires a révélé un nombre modéré de leucocytes et d'érythrocytes. Une population uniforme de lymphocytes de taille intermédiaire à grande a été observée sur une préparation fraîche colorée au Wright-Giemsa à partir d'urine cytocentrifugée. Le chat a été euthanasié et une autopsie a été réalisée. Une rénomégalie bilatérale a été identifiée et caractérisée par des nodules multifocaux, jaune pâle, coalescents, mal définis et homogènes. Au microscope, ces nodules étaient composés de feuilles denses de cellules rondes CD3-positives, compatibles avec un lymphome rénal à cellules T.Message clinique clé :Le lymphome est une tumeur courante chez le chat qui peut affecter de nombreux systèmes organiques, y compris les voies urinaires supérieures. Ce cas représente une méthode rare d'identification des lymphocytes néoplasiques via l'évaluation de l'urine cytocentrifugée et met l'emphase sur les avantages de l'examen des sédiments urinaires avec coloration de Romanowsky chez les animaux.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Neoplasias Renais , Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Doenças do Gato/urina , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/veterinária , Neoplasias Renais/urina , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Urinálise/veterinária , Linfoma/veterinária , Linfoma/urina , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Células T/veterinária , Linfoma de Células T/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Células T/urina , Linfoma de Células T/patologia
6.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1363362, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827609

RESUMO

Background: Heavy metal exposure is an important cause of reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Epidemiological studies focusing on the effects of mixed heavy metal exposure on BMD in middle-aged and older people are scarce. In single-metal studies, men and women have shown distinct responses of BMD to environmental metal exposure. This study therefore aimed to elucidate the association between mixed heavy metal exposure and BMD and to investigate whether it is sex-specific. Methods: Data from the 2017-2020 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were selected for this cross-sectional study. The study used three statistical methods, i.e., linear regression, Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) modeling, and weighted quartiles (WQS) regression, to explore the association between the urinary concentrations of 11 metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, manganese, molybdenum, lead, antimony, tin, thallium, and Tungsten), either individually or as a mixture, and total femoral BMD. Results: A total of 1,031 participants were included in this study. Femoral BMD was found to be higher in men than women. A significant negative correlation between the urinary concentrations of the 10 metals and femoral BMD was found in the overall cohort. Further gender sub-stratified analyses showed that in men, urinary metal concentrations were negatively correlated with femoral BMD, with cobalt and barium playing a significant and non-linear role in this effect. In women, although urinary metal concentrations negatively modulated femoral BMD, none of the correlations was statistically significant. Antimony showed sex-specific differences in its effect. Conclusion: The urinary concentrations of 10 mixed heavy metals were negatively correlated with femoral BMD in middle-aged and older participants, and this effect showed gender differences. These findings emphasize the differing role of mixed metal exposure in the process of BMD reduction between the sexes but require further validation by prospective studies.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Fêmur , Metais Pesados , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Idoso , Metais Pesados/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Exposição Ambiental , Teorema de Bayes , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
7.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0301137, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865297

RESUMO

Dogs are often housed alone in shelter settings to reduce injury and disease spread. However, social isolation can be a stressor for dogs. Prior studies have suggested that cohousing can produce behavioral and physiological benefits. These studies have typically focused on laboratory dogs or shelter dogs that have been kenneled for several months. Thus, those results might not necessarily generalize to shelter dogs, many of which have shorter lengths of stay than those dogs studied to date, and might be cohoused soon after intake. In fact, being pair-housed could, in the short term, be more stressful as dogs have to navigate novel social situations in small spaces. We investigated the behavioral and physiological effects of single- or pair-housing shelter dogs, most of which had recently entered the shelter. We collected behavioral data on 61 dogs (30 single-housed; 31 pair-housed) daily across seven days; we also collected urine for cortisol:creatinine analysis on a subset (22 single-housed; 18 pair-housed) for eight days (each day of the seven-day study plus a baseline sample on Day 0, prior to dogs' enrollment). We found pair-housed dogs engaged in three stress-related behaviors (lip licking, whining, and ears back) significantly less frequently than single-housed dogs. When we analyzed the change in urinary cortisol:creatinine (Days 1-7 values minus Day 0 value), we found that pair-housed dogs generally showed a greater decrease in cortisol:creatinine levels than single-housed dogs. Pair-housed dogs also had significantly shorter lengths of stay, but we did not detect any effect on dog-dog skills. Overall, we found well-matched pair-housing can have both proximate and ultimate welfare benefits for shelter dogs.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento Animal , Abrigo para Animais , Hidrocortisona , Animais , Cães , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/urina , Masculino , Feminino , Creatinina/urina
8.
Diving Hyperb Med ; 54(2): 105-109, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870952

RESUMO

Introduction: Routine dipstick urinalysis is part of many dive medical assessment protocols. However, this has a significant chance of producing false-positive or false-negative results in asymptomatic and healthy individuals. Studies evaluating the value of urinalysis in dive medical assessments are limited. Methods: All results from urinalysis as part of dive medical assessments of divers, submarines, and hyperbaric personnel of the Royal Netherlands Navy from 2013 to 2023 were included in this study. Additionally, any information regarding additional testing, referral, or test results concerning the aforementioned was collected. Results: There were 5,899 assessments, resulting in 46 (0.8%) positive dipstick urinalysis results, predominantly microscopic haematuria. Females were significantly overrepresented, and revisions resulted in significantly more positive test results than initial assessments. Lastly, almost half of the cases were deemed fit to dive, while the other half were regarded as temporarily unfit. These cases required additional testing, and a urologist was consulted three times. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the most extensive study evaluating urinalysis in dive medical assessments. In our military population, the incidence of positive test results is very low, and there have not been clinically relevant results over a period of 10 years. Therefore, routinely assessing urine in asymptomatic healthy military candidates is not cost-effective or efficacious. The authors advise taking a thorough history for fitness to dive assessments and only analysing urine when a clinical indication is present.


Assuntos
Mergulho , Hematúria , Militares , Urinálise , Humanos , Urinálise/métodos , Feminino , Mergulho/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Hematúria/diagnóstico , Hematúria/urina , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Medicina Submarina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Adulto Jovem , Reações Falso-Positivas
10.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 8: e2300362, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865671

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is significant interest in identifying complete responders to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) before radical cystectomy (RC) to potentially avoid removal of a pathologically benign bladder. However, clinical restaging after NAC is highly inaccurate. The objective of this study was to develop a next-generation sequencing-based molecular assay using urine to enhance clinical staging of patients with bladder cancer. METHODS: Urine samples from 20 and 44 patients with bladder cancer undergoing RC were prospectively collected for retrospective analysis for molecular correlate analysis from two clinical trials, respectively. The first cohort was used to benchmark the assay, and the second was used to determine the performance characteristics of the test as it correlates to responder status as measured by pathologic examination. RESULTS: First, to benchmark the assay, known mutations identified in the tissue (MT) of patients from the Accelerated Methotrexate, Vinblastine, Doxorubicin, Cisplatin trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01611662, n = 16) and a cohort from University of California-San Francisco (n = 4) were cross referenced against mutation profiles from urine (MU). We then determined the correlation between MU persistence and residual disease in pre-RC urine samples from a second prospective clinical trial (The pT0 trial; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02968732). Residual MU status correlated strongly with residual disease status (pT0 trial; n = 44; P = .0092) when MU from urine supernatant and urine pellet were assessed separately and analyzed in tandem. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 91%, 50%, 86%, and 63% respectively, with an overall accuracy of 82% for this second cohort. CONCLUSION: MU are representative of MT and thus can be used to enhance clinical staging of urothelial carcinoma. Urine biopsy may be used as a reliable tool that can be further developed to identify complete response to NAC in anticipation of safe RC avoidance.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Cistectomia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Humanos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/urina , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/urina , Biópsia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia Neoadjuvante
11.
Rev Med Liege ; 79(5-6): 424-428, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38869134

RESUMO

Urine cytology is a long-used technique for the detection of high grade neoplastic urothelial lesions. Since 2016, «The Paris System¼ classification has revolutionized this field by introducing a standardized terminology widely adopted by cytopathologists and urologists. In this article, we explain this classification and discuss its impact on the clinical management of patients with urothelial lesions, as well as its role in the secondary prevention of these lesions.


La cytologie urinaire est une technique utilisée depuis longtemps dans la détection des lésions urothéliales tumorales de haut grade. Depuis 2016, la classification «The Paris System¼ a révolutionné ce domaine en introduisant une terminologie standardisée largement adoptée par les cytopathologistes et les urologues. Dans cet article, nous expliquons cette classification et discutons de son impact sur la prise en charge clinique des lésions urothéliales, ainsi que son rôle dans la prévention secondaire de ces lésions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Urológicas , Urotélio , Humanos , Urotélio/patologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Urológicas/patologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/urina , Citodiagnóstico/métodos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/urina , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Urina/citologia , Urinálise/métodos , Citologia
12.
J Med Virol ; 96(6): e29742, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874263

RESUMO

Polyomaviruses BK (BKPyV) and JC (JCPyV), belonging to the Polyomaviridae, are responsible for human pathologies. In kidney transplant recipients, BKPyV replication can lead to irreversible nephron damage whereas JCPyV replication remains asymptomatic. Concomitant replication is rare and potential competition between the infections has been described. The aim of this retrospective case-control study was to describe the molecular epidemiology and risk factors associated with BKPyV and JCPyV replication in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients. In total, 655 urine samples from 460 patients were tested for BKPyV and JCPyV DNA. Positive samples were submitted to strain genotyping. Demographic and clinical characteristics were also compared. Isolated JCPyV and BKPyV was found in 16.5% and 23.3% of patients, respectively; co-replication was rare (3.9%). BKPyV strains Ib-2, Ib-1, and IVc-2 were the most prevalent. JCPyV strains mostly belonged to genotypes 4 and 1B. During follow-up, JCPyV shedding significantly reduced the risk of BKPyV DNAuria, with an odds ratio of 0.57 (95% confidence interval: 0.35-0.99), and was associated with better prognosis than BKPyV replication, based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Molecular epidemiology of BKPyV and JCPyV strains in our region was similar to previous studies. This study suggests that JCPyV is benign and appears to limit damaging BKPyV replication. JCPyV DNAuria screening could thus be a useful strategy to predict BKPyV-related outcomes.


Assuntos
Vírus BK , Genótipo , Vírus JC , Transplante de Rim , Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções por Polyomavirus , Humanos , Vírus BK/genética , Vírus BK/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Polyomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/urina , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vírus JC/genética , Vírus JC/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Adulto , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Idoso , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/epidemiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/urina , DNA Viral/urina , DNA Viral/genética , Aloenxertos/virologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13464, 2024 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866845

RESUMO

Environmental exposure to heavy metals and metalloids, originating from sources such as mining and manufacturing activities, has been linked to adverse renal effects. This cross-sectional study assessed children's exposure to these elements and its association with urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1). We analyzed data from 99 school-aged children residing in nine localities within the state of Colima, Mexico, during the latter half of 2023. Levels of 23 metals/metalloids and urinary KIM-1 were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Detectable levels of these contaminants were found in over 91% of participants, with varied exposure profiles observed across locations ( p = 0.019). After adjusting for confounding factors like gender, age, and locality, higher levels of six metals/metalloids (boron, cadmium, cesium, lithium, selenium, zinc) were significantly associated with increased KIM-1 levels. Tailored mitigation efforts are crucial to protect children from regional pollutant burdens. However, limitations exist, as our study did not capture all potential factors influencing heavy metal/metalloid and KIM-1 levels.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Receptor Celular 1 do Vírus da Hepatite A , Metais Pesados , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Receptor Celular 1 do Vírus da Hepatite A/metabolismo , Receptor Celular 1 do Vírus da Hepatite A/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , México , Metaloides/urina , Metaloides/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Adolescente
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12901, 2024 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839764

RESUMO

Early kidney injury may be detected by urinary markers, such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and/or neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Of these biomarkers information on pathophysiology and reference ranges in both healthy and diseased populations are scarce. Differences in urinary levels of B2M, TIMP-2, IGFBP7, KIM-1 and NGAL were compared 24 h before and after nephrectomy in 38 living kidney donors from the REnal Protection Against Ischaemia-Reperfusion in transplantation study. Linear regression was used to assess the relation between baseline biomarker concentration and kidney function 1 year after nephrectomy. Median levels of urinary creatinine and creatinine standardized B2M, TIMP-2, IGFBP7, KIM-1, NGAL, and albumin 24 h before nephrectomy in donors were 9.4 mmol/L, 14 µg/mmol, 16 pmol/mmol, 99 pmol/mmol, 63 ng/mmol, 1390 ng/mmol and 0.7 mg/mmol, with median differences 24 h after nephrectomy of - 0.9, + 1906, - 7.1, - 38.3, - 6.9, + 2378 and + 1.2, respectively. The change of donor eGFR after 12 months per SD increment at baseline of B2M, TIMP-2, IGFBP7, KIM-1 and NGAL was: - 1.1, - 2.3, - 0.7, - 1.6 and - 2.8, respectively. Urinary TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 excretion halved after nephrectomy, similar to urinary creatinine, suggesting these markers predominantly reflect glomerular filtration. B2M and NGAL excretion increased significantly, similar to albumin, indicating decreased proximal tubular reabsorption following nephrectomy. KIM-1 did not change considerably after nephrectomy. Even though none of these biomarkers showed a strong relation with long-term donor eGFR, these results provide valuable insight into the pathophysiology of these urinary biomarkers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina , Nefrectomia , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-2 , Microglobulina beta-2 , Humanos , Nefrectomia/métodos , Nefrectomia/efeitos adversos , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-2/urina , Microglobulina beta-2/urina , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina/urina , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Doadores Vivos , Rim/cirurgia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Rim/metabolismo , Receptor Celular 1 do Vírus da Hepatite A/metabolismo , Receptor Celular 1 do Vírus da Hepatite A/análise , Creatinina/urina , Lipocalina-2/urina
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 189: 114774, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824992

RESUMO

Furan and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) can form during food processing and accumulate in foods at various concentrations depending on processing technology and beverage/meal preparation methods applied prior to consumption. Here, we report a controlled dosimetry study with 20 volunteers (10 male, 10 female) to monitor dietary furan/2-MF exposure. The volunteers followed an eleven-day furan/2-MF-restricted diet in which they consumed freshly prepared coffee brew containing known amounts of furan and 2-MF on two separate occasions (250 mL and 500 mL on days 4 and 8, respectively). Urine was collected over the whole study period and analyzed for key metabolites derived from the primary oxidative furan metabolite cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA) (i.e., Lys-BDA, AcLys-BDA and cyclic GSH-BDA) and the primary 2-MF metabolite acetylacrolein (AcA, 4-oxo-pent-2-enal) (i.e., Lys-AcA and AcLys-AcA). A previously established stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) method was utilized. Excretion kinetics revealed two peaks (at 0-2 and 24-36 h) for AcLys-BDA, Lys-BDA, AcLysAcA and LysAcA, whereas GSH-BDA showed a single peak. Notably, women on average excreted the metabolite GSH-BDA slightly faster than men, indicating gender differences. Overall, the study provided further insights into the spectrum of possible biomarkers of furan and 2-methyfuran metabolites occurring in the urine of volunteers after coffee consumption.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Furanos , Humanos , Furanos/urina , Masculino , Feminino , Biomarcadores/urina , Adulto , Café/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Adulto Jovem , Exposição Dietética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos
16.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 37(5): 479-493, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843921

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate changes in the urinary metabolite profiles of children exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during critical brain development and explore their potential link with the intestinal microbiota. Methods: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine ten hydroxyl metabolites of PAHs (OH-PAHs) in 36-month-old children. Subsequently, 37 children were categorized into low- and high-exposure groups based on the sum of the ten OH-PAHs. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to identify non-targeted metabolites in the urine samples. Furthermore, fecal flora abundance was assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing using Illumina MiSeq. Results: The concentrations of 21 metabolites were significantly higher in the high exposure group than in the low exposure group (variable importance for projection > 1, P < 0.05). Most of these metabolites were positively correlated with the hydroxyl metabolites of naphthalene, fluorine, and phenanthrene ( r = 0.336-0.531). The identified differential metabolites primarily belonged to pathways associated with inflammation or proinflammatory states, including amino acid, lipid, and nucleotide metabolism. Additionally, these distinct metabolites were significantly associated with specific intestinal flora abundances ( r = 0.34-0.55), which were mainly involved in neurodevelopment. Conclusion: Higher PAH exposure in young children affected metabolic homeostasis, particularly that of certain gut microbiota-derived metabolites. Further investigation is needed to explore the potential influence of PAHs on the gut microbiota and their possible association with neurodevelopmental outcomes.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 40(2): 186-191, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the postmortem diffusion rule of Aconitum alkaloids and their metabolites in poisoned rabbits, and to provide a reference for identifying the antemortem poisoning or postmortem poisoning of Aconitum alkaloids. METHODS: Twenty-four rabbits were sacrificed by tracheal clamps. After 1 hour, the rabbits were administered with aconitine LD50 in decocting aconite root powder by intragastric administration. Then, they were placed supine and stored at 25 ℃. The biological samples from 3 randomly selected rabbits were collected including heart blood, peripheral blood, urine, heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney tissues at 0 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h after intragastric administration, respectively. Aconitum alkaloids and their metabolites in the biological samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). RESULTS: At 4 h after intragastric administration, Aconitum alkaloids and their metabolites could be detected in heart blood, peripheral blood and major organs, and the contents of them changed dynamically with the preservation time. The contents of Aconitum alkaloids and their metabolites were higher in the spleen, liver and lung, especially in the spleen which was closer to the stomach. The average mass fraction of benzoylmesaconine metabolized in rabbit spleen was the highest at 48 h after intragastric administration. In contrast, the contents of Aconitum alkaloids and their metabolites in kidney were all lower. Aconitum alkaloids and their metabolites were not detected in urine. CONCLUSIONS: Aconitum alkaloids and their metabolites have postmortem diffusion in poisoned rabbits, diffusing from high-content organs (stomach) to other major organs and tissues as well as the heart blood. The main mechanism is the dispersion along the concentration gradient, while urine is not affected by postmortem diffusion, which can be used as the basis for the identification of antemortem and postmortem Aconitum alkaloids poisoning.


Assuntos
Aconitum , Alcaloides , Fígado , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Coelhos , Aconitum/química , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Alcaloides/urina , Alcaloides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Fígado/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Aconitina/análogos & derivados , Aconitina/farmacocinética , Aconitina/urina , Aconitina/metabolismo , Aconitina/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Distribuição Tecidual , Baço/metabolismo , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Toxicologia Forense/métodos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Masculino
18.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 44(1): 49, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836960

RESUMO

Mild hypothermia (MH) is an effective measure to alleviate cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. This study set out to investigate dynamic changes in urinary proteome due to MH in rats with cerebral I/R injury and explore the neuroprotective mechanisms of MH. A Pulsinelli's four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) rat model was used to mimic global cerebral I/R injury. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed to profile the urinary proteome of rats with/without MH (32 °C) treatment after I/R injury. Representative differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) associated with MH were validated by western blotting in hippocampus. A total of 597 urinary proteins were identified, among which 119 demonstrated significant changes associated with MH. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation of the DEPs revealed that MH significantly enriched in endopeptidase activity, inflammatory response, aging, response to oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species, blood coagulation, and cell adhesion. Notably, changes in 12 DEPs were significantly reversed by MH treatment. Among them, 8 differential urinary proteins were previously reported to be closely associated with brain disease, including NP, FZD1, B2M, EPCR, ATRN, MB, CA1and VPS4A. Two representative proteins (FZD1, B2M) were further validated by western blotting in the hippocampus and the results were shown to be consistent with urinary proteomic analysis. Overall, this study strengthens the idea that urinary proteome can sensitively reflect pathophysiological changes in the brain, and appears to be the first study to explore the neuroprotective effects of MH by urinary proteomic analysis. FZD1 and B2M may be involved in the most fundamental molecular biological mechanisms of MH neuroprotection.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Hipotermia Induzida , Proteômica , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Animais , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/urina , Proteômica/métodos , Masculino , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/urina , Proteoma/metabolismo , Ratos , Hipocampo/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12899, 2024 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839853

RESUMO

While volatile organic compounds (VOCs) impair various organs, their influence on hearing loss (HL) has not been extensively researched. We aimed to identify the association between VOCs and HL or high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL). We extracted data on age, sex, pure tone audiometry, hypertension, occupational noise exposure, and creatinine-corrected urine VOC metabolite concentrations from the eighth Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey. Among the VOC metabolites, N-acetyl-S-(benzyl)-L-cysteine (BMA, P = 0.004), N-acetyl-S-(phenyl)-L-cysteine (SPMA, P = 0.027), and N-acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-L-cysteine (DHBMA, P < 0.001) showed associations with HL. Additionally, HFHL exhibited significant associations with BMA (P = 0.005), 3- and 4-methylhippuric acid (3, 4 MHA, P = 0.049), mandelic acid (MA, P = 0.015), SPMA (P < 0.001), N-acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-L-cysteine (3-HPMA, P < 0.001), and DHBMA (P < 0.001). After controlling other factors, DHBMA were associated with HL (P = 0.021) and HFHL (P = 0.014) and exhibited a linear association with the mean hearing level (ß = 0.054, P = 0.024) and high-frequency hearing level (ß = 0.045, P = 0.037). Since 1,3-butadiene may act as an ototoxic material, early screening for workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene and reducing exposure to 1,3-butadiene in everyday life may be helpful to prevent further HL.


Assuntos
Butadienos , Perda Auditiva , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perda Auditiva/induzido quimicamente , Perda Auditiva/etiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/urina , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/efeitos adversos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Idoso , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Audiometria de Tons Puros
20.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0298408, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High concentration of Angiotensin converting enzyme receptors in the proximal tubules make kidneys an early target in COVID-19. Proximal tubular dysfunction (PTD) may act as an early predictor of acute kidney injury (AKI) and more severe disease. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted in the COVID unit, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University. 87 COVID-19 patients without known kidney disease were screened for 6 markers of PTD on admission-hyperuricosuria, normoglycemic glycosuria, proteinuria, renal phosphate leak, sodium leak and potassium leak. Positivity of 2 of the first 4 markers was considered as PTD. 35 patients with PTD and 35 without PTD were followed up throughout their hospital stay. RESULTS: 52.9% had PTD on admission. The most prevalent markers were renal sodium leak (67%), followed by proteinuria (66.7%), hyperuricosuria (42.5%), potassium leak (32.2%), phosphate leak (28.7%) and normoglycemic glycosuria (20.7%). Mean age was 55.7 years. 32.9% patients developed AKI. PTD group had higher odds of developing AKI (odds ratio 17.5 for stage 1, 24.8 for stage 2 and 25.5 for stage 3; p<0.0001). The mean duration of hospital stay was 9 days higher in the PTD group (p<0.001). PTD group also had higher odds of transferring to ICU (OR = 9.4, p = 0.002), need for mechanical ventilation (OR = 10.1, p = 0.002) and death (OR = 10.3, p = 0.001). 32.6% had complete PTD recovery during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Proximal tubular dysfunction is highly prevalent in COVID-19 patients very early in the disease and may act as a predictor of AKI, ICU transfer, need for mechanical ventilation and death.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , COVID-19 , Túbulos Renais Proximais , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Prospectivos , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Adulto , Hospitalização , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/urina
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