Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 146.037
Filtrar
1.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(4): e1476, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767557

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to describe a very rare case of gallstone (cholelithiasis) in a goat associated with chronic fasciolosis. During a routine slaughterhouse-based survey, a two-and-half-year-old female Black Bengal Goat was found to be affected with severe chronic fascioliosis characterized by the massive damage in the liver. Through systemic dissection of liver, we isolated 94 adult Fasciola spp., and by PCR, we confirmed the fluke as Fasciola gigantica. The gallbladder of the goat was oedematous. On opening the gallbladder, we recovered 255 stones of variable sizes. Stones were whitish in colour and friable, and some of the fragile stones were attached to the wall of the gallbladder. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the cholelithiasis in a goat associated with F. gigantica.


Assuntos
Colelitíase , Fasciolíase , Doenças das Cabras , Cabras , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Feminino , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Colelitíase/veterinária , Colelitíase/etiologia , Fasciola/isolamento & purificação , Doença Crônica/veterinária
2.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(4): e1474, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasitic diseases of pigs are a public and veterinary health problem. Helminths influence pork production, whereas backyard pigs can transmit these parasites. OBJECTIVES: This work aimed to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against Ascaris suum and Trichinella spiralis in backyard pigs from Jamiltepec, Region de la Costa, Oaxaca, in Southwestern Mexico. METHODS: Six hundred sixty-four serum samples were obtained from backyard pigs from 23 rural villages distributed in 5 municipalities; samples were taken in a non-probabilistic manner with the owner's consent. The presence of serum antibodies against a total extract of A. suum adult worm was determined by ELISA. In contrast, antibodies to the excretion-secretion products of the T. spiralis muscle larva were determined by Western blot. RESULTS: The global seroprevalence for A. suum was 5.12% and 2.41% for T. spiralis; however, antibodies were only found in 8 villages and distributed in 3 municipalities. The highest frequency of positivity for Ascaris was found in the municipality of Santa Catarina Mechoacán (13.01%), whereas, in Santa María Huazalotitlán, the highest frequency of positivity for Trichinella was found (5.75%). In San Andrés, frequencies were 7.23% and 4.82%, respectively. No statistical differences were observed between populations. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that helminth transmission is restricted by locality. However, further studies must be conducted to understand the factors limiting this transmission to promote pork meat production in parasite-free zones.


Assuntos
Ascaríase , Ascaris suum , Doenças dos Suínos , Trichinella spiralis , Triquinelose , Animais , México/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/veterinária , Triquinelose/parasitologia , Suínos , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaríase/veterinária , Trichinella spiralis/isolamento & purificação , Trichinella spiralis/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Prevalência , Sus scrofa , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/análise , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
PeerJ ; 12: e17348, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770098

RESUMO

Lake Baikal is one of the largest and oldest freshwater reservoirs on the planet with a huge endemic diversity of amphipods (Amphipoda, Crustacea). These crustaceans have various symbiotic relationships, including the rarely described phenomenon of leech parasitism on amphipods. It is known that leeches feeding on hemolymph of crustacean hosts can influence their physiology, especially under stressful conditions. Here we show that leeches Baicalobdella torquata (Grube, 1871) found on gills of Eulimnogammarus verrucosus (Gerstfeldt, 1858), one of the most abundant amphipods in the Baikal littoral zone, indeed feed on the hemolymph of their host. However, the leech infection had no effect on immune parameters such as hemocyte concentration or phenoloxidase activity and also did not affect glycogen content. The intensity of hemocyte reaction to foreign bodies in a primary culture was identical between leech-free and leech-infected animals. Artificial infection with leeches also had only a subtle effect on the course of a model microbial infection in terms of hemocyte concentration and composition. Despite we cannot fully exclude deleterious effects of the parasites, our study indicates a low influence of a few leeches on E. verrucosus and shows that leech-infected amphipods can be used at least for some types of ecophysiological experiments.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Hemócitos , Hemolinfa , Lagos , Sanguessugas , Animais , Anfípodes/imunologia , Anfípodes/parasitologia , Hemolinfa/imunologia , Hemolinfa/parasitologia , Sanguessugas/imunologia , Lagos/parasitologia , Hemócitos/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Sibéria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2023): 20240356, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772422

RESUMO

Behavioural and physiological resistance are key to slowing epidemic spread. We explore the evolutionary and epidemic consequences of their different costs for the evolution of tolerance that trades off with resistance. Behavioural resistance affects social cohesion, with associated group-level costs, while the cost of physiological resistance accrues only to the individual. Further, resistance, and the associated reduction in transmission, benefit susceptible hosts directly, whereas infected hosts only benefit indirectly, by reducing transmission to kin. We therefore model the coevolution of transmission-reducing resistance expressed in susceptible hosts with resistance expressed in infected hosts, as a function of kin association, and analyse the effect on population-level outcomes. Using parameter values for guppies, Poecilia reticulata, and their gyrodactylid parasites, we find that: (1) either susceptible or infected hosts should invest heavily in resistance, but not both; (2) kin association drives investment in physiological resistance more strongly than in behavioural resistance; and (3) even weak levels of kin association can favour altruistic infected hosts that invest heavily in resistance (versus selfish tolerance), eliminating parasites. Overall, our finding that weak kin association affects the coevolution of infected and susceptible investment in both behavioural and physiological resistance suggests that kin selection may affect disease dynamics across systems.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Poecilia , Animais , Poecilia/fisiologia , Poecilia/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Evolução Biológica , Modelos Biológicos
5.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101024, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772639

RESUMO

Dogs play an important role as hosts and reservoirs for many zoonotic diseases. Ehrlichiosis, babesiosis and hepatozoonosis are a group of canine vector-borne diseases that can be transmitted via ectoparasites from dog to dog and also from dog to humans. This study focused on three main blood parasites of dog (i.e., Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Hepatozoon spp.) among two different landscape types of eight villages of Santhong Sub-district, Nan Province, Thailand. In this study, 149 dogs were surveyed and blood samples were collected. Blood parasite infections in dogs were assessed using molecular detection approach. Babesia canis vogeli, Babesia gibsoni, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis were detected with prevalence of infection at 10.7%, 8.1%, 3.4% and 0.7%, respectively. In terms of landscape type, prevalence of overall blood parasites, particularly Babesia spp. infections were higher in dogs living in upland forested areas (28.3%) compared to dogs from lowland agricultural areas (12.3%). Data obtained from the questionnaires on perceptions of dog owners showed that dogs raised all the time outside owner's house, and those dogs whose owners have never bathed and cleaned were more likely to be exposed to blood parasites. As infected dogs could play an important role as reservoirs of the blood parasites, attitude of dog owners may affect public health in terms of zoonotic disease transmission. Effective control measures and surveillance program of arthropod vectors and blood parasite infection in dogs still need to be advocated to minimize zoonotic disease transmission.


Assuntos
Babesia , Babesiose , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Cães , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichia canis/isolamento & purificação
6.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101025, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772640

RESUMO

Egyptians are becoming more interested in owning and raising pets; however, most of them lack essential awareness about the risk of zoonotic parasites that could be transmitted. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the degree of awareness Egyptian pet owners possess concerning zoonotic parasitic diseases, the risk of transmission, and preventative measures. A cross-sectional study was conducted using an e-survey. Among 246 pet owners, 64.2% (158) were females, and 67.9% (167) belonged to the 20-30 age group. The majority, 78.9% (194), were raising cats. Only 13.8% (34) visited the veterinarian regularly, with significantly higher results among dog owners (p < 0.05). Only 31.3% (77) participants were regularly deworming their pets, and 19.9% (49) were giving their pets prophylaxis against ectoparasites, with significantly higher results among those who visited the veterinarian regularly (p < 0.0001) and among dog owners (p < 0.05). Only 54.1% (133) had heard about the term "zoonoses" before, and about 8.9% (22) of participants showed a history of zoonotic parasitic diseases, with significantly higher results among those who allowed their animals to play with other animals of neighbors and friends (p < 0.05). The obtained results concluded that the surveyed group had a relatively good degree of knowledge regarding pets as a source of zoonotic illness; raising pet owners' awareness regarding the importance of routine medical examinations and minimizing the contact of pets with other stray animals is essential.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Animais de Estimação , Zoonoses , Animais , Egito/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Gatos , Cães , Adulto Jovem , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/prevenção & controle , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Adolescente
7.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101035, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772641

RESUMO

The current investigation was carried out during the period from July 2022 to March 2023, aiming to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic birds collected from traditional markets in Guilan province. One hundred forty-eight domestic birds, including chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), greylag geese (Anser anser), and domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo domesticus) were examined. Totally, 42.56% of the investigated birds were positive for helminthic parasites. Morphological analysis revealed varying infection rates among birds: Echinostoma revolutum (5.40%), Hypoderaeum conoideum (2.02%), Cloacotaenia megalops (0.67%), Hymenolepididae family (4.05%), Ascaridia galli (16.89%), and Heterakis gallinarum (4.72%). The investigation involved molecular analysis of the 18S and ITS1 + 5.8S + ITS2 rRNA gene regions. The findings indicated that the 18S region of nematode isolates exhibited a similarity of 92 to 100% with sequences in the GenBank, whereas trematode and cestode isolates showed a gene similarity ranging from 88 to 99%. The ITS regions of nematode, trematode, and cestode isolates exhibited genetic similarities ranging from 87 to 100%, 73-99%, and 75-99%, respectively. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis confirmed the categorization of the identified species within the Ascaridiidae, Heterakidae, Hymenolepididae, and Echinostomatidae families, indicating their close affinity with previously documented species. Implementing precise control measures such as consistent monitoring, adequate sanitation protocols, and administering anthelmintic treatments is crucial for effectively managing parasitic infections in free-range and backyard poultry farms. Additionally, conducting further surveys is advisable to assess the impact of these parasites on the health and productivity of poultry in the investigated area.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal , Animais , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Saúde Única , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Helmintos/genética , Helmintos/classificação , Prevalência , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Patos/parasitologia
8.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101021, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772638

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) causes significant losses in Andean livestock production and affects Andean food security. However, more studies are needed to understand the epidemiology of the disease. In addition, the potential contribution of Andean cattle to the transmission of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato needs to be known. This study aimed to determine the CE-prevalence and its association with risk factors, such as age and sex of the animals, the parasite load (number of cysts/organ) of condemned organs, and the viability and fertility of Echinococcus cysts from cattle in the Andes. The prevalence was examined in 348 cattle from an authorized slaughterhouse of Huancayo at 3300 m altitude. Cyst burden was determined by extracting all cysts from the total of the CE-infected organs. Cyst fertility and protoscolices viability were analysed from 90 randomly selected CE-infected organs. The CE prevalence was 35.6% (124/348; 95% CI: 30.6%-40.6%). There was no significant effect of age and sex on CE prevalence. CE was significantly more prevalent (p < 0.05) in lungs than livers, 34.8% (121/348; 95% CI: 29.8%-39.8%) vs 8.9% (31/348; 95% CI: 5.9%-11.9%). Most (75%) infected organs had one to five cysts. The mean cyst burden was significantly (p = 0.018) higher in the lungs than livers, 6.4 ± 4.9 vs 3.7 ± 2.9. Cyst fertility was 1.6% (10/608; 95% CI: 0.6%-2.6%). Despite the high CE prevalence, infected organs from Andean cattle play a minor role in CE transmission to dogs in the central Peruvian Andes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Animais , Bovinos , Peru/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Equinococose/transmissão , Masculino , Prevalência , Feminino , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Fígado/parasitologia , Pulmão/parasitologia
9.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101029, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772645

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal myiasis caused by the camel nasal bot, Cephalopina titillator, is very common in old world camelids and is usually found at necropsy or during meat inspection. Herein we report massive infection with C. titillator in a 9 years old female one-humped camel slaughtered on February 18, 2024 in the village of Kizil Uy, Nukus District, Republic of Karakalpakstan, northwestern Uzbekistan. A total of 69 larvae: 20 first stage larva (28.9%), 31  second stage larva (44.9%), and 18 third stage larva (26.0%) were detected in the nasal passages and pharynx of the camel. Morphological and morphometrical characters of all larval stages are illustrated and detailed in this article. To our knowledge this is the first record of camel nasal bot infestation in Uzbekistan. Future epidemiological studies are needed to shed light on the prevalence, seasonal fluctuation, clinical impact and economic burden of nasopharyngeal myiasis in dromedary camels of the country.


Assuntos
Camelus , Larva , Miíase , Animais , Miíase/veterinária , Miíase/parasitologia , Miíase/epidemiologia , Uzbequistão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Camelus/parasitologia , Dípteros , Nasofaringe/parasitologia , Doenças Nasofaríngeas/veterinária , Doenças Nasofaríngeas/parasitologia , Doenças Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia
10.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101030, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772646

RESUMO

Spirometra mansoni is a diphyllobothroid cestode and one of the causing agents of sparganosis, a zoonotic foodborne and waterborne infection in humans. This parasite has an indirect life cycle with domestic and wild canids or felids as definitive hosts. The last report of S. mansoni in Costa Rica was done in 2004 by morphological assessment of worms, whereas molecular evidence of this species was obtained recently in the Americas. Herein, we present seven cases of spirometrosis in four dogs, three cats and a coyote from different regions of Costa Rica occurring in a time span of a year. Dog cases presented vomiting, hyporexia, lethargy and diarrhea, whereas cats were mostly asymptomatic. Moreover, the coyote was found with Spirometra sp. proglottids incidentally. Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequences of eggs or proglottids derived from all cases were analyzed with a Bayesian Inference phylogenetic tree and a haplotype network. These analyses showed the clustering of S. mansoni from Costa Rica with other sequences derived from Asia and America. Moreover, cox1 sequences clustered in two separate haplotypes, suggesting the high genetic diversity of the species. The present cases represent the first molecular evidence of the parasite in Central America; thus, extending its known range in the American continent.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Filogenia , Spirometra , Animais , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Spirometra/genética , Spirometra/isolamento & purificação , Gatos/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Masculino , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Feminino , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Coiotes/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética
11.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101026, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772642

RESUMO

Recent studies demonstrated that Greyhounds are commonly infected with Ancylostoma caninum and these infections have been shown to be resistant to anthelmintics. This study evaluated samples submitted to a commercial reference laboratory (IDEXX Laboratories) for canine fecal flotation zinc sulfate centrifugation and coproantigen immunoassay between January 1, 2019, and July 30, 2023 for evidence that Greyhounds were more often positive for Ancylostoma spp. (hookworms) compared to other breeds. The purpose of the study was to determine if Greyhounds were more likely to be hookworm-positive compared to other breeds, if Greyhounds on preventives with efficacy against hookworm infections are more likely to test positive than other breeds, if their infections take longer to resolve, to estimate how long this takes and to assess whether the proportion of hookworm positive tests for all breeds is increasing over time. Records of 25,440,055 fecal results were obtained representing 17,671,724 unique dogs. Of these, 49,795 (∼0.3%) were Greyhounds. The overall odds ratio (OR) of 15.3 (p < 0.001) suggests that Greyhounds are at significantly higher risk than other breeds for hookworm positive float findings, and the OR of 14.3 (p < 0.001) suggests significantly higher risk for hookworm antigen positive results. The median time to negative testing event from the Turnbull distribution estimate was in the interval of 1-2 days for other breeds and 71-72 days for Greyhounds. These results provide evidence that anthelmintic resistant A. caninum strains may be having population-level impacts on the frequency and duration of infections in Greyhounds. The findings have broader health implications beyond Greyhounds as MADR A. caninum strains could spread to other breeds and even pet owners.


Assuntos
Ancylostoma , Doenças do Cão , Fezes , Animais , Cães , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Fezes/parasitologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ancylostoma/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Uncinaria/veterinária , Infecções por Uncinaria/parasitologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/diagnóstico , Imunoensaio/veterinária , Imunoensaio/métodos , Ancilostomíase/veterinária , Ancilostomíase/diagnóstico , Ancilostomíase/parasitologia , Antígenos de Helmintos/análise , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Feminino , Masculino
12.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101031, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772647

RESUMO

The Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) is one of the most abundant mammals in North America. Mexican free-tailed bats have a wide geographic range stretching from northern South America to the western United States. Bats are theorized to be the original hosts for Trypanosoma cruzi -the causative agent of Chagas disease- and can serve as a source of infection to triatomine insect vectors that feed upon them. Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease across the Americas where triatomines are present, including the southern United States, where Texas reports this highest number of locally-acquired human cases. To learn more about the role of bats in the ecology of Chagas disease in Texas, we surveyed a colony of Mexican free-tailed bats from Brazos County, Texas, for T. cruzi using carcasses salvaged after an extreme weather event. A total of 283 Mexican free-tailed bats collected in February 2021 were dissected and DNA from the hearts and kidneys was used for T. cruzi detection via qPCR. None of the bat hearts or kidneys tested positive for T. cruzi; this sample size affords 95% confidence that the true prevalence of T. cruzi in this population does not exceed 1%. Future sampling of multiple bat species as well as migrant and resident colonies of Mexican free-tailed bats across different times of the year over a broader geographic range would be useful in learning more about the role of bats in the ecology of Chagas disease in Texas.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Quirópteros , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Texas/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Masculino , Feminino
13.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101032, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772648

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is described as a potential cause of abortion in goats and as a threat to public health. To estimate the prevalence of goats infected by T. gondii, in different cities in the Espírito Santo State, and to identify possible risk factors for infection a serological study was conducted. A total of 146 goat serum samples from the cities of Cariacica, Serra and Vila Velha were analyzed. The presence of IgG Class Immunoglobulins was serologically evaluated by Immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii was 46.6% (68/146) in both techniques and the same samples got the same results in both techniques. Among the analyzed sera, 70.6% (48/68) exhibited high-avidity IgG antibodies, and 29.4% (20/68) exhibited low-avidity IgG antibodies, suggesting that the infection was chronic in the infected animals. Female sex, age group over two years old, water from the public supply system, storage of food and supplies in an open and unprotected place, and the presence of a domestic cat on the property were identified as risk factors for T. gondii infection in goats. The state of Espirito Santo has a high frequency of infected goats, and this is the first research on caprine toxoplasmosis seroepidemiology in that region.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças das Cabras , Cabras , Imunoglobulina G , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Cabras/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Feminino , Masculino , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Prevalência
14.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101027, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772643

RESUMO

Canine tick-borne diseases, such as babesiosis, rangeliosis, hepatozoonosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis, are of veterinarian relevance, causing mild or severe clinical cases that can lead to the death of the dog. The aim of this study was detecting tick-borne protozoan and rickettsial infections in dogs with anemia and/or thrombocytopenia in Uruguay. A total of 803 domestic dogs were evaluated, and 10% were found positive (detected by PCR) at least for one hemoparasite. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of four hemoprotozoan species: Rangelia vitalii, Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum, and the rickettsial Anaplasma platys. The most detected hemoparasite was R. vitalii, followed by H. canis and A. platys. This is the first report of B. vogeli in Uruguay and the second report of H. americanum in dogs from South America. The results highlight the importance for veterinarians to include hemoparasitic diseases in their differential diagnosis of agents causing anemia and thrombocytopenia.


Assuntos
Anemia , Doenças do Cão , Piroplasmida , Trombocitopenia , Animais , Uruguai , Cães , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Trombocitopenia/veterinária , Trombocitopenia/parasitologia , Anemia/veterinária , Anemia/parasitologia , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Piroplasmida/genética , Feminino , Anaplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmataceae/genética , Masculino , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/veterinária , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/epidemiologia , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma/genética , Babesiose/parasitologia , Babesiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Eucoccidiida/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
15.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101034, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772644

RESUMO

Koi carp are globally known for their colors and cultural significance. The introduction of these fish to new environments poses a threat to local biodiversity, in addition to releasing parasites, such as argulid ectoparasites. This study presents a record of Argulus japonicus infecting carp in an artificial lake in Southern Brazil using morphological and molecular methods, with a 100% prevalence (n = 3) and a mean intensity of 21.6 parasites per host, distributed over the body surface. The invasion history of hosts in the study locality indicates that the introduction of A. japonicus occurred decades before its first formal record in Brazil.


Assuntos
Arguloida , Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Animais , Carpas/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Lagos/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia
16.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101028, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772650

RESUMO

In Australian pastoral dairy systems, a variety of 'routine' anthelmintic programs are used in lactating cows varying from nil anthelmintic use to bi-annual application. Anthelmintic resistance has been repeatedly diagnosed on dairy farms and studies have indicated variable milk production benefits from anthelmintics internationally. We aimed to identify the predominant gastrointestinal parasites in recently calved dairy cows in south-west Victoria and examined the relationship between individual faecal egg counts (FEC) and other cow and management factors such as body condition score, age, and historical anthelmintic use. This study included 18 pasture-based dairy farms in south-west Victoria. FECs were measured in recently calved primiparous and multiparous cows. Individual FEC tests with a minimum detectable FEC of 2.5 eggs per gram of faeces (epg) and group larval cultures were completed. Farm management data and cow information was recorded for data analysis with the Jamovi statistical package. Overall, 35% of all cows had FEC ≥ 2.5 epg (26% of multiparous and 45% of primiparous). Ostertagi ostertagi was the predominant gastrointestinal nematode in all cohorts. Cooperia pectinata or C. punctata were also present in mixed infestations alongside C. oncophora. Multiparous cows in low body condition score post calving (<4) were more likely to have a FEC of >5 epg. Faecal egg counts at a minimum detectable FEC of 2.5 epg are effective indicators of parasitism in recently calved primiparous and poorly conditioned multiparous dairy cows. Increasing the test sensitivity (minimum detectable count) of FECs from 10 epg to 2.5 epg resulted in increasing the overall positive FEC rate from 15% to 35%. Further investigation of sensitive FECs and their relevance to production along with the timing and value of anthelmintic use in dairy cattle is warranted.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Doenças dos Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Fezes , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Animais , Bovinos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Vitória/epidemiologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Austrália
17.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101033, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772649

RESUMO

The Garrano is a semi-feral horse breed native to several mountains in the northern Iberian Peninsula. Despite being endangered, this unique breed of pony has managed to survive in the wild and continues to be selectively bred, highlighting their remarkable resilience and adaptability to harsh environments. Wildlife plays a critical role in the survival of tick vectors in their natural habitats and the transfer of tick-borne pathogens, as they can serve as reservoir hosts for many agents and amplifiers for these vectors. The semi-feral lifestyle of the Garrano horses makes them particularly vulnerable to exposure to numerous tick species throughout the year. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Babesia, Theileria, and spotted fever rickettsiae in the Garrano horse ticks to obtain a knowledge of circulating agents in this host population. The collected ticks (n = 455) were identified as Rhipicephalus bursa. DNA specimens were organized in pools of 5 ticks, for molecular screening. Pools PCR results confirmed the presence of Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae (n = 12 for the ompB gene, n = 11 for the ompA gene and n = 6 for the gltA gene), Babesia bigemina (n = 1), Babesia caballi (n = 3), Theileria equi (n = 15) and Theileria haneyi (n = 1).These results confirm the circulation of an emerging rickettsial spotted fever group member, Candidatus R. barbariae, in R. bursa ticks. Our findings demonstrated that Candidatus R. barbariae co-circulates with B. bigemina and T. equi, which are vectored by R. bursa. We are reporting for the first time, the detection of T. haneyi among R. bursa ticks feeding in the Garrano horses in Portugal. Surveillance studies for tick-borne infections are essential to provide information that can facilitate the implementation of preventive and control strategies.


Assuntos
Babesia , Doenças dos Cavalos , Rhipicephalus , Theileria , Animais , Cavalos/parasitologia , Portugal/epidemiologia , Rhipicephalus/microbiologia , Rhipicephalus/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileria/genética , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesia/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma/genética , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Theileriose/parasitologia , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsia/genética , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichia/genética , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/parasitologia
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(5)2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772872

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare but potentially sight-threatening complication of corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) for keratoconus. In this report, we describe an early adolescent male who underwent routine CXL for progressive keratoconus in his left eye. Preprocedural left visual acuity (VA) was 6/9. At day 5 postprocedure, multifocal corneal infiltrates were identified. Corneal scrape, bandage contact lens cultures and herpetic and Acanthamoeba PCR were negative. In vivo, confocal microscopy (IVCM) identified Acanthamoeba cysts within the corneal stroma. Intensive amoebicidal therapy was initiated, but recovery was complicated by significant inflammation, resulting in widespread aggressive corneal vascularisation necessitating topical steroids and steroid-sparing agents. At 10 months, his left VA was 6/24. This report emphasises the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for AK in cases of post-CXL microbial keratitis and highlights the diagnostic value of IVCM, particularly in culture-negative and PCR-negative cases.


Assuntos
Ceratite por Acanthamoeba , Ceratocone , Microscopia Confocal , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/diagnóstico , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Ceratocone/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratocone/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Riboflavina/uso terapêutico , Colágeno , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Reagentes de Ligações Cruzadas/uso terapêutico , Acuidade Visual , Córnea/parasitologia , Córnea/patologia , Acanthamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Substância Própria/patologia , Substância Própria/parasitologia
19.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 103(5): e14535, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772877

RESUMO

Despite efforts, available alternatives for the treatment of leishmaniasis are still scarce. In this work we tested a class of 15 quinolinylhydrazone analogues and presented data that support the use of the most active compound in cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania amazonensis. In general, the compounds showed activity at low concentrations for both parasitic forms (5.33-37.04 µM to promastigotes, and 14.31-61.98 µM to amastigotes). In addition, the best compound (MHZ15) is highly selective for the parasite. Biochemical studies indicate that the treatment of promastigotes with MHZ15 leads the loss of mitochondrial potential and increase in ROS levels as the primary effects, which triggers accumulation of lipid droplets, loss of plasma membrane integrity and apoptosis hallmarks, including DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine exposure. These effects were similar in the intracellular form of the parasite. However, in this parasitic form there is no change in plasma membrane integrity in the observed treatment time, which can be attributed to metabolic differences and the resilience of the amastigote. Also, ultrastructural changes such as vacuolization suggesting autophagy were observed. The in vivo effectiveness of MHZ15 in the experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis was carried out in mice of the BALB/c strain infected with L. amazonensis. The treatment by intralesional route showed that MHZ15 acted with great efficiency with significantly reduction in the parasite load in the injured paws and draining lymph nodes, without clinical signs of distress or compromise of animal welfare. In vivo toxicity was also evaluated and null alterations in the levels of hepatic enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase was observed. The data presented herein demonstrates that MHZ15 exhibits a range of favorable characteristics conducive to the development of an antileishmanial agent.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Hidrazonas , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitocôndrias , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Hidrazonas/química , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/química , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Leishmania mexicana/efeitos dos fármacos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1366563, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716192

RESUMO

Background: Routine surveillance for antimalarial drug resistance is critical to sustaining the efficacy of artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs). Plasmodium falciparum kelch-13 (Pfkelch-13) and non-Pfkelch-13 artemisinin (ART) resistance-associated mutations are uncommon in Africa. We investigated polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum actin-binding protein (Pfcoronin) associated with in vivo reduced sensitivity to ART in Nigeria. Methods: Fifty-two P. falciparum malaria subjects who met the inclusion criteria were followed up in a 28-day therapeutic efficacy study of artemether-lumefantrine in Lagos, Nigeria. Parasite detection was done by microscopy and molecular diagnostic approaches involving PCR amplification of genes for Pf18S rRNA, varATS, telomere-associated repetitive elements-2 (TARE-2). Pfcoronin and Pfkelch-13 genes were sequenced bi-directionally while clonality of infections was determined using 12 neutral P. falciparum microsatellite loci and msp2 analyses. Antimalarial drugs (sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine, chloroquine and some quinolones) resistance variants (DHFR_51, DHFR_59, DHFR_108, DHFR_164, MDR1_86, MDR1_184, DHPS_581 and DHPS_613) were genotyped by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Results: A total of 7 (26.92%) cases were identified either as early treatment failure, late parasitological failure or late clinical failure. Of the four post-treatment infections identified as recrudescence by msp2 genotypes, only one was classified as recrudescence by multilocus microsatellites genotyping. Microsatellite analysis revealed no significant difference in the mean allelic diversity, He, (P = 0.19, Mann-Whitney test). Allele sizes and frequency per locus implicated one isolate. Genetic analysis of this isolate identified two new Pfcoronin SNVs (I68G and L173F) in addition to the P76S earlier reported. Linkage-Disequilibrium as a standardized association index, IAS, between multiple P. falciparum loci revealed significant LD (IAS = 0.2865, P=0.02, Monte-Carlo simulation) around the neutral microsatellite loci. The pfdhfr/pfdhps/pfmdr1 drug resistance-associated haplotypes combinations, (108T/N/51I/164L/59R/581G/86Y/184F), were observed in two samples. Conclusion: Pfcoronin mutations identified in this study, with potential to impact parasite clearance, may guide investigations on emerging ART tolerance in Nigeria, and West African endemic countries.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Artemisininas , Resistência a Medicamentos , Malária Falciparum , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Nigéria , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Mutação , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Feminino , Combinação de Medicamentos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Genótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Recidiva , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...