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1.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 7-10, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506635

RESUMO

Hepatitis, a significant cause of mortality worldwide, results in around 1.34 million deaths each year globally. Africa is not exempt from the plague of Hepatitis. Around 100 million estimated individuals are infected with Hepatitis B or C. Egypt has the highest prevalence of cases of Hepatitis followed by Cameroon and Burundi. The continent is severely affected by the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, as the virus has added an additional burden on the already fragile continent. With the pandemic, it is presumable that Hepatitis like other viral diseases will pose a threat to collapsing healthcare system. Therefore, for Africa to become more resilient in the face of such menaces, including Hepatitis, further prevention policies are required to be implemented.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Egito/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite B Crônica/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B Crônica/terapia , Hepatite C Crônica/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C Crônica/terapia , Humanos , Fígado/lesões , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are limited data on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine reactogenicity in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and how reactogenicity is affected by disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). The objective of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to generate real-world multiple sclerosis-specific vaccine safety information, particularly in the context of specific DMTs, and provide information to mitigate specific concerns in vaccine hesitant PwMS. METHODS: Between 3/2021 and 6/2021, participants in iConquerMS, an online people-powered research network, reported SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, experiences of local (itch, pain, redness, swelling, or warmth at injection site) and systemic (fever, chills, fatigue, headache, joint pain, malaise, muscle ache, nausea, allergic, and other) reactions within 24 hours (none, mild, moderate, and severe), DMT use, and other attributes. Multivariable models characterized associations between clinical factors and reactogenicity. RESULTS: In 719 PwMS, 64% reported experiencing a reaction after their first vaccination shot, and 17% reported a severe reaction. The most common reactions were pain at injection site (54%), fatigue (34%), headache (28%), and malaise (21%). Younger age, being female, prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, and receiving the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vs BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine were associated with experiencing a reaction after the first vaccine dose. Similar relationships were observed for a severe reaction, including higher odds of reactions among PwMS with more physical impairment and lower odds of reactions for PwMS on an alpha4-integrin blocker or sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator. In 442 PwMS who received their second vaccination shot, 74% reported experiencing a reaction, whereas 22% reported a severe reaction. Reaction profiles after the second shot were similar to those reported after the first shot. Younger PwMS and those who received the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vs BNT162b2 vaccine reported higher reactogenicity after the second shot, whereas those on a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator or fumarate were significantly less likely to report a reaction. DISCUSSION: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine reactogenicity profiles and the associated factors in this convenience sample of PwMS appear similar to those reported in the general population. PwMS on specific DMTs were less likely to report vaccine reactions. Overall, the short-term vaccine reactions experienced in the study population were mostly self-limiting, including pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, and fever.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Secundária/efeitos adversos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2390: 103-112, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731465

RESUMO

The development of vaccines for the treatment of COVID-19 is paving the way for new hope. Despite this, the risk of the virus mutating into a vaccine-resistant variant still persists. As a result, the demand of efficacious drugs to treat COVID-19 is still pertinent. To this end, scientists continue to identify and repurpose marketed drugs for this new disease. Many of these drugs are currently undergoing clinical trials and, so far, only one has been officially approved by FDA. Drug repurposing is a much faster route to the clinic than standard drug development of novel molecules, nevertheless in a pandemic this process is still not fast enough to halt the spread of the virus. Artificial intelligence has already played a large part in hastening the drug discovery process, not only by facilitating the selection of potential drug candidates but also in monitoring the pandemic and enabling faster diagnosis of patients. In this chapter, we focus on the impact and challenges that artificial intelligence has demonstrated thus far with respect to drug repurposing of therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Inteligência Artificial , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Estrutura Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2390: 177-190, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731469

RESUMO

We describe an approach to early stage drug discovery that explicitly engages with the complexities of human biology. The combined computational and experimental approach is formulated on a conceptual framework in which network biology is used to bridge between individual molecular entities and the cellular phenotype that emerges when those entities interact in a network. Multiple aspects of early stage discovery are addressed including the data-driven elucidation of biological processes implicated in disease, target identification and validation, phenotypic discovery of active molecules and their mechanism of action, and extraction of genetic target support from human population genetics data. Validation is described via summary of a number of discovery projects and details from a project aimed at COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Biologia de Sistemas , Animais , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Gene ; 808: 145963, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530086

RESUMO

As of July 2021, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has led to more than 200 million infections and more than 4.2 million deaths globally. Complications of severe COVID-19 include acute kidney injury, liver dysfunction, cardiomyopathy, and coagulation dysfunction. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify proteins and genetic factors associated with COVID-19 susceptibility and outcome. We comprehensively reviewed recent findings of host-SARS-CoV-2 interactome analyses. To identify genetic variants associated with COVID-19, we focused on the findings from genome and transcriptome wide association studies (GWAS and TWAS) and bioinformatics analysis. We described established human proteins including ACE2, TMPRSS2, 40S ribosomal subunit, ApoA1, TOM70, HLA-A, and PALS1 interacting with SARS-CoV-2 based on cryo-electron microscopy results. Furthermore, we described approximately 1000 human proteins showing evidence of interaction with SARS-CoV-2 and highlighted host cellular processes such as innate immune pathways affected by infection. We summarized the evidence on more than 20 identified candidate genes in COVID-19 severity. Predicted deleterious and disruptive genetic variants with possible effects on COVID-19 infectivity have been also summarized. These findings provide novel insights into SARS-CoV-2 biology and infection as well as potential strategies for development of novel COVID therapeutic targets and drug repurposing.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Proteínas/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
6.
Gene ; 807: 145933, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical-cancer is among the most commonly diagnosed cancers in women, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer and altered serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines. We have explored the association between a genetic variation in the Interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene (rs1800896) and cervical cancer risk and its relationship with tissue Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) concentrations in women with cervical cancer. METHODS: A total of 315 women with, or without cervical cancer, were recruited into the study. DNA was extracted from cervical cells, and genotyping was undertaken using Taq-man real-time PCR. The genotype frequency and allele distribution were analyzed together with their association with pathological data. The association of the rs1800896 gene variation with tissue levels of the inflammatory cytokines was also investigated. RESULTS: Our data showed a significant association between the A allele of the rs1800896 gene variant and the presence of cervical cancer. In particular, patients with AG/AA genotypes had an increased risk of cervical cancer with an odds ratio of 1.929 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.879-4.23, P < 0.001) in a recessive model, compared with the GG genotype. Also, the tissue concentrations of IFN-γ, TGF-ß, and TNF-α in cervical tissues were significantly higher in women with cervical cancer (P < 0.001) and were associated with the AA genotype. CONCLUSION: We have found an association between the polymorphism rs1800896 in the IL-10 gene and an increased risk of cervical cancer as well as a higher level of tissue inflammatory cytokines. Further investigations are necessary on the value of emerging biomarkers for the risk stratification for the management of cervical cancer patients.


Assuntos
Interleucina-10/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Alphapapillomavirus/genética , Alphapapillomavirus/patogenicidade , Citocinas , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Inflamação , Interferon gama , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Papillomaviridae/genética , Papillomaviridae/patogenicidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
7.
Parasite ; 28: 75, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738903

RESUMO

In this study, we conducted a summer sampling of carabid beetles in eastern Australia to identify their associated parasitic mites. Here, we describe three new species of the genus Eutarsopolipus from under the elytra (forewings) of three native carabid species (Coleoptera: Carabidae): Eutarsopolipus paryavae n. sp. (pterostichi group) from Geoscaptus laevissimus Chaudoir; Eutarsopolipus pulcher n. sp. (leytei group) from Gnathaphanus pulcher (Dejean); and Eutarsopolipus chlaenii n. sp. (myzus group) from Chlaenius flaviguttatus Macleay. We further provide an identification key of the world species of pterostichi and leytei species groups as well as closely related species of the myzus group possessing similar characters including short cheliceral stylets. The significant diversity of Eutarsopolipus recovered here suggests that the current knowledge about Australian podapolipid mites (specially Eutarsopolipus) is still in its infancy and deserves further study.


Assuntos
Besouros , Ácaros , Animais , Austrália , Besouros/parasitologia , Ácaros/patogenicidade
8.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 35(4): 1027-1053, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752219

RESUMO

Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and in the immunocompromised population. This article reviews the current epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections in adult patients, with an emphasis on invasive candidiasis (IC) and invasive aspergillosis (IA). Included are descriptions of nosocomial infections caused by Candida auris, an emerging pathogen, and IC- and IA-associated with coronavirus disease 2019. The characteristics and availability of newer nonculture-based tests for identification of nosocomial fungal pathogens are discussed. Recently published recommendations and guidelines for the control and prevention of these nosocomial fungal infections are summarized.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/patogenicidade , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Controle de Infecções/normas , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 35(4): 1055-1075, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752220

RESUMO

Health care-acquired viral respiratory infections are common and cause increased patient morbidity and mortality. Although the threat of viral respiratory infection has been underscored by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, respiratory viruses have a significant impact in health care settings even under normal circumstances. Studies report decreased nosocomial transmission when aggressive infection control measures are implemented, with more success noted when using a multicomponent approach. Influenza vaccination of health care personnel furthers decrease rates of transmission; thus, mandatory vaccination is becoming more common. This article discusses the epidemiology, transmission, and control of health care-associated respiratory viral infections.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Vacinação , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/patogenicidade
10.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(16): 3788-3793, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790054

RESUMO

As the world is racing to develop perpetual immunity to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The emergence of new viral strains, together with vaccination and reinfections, are all contributing to a long-term immunity against the deadly virus that has taken over the world since its introduction to humans in late December 2019. The discovery that more than 95 percent of people who recovered from COVID-19 had long-lasting immunity and that asymptomatic people have a different immune response to SARS-CoV-2 than symptomatic people has shifted attention to how our immune system initiates such diverse responses. These findings have provided reason to believe that SARS-CoV-2 days are numbered. Hundreds of research papers have been published on the causes of long-lasting immune responses and variations in the numbers of different immune cell types in COVID 19 survivors, but the main reason of these differences has still not been adequately identified. In this article, we focus on the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which initiates molecular processes that allow our immune system to generate antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. To establish lasting immunity to SARS-CoV-2, we suggest that AID could be the key to unlocking it.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Citidina Desaminase/genética , Imunidade/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Citidina/genética , Citidina/imunologia , Citidina Desaminase/imunologia , Desaminação/imunologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Vacinação
11.
Cell Rep ; 37(6): 109920, 2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731648

RESUMO

It is urgent to develop disease models to dissect mechanisms regulating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Here, we derive airway organoids from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-AOs). The hPSC-AOs, particularly ciliated-like cells, are permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using this platform, we perform a high content screen and identify GW6471, which blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection. GW6471 can also block infection of the B.1.351 SARS-CoV-2 variant. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis suggests that GW6471 blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection at least in part by inhibiting hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha (HIF1α), which is further validated by chemical inhibitor and genetic perturbation targeting HIF1α. Metabolic profiling identifies decreased rates of glycolysis upon GW6471 treatment, consistent with transcriptome profiling. Finally, xanthohumol, 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid, and ND-646, three compounds that suppress fatty acid biosynthesis, also block SARS-CoV-2 infection. Together, a high content screen coupled with transcriptome and metabolic profiling reveals a key role of the HIF1α-glycolysis axis in mediating SARS-CoV-2 infection of human airway epithelium.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Glicólise/fisiologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Organoides/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Células Vero
13.
Cell Rep ; 37(7): 110020, 2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762851

RESUMO

Variability in SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and COVID-19 disease severity between individuals is partly due to genetic factors. Here, we identify 4 genomic loci with suggestive associations for SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and 19 for COVID-19 disease severity. Four of these 23 loci likely have an ethnicity-specific component. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) signals in 11 loci colocalize with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) associated with the expression of 20 genes in 62 tissues/cell types (range: 1:43 tissues/gene), including lung, brain, heart, muscle, and skin as well as the digestive system and immune system. We perform genetic fine mapping to compute 99% credible SNP sets, which identify 10 GWAS loci that have eight or fewer SNPs in the credible set, including three loci with one single likely causal SNP. Our study suggests that the diverse symptoms and disease severity of COVID-19 observed between individuals is associated with variants across the genome, affecting gene expression levels in a wide variety of tissue types.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transcriptoma/genética
15.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 7(1): 81, 2021 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795298

RESUMO

The oral microbiome has been connected with lung health and may be of significance in the progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Saliva-based SARS-CoV-2 tests provide the opportunity to leverage stored samples for assessing the oral microbiome. However, these collection kits have not been tested for their accuracy in measuring the oral microbiome. Saliva is highly enriched with human DNA and reducing it prior to shotgun sequencing may increase the depth of bacterial reads. We examined both the effect of saliva collection method and sequence processing on measurement of microbiome depth and diversity by 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomics. We collected 56 samples from 22 subjects. Each subject provided saliva samples with and without preservative, and a subset provided a second set of samples the following day. 16S rRNA gene (V4) sequencing was performed on all samples, and shotgun metagenomics was performed on a subset of samples collected with preservative with and without human DNA depletion before sequencing. We observed that the beta diversity distances within subjects over time was smaller than between unrelated subjects, and distances within subjects were smaller in samples collected with preservative. Samples collected with preservative had higher alpha diversity measuring both richness and evenness. Human DNA depletion before extraction and shotgun sequencing yielded higher total and relative reads mapping to bacterial sequences. We conclude that collecting saliva with preservative may provide more consistent measures of the oral microbiome and depleting human DNA increases yield of bacterial sequences.


Assuntos
Microbiota/genética , Saliva/microbiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , COVID-19/genética , DNA/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenoma/genética , Metagenômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
16.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(4(Supplementary)): 1597-1605, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799337

RESUMO

We aimed to determine the frequency of depression, anxiety and insomnia; identify associated factors; and compare these outcomes amongst a privileged and underprivileged class of Pakistan. A cross-sectional online and face to face survey was conducted in Karachi from April 2020 to May 2020. Validated depression (World Health Organization self-reporting questionnaire), anxiety (general anxiety and depression scale) and insomnia (insomnia severity index) scales were used. Out of 447 participants, the majority were less than 30 years (63.8%) and females (57.7%); 20.8% study participants belonged to poor or very poor socioeconomic status; 17% respondents were from lower middle status and 38% belonged to the higher middle or rich class. Depression, anxiety and insomnia were identified in 30%, 30.63% and 8.5% of participants, respectively. The prevalence of depression, anxiety and insomnia among privileged people was 37.8%, 16.6% and 11.3% respectively whereas among underprivileged were 17.8%, 16.6% and 4.1% respectively. There were significant differences in frequencies of depression (p<0.001), anxiety (p<0.001) and insomnia (p=0.009) among the privileged and underprivileged classes. We found a high prevalence of depression, anxiety and insomnia among both the privileged and underprivileged Pakistani population and a policy needs to be devised to ensure the mental health of Pakistani population.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/virologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(5): 1645-1649, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802997

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory viral infections are frequently associated with multiple organ failure, including acute kidney damage. The present study aimed to investigate the associated influence of COVID-19 on renal function in patients admitted to the intensive care unit in Asir region, Saudi Arabia. Thirty patients infected with COVID-19 who were referred to the intensive care unit during November and October 2020 at Asir central hospital, Asir region, Saudi Arabia were recruited. The age of patients ranged between 30 and 90 years old. Renal function tests exhibited dramatic changes in the renal biomarkers in patients with COVID-19. Blood urea levels in COVID-19 patients were significantly higher than in the control group. In addition, significantly lower albumin levels with abnormally decreased total protein levels were found in COVID-19 patients. Among the different electrolytes analyzed, a significantly lower calcium level was observed in COVID-19 patients' groups than in the controls. Renal function tests for COVID-19-infected ICU patients revealed significant changes, indicating the major impact of COVID-19 on kidney function. Monitoring renal function tests may assist in the early prognosis of COVID-19 patients. It is, therefore, crucial to increase the understanding of renal function tests in COVID-19 patients who were admitted to the hospital before their condition deteriorated.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Injúria Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Arábia Saudita
18.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(5): 1805-1808, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803018

RESUMO

The outbreak of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is a major health crisis affecting the several nations. In particular, the high ratio of COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan is significantly deteriorating human mental as well as physical health. The huge mental and physical loss has taught several lessons, which have been retrieved from already existing literature. The latest researches were consulted to identify the challenges and solution to combat COVID-19. First of all, the pharmacy communities in Pakistan are not sufficient to handle the burden of COVID-19 due to economic issues. However, the Government should provide interest-free loans to students and researchers for conducting scholarly work for manufacturing advance medication to combat against COVID-19. Secondly, the drugs that have been used to control the spread of COVID-19, found to be associated with the development of a neuropsychiatric complication. Therefore, there is a dire need to develop more mental health services to control the medication side effects. Thirdly as the traditional mental health services are not sufficient to provide effective and advanced mental health services, therefore, transformative changes through community psychology are mandatory to implement. Lastly, as communicable disease limit the geographical access to avail mental health services. Therefore, the e-CBT approaches must be provided to mitigate the pre and post-pandemic effects. The findings of the study would provide the direction for preparing to combat communicable diseases in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
19.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(5): 1813-1820, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803020

RESUMO

COVID-19 spread worldwide after its outbreak in December 2019. This review paper aims to educate the readers regarding SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic and detection tools and the issues experienced by researchers. We identify on-the-horizon point-of-care diagnostic tests and inspire scholars to develop their innovations past conception. It will also effectively avoid potential pandemics to establish plug-and-play diagnostic information to handle the SARS infection. The authors agree that arbitrary-access, interconnected systems with flexible functionality accessible at the point-of-care, would enable fast and precise diagnosis and tracking.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Animais , Teste para COVID-19/métodos , Reações Falso-Positivas , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
20.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(5): 1821-1836, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803021

RESUMO

The COVID-19 epidemic is considered the most important health disaster of the century and the largest humanitarian crisis since World War II. In December 2019, a new respiratory disease/disorder was discovered in Wuhan, Hubei province, China and World Health Organization named it COVID-19 (coronavirus 2019). It has been diagnosed with a new class of corona virus, called SARS-CoV-2 (a serious respiratory disease). According to the history of human civilization it is affected by the incidence of disease outbreaks caused by the number of viruses. Covid-19 is rapidly spreading across the globe, due to which mankind faces major health, economic, environmental and social challenges. The outbreak of coronavirus is seriously affecting the global economy. Almost all nations have problems limiting the spread of the disease by screening and treating patients, setting up suspects by keeping in touch, blocking large gatherings, maintaining full or partial closure etc. This paper describes the impact of COVID-19 on society and the global environment, and the ways in which the disease is likely to be controlled have been discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Migrantes
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