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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115754, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195301

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zingiberis Rhizoma (ZR) and Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata (ZRC), as two forms of ginger-based herbal drugs used in China for at least 2000 years, have been recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia and applied for specific indications in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to explore the underlying therapeutic and processing mechanism of the absorbed components of ZR and ZRC on deficiency-cold and hemorrhagic syndrome (DCHS) using network pharmacological technique combined with pharmacokinetics strategy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, a rapid and sensitive approach was conceived to simultaneously determine the seven components (zingiberone, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 6-paradol, diacetyl-6-gingerol and 10-gingerol) in rat serum by HPLC-DAD-MS. The network pharmacological technique was employed to evaluate the effect of the absorbed components of ZR and ZRC on DCHS. Also, the vitro experiments were carried out to validate the functions of the seven compounds on coagulation and other major haematological effects. RESULTS: The values of intra-assay and inter-assay precision were determined to be less than 7.44%, with an accuracy value ranging from 83.64% to 107.99%. Analysis of rat plasma revealed that the extraction recoveries and matrix effects of the seven analytes were >85.76%. The method for validation following oral administration of ZR and ZRC to rats was proved to be a success in the pharmacokinetic study of the seven ingredients. Pharmacokinetics showed that ZR processing could enhance the absorption and utilization of 6-shogaol, 6-paradol and diacetyl-6-gingerol, meanwhile reduce the absorption of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol. Through the pathway enrichment analysis, it was found that the significant biological process of ZR and ZRC on DCHS was primarily associated with complement, coagulation cascades and platelet activation pathways. The vitro experiments indicated that zingiberone, 6-paradol and diacetyl-6-gingerol had a hemostatic effect by upregulating the expression of one or more targets such as TNF-α, FⅩa, FⅫ, FⅧ, ICAM-1, vWF and ITGB3. While 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol played a critical role in promoting blood circulation by increasing the expression of TM and/or PORC, and/or reducing the expression of ITGB3. CONCLUSION: In brief, network pharmacological technique in combination with pharmacokinetics strategy provided an applicable method for pharmacological mechanism study of ZR and ZRC, which, also, could be used as reference for quality control of the two drugs. In a broader sense, this combined strategy might even be valuable in uncovering the therapeutic and processing mechanism of Chinese herbs on a systematic level.


Assuntos
Diacetil , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ratos , Animais , Farmacologia em Rede , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115853, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272493

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. contains varieties of function compounds, and it has been used as traditional drug for centuries. Baicalein is the highest amount of flavonoid found in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi., which exerts various pharmacological activities and might be a promising drug to treat COVID-19. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present work aims to investigate the metabolism of baicalein in humans after oral administration, and study the pharmacokinetics of BA and its seven metabolites in plasma and urine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The metabolism profiling and the identification of baicalein metabolites were performed on HPLC-Q-TOF. Then a column-switching method named MPX™-2 system was applied for the high-throughput quantificationof BA and seven metabolites. RESULTS: Seven metabolites were identified using HPLC-Q-TOF, including sulfate, glucuronide, glucoside, and methyl-conjugated metabolites. Pharmacokinetic study found that BA was extensively metabolized in vivo, and only 5.65% of the drug remained intact in the circulatory system after single dosing. Baicalein-7-O-sulfate and baicalein-6-O-glucuronide-7-O-glucuronide were the most abundant metabolites. About 7.2% of the drug was excreted through urine and mostly was metabolites. CONCLUSION: Seven conjugated metabolites were identified in our assay. A high-throughput HPLC-MS/MS method using column switch was established for quantifying BA and its metabolites. The method has good sensitivity and reproducibility, and successfully applied for the clinical pharmacokinetic study of baicalein and identified metabolites. We expect that our results will provide a metabolic and pharmacokinetic foundation for the potential application of baicalein in medicine.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Flavanonas , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Glucuronídeos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Scutellaria baicalensis , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/farmacocinética , Sulfatos
3.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 223: 115128, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327582

RESUMO

Oleum Cinnamomi is the essential oil obtained from the herb Fructus Cinnamomi which is used by the Hmong people in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. At present, there are a variety of marketed preparations with it as the main medicine on the market. Information regarding the in vivo process of it is lacking, which has become a bottleneck restricting its development and utilization. In view of this, a GC-MS SIM analysis method was established for the simultaneous determination of six main volatile components [eucalyptol, p-cymene, 4-carvomenthenol, 4-isopropyl-2-cyclohexenone, α-terpineol, and 2-(4-Methylphenyl)-propan-2-ol] in plasma and ten tissues of rats to study their pharmacokinetic and distribution characteristics in vivo. The pharmacokinetic results showed that the t1/2 of each index was 0.41-1.66 h, Tmax was 0.16-0.68 h, Cmax was 13.66-2015.02 ng/mL, AUC0-t was 12.84-4299.00 h·ng/mL, CLZ/F was 1750.93-107013.11 mL/h/kg. This meant that the six components could be absorbed quickly, had a short residence time, and be eliminated quickly in the body. Among them, eucalyptol has the highest degree of absorption and a larger amount of entering the body. Moreover, the Cmax and AUC0-t of the six components increased correspondingly with the increase of the dose, indicating that the concentration of Oleum Cinnamomi in the rat plasma was dose-dependent. At different time points, the six components were widely distributed with uneven characteristics in the body. The six components mainly tend to be distributed in stomach, small intestine, and liver, followed by kidney, spleen, heart, and brain, and to a lesser extent in lung, skin, and muscle. And the six components were eliminated quickly in each tissue. The pharmacokinetic process and tissue distribution characteristics of Oleum Cinnamomi were expounded in this study, which can provide scientific theory for the in-depth development and guidance of clinical drug use of Oleum Cinnamomi, and at the same time provide a medicinal material basis for the in-depth development and utilization of Oleum Cinnamomi.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Ratos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacocinética , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Distribuição Tecidual , Eucaliptol , Óleos Vegetais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética
4.
Phytomedicine ; 108: 154511, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality marker (Q-marker) serves an important role in promoting the standardization of the quality of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescriptions. However, discovering comprehensive and representative Q-markers from TCM prescriptions composed of multiple components remains difficult. PURPOSE: A three-step-based novel strategy integrating drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK) with network pharmacology and bioactivity evaluation was proposed to discover the Q-markers and applied to a research example of Danlou tablet (DLT), a famous TCM prescription with remarkable and reliable clinical effects for coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Firstly, the metabolic profile in vivo of DLT was systemically characterized, and the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of PK markers were then investigated. Secondly, an integrated network of "PK markers - CHD targets - pathways - therapeutic effects" was established to screen out the crucial PK markers of DLT against CHD. Thirdly, the crucial PK markers that could exhibit strong myocardial protection activity in the H9c2 cardiomyocyte model were selected as the candidate Q-markers of DLT. According to the proportion of their Cmax value in vivo, the candidate Q-markers were configured into a composition; the bioactivity was then evaluated to confirm their synergistic effect and justify their usage as Q-markers. RESULTS: First of all, a total of 110 DLT-related xenobiotics (35 prototypes and 75 metabolites) were detected in bio-samples, and the pharmacokinetic properties of 13 PK markers of DLT were successfully characterized, revealing the quality transitivity and traceability from prescription to in vivo. Then, 6 crucial PK markers with three topological features (degree, betweenness, and closeness) greater than the average values in the pharmacology network were screened out as the key components of DLT against CHD. Furthermore, among these 6 crucial PK markers, 5 components (puerarin, alisol A, daidzein, paeoniflorin, and tanshinone IIA) with strong myocardial protection activity were chosen as the candidate Q-markers to constitute a new composition. The composition activated the expression of the PI3K/AKT pathway and exhibited strong myocardial protection activity, and the effective concentrations (nM level) of these components in the composition were significantly lower than their individually effective concentrations (µM level), indicating that there was a certain synergistic effect between them. Hence, the 5 components with multiple properties, including testability, quality transitivity and traceability from prescription to in vivo, effectiveness, and compatibility contribution, were defined as comprehensive and representative Q-markers of DLT. CONCLUSION: This study not only presented a novel idea for the revelation of comprehensive and representative Q-markers in quality control research of TCM prescriptions, but also identified the reasonable Q-markers of DLT for the first time to improve the quality control level of DLT.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Farmacologia em Rede , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Biomarcadores , Prescrições
5.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 223: 115157, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379101

RESUMO

Qi-Lin pill (QLP) is an effective traditional Chinese medicine prescription (TCMP) that has been used for the treatment of the oligoasthenozoospermia in China. Recently, some articles described the pharmacological effects of QLP and multiple ingredients in QLP contribute to its effects. However, the pharmacokinetic and target tissue distribution data of QLP are still unknown. In the present study, according to the Bioanalytical Method Validation Guidance of FDA, a sensitive and selective UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of multiple constituents in rat plasma and testicular tissue, including morusimic acid A, codonopyrridium B, magnoflorine, emodin, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-ß-D-glucoside (THSG), ecliptasaponin A, paeoniflorin, albiflorin, gallic acid, danshensu, salvianolic acid A, catechin, isosinensetin, nobiletin, formononetin, calycosin, icariside II, icariin and epimedin C. For 19 analytes, the LLOQs reached 0.01-4 ng/mL. And all calibration curves showed favorable linearity (r ≥ 0.9903) in linear ranges. The intra-day and inter-day precision (relative standard deviation) for all analytes was less than 14.92 %, and the accuracies (as relative error) were in the range of - 6.44 % to 6.22 %. Extraction recoveries and matrix effects of analytes and IS were acceptable. All analytes were stable during the assay and storage in plasma samples. The method was successfully applied for the pharmacokinetics and testis distribution of multiple chemical constituents in QLP after a single oral dose. As a result, high exposure of danshensu, gallic acid, paeoniflorin and albiflorin were observed in rat plasma and testicular tissue. Among the flavonoids, isosinensetin and nobiletin had high exposure in testicular tissue. Moreover, alleviation of progesterone reduction was evaluated in H2O2-induced R2C leydig cells, and danshensu, gallic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and nobiletin showed potent activity. Therefore, these five components were considered to be the effective components of QLP due to their relatively high exposure in vivo and biological activity. This finding also provided relevant information on action mechanism of QLP in the treatment of oligoasthenozoospermia.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Distribuição Tecidual , Cromatografia Líquida , Testículo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Qi , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Ácido Gálico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Mol Pharm ; 19(2): 720-727, 2022 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936367

RESUMO

Radiolabeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligands have been rapidly adopted as part of patient care for prostate cancer. In this study, a new series of 18F-labeled PSMA-targeting agents was developed based on the high-affinity Glu-ureido-Lys scaffold and 18F-vinyl sulfones (VSs), the tumor uptake and tumor/major organ contrast of which could be tuned by pharmacokinetic linkers within the molecules. In particular, 18F-PEG3-VS-PSMAi showed the highest tumor uptake (12.1 ± 2.2%ID/g at 0.5 h p.i.) and 18F-PEG2-VS-PSMAi showed the highest tumor-to-liver ratio (T/L = 3.7 ± 1.0, 4.8 ± 1.2, and 6.3 ± 1.1 at 0.5, 1.5, and 3 h p.i. respectively). Significantly, compared with the FDA-approved 68Ga-PSMA-11, the newly developed 18F-PEG3-VS-PSMAi has an almost double tumor uptake (P < 0.0001) when tested in the same animal model. In conclusion, 18F-VS-labeled PSMA ligands are promising PET agents with prominent tumor uptake and high contrast. The lead agents 18F-PEG2-VS-PSMAi and 18F-PEG3-VS-PSMAi warrant further evaluation in prostate cancer patients.


Assuntos
Próstata , Neoplasias da Próstata , Animais , Antígenos de Superfície , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Radioisótopos de Flúor/farmacocinética , Isótopos de Gálio , Radioisótopos de Gálio , Glutamato Carboxipeptidase II , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacocinética , Sulfonas
7.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 50(6): 176-186, 01 nov. 2022. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-211519

RESUMO

Background Injury to the lung is a common, clinically serious inflammatory disease. However, its pathogenesis remains unclear, and the existing treatments, including cytokine therapy, stem cell therapy, and hormone therapy, are not completely effective in treating this disease. Dimethyl itaconate (DMI) is a surfactant with important anti-inflammatory effects. Objective The present study used alveolar type II (AT II) and bronchial epithelial cells as models to determine the role of DMI in lung injury. Material and Methods First, the effects of DMI were established on the survival, inflammatory release, and apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AT II and bronchial epithelial cells. The association between DMI and Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) was assessed using molecular docking. Next, by constructing interference plasmids to inhibit surfactant protein (SP)-A and SP-D expressions, the effect of DMI was observed on inflammatory release and apoptosis. Results The results revealed that DMI increased the survival rate and expression levels of SP-A, SP-D, and SIRT1, and inhibited inflammatory factors as well as apoptosis in LPS-induced cells. Furthermore, DMI could bind to SIRT1 to regulate SP-A and SP-D expressions. After SP-A and SP-D expressions were inhibited, the inhibitory effect of DMI was reversed on inflammatory release and apoptosis. Conclusion The findings of the present study revealed that DMI inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory release and apoptosis in cells by targeting SIRT1 and then activating SP-A and SP-D. This novel insight into the pharmacological mechanism of DMI lays the foundation for its later use for alleviating lung injury (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Surfactantes Pulmonares/metabolismo , Surfactantes Pulmonares/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Apoptose , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Lesão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteína A Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/metabolismo , Proteína A Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/farmacologia , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/metabolismo , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/farmacocinética , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/farmacologia
8.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 10(6): e01024, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416673

RESUMO

The immunosuppressive agents sirolimus and everolimus are sensitive CYP3A4 substrates with narrow therapeutic index. Ritonavir is a strong CYP3A inhibitor. A phase 1 study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of the co-administration of sirolimus or everolimus with the ritonavir-containing 3D regimen of the direct-acting antiviral agents ombitasvir, ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir, and dasabuvir in healthy subjects. This study had two independent arms, each with a two-period, single-sequence, crossover study design. A single dose of sirolimus 2 mg (N = 12) or everolimus 0.75 mg (N = 12) was administered in Period 1. In Period 2, multiple doses of the 3D regimen (ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir 25/150/100 mg once daily and dasabuvir 250 mg twice daily) were administered for 34 or 28 days, with a single dose of sirolimus 0.5 mg or everolimus 0.75 mg co-administered on Day 15. Following co-administration with the 3D regimen, the sirolimus dose-normalized maximum observed blood concentration (Cmax ) and area under the blood concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUCinf ) increased to 6.4-fold and 38-fold, respectively. Following co-administration with the 3D regimen, the everolimus Cmax and AUCinf increased to 4.7-fold and 27-fold, respectively. Sirolimus and everolimus half-lives increased from 96 to 249 h, and 42 to 118 h, respectively. There were no major safety or tolerability issues in this study. The ritonavir-containing 3D regimen resulted in a significant increase in sirolimus or everolimus exposure, consistent with the known strong inhibitory effect of ritonavir on CYP3A requiring dose and/or frequency modification when co-administered with each other.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Compostos Macrocíclicos , Adulto , Humanos , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Everolimo/efeitos adversos , Antivirais , Compostos Macrocíclicos/farmacologia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/uso terapêutico , Voluntários Saudáveis , Sirolimo/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Valina , Interações Medicamentosas , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Carbamatos/farmacologia , Anilidas/farmacocinética
9.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 10(6): e01031, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36380704

RESUMO

The translation of new injectable anesthetic drugs from rodent to humans remains slow, despite the realization that reliance on the volatile agents is unsustainable from an environmental perspective. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of rat sex and strain on the PK and PD of the anesthetic neurosteroid alfaxalone. Forty rats had cannulas inserted under isoflurane anesthesia for drug administration and sampling. Carotid artery blood samples were collected for blood gas analysis, hematology, biochemistry, and plasma concentrations of alfaxalone. Plasma samples were assayed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compartmental non-linear mixed effects methods (NLME) models were applied to two rat populations to determine whether body weight, sex, and strain influenced PK parameters. There were significant differences between the sexes for plasma clearance, half-life and mean residence time in Lewis rats, and mean arterial blood pressure was significantly lower in the female rats at 120 min. An initial NLME PK population model was used to design an adjusted alfaxalone infusion for SD females matching plasma concentrations in males and minimizing cardiopulmonary depression but maintaining an appropriate hypnotic effect. A final NLME population model showed that alfaxalone clearance was dependent on both bodyweight and sex, whereas volume of distribution was influenced by strain. NLME PK models offer the advantage of having a single model that describes a population and therefore shares data interpretation between animals unlike the standard deterministic PK approach. This approach can be used to propose bespoke dosing regimens for optimal use of alfaxalone.


Assuntos
Anestésicos , Pregnanodionas , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Pregnanodionas/farmacologia , Anestésicos/farmacocinética , Meia-Vida
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361773

RESUMO

Translation of the synergy between the Siremadlin (MDM2 inhibitor) and Trametinib (MEK inhibitor) combination observed in vitro into in vivo synergistic efficacy in melanoma requires estimation of the interaction between these molecules at the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) levels. The cytotoxicity of the Siremadlin and Trametinib combination was evaluated in vitro in melanoma A375 cells with MTS and RealTime-Glo assays. Analysis of the drug combination matrix was performed using Synergy and Synergyfinder packages. Calculated drug interaction metrics showed high synergy between Siremadlin and Trametinib: 23.12%, or a 7.48% increase of combined drug efficacy (concentration-independent parameter ß from Synergy package analysis and concentration-dependent δ parameter from Synergyfinder analysis, respectively). In order to select the optimal PD interaction parameter which may translate observed in vitro synergy metrics into the in vivo setting, further PK/PD studies on cancer xenograft animal models coupled with PBPK/PD modelling are needed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Melanoma , Animais , Humanos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361834

RESUMO

In this study, we developed a sustained-release transdermal delivery system containing losartan potassium (LP) and verapamil hydrochloride (VPH). LP and VPH have low bioavailability and long half-life. Therefore, the development of an optimum administration mode is necessary to overcome these drawbacks and enhance the antihypertensive effect. A transdermal diffusion meter was used to determine the optimal formulation of LP-VPH transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS). Based on in vitro results, a sustained-release patch was prepared. Physical characteristics, including quality, stickiness, and appearance, were evaluated in vitro, while pharmacokinetics and skin irritation were evaluated in vivo. The results showed that 8.3% polyvinyl alcohol, 74.7% polyvinylpyrrolidone K30, 12% oleic acid-azone, and 5% polyacrylic acid resin II provided an optimized TDDS product for effective administration of LP and VPH. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo release tests showed that the system continuously released LP and VPH for 24 h. The pharmacokinetic results indicated that although the maximum concentration was lower, both the area under the curve from 0-time and the mean residence time of the prepared patch were significantly higher than those of the oral preparations. Furthermore, the prepared LP-VPH transdermal patch showed good stability and no skin irritation. The developed LP-VPH TDDS showed a sustained-release effect and good characteristics and pharmacokinetics; therefore, it is an ideal formulation.


Assuntos
Losartan , Verapamil , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Absorção Cutânea , Administração Cutânea , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos
12.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 6(1)2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36437518

RESUMO

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) increases circulating blood volume, causes capillary leak and temporarily alters kidney function. Consequently, pharmacokinetics (PK) can be affected. When applied to neonates and infants, additional dose adjustments are a major concern, as the volume of distribution (Vd) is already generally greater for water-soluble drugs and the clearance (Cl) of drugs eliminated by glomerular filtration is reduced. A systematic search was performed on MEDLINE (1994-2022) using a combination of the following search terms: "pharmacokinetics", "extracorporeal membrane oxygenation" and "infant, newborn" using Medical Subject Headings search strategy. Nine out of 18 studies on 11 different drugs (vancomycin, meropenem, fluconazole, gentamicin, midazolam, phenobarbital, theophylline, clonidine, morphine, cefotaxime and cefepime) recommended dose increase/decrease by determining PK parameters. In other studies, it has been suggested to adjust the dose intervals. While the elimination half-life (t1/2) and Vd mostly increased for all drugs, the Cl of the drugs has been shown to have variability except for midazolam and morphine. There are a limited number of population PK studies in neonates and infants undergoing ECMO circuits. Despite some divergences, the general pattern suggests an increase in Vd and t1/2, an increased, stable or decreased Cl, and an increase in variability. Consequently, and if possible, therapeutic drug monitoring and target concentration intervention are strongly recommended to determine appropriate exposure and doses for neonates and infants undergoing ECMO support.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Midazolam , Vancomicina/farmacocinética , Morfina
13.
J Med Chem ; 65(22): 15374-15390, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358010

RESUMO

The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL is a promising target for anticancer drug discovery. Herein, we describe the discovery of 3-aminopyrazole derivatives as new potent and selective AXL kinase inhibitors. One of the representative compounds, 6li, potently inhibited AXL enzymatic activity with an IC50 value of 1.6 nM, and tightly bound with AXL protein with a Kd value of 0.26 nM, while was obviously less potent against most of the 403 wild-type kinases evaluated. Cell-based assays demonstrated that compound 6li potently inhibited AXL signaling, suppressed Ba/F3-TEL-AXL cell proliferation, reversed TGF-ß1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and dose-dependently impeded cancer cell migration and invasion. Compound 6li also showed reasonable pharmacokinetic properties in rats and exhibited significant in vivo antitumor efficacy in a xenograft model of highly metastatic murine breast cancer 4T1 cells. Taken together, this study provides a new potent and selective AXL inhibitor for further anticancer drug discovery.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Ratos , Camundongos , Animais , Feminino , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Proliferação de Células , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 10(6): e01026, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398492

RESUMO

The most recent consensus guidelines for dosing and monitoring vancomycin recommended the use of area-under-the-curve with Bayesian estimation for therapeutic monitoring. As this is a modern concept in the practice of clinical pharmacy, the main objective of this review is to introduce the fundamentals of Bayesian estimation and its mathematical application as it relates to vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring. In addition, we aim to identify pharmacokinetic (PK) software programs that incorporate Bayesian estimation for vancomycin dosing and to describe the PK models utilized in those software programs for the adult population. Twelve software programs that utilize Bayesian estimation were identified, which included: Adult and Pediatric Kinetics, Best Dose, ClinCalc, DoseMeRx, ID-ODS, InsightRx, MwPharm++, NextDose, PrecisePK, TDMx, Tucuxi, and VancoCalc. The software programs varied in the population PK models used as the Bayesian a priori. With the presence of various vancomycin Bayesian software programs, it is important to choose those that utilize PK models reflective of the specific patient population.


Assuntos
Farmácia , Vancomicina , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Vancomicina/farmacocinética , Teorema de Bayes , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos
15.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 22(11): 1417-1428, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inclacumab is a recombinant, fully human, immunoglobulin IgG4 monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to P-selectin. Initially discovered and developed by Roche through phase 2 clinical studies in peripheral arterial disease and coronary artery disease, inclacumab has been in-licensed by Global Blood Therapeutics (GBT) as a potential treatment to reduce the frequency of vaso-occlusive crises in individuals with sickle cell disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: GBT sought to demonstrate the analytical comparability between material produced by Roche and material produced by GBT to ensure that no meaningful differences in identity, safety, purity, potency, or bioavailability exist between the GBT and Roche lots. RESULTS: Inclacumab samples produced by GBT were found to be comparable to the Roche v0.2 inclacumab samples based on (1) comparable primary and higher-order structures; (2) comparable purity profiles; (3) comparable potency, in vitro functional activities, and in vivo plasma exposures and pharmacokinetic profiles; and (4) comparable degradation patterns and kinetics under forced degradation conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the design of this comparability study and the results obtained, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the changes to the manufacturing process and gave clearance for GBT to proceed with phase 3 clinical trials.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Imunoglobulina G , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacocinética
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(46): e31783, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401367

RESUMO

The current standard pharmacokinetic monitoring of immunosuppressive therapy does not consider inter- and intra-individual differences in the biological response to multidrug immunosuppressive therapy. The authors evaluated the blood levels of the immunosuppressive drugs IL-2 and IFN-γ in circulating lymphocytes as surrogate indicators of the development of viral infections after living kidney transplantation. This single-center prospective study included 20 kidney transplant recipients who underwent living-donor transplantation at the Mie University Hospital. All the study participants received tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid, methylprednisolone, and basiliximab. The area under the concentration curves (AUCs) of blood tacrolimus and serum mycophenolic acid were measured 1 day prior to transplantation and on post-transplantation days (PTD) for up to 5 months. IL-2 and IFN-γ levels in circulating lymphocytes were measured simultaneously. One recipient experienced an acute graft rejection. Although the AUC of tacrolimus at PTD 7 was significantly higher in the virus-infected group than that in the non-infected group, the AUC of mycophenolic acid did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. The expression levels of IFN-γ+ NK, IFN-γ+ CD4+ T, and CD8+ T cells in the infected group also tended to be higher than those in the noninfected group. During the study period, there was a clear difference in the expression of IFN-γ+ CD8+ T cells, which increased significantly during or after infection. Circulating IFN-γ+ CD8+ T cell counts may serve as promising biomarkers for predicting opportunistic viral infections early after kidney transplantation.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Viroses , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/farmacocinética , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Tacrolimo/farmacocinética , Ativação Linfocitária , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Projetos Piloto , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Theranostics ; 12(17): 7203-7215, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36438496

RESUMO

Rationale: Small 225Ac-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted radioconjugates have been described for targeted alpha therapy of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Transient binding to serum albumin as a highly abundant, inherent transport protein represents a commonly applied strategy to modulate the tissue distribution profile of such low-molecular-weight radiotherapeutics and to enhance radioactivity uptake into tumor lesions with the ultimate objective of improved therapeutic outcome. Methods: Two ligands mcp-M-alb-PSMA and mcp-D-alb-PSMA were synthesized by combining a macropa-derived chelator with either one or two lysine-ureido-glutamate-based PSMA- and 4-(p-iodophenyl)butyrate albumin-binding entities using multistep peptide-coupling chemistry. Both compounds were labeled with [225Ac]Ac3+ under mild conditions and their reversible binding to serum albumin was analyzed by an ultrafiltration assay as well as microscale thermophoresis measurements. Saturation binding studies and clonogenic survival assays using PSMA-expressing LNCaP cells were performed to evaluate PSMA-mediated cell binding and to assess the cytotoxic potency of the novel radioconjugates [225Ac]Ac-mcp-M-alb-PSMA and [225Ac]Ac-mcp-D-alb-PSMA, respectively. Biodistributions of both 225Ac-radioconjugates were investigated using LNCaP tumor-bearing SCID mice. Histological examinations of selected organs were performed to analyze the occurrence of necrosis using H&E staining, DNA damage via γH2AX staining and proliferation via Ki67 expression in the tissue samples. Results: Enhanced binding to serum components in general and to human serum albumin in particular was revealed for [225Ac]Ac-mcp-M-alb-PSMA and [225Ac]Ac-mcp-D-alb-PSMA, respectively. Moreover, the novel derivatives are highly potent PSMA ligands as their KD values in the nanomolar range (23.38 and 11.56 nM) are comparable to the reference radioconjugates [225Ac]Ac-mcp-M-PSMA (30.83 nM) and [225Ac]Ac-mcp-D-PSMA (10.20 nM) without albumin binders. The clonogenic activity of LNCaP cells after treatment with the 225Ac-labeled ligands was affected in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas the bivalent radioconjugate [225Ac]Ac-mcp-D-alb-PSMA has a stronger impact on the clonogenic cell survival than its monovalent counterpart [225Ac]Ac-mcp-M-alb-PSMA. Biodistribution studies performed in LNCaP tumor xenografts showed prolonged blood circulation times for both albumin-binding radioconjugates and a substantially increased tumor uptake (46.04 ± 7.77 %ID/g for [225Ac]Ac-mcp-M-alb-PSMA at 128 h p.i. and 153.48 ± 37.76 %ID/g at 168 h p.i. for [225Ac]Ac-mcp-D-alb-PSMA) with favorable tumor-to-background ratios. Consequently, a clear histological indication of DNA damage was discovered in the tumor tissues, whereas DNA double-strand break formation in kidney and liver sections was less pronounced. Conclusion: The modification of the PSMA-based 225Ac-radioconjugates with one or two albumin-binding entities resulted in an improved radiopharmacological behavior including a greatly enhanced tumor accumulation combined with a rather low uptake in most non-targeted organs combined with a high excretion via the kidneys.


Assuntos
Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Albumina Sérica , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Humanos , Distribuição Tecidual , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Camundongos SCID , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacocinética , Ligantes
18.
Psychopharmacol Bull ; 52(4): 52-60, 2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339274

RESUMO

Background: CYP2D6 subfamily isoenzymes play an important role in the biotransformation of haloperidol, and their activity may influence the efficacy and safety of haloperidol. The use of haloperidol is often associated with the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), such as dyskinesia, acute dystonia, and orthostatic hypotension. Previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between the CYP2D6*4 genetic polymorphism and CYP2D6 activity, as well as haloperidol efficacy and safety rates. Purpose: To evaluate the association of CYP2D6*4 genetic polymorphism with the steady-state concentration of haloperidol in patients with acute alcohol-induced psychotic disorders (AIPDs). Material and methods: The study involved 100 male patients with AIPD (average age 41.4 ± 14.4 years) who received haloperidol by injections in a dose of 5-10 mg/day. The efficacy profile was assessed using a validated psychometric PANSS scale (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale). Therapy safety was assessed using the internationally validated UKU (Side-Effect Rating Scale) and SAS (Simpson-Angus Scale for Extrapyramidal Symptoms) scales. Genotyping was performed with the real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: We revealed the statistically significant results in terms of therapy safety evaluation (dynamics of the UKU scores: (GG) 8.00 [7.00; 10.00], (GA) 15.0 [9.25; 18.0], p < 0.001; dynamics of the SAS scores: (GG) 11.0 [9.0; 14.0], (GA) 14.50 [12.0; 18.0], p < 0.001. Pharmacokinetic study showed a statistically significant difference across the groups with different genotypes: (GG) 3.13 [2.32; 3.95], (GA) 3.89 [2.92; 5.26], p = 0.010. Conclusion: It can be concluded that patients with the GA genotype have a higher risk of ADRs compared to patients who carry the GG genotype. It was shown that CYP2D6*4 genetic polymorphism has a statistically significant effect on the steady-state concentration of haloperidol.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Psicoses Alcoólicas , Transtornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Haloperidol/efeitos adversos , Haloperidol/farmacocinética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/metabolismo , Psicoses Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Polimorfismo Genético , Genótipo , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética
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