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1.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(1): 11, 2022 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994769

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the amoebicidal activity of functionalized poly-epsilon-lysine hydrogels (pɛK+) against Acanthamoeba castellanii. Methods: A. castellanii trophozoites and cysts were grown in the presence of pɛK solution (0-2.17 mM), pɛK or pɛK+ hydrogels, or commercial hydrogel contact lens (CL) for 24 hours or 7 days in PBS or Peptone-Yeast-Glucose (PYG) media (nutrient-deplete or nutrient-replete cultures, respectively). Toxicity was determined using propidium iodide and imaged using fluorescence microscopy. Ex vivo porcine corneas were inoculated with A. castellanii trophozoites ± pɛK, pɛK+ hydrogels or commercial hydrogel CL for 7 days. Corneal infection was assessed by periodic acid-Schiff staining and histologic analysis. Regrowth of A. castellanii from hydrogel lenses and corneal discs at 7 days was assessed using microscopy and enumeration. Results: The toxicity of pɛK+ hydrogels resulted in the death of 98.52% or 83.31% of the trophozoites at 24 hours or 7 days, respectively. The toxicity of pɛK+ hydrogels resulted in the death of 70.59% or 82.32% of the cysts in PBS at 24 hours or 7 days, respectively. Cysts exposed to pɛK+ hydrogels in PYG medium resulted in 75.37% and 87.14% death at 24 hours and 7 days. Ex vivo corneas infected with trophozoites and incubated with pɛK+ hydrogels showed the absence of A. castellanii in the stroma, with no regrowth from corneas or pɛK+ hydrogel, compared with infected-only corneas and those incubated in presence of commercial hydrogel CL. Conclusions: pɛK+ hydrogels demonstrated pronounced amoebicidal and cysticidal activity against A. castellanii. pɛK+ hydrogels have the potential for use as CLs that could minimize the risk of CL-associated Acanthamoeba keratitis.


Assuntos
Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/tratamento farmacológico , Acanthamoeba castellanii/efeitos dos fármacos , Amebicidas/farmacologia , Córnea/parasitologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Polilisina/farmacologia , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/parasitologia , Amebicidas/toxicidade , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Soluções para Lentes de Contato/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitélio Corneano/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/parasitologia , Humanos , Hidrogéis/toxicidade , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Polilisina/toxicidade , Suínos , Trofozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(1): 79-88, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983742

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A 5-year retrospective analysis of ascarid infections (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina) in dogs from southern Italy was performed to update the epidemiological scenario of these parasites and to identify the risk factors which may favour these infections in animals in this study area. A total of 8,149 dogs, referred to our labs for copromicroscopic analysis using the FLOTAC technique, was considered. A sub-sample of 500 faecal samples were analysed also with the Mini-FLOTAC technique. Of the overall dog samples analysed, 9,2 % (95 % CI = 8,6-9,8) resulted positive for T. canis while 0,5 % (95 % CI = 0,4-0,7) resulted positive for T. leonina. Co-infections with T. canis and T. leonina were found in 0,1 % of dogs (95 % CI = 0,0-0,1). The results obtained by the FLOTAC and Mini-FLOTAC examinations showed a nearly perfect k agreement (k = 0,99, P < 0,001) between these two techniques. Chi-square test showed positivity to T. canis and T. leonina significantly (P < 0,001) associated with dogs housed outdoor (i.e., that lived in garden or in kennel). Moreover, the positivity for T. canis was significantly associated (P < 0,001) also with age (i.e., puppies), as shown by the logistic regression. The decreasing overall prevalence both for T. canis and T. leonina during the years of monitoring, showed that, as suggested by the European Scientific Counsel Companion Animal Parasites, the regular diagnosis could contribute to an efficient control of these parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Toxascaríase/veterinária , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Toxascaríase/epidemiologia , Toxascaris , Toxocara canis
3.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 69(1): 115-127, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794669

RESUMO

Neurocysticercosis is one of the most common parasitic infections in the central nervous system in children. The usual clinical manifestation is new-onset focal seizure. However, there are other multiple clinical manifestations, such as increased intracranial pressure, meningoencephalitis, spinal cord syndrome, and blindness. The diagnosis needs high index of suspicion with clinical history, physical examination, neuroimaging, and immunologic studies. Recent advances in neuroimaging and serology facilitate the accurate diagnosis. Management of neurocysticercosis should focus on critical symptoms first, such as the use of antiepileptic drugs and medical or surgical therapy for increased intracranial pressure.


Assuntos
Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Cegueira/parasitologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pressão Intracraniana , Masculino , Meningoencefalite/parasitologia , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/parasitologia , Taenia solium/isolamento & purificação
4.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 69(1): 129-139, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794670

RESUMO

Intestinal nematode infections caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STH), such as the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, the whipworm Trichuris trichiura, and the hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale, and Necator americanus, infect more than 1 billion people throughout the world. School-aged children tend to harbor the greatest numbers of intestinal worms, and as a result, experience more adverse health consequences, such as poor growth, anemia, and cognitive decline. Clinicians should maintain a high degree of suspicion in endemic areas when patients present with surgical abdomens, particularly children. Current antihelminthic drugs are moderately effective, but reinfection is possible. Global efforts are needed to eradicate STH infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Ancylostoma/isolamento & purificação , Anemia/parasitologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Humanos , Higiene , Lactente , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Necator americanus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Solo/parasitologia , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação
5.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 69(1): 79-97, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794678

RESUMO

Although rare in the developed world, amebiasis continues to be a leading cause of diarrhea and illness in developing nations with crowding, poor sanitation, and lack of clean water supply. Recent immigrants or travelers returning from endemic regions after a prolonged stay are at high risk of developing amebiasis. A high index of suspicion for amebiasis should be maintained for other high-risk groups like men having sex with men, people with AIDS/HIV, immunocompromised hosts, residents of mental health facility or group homes. Clinical presentation of intestinal amebiasis varies from diarrhea to colitis and dysentery. Amebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common form of extraintestinal amebiasis. Various diagnostic tools are available and when amebiasis is suspected, a combination of stool tests and serology should be sent to maximize the yield of testing. Treatment with an amebicidal drug such as metronidazole/tinidazole and a luminal cysticidal agent such as paromomycin for clinical disease is indicated. However, for asymptomatic disease treatment with a luminal cysticidal agent to decrease chances of invasive disease and transmission is recommended.


Assuntos
Amebíase/tratamento farmacológico , Amebíase/epidemiologia , Abscesso Hepático Amebiano/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso Hepático Amebiano/epidemiologia , Amebíase/diagnóstico , Amebíase/transmissão , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colite/parasitologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Água Potável/parasitologia , Disenteria Amebiana/epidemiologia , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Abscesso Hepático Amebiano/diagnóstico , Abscesso Hepático Amebiano/transmissão , Masculino , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Paromomicina/uso terapêutico , Viagem
6.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102472, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597759

RESUMO

Kudoa ocellatus n. sp. was found in the musculature of Astronotus ocelattus (Agassiz, 1831) from the Arari River on Marajó Island in Pará, Brazil. The new species forms pseudocysts in the epaxial and hypaxial musculature composed of various spores that are pseudoquadrate in the apical view. In the lateral view, the spores were triangular or pyramidal. In the lateral view, the spores were 46 ± 0.11 µm (4.5-4.8) in length and 6.6 ± 0.3 µm (6.2-7.2) in width, with four pyriform polar capsules of equal size that measured 2.0 ± 0.16 µm (1.8-2.2) in length and 1.5 ± 0.18 µm (1.3-1.8) in width. Based on the partial (1418 bps) sequence of the SSU rDNA gene, Kudoa ocellatus n. sp. was distinct from all the other Kudoa species deposited in GenBank. The phylogenetic Bayesian Inference and P distance placed the new species together with the other Kudoa species that parasitize freshwater Amazonian fish. The morphological evidence, together with the SSU rDNA gene sequence, supported the description of Kudoa ocellatus n. sp., a distinct new species of the genus, which parasitizes a freshwater Amazonian cichlid.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Myxozoa/genética , Myxozoa/ultraestrutura , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Prevalência
7.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102474, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597760

RESUMO

We found juveniles of Paragonimus in the urinary bladder of a Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) captured in Kyoto. These were molecularly identified as Paragonimus skrjabini miyazakii Kamo, Nishida, Hatsushika et Tomimura 1961. This is the first report of P. s. miyazakii found in anuran hosts in Japan, indicating that anurans can be paratenic hosts of P. s. miyazakii, as is also the case for Paragonimus skrjabini skrjabini in China. This finding suggests that definitive hosts of P. s. miyazakii can be infected by eating not only crabs or mammal paratenic hosts, but also anurans.


Assuntos
Bufonidae , Paragonimíase/veterinária , Paragonimus/isolamento & purificação , Bexiga Urinária/parasitologia , Animais , Japão , Masculino , Paragonimíase/parasitologia
8.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102473, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600157

RESUMO

Despite the large number of species described to date for the onchoprotepcephalid genus Acanthobothrium (207), only 16 named species have a genetic sequence. With this background, specimens of adult cestodes of the stingray Hypanus longus were collected off San Blas, Nayarit, and onchoproteocephalid larvae in the carangid fish Trachinotus rhodopus from Puerto Ángel, Oaxaca, both located on the Pacific coast of Mexico. The objective of this work is to investigate the phylogenetic position of these adults and larvae using nuclear ribosomal markers (18S rDNA and 28S rDNA). Morphologically, adult specimens were identified as Acanthobothrium cleofanus; larvae were identified only to family level. The phylogenetic position of both taxa was investigated based on the information of two nuclear molecular markers analyzed under Parsimony (PA) and Bayesian Inference (BI) methods. The newly generated sequences of A. cleofanus from Nayarit are identical to the sequences of several samples of Acanthobothrium sp. collected in the Mexican Pacific, which sequence are available in GenBank; DNA sequences obtained from onchoproteocephalid larva clearly place this taxon within Acanthobothrium but representing an independent lineage. In the resulting phylogenetic trees, Uncibilocularis okei was found nested within Acanthobothrium with an unstable position depending on the optimality criteria, indicating the need for more molecular analyzes with a greater number of species of both genera prior to define its phylogenetic relationships.


Assuntos
Cestoides/classificação , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Rajidae , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Cestoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Larva/classificação , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , México , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 28S/análise
9.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102476, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610467

RESUMO

Trypanosoma theileri is considered a non- or low-pathogenic trypanosome that generally causes latent infection in apparently healthy cattle; however, T. theileri propagates in the bloodstream and may cause clinical disease in pregnant animals or co-infection with bovine leukemia virus or Theileria orientalis. In the current study, a monthly survey of T. theileri infection over one year was carried out in a research dairy farm in Hokkaido, Japan to determine the 1) seasonal variations in the prevalence, 2) genetic characterization of T. theileri, and 3) associations of milk and blood parameters in dairy cattle with T. theileri infection, including data of metabolic profile tests and dairy herd performance tests, using linear mixed models. We found that 1) the prevalence of T. theileri infection was significantly higher in summer and winter than in other seasons; 2) T. theileri possibly showed genetic diversity in Eastern Hokkaido; and 3) T. theileri infection was associated with significantly lower levels of blood urea nitrogen, milk protein, and solids-not-fat, which are caused by a low rumen fermentation level. This is the first study to report the negative impact of T. theileri infection in dairy cattle, and our study indicates that control of T. theileri infection can improve the productivity of dairy cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Variação Genética , Trypanosoma/fisiologia , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Animais , Sangue/parasitologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Leite/parasitologia , Estações do Ano , Trypanosoma/genética , Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase/parasitologia
10.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102477, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619383

RESUMO

Babesia gibsoni, the causative agent of canine piroplasmosis, is a tick-borne intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite predominantly reported in Asian countries. The present study aimed at genotypic characterization of B. gibsoni isolates prevalent in dogs in Kerala, a southern state of India. Blood samples were collected from 272 dogs in Kerala and B. gibsoni infection was detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular confirmation of B. gibsoni parasites was carried out by 18S rRNA nested-PCR, followed by sequencing. Nested-PCR detected a higher percentage of dogs (40.44%) positive for B. gibsoni infection than microscopy where 15.81% dogs were detected positive for infection. Genetic characterization of B. gibsoni isolates (n = 11) prevalent in dogs in the state of Kerala was carried out by PCR amplification and sequencing of the 855 bp thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) gene fragment. Phylogenetic analysis of the B. gibsoni TRAP (BgTRAP) gene revealed that B. gibsoni isolates from Kerala formed a distinct cluster with the isolates from north India and Bangladesh, away from other East Asian isolates. Nucleotide analysis of the tandem repeats of BgTRAP gene showed considerable genetic variation among Indian isolates that was shared by B. gibsoni isolates of Bangladesh but not by the isolates of East Asian countries. The results of the present study further confirmed that B. gibsoni parasites in a distinct genetic clade are endemic in dogs in India and Bangladesh. However, elaborate studies are required for better understanding of the genetic diversity of B. gibsoni.


Assuntos
Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Índia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Proteínas de Protozoários/análise , Trombospondinas/análise
11.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102478, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626806

RESUMO

Madura cattle, which are native to Indonesia and mainly kept on Madura Island, East Java, are expected to contribute to improving the regional meat self-sufficiency. Eimeria spp. are the most pathogenic protozoans among gastrointestinal parasites in livestock but no molecular surveys of Eimeria spp. in Madura cattle have been conducted to date. In this study, a total of 183 fecal samples were collected from Madura cattle and 60 (32.8%) were positive for parasites of protozoans and nematodes by the sugar floatation method. Among the samples with parasites, Eimeria spp. oocysts were detected in 50 samples (27.3%) with an average OPG value of 1686.1. Eimeria spp. were successfully identified to the species level in 26 samples with Eimeria bovis being the most prevalent, followed by E. zuernii and E. aubrunensis. A total of 21 samples showed mixed infection of more than two species of Eimeria. E. bovis and E. zuernii have been recognized as having high virulency and, thus, these parasites are potential sources of severe coccidiosis and the cause of infections in other cattle. Although additional studies are warranted, these results can be helpful for improving the management and productivity of Madura cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/genética , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
12.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102482, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673233

RESUMO

Dirofilaria spp. nematodes are accidental parasites of humans causing mild to serious, superficial or visceral infections. Superficial dirofilariosis is rather common in Europe and is typically manifested as subcutaneous form. Herein we report 46 new cases of human dirofilariosis (19 patients with subcutaneous, 18 patients with ocular, 4 patients wih genital, 2 patients with submucosal, 2 patients with pulmonary and 1 patient with intramuscular form of infection) that were recorded from the beginning of 2015 to May 2021 on the Balkan Peninsula with a goal to update the prevalence of this parasitosis and point out potential problems in diagnosis and treatment. Besides, given the high possibility of misinterpretation as tumor, our second aim was to encourage the inclusion of this pathogen in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous nodules. Although quite common forms, subcutaneous and ocular dirofilariosis can be very often misdiagnosed in clinical practice due to the absence of specific clinical manifestations. Therefore, raising awareness of clinicians about this zoonosis is needed as well as closer collaboration between physicians and veterinarians.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose , Zoonoses , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Península Balcânica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sérvia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
13.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102481, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688883

RESUMO

Dirofilariasis is an emerging zoonosis caused by nematodes of the genus Dirofilaria, most often D. repens and D. immitis. The main final hosts and reservoirs of pathogens are dogs. The intermediate hosts and vectors of infection are female mosquitoes (Culicidae). Human is an accidental host in which the parasite does not usually mature. Over the past 20 years, the range of Dirofilaria spp. in Europe has expanded. We present an unusual case of multifocal dirofilariasis of mixed subcutaneous-ocular course caused by D. repens in a 52-year-old Polish patient who was probably infected in Spain or Croatia, where she stayed one year before the onset of symptoms. Surgical removal of the nematodes followed by treatment with Ivermectin in a single dose of 1200 µg and Doxycycline 200 mg daily for 7 days resulted in complete recovery. We believe that all cases of human dirofilariasis, especially in countries where the disease is not frequent at present, should be registered for epidemiological purposes. Moreover, due to the widening of the range of D. repens and D. immitis occurrence and the possibility of atypical courses of infection with both nematodes, diagnostics should include the species identification of the parasite.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Animais , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Croácia , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Dirofilariose/cirurgia , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Oftalmopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Oftalmopatias/parasitologia , Oftalmopatias/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias/parasitologia , Dermatopatias/cirurgia , Espanha , Viagem , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102486, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710618

RESUMO

Various host characteristics (i. e., feeding habits, geographic distribution) and habitat characteristics (i.e., seasonality) influence the structure of parasite assemblages. To compare the parasite assemblages of hosts representatives of two genera of the same fish family, simultaneously occupying a geographic region, and to examine if seasonal variations influence parasite occurrence and abundance, we examined the parasite assemblages of two sympatric marine fish, Pagrus pagrus (n = 308) and Pagellus bogaraveo (n = 315) off the coast of Algeria in the western Mediterranean. Specimens were collected during summer and autumn over three consecutive years (2014-2016). Parasite assemblages were high in species richness and abundance. We compiled an inventory of 40 parasite taxa, including ectoparasitic monogeneans and crustaceans, and endoparasitic trematodes, cestodes, acanthocephalans, and nematodes. Endoparasite taxa primarily consisted of adult gastro-intestinal parasites and long lived larval helminths. Information on the parasite community structure and seasonal variations in parasite populations of these two hosts from the Mediterranean is here provided. Observed patterns of composition, diversity, dominance, and similarity indicate an overall consistency in assemblage structure. Although each host species harbored distinct parasite communities, they shared a high proportion of parasite species suggesting similar use of a common local pool of parasites. However, most shared species did not contribute to structuring the assemblages. Seasonal patterns in parasite abundance were observed for both hosts, with peak prevalence, abundance, and diversity in autumn. Results suggest that, regardless of a common pool of parasites being available to sympatric species, several ecological filters over time, led to distinct, independent variations in the parasite assemblages in each species.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Perciformes , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Mar Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Simpatria
15.
Food Microbiol ; 102: 103870, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809958

RESUMO

The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted to humans through shellfish consumption. No standardized methods are available for their detection in these foods, and the performance of the applied methods are rarely described in occurrence studies. Through spiking experiments, we characterized different performance criteria (e.g. sensitivity, estimated limit of detection (eLD95METH), parasite DNA recovery rates (DNA-RR)) of real-time qPCR based-methods for the detection of the three protozoa in mussel's tissues and hemolymph. Digestion of mussels tissues by trypsin instead of pepsin and the use of large buffer volumes was the most efficient for processing 50g-sample. Trypsin digestion followed by lipids removal and DNA extraction by thermal shocks and a BOOM-based technique performed poorly (e.g. eLD95METH from 30 to >3000 parasites/g). But trypsin digestion and direct DNA extraction by bead-beating and FastPrep homogenizer achieved higher performance (e.g. eLD95METH: 4-400 parasites/g, DNA-RR: 19-80%). Direct DNA recovery from concentrated hemolymph, by thermal shocks and cell lysis products removal was not efficient to sensitively detect the protozoa (e.g. eLD95METH: 10-1000 parasites/ml, DNA-RR ≤ 24%). The bead-beating DNA extraction based method is a rapid and simple approach to sensitively detect the three protozoa in mussels using tissues, that can be standardized to different food matrices. However, quantification in mussels remains an issue.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium parvum , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Giardia lamblia , Mytilus edulis , Toxoplasma , Animais , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Giardia lamblia/genética , Hemolinfa , Mytilus edulis/parasitologia , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Tripsina
16.
Microbiol Res ; 254: 126888, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700185

RESUMO

Phyllosphere or aerial surface of plants represents the globally largest and peculiar microbial habitat that inhabits diverse and rich communities of bacteria, fungi, viruses, cyanobacteria, actinobacteria, nematodes, and protozoans. These hyperdiverse microbial communities are related to the host's specific functional traits and influence the host's physiology and the ecosystem's functioning. In the last few years, significant advances have been made in unravelling several aspects of phyllosphere microbiology, including diversity and microbial community composition, dynamics, and functional interactions. This review highlights the current knowledge about the assembly, structure, and composition of phyllosphere microbial communities across spatio-temporal scales, besides functional significance of different microbial communities to the plant host and the surrounding environment. The knowledge will help develop strategies for modelling and manipulating these highly beneficial microbial consortia for furthering scientific inquiry into their interactions with the host plants and also for their useful and economic utilization.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Microbiota , Plantas , Microbiota/fisiologia , Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/parasitologia , Plantas/virologia
17.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102470, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560288

RESUMO

During an investigation of parasitic ciliates in northern China, two Trichodina species, T. acuta Lom, 1970 and T. nigra Lom, 1960, were isolated from the freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758. The morphology of each species was investigated based on dry silver nitrate-stained specimens. In addition, the molecular phylogeny of each was analyzed based on small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequence data. Trichodina acuta can be distinguished from its congeners by the undefined periphery of the central circle, the distinct gap between the rays and the central circle, and the distinctly sickle-shaped blades. Trichodina nigra is a cosmopolitan ciliate and is characterized by its densely linked denticles, broad, rounded spatula-shaped blades, robust central parts, and well developed rays. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. acuta and T. nigra nest within different clades, supporting the assertion that the GC content of SSU rDNA sequences could reflect evolutionary relationships among Trichodina species.


Assuntos
Carpas , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Oligoimenóforos/classificação , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Oligoimenóforos/citologia , Oligoimenóforos/genética , Oligoimenóforos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Prevalência
18.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102471, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562631

RESUMO

Filariasis is a common parasitic infection in India. It is rare to find neglected cases of Filariasis nowadays. We reported the presence of microfilaria species in the follicular fluid of an egg donor undergoing an ovum pick up procedure. She was a 23-year-old egg donor who underwent stimulation using the GnRH antagonist protocol. Antagonist protocol is one of the standard protocols used for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation as a part of the IVF/ICSI(in-vitro fertilization / intracytoplasmic sperm injection) procedure where GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix) is used to suppress the endogenous LH surge. Her baseline investigations were normal, with no significant history suggestive of any worm infestations. During the ovum pickup procedure, follicular fluid revealed the presence of worm-like structures suggestive of larvae of some parasites. The follicular fluid was sent to the microbiology department along with the blood sample to confirm the parasite species. The parasite was found to be the larvae of W. Bancroft. The oocytes were of poor quality and were discarded. The patient was treated with Diethylcarbamazine citrate. There are so many reports about scrotal Filariasis, but rare literature quotes ovarian Filariasis.


Assuntos
Filariose/diagnóstico , Líquido Folicular/parasitologia , Microfilárias/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Wuchereria bancrofti/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Feminino , Filariose/parasitologia , Humanos , Índia , Microfilárias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças Ovarianas/parasitologia , Wuchereria bancrofti/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Food Microbiol ; 101: 103890, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579849

RESUMO

Seroprevalence data for Toxoplasma gondii and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in wild boar (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), mouflon (Ovis aries/musimon) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) hunted/culled in northern Italy were used to fit seroprevalence distributions describing the exposure and co-exposure of the species to the two pathogens. The higher proportion of T. gondii and HEV seropositive animals was observed in wild boars with point estimate seroprevalence of 49% (N = 331) and 15% (N = 326) respectively. Data allowed comparisons by area (pre-Alpine Vs Alpine environment) for roe deer, red deer and mouflons. Contrasts between the distributions describing the uncertainty in seroprevalence suggest roe deer, red deer and mouflons have higher probability of being seropositive to T. gondii in pre-Alps. When considering HEV, few seropositive animals were detected and contrasts were symmetrically centred to zero for roe deer and red deer; mouflons shown higher probability of being seropositive in Alpine environment. HEV seropositive animals also included chamois (P = 5.1%, N = 97) in the Alpine districts, confirming circulation of HEV in remote areas. Evidence of HEV and T. gondii co-exposure was limited except for wild boars where it was observed in 30 samples representing 60% of the overall HEV-positive samples. Seroprevalence data of single infection and co-infection are extremely useful to investigate circulation of zoonotic pathogens in wild animals and estimate the foodborne risk of human exposure, however, these type of data do not directly translate into the presence/absence of the pathogen in seropositive and seronegative animals. At benefit of future development of quantitative risk assessments aiming at estimating the risk of human infection/co-infection via consumption of game meat, we developed and made available an online application that allows estimating the probability of the pathogen(s) being present as a function of seroprevalence data.


Assuntos
Cervos , Vírus da Hepatite E , Sus scrofa , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Coinfecção/veterinária , Cervos/parasitologia , Cervos/virologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Humanos , Itália , Carne/parasitologia , Carne/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Sus scrofa/virologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
20.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102443, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461282

RESUMO

Since 1997, fledgling Scops owls (Chordata: Strigidae) have been brought to the Brinzal Owl Rescue Centre (Madrid, Spain) with severe lesions in their oral cavities. Lesions consist of the presence of proliferative necrotic material in the oral cavity resulting in white plaques, which can lead to death by starvation. This disease has been detected in owls only within the limits of the city of Madrid. The etiologic agent has been identified as Gongylonema sp. (Nematoda: Spirurida), a nematode genus that includes a coprophagous arthropod as intermediate host in its cycle. The aim of this study was to identify the intermediate host of the parasite. Our work was structured in four component phases: i) Diet study of newborn chicks; ii) trapping arthropods that could be intermediate hosts; iii) molecular detection of the parasite in the selected arthropods: and iv) molecular characterization of the detected parasites by amplifying the cox1 gene. Four male owls were radio-tagged in order to locate their nests and a camera trap was placed to identify the prey brought to the owlets. Secondly, the arthropods present in the hunting areas of the owls were sampled, identified and analyzed by real time PCR (rtPCR). Only oriental cockroaches, B. orientalis (Arthropoda: Blattodea), were positive by rtPCR detection of Gongylonema sp. (66.7%). The nematodes obtained from cockroaches had a 99.8% identity of the cox1 gene with the Gongylonema sp. isolated for the first time in a Scops owl. Furthermore, these sequences only showed an <89% identity with all the other Gongylonema sequences available in the GenBank database. We conclude that the oriental cockroach should be considered as an intermediate host of the etiologic agent of NOD.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Baratas/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Doenças Faríngeas/veterinária , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Spiruroidea/fisiologia , Estrigiformes , Animais , Masculino , Orofaringe/parasitologia , Doenças Faríngeas/parasitologia , Espanha , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia
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