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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 321, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609584

RESUMO

Malaria due to the Plasmodium falciparum parasite remains a threat to human health despite eradication efforts and the development of anti-malarial treatments, such as artemisinin combination therapies. Human movement and migration have been linked to the propagation of malaria on national scales, highlighting the need for the incorporation of human movement in modeling efforts. Spatially couped individual-based models have been used to study how anti-malarial resistance evolves and spreads in response to drug policy changes; however, as the spatial scale of the model increases, the challenges associated with modeling of movement also increase. In this paper we discuss the development, calibration, and validation of a movement model in the context of a national-scale, spatial, individual-based model used to study the evolution of drug resistance in the malaria parasite.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária Falciparum , Malária , Humanos , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum , Quimioterapia Combinada , Resistência a Medicamentos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 285, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609676

RESUMO

Malaria cases and deaths keep being excessively high every year. Some inroads gained in the last two decades have been eroded especially due to the surge of resistance to most antimalarials. The search for new molecules that can replace the ones currently in use cannot stop. In this report, the synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives guided by structure-activity parameters is presented. Thirty-six molecules obtained are analyzed according to their activity against P. falciparum HB3 strain based on the type of substituent on rings A and B, their electron donor/withdrawing, as well as their dimension/spatial properties. There is a preference for electron donating groups on ring A, such as Me in position 5, or better, 5, 6-diMe. Ring B must be of the pyridine type such as picolinamide, other modifications are generally not favorable. Two molecules, 1 and 33 displayed antiplasmodial activity in the high nanomolar range against the chloroquine sensitive strain, with selectivity indexes above 10. Activity results of 1, 12 and 16 on a chloroquine resistance strain indicated an activity close to chloroquine for compound 1. Analysis of some of their effect on the parasites seem to suggest that 1 and 33 affect only the parasite and use a route other than interference with hemozoin biocrystallization, the route used by chloroquine and most antimalarials.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária Falciparum , Humanos , Antimaláricos/química , Plasmodium falciparum , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 55(1): 34, 2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609787

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal nematode (GINs) infections are one of the causative agents of health and economic issues in sheep production systems worldwide. Considerable genetic variations in resistance or susceptibility in different sheep breeds are documented, but published results are conflicting. Recent advances obtained by high-throughput technologies such as commercial SNP chips, whole-genome sequencing, or whole transcriptome profiling provide new insights into breeding for host resistance or nematode control at the genetic levels. This study aimed to identify potential biomarkers associated with the resistance to ovine GINs through a network analysis approach. Comprehensive gene and protein interaction networks were reconstructed for candidate genes involved in the most related immune pathways associated with resistance to ovine GINs using data mining from literature. Generally, 30 genes including CD53, CHIA, RELN, HRH1, EPS15, LRP8, ATP2B1, IL4, IL5, IL13, IL2RA, IL23R, TNFα, IFNγ, TBX21, SH3RF1, HERC2, PTPN1, BIN1, HERC5, C3AR1, NOS2, STAT5B, STAT4, CCL1, CCL8, VIL1, CXCR1, CXCR2, and CXCR4 located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 13, 19, and 20 have been found as containing effective regions with the most related pathways to nematode infections. The results obtained by network analysis showed two functional modules, belonging to the interleukins family (IL4, IL5, IL13, IL23R, and IL2RA) and chemokine receptors or ligands family (CXCR1, CXCR2, CXCR4, CCL1, and CCL8). Interleukins are a group of cytokines that are expressed by white blood cells with a major role in the immune system. Chemokines are also a family of chemoattractant cytokines which play a vital role in cell migration that influence the immune system by a process known as chemotaxis. The results provide useful information for the functional annotation of candidate genes related to parasite resistance and add new information towards a consensus on quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to the incidence of nematode infections.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Ovinos/genética , Interleucina-13 , Interleucina-4 , Interleucina-5 , Resistência à Doença/genética , Nematoides/genética , Infecções por Nematoides/genética , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
4.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e220162, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Costa Rica has a history of neglecting prevention, control and research of leishmaniasis, including limited understanding on Leishmania species causing human disease across the country and a complete lack of knowledge on the Leishmania RNA virus, described as a factor linked to the worsening and metastasis of leishmanial lesions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, bearing infection with Leishmaniavirus 1 (LRV1) in Costa Rica, raising the suspicion of imported parasites in the region. METHODS: The Leishmania strain was previously identified by routine hsp70 polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in Costa Rica and subsequently characterised by isoenzyme electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing in Brazil. Screening for LRV1 was conducted with a dual RT-PCR approach and sequencing of the fragment obtained. FINDINGS: Since 2016 Costa Rica performs Leishmania isolation and typing as part of its epidemiological surveillance activities. Amongst 113 strains typed until 2019, only one was characterised as a L. (V.) guyanensis, corresponding to the first confirmed report of this species in the country. Interestingly, the same strain tested positive for LRV1. Sequencing of the viral orf1 and 2, clustered this sample with other LRV1 genotypes of South American origin, from the Northeast of Brazil and French Guiana. MAIN CONCLUSION: The unique characteristics of this finding raised the suspicion that it was not an autochthonous strain. Notwithstanding its presumed origin, this report points to the occurrence of said endosymbiont in Central American Leishmania strains. The possibility of its local dispersion represents one more challenge faced by regional health authorities in preventing and controlling leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Leishmania guyanensis , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Leishmaniavirus , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Costa Rica , Guiana Francesa , Genótipo , Leishmania guyanensis/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniavirus/genética
5.
Cell Host Microbe ; 31(1): 5-7, 2023 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634622

RESUMO

A new study in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe from Huang et al. provides important insights into the global epidemiology of human-infectious Cryptosporidium and mechanisms leading to the rapid emergence and rise to dominance of new, possibly more virulent, parasite strains.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Humanos , Cryptosporidium/genética , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 976, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653420

RESUMO

Heartworm disease, caused by Dirofilaria immitis, remains a significant threat to canines and felines. The development of parasites resistant to macrocyclic lactones (ML) has created a significant challenge to the control of the infection. The goal of this study was to determine if mice lacking a functional immune response would be susceptible to D. immitis. Immunodeficient NSG mice were susceptible to the infection, sustaining parasites for at least 15 weeks, with infective third-stage larvae molting and developing into the late fourth-stage larvae. Proteomic analysis of host responses to the infection revealed a complex pattern of changes after infection, with at least some of the responses directed at reducing immune control mechanisms that remain in NSG mice. NSG mice were infected with isolates of D. immitis that were either susceptible or resistant to MLs, as a population. The susceptible isolate was killed by ivermectin whereas the resistant isolate had improved survivability, while both isolates were affected by moxidectin. It was concluded that D. immitis survives in NSG mice for at least 15 weeks. NSG mice provide an ideal model for monitoring host responses to the infection and for testing parasites in vivo for susceptibility to direct chemotherapeutic activity of new agents.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Dirofilaria immitis , Doenças do Cão , Parasitos , Animais , Cães , Gatos , Camundongos , Dirofilaria immitis/fisiologia , Proteômica , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia
7.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 23(1): 12, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug resistance exists in almost all antimalarial drugs currently in use, leading to an urgent need to identify new antimalarial drugs. Medicinal plant use is an alternative approach to antimalarial chemotherapy. This study aimed to explore potent medicinal plants from Prabchompoothaweep remedy for antimalarial drug development. METHODS: Forty-eight crude extracts from Prabchompoothaweep remedy and its 23 plants ingredients were investigated in vitro for antimalarial properties using Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) enzyme against Plasmodium falciparum K1 strain and toxicity effects were evaluated in Vero cells. The plant with promising antimalarial activity was further investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify phytochemicals. Antimalarial activity in mice was evaluated using a four-day suppressive test against Plasmodium berghei ANKA at dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight, and acute toxicity was analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 48 crude extracts, 13 (27.08%) showed high antimalarial activity against the K1 strain of P. falciparum (IC50 <  10 µg/ml) and 9 extracts (18.75%) were moderately active (IC50 = 11-50 µg/ml). Additionally, the ethanolic extract of Prabchompoothaweep remedy showed moderate antimalarial activity against the K1 strain of P. falciparum (IC50 = 14.13 µg/ml). Based on in vitro antimalarial and toxicity results, antimalarial activity of the aqueous fruit extract of Terminalia arjuna (IC50 = 4.05 µg/ml and CC50 = 219.6 µg/ml) was further studied in mice. GC-MS analysis of T. arjuna extract identified 22 compounds. The most abundant compounds were pyrogallol, gallic acid, shikimic acid, oleamide, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, 1,1-diethoxy-ethane, quinic acid, and furfural. Analysis of the four-day suppressive test indicated that T. arjuna extract at dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight significantly suppressed the Plasmodium parasites by 28.33, 45.77, and 67.95%, respectively. In the acute toxicity study, T. arjuna extract was non-toxic at 2000 mg/kg body weight. CONCLUSIONS: The aqueous fruit extract of T. arjuna exerts antimalarial activity against Plasmodium parasites found in humans (P. falciparum K1) and mice (P. berghei ANKA). Acute toxicity studies showed that T. arjuna extract did not show any lethality or adverse effects up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária Falciparum , Malária , Plantas Medicinais , Humanos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animais , Camundongos , Antimaláricos/toxicidade , Antimaláricos/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/parasitologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células Vero , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Peso Corporal
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 19, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although wild ungulate populations are heavily monitored throughout Europe, we understand little of how parasites affect population dynamics, and there is no systematic, long-term monitoring of parasite diversity and parasite loads. Such monitoring is in part hampered by a lack of time- and cost-effective assay methodologies with high sensitivity and good taxonomic resolution. DNA metabarcoding has been successfully used to characterize the parasitic nemabiome with high taxonomic resolution in a variety of wild and domestic hosts. However, in order to implement this technique in large-scale, potentially non-invasive monitoring of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN), protocol optimization is required to maximize biodiversity detection, whilst maintaining time- and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: Faecal samples were collected from a wild moose population and GIN communities were characterized and quantified using both parasitological techniques (egg and larva counting) and DNA metabarcoding of the ITS2 region of rDNA. Three different isolation methods were compared that differed in the volume of starting material and cell lysis method. RESULTS: Similar nematode faunas were recovered from all samples using both parasitological and metabarcoding methods, and the approaches were largely congruent. However, metabarcoding assays showed better taxonomic resolution and slightly higher sensitivity than egg and larvae counts. The metabarcoding was not strictly quantitative, but the proportion of target nematode sequences recovered was correlated with the parasitologically determined parasite load. Species detection rates in the metabarcoding assays were maximized using a DNA isolation method that included mechanical cell disruption and maximized the starting material volume. CONCLUSIONS: DNA metabarcoding is a promising technique for the non-invasive, large-scale monitoring of parasitic GINs in wild ungulate populations, owing to its high taxonomic resolution, increased assay sensitivity, and time- and cost-effectiveness. Although metabarcoding is not a strictly quantitative method, it may nonetheless be possible to create a management- and conservation-relevant index for the host parasite load from this data. To optimize the detection rates and time- and cost-effectiveness of metabarcoding assays, we recommend choosing a DNA isolation method that involves mechanical cell disruption and maximizes the starting material volume.


Assuntos
Cervos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Nematoides , Parasitos , Animais , Parasitos/genética , Animais Selvagens , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 32(1): e017022, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629665

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal parasites are well-documented in small mammals from north-central Chile, but little is known about endoparasites of rodents in southern Chile. A survey was conducted between January and February 2018 to evaluate gastrointestinal parasites and risk factors of wild rodents that live in rural areas in Northern Chiloé Island, Chile. A total of 174 fecal samples from rodents of six native and one introduced species were collected and examined using the Mini-FLOTAC method. Also, 41 individuals of four native wild rodent species were examined furtherly to determinate adult parasites from gastrointestinal tracts. The overall prevalence of endoparasites was 89.65% (156). Helminth egg types included: Rodentolepis spp., Capillariidae, Trichuris sp., Syphacia sp., oxyurid-type eggs, Strongyloides sp., Spirurid-type eggs, Strongilid-type eggs, Moniliformis sp., and an unidentified nematode egg and larvae. Protozoa comprised coccidia, amoeba, and unidentified cysts. From necropsies, adult parasites involved Syphacia sp. Trichuris sp., Protospirura sp. and Physaloptera sp. In Abrothrix olivacea, individuals with low-body-mass index exhibited reduced infection probability for Spirurid-type and Strongilid-type eggs. Some parasites in this study may affect human health. In rural settings where environmental conditions are changing, more research should be undertaken to understand parasitic infections in wildlife and implications for public health and conservation.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Chile/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Roedores/parasitologia
10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 53(4): 755-768, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640077

RESUMO

The grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) is a species of ground-dwelling passerine bird with 12 different subspecies. The Florida subspecies (Ammodramus savannarum floridanus) is classified as federally endangered, with the most common threats including habitat loss, nest predation, and floods. A managed breeding program was established at White Oak Conservation (Yulee, FL) in 2015 with eastern grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum pratensis) as a model for breeding Florida grasshopper sparrows as part of an assurance colony. A filarioid parasite species (Aproctella sp.) was characterized by PCR after identification by blood films and postmortem examinations of both subspecies housed at White Oak Conservation. This Aproctella species was distinct from others with available sequence. Records from 157 eastern and Florida grasshopper sparrows were reviewed, and correlations between presence of filariasis and subspecies, sex, body condition score, and presence of systemic isosporosis, squamous metaplasia, coelomitis, airsacculitis, or a combination of conditions were investigated. Twenty-nine (18.5%) birds (13 of 71 Florida grasshopper sparrows; 16 of 86 eastern grasshopper sparrows) were positive for filariasis by blood film review, grossly or by tissue imprint at postmortem examination, or histologically. Filariasis was significantly correlated with systemic isosporosis, coelomitis, and airsacculitis; was not correlated with subspecies, sex, or squamous metaplasia; and had a questionable correlation with body condition score. This report provides evidence that this Aproctella species has potential to contribute to morbidity and mortality in the grasshopper sparrow. This information will be helpful for implementing effective measures against suspected vectors and for the development of best practice strategies for the health management of the species in breeding programs.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Infecções por Nematoides , Pardais , Animais , Nematoides , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pardais/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/complicações , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia
11.
Malar J ; 22(1): 5, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in ATP2B4 coding for PMCA4b, the primary regulator of erythrocyte calcium concentration, have been shown by GWAS and cross-sectional studies to protect against severe malaria but the mechanism remains unknown. METHODS: Using a recall-by-genotype design, we investigated the impact of a common haplotype variant in ATP2B4 using in vitro assays that model erythrocyte stage malaria pathogenesis. Ninety-six donors representing homozygote (carriers of the minor allele, C/C), heterozygote (T/C) and wildtype (T/T) carriers of the tagging SNP rs1541252 were selected from a cohort of over 12,000 participants in the Keneba Biobank. RESULTS: Red blood cells (RBCs) from homozygotes showed reduced PMCA4b protein expression (mean fluorescence intensities (MFI = 2428 ± 124, 3544 ± 159 and 4261 ± 283], for homozygotes, heterozygotes and wildtypes respectively, p < 0.0001) and slower rates of calcium expulsion (calcium t½ ± SD = 4.7 ± 0.5, 1.8 ± 0.3 and 1.9 ± 0.4 min, p < 0.0001). Growth of a Plasmodium falciparum laboratory strain (FCR3) and two Gambian field isolates was decreased in RBCs from homozygotes compared to heterozygotes and wildtypes (p < 0.01). Genotype group did not affect parasite adhesion in vitro or var-gene expression in malaria-infected RBCs. Parasite growth was inhibited by a known inhibitor of PMCA4b, aurintricarboxylic acid (IC50 = 122uM CI: 110-134) confirming its sensitivity to calcium channel blockade. CONCLUSION: The data support the hypothesis that this ATP2B4 genotype, common in The Gambia and other malaria-endemic areas, protects against severe malaria through the suppression of parasitaemia during an infection. Reduction in parasite density plays a pivotal role in disease outcome by minimizing all aspects of malaria pathogenesis. Follow up studies are needed to further elucidate the mechanism of protection and to determine if this ATP2B4 genotype carries a fitness cost or increases susceptibility to other human disease.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática , Adulto , Humanos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Gâmbia , Malária Falciparum/genética , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática/genética , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 3, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trypanosomes are protozoan parasites of vertebrates that are of medical and veterinary concern. A variety of blood-feeding invertebrates have been identified as vectors, but the role of ticks in trypanosome transmission remains unclear. METHODS: In this study, we undertook extensive molecular screening for the presence and genetic diversity of trypanosomes in field ticks. RESULTS: Examination of 1089 specimens belonging to 28 tick species from Europe and South America led to the identification of two new trypanosome strains. The prevalence may be as high as 4% in tick species such as the castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus, but we found no evidence of transovarial transmission. Further phylogenetic analyses based on 18S rRNA, EF1-α, hsp60 and hsp85 gene sequences revealed that different tick species, originating from different continents, often harbour phylogenetically related trypanosome strains and species. Most tick-associated trypanosomes cluster in a monophyletic clade, the Trypanosoma pestanai clade, distinct from clades of trypanosomes associated with transmission by other blood-feeding invertebrates. CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that ticks may be specific arthropod hosts for trypanosomes of the T. pestanai clade. Phylogenetic analyses provide further evidence that ticks may transmit these trypanosomes to a diversity of mammal species (including placental and marsupial species) on most continents.


Assuntos
Ixodes , Trypanosoma , Animais , Ixodes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Trypanosoma/genética
13.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 685, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639408

RESUMO

The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is arguably the most harmful, ubiquitous haematophagous ectoparasite infesting egg-laying hens. PRM is a vector of various microorganisms, with some being important for food microbiology and public health. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of specific pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp., carried by PRM infesting a chicken farm in Greece. Mites were caught using cardboard traps (Avivet), and 100 unwashed PRM were homogenized and used for microbiological cultures. Microbiological cultures were carried out on general and selective substrates to detect the above-mentioned bacteria. Specifically for Listeria spp., DNA was extracted from bacteria grown in Tryptone Soya Yeast Extract Agar using a commercial kit. The hly gene encoding the Listeriolysin O protein was amplified by PCR. Mites were identified as D. gallinae using morphological keys as well as by COI DNA barcoding. Microbiological cultures and PCR assays were positive for Listeria monocytogenes. No other bacteria were detected. The current study constitutes the first molecular isolation of L. monocytogenes from D. gallinae, confirming that PRM can carry this food-borne pathogen. PRM control measures and hygiene practices should be applied to minimize any possible contamination risk of poultry products with L. monocytogenes and safeguard public health.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes , Infestações por Ácaros , Ácaros , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Trombiculidae , Animais , Feminino , Galinhas , Aves Domésticas , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Grécia , Fazendas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Ácaros/genética , Escherichia coli
14.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1054, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658208

RESUMO

Stable isotope analysis of individual compounds is emerging as a powerful tool to study nutrient origin and conversion in host-parasite systems. We measured the carbon isotope composition of amino acids and glucose in the cestode Schistocephalus solidus and in liver and muscle tissues of its second intermediate host, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), over the course of 90 days in a controlled infection experiment. Similar linear regressions of δ13C values over time and low trophic fractionation of essential amino acids indicate that the parasite assimilates nutrients from sources closely connected to the liver metabolism of its host. Biosynthesis of glucose in the parasite might occur from the glucogenic precursors alanine, asparagine and glutamine and with an isotope fractionation of - 2 to - 3 ‰ from enzymatic reactions, while trophic fractionation of glycine, serine and threonine could be interpreted as extensive nutrient conversion to fuel parasitic growth through one-carbon metabolism. Trophic fractionation of amino acids between sticklebacks and their diets was slightly increased in infected compared to uninfected individuals, which could be caused by increased (immune-) metabolic activities due to parasitic infection. Our results show that compound-specific stable isotope analysis has unique opportunities to study host and parasite physiology.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Doenças dos Peixes , Parasitos , Smegmamorpha , Animais , Humanos , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Isótopos de Carbono , Carbono , Aminoácidos , Cestoides/fisiologia , Smegmamorpha/parasitologia , Nutrientes , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia
15.
Malar J ; 22(1): 22, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is responsible for much of malaria outside Africa. Although most P. vivax infections in endemic areas are asymptomatic and have low parasite densities, they are considered a potentially important source of transmission. Several studies have demonstrated that asymptomatic P. vivax carriers can transmit the parasite to mosquitoes, but the efficiency has not been well quantified. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between parasite density and mosquito infectivity, particularly at low parasitaemia. METHODS: Membrane feeding assays were performed using serial dilutions of P. vivax-infected blood to define the relationship between parasitaemia and mosquito infectivity. RESULTS: The infection rate (oocyst prevalence) and intensity (oocyst load) were positively correlated with the parasite density in the blood. There was a broad case-to-case variation in parasite infectivity. The geometric mean parasite density yielding a 10% mosquito infection rate was 33 (CI 95 9-120) parasites/µl or 4 (CI 95 1-17) gametocytes/µl. The geometric mean parasite density yielding a 50% mosquito infection rate was 146 (CI 95 36-586) parasites/µl or 13 (CI 95 3-49) gametocytes/µl. CONCLUSION: This study quantified the ability of P. vivax to infect Anopheles dirus at over a broad range of parasite densities. It provides important information about parasite infectivity at low parasitaemia common among asymptomatic P. vivax carriers.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária Vivax , Malária , Animais , Plasmodium vivax , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Oocistos , Anopheles/parasitologia , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum
16.
Malar J ; 22(1): 20, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria is a growing problem in Africa, with prevalence varies from areas to areas due to several factors including the altitude. This study aimed to investigate the malaria distribution and its relationship with level of some blood parameters and plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO) in population of three localities with different altitudes. METHODS: A total of 150 participants were recruited in each locality and facial body temperature of each was measured using a forehead digital thermometer. Blood samples were collected and used diagnose malaria parasite using the rapid test followed by Giemsa stain microscopy and have the full blood count and MPO level using a colorimetric method. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of falciparum malaria was 34.7%, with no difference between the three communities, but Bambili of high altitude had the highest prevalence (70.7%). A majority of the infected persons had mild malaria, with most cases being asymptomatic (temperature < 37.5 ºC). Patients had significant increase of geometric mean malaria parasite density (GMPD) in Bambili (1755 ± 216 parasites/µL) and Bamenda (1060 ± 2515 parasites/µL of blood) than patients in Santa (737 ± 799 parasites/µL). There was a significant risk to have malaria infection in Bambili (OR = 33.367, p = 0.021) than in Santa (OR = 2.309, p = 0.362). Bambili' participants of 6-10 years showed a high prevalence of malaria (85.7%). GMPD was significantly different between males (p = 0.010) as well as females (p = 0.000). Participants from Santa (11.2 ± 3.2 g/dL) and Bambili (12.6 ± 2.4 g/dL) had a high haemoglobin concentration than those from Bamenda (10.6 ± 2.1 g/dL). There was a significant difference in the WBC counts and platelet counts among infected participants in the study areas. MPO level had an increasing trend among infected participants in Santa (2.378 ± 0.250), Bambili (2.582 ± 0.482) and Bamenda (2.635 ± 0.466). CONCLUSION: The results of the present study demonstrated that altitudinal variations significant impact the risk of population to have malaria with high parasitaemia and may contribute to the malaria prevalence and severity by affecting the haemoglobin concentration, WBC and platelet level and plasma MPO in population.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum , Malária , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Altitude , Camarões/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Peroxidase , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Hemoglobinas , Plasmodium falciparum
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674863

RESUMO

Malaria remains a major world public health problem, contributing to poverty and inequality. It is urgent to find new efficacious tools with few adverse effects. Malaria has selected red blood cell (RBC) alterations linked to resistance against infection, and understanding the protective mechanisms involved may be useful for developing host-directed tools to control Plasmodium infection. Pyruvate kinase deficiency has been associated with resistance to malaria. Pyruvate kinase-deficient RBCs display an increased concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). We recently showed that 2,3-DPG impacts in vitro intraerythrocytic parasite growth, induces a shift of the metabolic profile of infected cells (iRBCs), making it closer to that of noninfected ones (niRBCs), and decreases the number of parasite progenies that invade new RBCs. As an increase of 2,3-DPG content may also have an adverse effect on RBC membrane and, consequently, on the parasite invasion, in this study, we explored modifications of the RBC morphology, biomechanical properties, and RBC membrane on Plasmodium falciparum in vitro cultures treated with 2,3-DPG, using atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based force spectroscopy and other experimental approaches. The presence of infection by P. falciparum significantly increased the rigidity of parasitized cells and influenced the morphology of RBCs, as parasitized cells showed a decrease of the area-to-volume ratio. The extracellular addition of 2,3-DPG also slightly affected the stiffness of niRBCs, making it more similar to that of infected cells. It also changed the niRBC height, making the cells appear more elongated. Moreover, 2,3-DPG treatment influenced the cell surface charge, becoming more negative in treated RBCs than in untreated ones. The results indicate that treatment with 2,3-DPG has only a mild effect on RBCs in comparison with the effect of the presence of the parasite on the host cell. 2,3-DPG is an endogenous host metabolite, which may, in the future, originate a new antimalarial tool with few adverse effects on noninfected cells.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum , Malária , Humanos , 2,3-Difosfoglicerato/metabolismo , Piruvato Quinase/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Malária/metabolismo , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum , Ácidos Difosfoglicéricos/metabolismo
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(5): e2213626120, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689648

RESUMO

Plasmodium falciparum malaria originated when Plasmodium praefalciparum, a gorilla malaria parasite transmitted by African sylvan anopheline mosquitoes, adapted to humans. Pfs47, a protein on the parasite surface mediates P. falciparum evasion of the mosquito immune system by interacting with a midgut receptor and is critical for Plasmodium adaptation to different anopheline species. Genetic analysis of 4,971 Pfs47 gene sequences from different continents revealed that Asia and Papua New Guinea harbor Pfs47 haplotypes more similar to its ortholog in P. praefalciparum at sites that determine vector compatibility, suggesting that ancestral P. falciparum readily adapted to Asian vectors. Consistent with this observation, Pfs47-receptor gene sequences from African sylvan malaria vectors, such as Anopheles moucheti and An. marshallii, were found to share greater similarity with those of Asian vectors than those of vectors of the African An. gambiae complex. Furthermore, experimental infections provide direct evidence that transformed P. falciparum parasites carrying Pfs47 orthologs of P. praefalciparum or P. reichenowi were more effective at evading the immune system of the Asian malaria vector An. dirus than An. gambiae. We propose that high compatibility of ancestral P. falciparum Pfs47 with the receptors of Asian vectors facilitated the early dispersal of human malaria to the Asian continent, without having to first adapt to sub-Saharan vectors of the An. gambiae complex.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária Falciparum , Malária , Plasmodium , Animais , Humanos , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Anopheles/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Gorilla gorilla
19.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1296, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36690654

RESUMO

We evaluated the variation in the frequency of benzimidazole (BZ) resistance-associated alleles at codons 200, 167 and 368 (F200Y, F167Y, V368L) of the ß-tubulin isotype 1 gene during the patent period in isolates of Haemonchus contortus susceptible and resistant to BZ using pyrosequencing. Four lambs 5-6 months old were infected with 5000-6000 infective third-stage larvae (L3) of the susceptible MHco1 and the multi-resistant MHco4 isolates, respectively. Faecal samples were collected 28-times during 20-90 days post-infection (dpi). Coprocultures were subsequently prepared to produce L3 for genotyping. The frequency of the resistant allele (TAC) at codon 200 in MHco1 was lowest at 43 and 76 dpi with at each time point 0% and highest at 36 dpi with 10.85%, with a mean of 6.47% ± 2.39 and a coefficient of variation of 37.01%. The frequency of the TAC at codon 200 in MHco4 was lowest at 76 dpi with 25.6% and highest at 90 dpi with 49.25%, with a mean of 35.7% ± 4.42 and a coefficient of variation of 12.39%. No resistance alleles were detected in MHco1 at either codon 167 or 368. For MHco4 isolate, resistance alleles were detected only on codon 167 with a mean of 8.00% ± 4.83 and a mean coefficient of variation of 60.40%. Our results demonstrate the considerable variation in the frequency of resistant alleles in the susceptible and resistant isolates during the patent period. This variation should be considered when testing for the presence of BZ resistance in populations of gastrointestinal parasites, especially those with a low frequency of TAC.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Hemoncose , Haemonchus , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Frequência do Gene , Benzimidazóis , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Códon , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 26, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36691054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study of the ecology of Trypanosoma cruzi is challenging due to its extreme adaptive plasticity, resulting in the parasitism of hundreds of mammal species and dozens of triatomine species. The genetic analysis of blood meal sources (BMS) from the triatomine vector is an accurate and practical approach for gathering information on which wild mammal species participate in a local transmission network. South American coatis, Nasua nasua, act as important reservoir host species of T. cruzi in the Pantanal biome because of their high rate of infection and elevated parasitemia, with the main discrete typing unit (DTU) lineages (TcI and TcII). Moreover, the carnivore coati is the only mammal species to build high arboreal nests for breeding and resting that can be shared by various vertebrate and invertebrate species. Herein, we applied the sensitive and specific methodology of DNA barcoding and molecular cloning to study triatomines found in a coati nest to access the diversity of mammal species that explore this structure, and therefore, may be involved in the parasite transmission network. METHODS: Twenty-three Triatoma sordida were collected in one coati's nest in the subregion of Nhecolândia, Pantanal. The DNA isolated from the gut of insects was subjected to BMS detection by PCR using universal primers that flank variable regions of the cytochrome b (cytb) and 12S rDNA mitochondrial genes from vertebrates. The Trypanosoma spp. diagnosis and DTU genotyping were based on an 18S rDNA molecular marker and also using new cytb gene primers designed in this study. Phylogenetic analyses and chord diagrams were constructed to visualize BMS haplotypes, DTU lineages detected on vectors, and their interconnections. RESULTS: Twenty of 23 triatomines analyzed were PCR-positive (86.95%) showing lineages T. cruzi DTU TcI (n = 2), TcII (n = 6), and a predominance of TcI/TcII (n = 12) mixed infection. Intra-DTU diversity was observed mainly from different TcI haplotypes. Genetic analyses revealed that the southern anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla, was the unique species detected as the BMS of triatomines collected from the coati's nest. At least three different individuals of T. tetradactyla served as BMS of 21/23 bugs studied, as indicated by the cytb and 12S rDNA haplotypes identified. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of multiple BMS, and importantly, different individuals of the same species, was achieved by the methodology applied. The study demonstrated that the southern anteaters can occupy the South American coati's nest, serving as the BMS of T. sordida specimens. Since anteaters have an individualist nonsocial behavior, the three individuals detected as BMS stayed at the coati's nest at different times, which added a temporal character to BMS detection. The TcI and TcII infection, and significantly, a predominance of TcI/TcII mixed infection profile with different TcI and TcII haplotypes was observed, due to the discriminatory capacity of the methodology applied. Tamandua tetradactyla, a host which has been little studied, may have an important role in the T. cruzi transmission in that Pantanal subregion. The data from the present study indicate the sharing of coatis' nests by other mammal species, expanding the possibilities for T. cruzi transmission in the canopy strata. We propose that coatis' nests can act as the true hubs of the T. cruzi transmission web in Pantanal, instead of the coatis themselves, as previously suggested.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Coinfecção , Procyonidae , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Humanos , Animais , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Vermilingua , Procyonidae/parasitologia , Filogenia , Triatoma/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Genótipo
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