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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253084, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345551

RESUMO

Abstract Repeatedly frying process of dietary edible oil has a potential role in the generation of free radicals. Therefore, questions have always been raised as to whether, there is an efficient and economical method to reduce the harmful effects of repeated use of frying edible oil. Since hibiscus has been stated to have a wide variety of therapeutic effects, it was important to investigate its properties against harmful effects of free radicals. The current study aspires to find out whether irradiated powder of hibiscus has a protective role against adverse effects of repeated use of frying edible oil. Thirty-five adult male albino rats were equally assigned into five groups. First group"G1" was fed with normal diet as control group, meanwhile, group"G2" the diet mixed with fresh oil, "G3" diet mixed with repeatedly frying oil only, "G4" diet mixed with frying oil treated with hibiscus and "G5" diet mixed with frying oil treated with irradiated hibiscus. Feeding duration was six weeks. Fatty acid analyses of oil as well as peroxide values were determined. Blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical analyses as well as histological study. Repeatedly heated cooked oil has significant increases in peroxide value, acid value, free fatty acid and both conjugated diene and triene compared with repeatedly frying oil treated with hibiscus. Also there are significant increases in cholesterol and triglyceride and impaired in liver functions in "G3"compared with others. In addition, relative to the hibiscus groups, there is a substantial reduction in oxygen consumption in "G3". Both hibiscus as well as irradiated hibiscus attract attention in order to play a vital and economical role against harmful effects of frequent use of frying edible oil on some biological functions but, irradiated hibiscus was more effective.


Resumo O processo de fritura repetida de óleo comestível da dieta tem papel potencial na geração de radicais livres que podem ter efeitos prejudiciais em algumas funções biológicas. Portanto, sempre se questionou se existe uma maneira eficiente e econômica de prevenir ou pelo menos reduzir os efeitos nocivos do uso repetido de óleo comestível para fritar. Como o hibisco tem ampla variedade de efeitos terapêuticos, foi importante investigar suas propriedades como agente antioxidante contra os efeitos nocivos dos radicais livres. O presente estudo pretende descobrir se o pó irradiado de hibisco tem papel protetor contra os efeitos adversos do uso repetido de óleo comestível para fritar. Trinta e cinco ratos albinos machos adultos foram divididos igualmente em cinco grupos. O primeiro grupo "G1" foi alimentado com dieta normal como grupo controle, enquanto o grupo "G2" dieta misturada com óleo fresco, dieta "G3" misturada com óleo de fritura repetida, dieta "G4" misturada com óleo de fritura tratada com hibisco e dieta "G5" misturada com óleo de fritura tratada com hibisco irradiado. A duração da alimentação foi de seis semanas. Foram determinadas as análises de ácidos graxos de óleo, bem como os valores de peróxidos. Amostras de sangue e fígado foram coletadas para análises bioquímicas e estudo histológico. O óleo cozido repetidamente aquecido tem aumentos significativos no valor de peróxido, valor de ácido, ácido graxo livre e dieno e trieno conjugados em comparação com óleo de fritura repetidamente tratado com hibisco. Também há aumentos significativos no colesterol e triglicérides e comprometimento das funções hepáticas no "G3" em comparação com outros. Além disso, em relação aos grupos de hibiscos, há uma redução substancial no consumo de oxigênio no "G3". Tanto o hibisco como o hibisco irradiado chamam atenção por desempenhar papel vital e econômico contra os efeitos nocivos do uso frequente de óleo comestível para fritar em algumas funções biológicas, mas o hibisco irradiado foi mais eficaz.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Hibiscus , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Colesterol , Culinária , Temperatura Alta
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253696, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355862

RESUMO

Abstract Transplanting time and genotype contribute to improving crop yield and quality of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). A field experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of foliar applied of triacontanol (TRIA) and eggplant genotypes 25919, Nirala, 28389 and Pak-10927,transplanted on 1 March,15 March, and 1 April on exposure to high air temperature conditions. The experiment was performed according to Randomized Complete Block Design and the data was analyzed by using Tuckey,s test . The TRIA was applied at 10µM at flowering stage; distilled water was used as the control. Rate of photosynthesis and transpiration, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and effects on antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) were evaluated. The 10µM TRIA increased photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency and yield was improved in all genotypes transplanted at the different dates. Foliar application of 10µM TRIA increased antioxidative enzyme activities (SOD, POD & CAT) and improved physiological as well as biochemical attributes of eggplant genotypes exposed to high heat conditions. Highest activity of dismutase enzyme 5.41mg/1g FW was recorded in Nirala genotype in second transplantation. Whereas, lowest was noted in PAK-10927 (2.30mg/g FW). Maximum fruit yield was found in accession 25919 (1.725kg per plant) at 1st transplantation with Triacontanol, whereas accession PAK-10927 gave the lowest yield (0.285 kg per plant) at control treatment on 3rd transplantation. Genotype, transplanting date and application of TRIA improved growth, yield and quality attributes under of heat stress in eggplant.


Resumo O tempo de transplante e o genótipo contribuem para melhorar a produtividade e a qualidade da cultura da berinjela (Solanum melongena L.). Um experimento de campo foi conduzido para investigar o impacto da aplicação foliar de triacontanol (TRIA) e genótipos de berinjela 25919, Nirala, 28389 e Pak-10927, transplantados em 1 de março, 15 de março e 1 de abril de exposição a condições de alta temperatura do ar. O experimento foi realizado de acordo com o Randomized Complete Block Design e os dados foram analisados pelo teste de Tuckey. O TRIA foi aplicado a 10 µM na fase de floração; água destilada foi utilizada como controle. Taxa de fotossíntese e transpiração, condutância estomática, eficiência do uso da água e efeitos sobre as enzimas antioxidantes (superóxido dismutase, catalase e peroxidase) foram avaliados. O TRIA 10 µM aumentou a taxa de fotossíntese e a eficiência do uso da água e o rendimento foi melhorado em todos os genótipos transplantados nas diferentes datas. A aplicação foliar de TRIA 10µM aumentou as atividades das enzimas antioxidantes (SOD, POD e CAT) e melhorou os atributos fisiológicos e bioquímicos de genótipos de berinjela expostos a condições de alto calor. A atividade mais elevada da enzima dismutase 5,41mg / 1g FW foi registrada no genótipo Nirala no segundo transplante. Considerando que o mais baixo foi observado em PAK-10927 (2,30 mg / g FW). A produtividade máxima de frutos foi encontrada no acesso 25919 (1,725 ​​kg por planta) no 1º transplante com Triacontanol, enquanto o acesso PAK-10927 deu a menor produção (0,285 kg por planta) no tratamento de controle no 3º transplante. Genótipo, data de transplante e aplicação de TRIA, melhoramento do crescimento, rendimento e atributos de qualidade sob estresse térmico em berinjela.


Assuntos
Solanum melongena/genética , Solanum melongena/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Álcoois Graxos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253616, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355880

RESUMO

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of the volatile oil of Alpinia zerumbet (VOAz) on caveolin-1 gene expression and muscular fibrosis. The rats were immobilized to induce fibrosis of the gastrocnemius muscle, and they were treated with VOAz. Collagen quality was assessed by histology and the expression of the caveolin-1 (CAV-1) gene was evaluated using qPCR. Histomorphological analysis indicated a significant reduction in the perimeter, width, and intensity of collagen in the treated groups, thus showing that the oil was effective in regulating the quality of collagen at the three concentrations. The results of expression levels suggested a decrease in the lesioned group and in two treatment groups (0.0115 µg/g and 0.009 µg/g). However, with the lowest concentration (0.0065 µg/g), no significant difference was observed, with levels similar to those found in healthy tissue. Therefore, the results showed that VOAz has the potential to be a non-invasive and low-cost alternative to aid in the treatment of muscular fibrosis.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do óleo volátil de Alpinia zerumbet (OVAz) na expressão do gene da caveolina-1 e na fibrose muscular. Os ratos foram imobilizados para induzir a fibrose do músculo gastrocnêmio, e foram tratados com OVAz. A qualidade do colágeno foi avaliada com histologia e à expressão do gene caveolina-1 (CAV-1) foi avaliada usando qPCR. A análise histomorfológica indicou uma redução significativa no perímetro, largura e intensidade do colágeno nos grupos tratados. Os resultados dos níveis de expressão sugeriram diminuição nos grupos de lesão e em dois grupos de tratamento (0,0115 µg/g e 0,009 µg/g). No entanto, com a menor concentração (0,0065 µg/g), não foi observada diferença significativa, apresentando níveis semelhantes aos encontrados em tecido saudável. O uso do OVAz foi eficaz para reverter as alterações do colágeno causadas pela fibrose, e sua menor concentração apresentou uma possível tendência de aumento na expressão do CAV-1. Portanto, os resultados mostraram que o OVAz tem potencial para ser uma alternativa não invasiva e de baixo custo para auxiliar no tratamento da fibrose muscular.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Alpinia/química , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Brasil , Ratos Wistar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Músculos/patologia
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254479, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355910

RESUMO

Abstract Earias vittellaFabricius, 1794 (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) is deliberated to be one of the most destructive pests of cotton and okra vegetation in the world including Asia. The pest has established resistance to various synthetic insecticides. The use of bio-pesticide is one of the unconventional approaches to develop a vigorous ecosystem without harming non- target pests and beneficial natural insect fauna. In the present study, the toxicity levels of Citrullus colocynthis seed extract have been evaluated against the populations of E. vittellaunder standardized laboratory conditions. The toxic effects of C. colocynthis on development periods, protein contents and esterase activity of the life stages of E. vittella were also evaluated. The toxicity levels of methanol, ethanol, hexane, water and profenofos were evaluated on the 1st instar larvae of E. vittella. LC30 and LC80 concentrations exhibited the effectiveness of methanol-based C. colocynthis seed extract against 1st instar larvae of E. vitella. The enhanced larval and pupal periods were revealed in treated samples during the comparison with untreated samples. The intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate in the LC30 and LC80 concentrations exposed larvae remained less than the control treatment. Fecundity, the esterase activity and protein contents were declined in LC30 and LC80 treated samples as compared to the control. The present findings suggest that C. colosynthis extracts based botanical insecticides are beneficial, ecosystem sustainable and can be integrated with insect management programs from environment safety perspective.


Resumo Earias vittella Fabricius, 1794 (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) é considerada uma das pragas mais destrutivas de algodão e quiabo no mundo, incluindo a Ásia. Essa praga estabeleceu resistência a vários inseticidas sintéticos. O uso de biopesticidas é uma das abordagens não convencionais para desenvolver um ecossistema saudável sem prejudicar as pragas não alvo e a fauna natural benéfica de insetos. No presente estudo, os níveis de toxicidade do extrato de semente de Citrullus colocynthis foram avaliados nas populações de E. vittella em condições de laboratório padronizadas. Os efeitos tóxicos de C. colocynthis nos períodos de desenvolvimento, conteúdo de proteína e atividade esterase das fases de vida de E. vittella também foram avaliados. Os níveis de toxicidade de metanol, etanol, hexano, água e profenofós foram avaliados em larvas de 1º instar de E. vittella. As concentrações de LC30 e LC80 apresentaram eficácia do extrato de sementes de C. colocynthis à base de metanol contra larvas de 1º instar de E. vittella. Os períodos larval e pupal aumentados foram revelados nas amostras tratadas durante a comparação com as amostras não tratadas. A taxa intrínseca de aumento e a taxa reprodutiva líquida nas concentrações de larvas expostas LC30 e LC80 permaneceram menores do que o tratamento controle. A fecundidade, a atividade da esterase e o conteúdo de proteína diminuíram nas amostras tratadas com LC30 e LC80 em comparação com o controle. As presentes descobertas sugerem que os extratos de C. colocynthis à base de inseticidas botânicos são benéficos, sustentáveis ​​para o ecossistema e podem ser integrados com programas de manejo de insetos do ponto de vista da segurança ambiental.


Assuntos
Animais , Citrullus colocynthis , Inseticidas , Mariposas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ecossistema , Larva
5.
Mol Med Rep ; 27(2)2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633134

RESUMO

In recent decades, studies have reported that inflammation serves key roles in epilepsy and that high mobility group box protein­1 (HMGB1) may be involved in status epilepticus. However, it has not been reported whether HMGB1 participates in the pathogenesis of status epilepticus through the regulation of the p38 mitogen­activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signalling pathway. In the present study, Sprague­Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups as follows: Control, status epilepticus (SE), dimethyl sulfoxide treatment (DMSO + SE), and glycyrrhizin treatment (GL + SE) groups. Behavioural changes were then evaluated using the Racine score. In the hippocampus, the protein expression levels of HMGB1 were assessed using western blotting, the neuronal damage was evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy, and the activation of microglia was assessed using immunochemistry and immunofluorescence. The results demonstrated that, in the hippocampal region, HMGB1 existed in neurons and astrocytes and the protein expression levels of HMGB1, p38MAPK and phosphorylated­p38MAPK were significantly inhibited after treatment with GL. Furthermore, GL could alleviate neuronal injury in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and prevented HMGB1 translocation from the nucleus into the cytoplasm in these areas. These findings expand the understanding of how HMGB1 may participate in SE and lay a foundation for evaluation of HMGB1 as a drug target.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGB1 , Estado Epiléptico , Ratos , Animais , Ácido Glicirrízico/farmacologia , Ácido Glicirrízico/uso terapêutico , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estado Epiléptico/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Epiléptico/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo
6.
Mol Med Rep ; 27(2)2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633126

RESUMO

Obesity is a serious medical condition worldwide, and a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cancer and cardiovascular disease. In addition to changes in dietary habits and physical activity, consuming supplements to maintain good health and prevent obesity is important in modern society. Raspberry ketone (RK) is a natural phenolic ketone found in the European red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) and is hypothesized to prevent obesity when administered orally. The present study found that RK was reduced to rhododendrol (ROH) in human liver microsomes and cytosol. The present study investigated whether the metabolite ROH had anti­adipogenic effects using mouse 3T3­L1 cells. The effects of ROH or RK on lipid accumulation during differentiation of 3T3­L1 pre­adipocyte into adipocyte were determined using Oil Red O staining. CCAAT enhancer­binding protein α (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator­activated receptor γ (PPARγ) mRNA and protein expression were examined using reverse transcription­quantitative PCR and western blotting analysis, respectively. The present study revealed that ROH suppressed lipid accumulation in the cells, similar to RK. In addition, ROH suppressed the mRNA expression levels of C/EBPα and PPARγ in 3T3­L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, ROH suppressed PPARγ protein expression in 3T3­L1 adipocytes. These findings suggested that ROH is an active metabolite with an anti­adipogenic effect, which may contribute to the anti­obesity effect of orally administered RK. The present study indicated that it is important to understand the biological activity of the metabolites of orally administered compounds.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , PPAR gama , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Células 3T3-L1 , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Adipogenia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Butanóis/metabolismo , Butanóis/farmacologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo
7.
Oncol Rep ; 49(2)2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633143

RESUMO

Astilbe chinensis (A. chinensis) is a perennial herb that is used to treat chronic bronchitis and pain. The anticancer activity of 3ß,6ß­dihydroxyurs­12­en­27­oic acid (ACT­3), a major component isolated from A. chinensis, has not yet been investigated in detail. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory and anticancer activities of ACT­3 compared with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) in MCF­7 human breast cancer cells. The purity of ACT­3 was determined using high­performance liquid chromatography. In the present study, the effects of ACT­3 on anticancer effects of MCF­7 cells were determined by measuring the level of apoptotic cell death and cell cycle regulator using flow cytometry analysis and western blot analysis, respectively. The effects of ACT­3 on HDAC enzyme activity were measured using assay kits. ACT­3 and SAHA increased the levels of acetylated histone H3 and reduced the levels of HDAC1 and HDAC3 in MCF­7 cells. ACT­3 significantly decreased the cell viability in a concentration­dependent manner and induced different morphological changes at high concentrations. ACT­3 and SAHA significantly inhibited the colony formation in MCF­7 cells. ACT­3 inhibited total HDAC activity in a dose­dependent manner. ACT­3 significantly reduced the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin­dependent kinase 4, and upregulated the expression levels of p21WAF1 and p53. A significant increase in the G1 phase cell population was observed in MCF­7 cells and ACT­3 induced apoptosis by reducing the ratio of B­cell lymphoma­2 (Bcl­2)/Bcl­2­associated X (Bax) and releasing cleaved caspase 9. Additionally, ACT­3 significantly increased autophagic cell death by inhibiting the serine­threonine kinase/mammalian target of the rapamycin pathway. Autophagy induction was confirmed via acridine orange staining. ACT­3 significantly increased the pERK1/2 and p21 in MCF­7 cells. Thus, the activated ERK pathway played an important role in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via ERK­dependent induction of p21 in MCF­7 cells. These data indicated that ACT­3 can be used as a promising anticancer agent to overcome the limitations and reduce the side effects of conventional anticancer drugs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases , Humanos , Feminino , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/uso terapêutico , Células MCF-7 , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/uso terapêutico , Proliferação de Células , Vorinostat/farmacologia , Apoptose , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
8.
Mol Med Rep ; 27(2)2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633130

RESUMO

Oxidative stress and neuroapoptosis are key pathological processes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The present study evaluated the anti­oxidation and anti­apoptotic neuroprotective effects of the apoptosis signal­regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) inhibitor ethyl­2,7­dioxo­2,7­dihydro­3H­naphtho(1,2,3­de)quinoline­1­carboxylate (NQDI­1) in early brain injury (EBI) following SAH in a rat model. A total of 191 rats were used and the SAH model was induced using monofilament perforation. Western blotting was subsequently used to detect the endogenous expression levels of proteins. Immunofluorescence was then used to confirm the nerve cellular localization of ASK1. Short­term neurological function was assessed using the modified Garcia scores and the beam balance test 24 h after SAH, whereas long­term neurological function was assessed using the rotarod test and the Morris water maze test. Apoptosis of neurons was assessed by TUNEL staining and oxidative stress was assessed by dihydroethidium staining 24 h after SAH. The protein expression levels of phosphorylated (p­)ASK1 and ASK1 rose following SAH. NQDI­1 was intracerebroventricularly injected 1 h after SAH and demonstrated significant improvements in both short and long­term neurological function and significantly reduced oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis. Injection of NQDI­1 caused a significant decrease in protein expression levels of p­ASK1, p­p38, p­JNK, 4 hydroxynonenal, and Bax and significantly increased the protein expression levels of heme oxygenase 1 and Bcl­2. The use of the p38 inhibitor BMS­582949 or the JNK inhibitor SP600125 led to significant decreases in the protein expression levels of p­p38 or p­JNK, respectively, and a significant reduction in oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis; however, these inhibitors did not demonstrate an effect on p­ASK1 or ASK1 protein expression levels. In conclusion, treatment with NQDI­1 improved neurological function and decreased oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis in EBI following SAH in rats, possibly via inhibition of ASK1 phosphorylation and the ASK1/p38 and JNK signaling pathway. NQDI­1 may be considered a potential agent for the treatment of patients with SAH.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Ratos , Animais , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 5/metabolismo , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/metabolismo , Lesões Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Apoptose , Estresse Oxidativo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia
9.
J Appl Biomater Funct Mater ; 21: 22808000221148104, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633270

RESUMO

Titanium (Ti) implants are widely used in medicine. Meanwhile, surface modification of Ti can strengthen the osseointegration of implants. In this study, we modified Ti implant surfaces, which was coated with GO, HA, HA-2wt%GO and HA-5wt%GO via electrophoresis deposition, to investigate their mechanisms and biological activity. Uncoated Ti was used as the control. Further, we examined the biological behavior and osteogenic performance of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cultured on coatings in vitro. We found that the HA-GO nanocomposite coating improved the roughness and hydrophilicity of the Ti surface. Compared with the uncoated Ti or Ti modified by HA or GO alone, cell adhesion and diffusion were enhanced on HA-GO-modified Ti surfaces. In addition, the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro were significantly improved on HA-GO-modified surfaces, whereas osteogenesis-related gene expression and alkaline phosphatase activity were slightly enhanced. Furthermore, we noted that bone regeneration was improved in the HA-2wt%GO group in vivo. Thus, the HA-2wt%GO nanocomposite coating might have potential applications in the field of dental implants.


Assuntos
Durapatita , Grafite , Camundongos , Animais , Durapatita/farmacologia , Titânio/farmacologia , Ligas , Osteogênese , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Osseointegração , Propriedades de Superfície
10.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 20(1): 2164209, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36620755

RESUMO

Background: Cellular inflammatory response, mediated by arachidonic acid (AA) and cyclooxygenase, is a highly regulated process that leads to the repair of damaged tissue. Recent studies on murine C2C12 cells have demonstrated that AA supplementation leads to myotube hypertrophy. However, AA has not been tested on primary human muscle cells. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether AA supplementation has similar effects on human muscle cells. Methods: Proliferating and differentiating human myoblasts were exposed to AA in a dose-dependent manner (50-0.80 µM) for 48 (myoblasts) or 72 (myotubes) hours. Cell viability was tested using a 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay and cell counting; myotube area was determined by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy; and anabolic signaling pathways were evaluated by western blot and RT-PCR. Results: Our data show that the treatment of primary human myoblasts treated with 50 µM and 25 µM of AA led to the release of PGE2 and PGF2α at levels higher than those of control-treated cells (p < 0.001 for all concentrations). Additionally, 50 µM and 25 µM of AA suppressed myoblast proliferation, myotube area, and myotube fusion. Anabolic signaling indicated reductions in total and phosphorylated TSC2, AKT, S6, and 4EBP1 in myoblasts at 50 µM of AA (p < 0.01 for all), but not in myotubes. These changes were not affected by COX-2 inhibition with celecoxib. Conclusion: Together, our data demonstrate that high concentrations of AA inhibit myoblast proliferation, myotube fusion, and myotube hypertrophy, thus revealing potential deleterious effects of AA on human skeletal muscle cell health and viability.


Assuntos
Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Mioblastos Esqueléticos , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Ácido Araquidônico/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Hipertrofia/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético
11.
Cancer Discov ; 13(1): 19-22, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36620884

RESUMO

SUMMARY: In this issue, Hattori and colleagues capitalized on targeted small-molecule covalent inhibitors of one KRAS mutant with a G12C substitution and of other oncoproteins to create drug-peptide conjugates that serve as cancer neoantigens that prompt an immune response to oncogene-mutant cancer cells. This immunotherapy strategy can serve as an effective approach to overcome the treatment-induced resistance that limits the effectiveness of essentially all small molecule-based targeted anticancer drugs. See related article by Hattori et al., p. 132 (9).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Oncogenes , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/química
12.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 8(2): 179-191, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36620987

RESUMO

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are incretins that stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic ß cells in response to food ingestion. Modified GLP-1 and GIP peptides are potent agonists for their incretin receptors, and some evidence shows that the dual GLP-1 and GIP receptor agonist tirzepatide is effective in promoting marked weight loss. GLP-1 receptor agonists signal in the CNS to suppress appetite, increase satiety, and thereby decrease calorie intake, but many other effects of incretin signalling have been recognised that are relevant to the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This Review provides an overview of the literature supporting the notion that endogenous incretins and incretin-receptor agonist treatments are important not only for decreasing risk of developing NAFLD, but also for treating NAFLD and NAFLD-related complications. We discuss incretin signalling and related incretin-receptor agonist treatments, mechanisms in key relevant tissues affecting liver disease, and clinical data from randomised controlled trials. Finally, we present future perspectives in this rapidly developing field of research and clinical medicine.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , Incretinas/uso terapêutico , Incretinas/farmacologia , Incretinas/fisiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon
13.
Recenti Prog Med ; 114(1): 1-5, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621918

RESUMO

Due to the worry growing increase in bacterial antibiotic resistance and the scanty availability of new antibiotics, it is highly recommended to use not recently synthesized, but still active molecules. Clofoctol is a synthetic chemotherapeutic agent with a different mechanism of action, as compared with the other antibacterial molecules currently available. By reducing intracellular ATP, clofoctol inhibits the synthesis of bacterial cytoplasmic membrane peptidoglycans, inducing the arrest of cell wall synthesis, thus characterizing the molecule as a "membrane-acting agent". More recently, however, it has been shown that clofoctol is also able to induce apoptosis by inhibiting the translation of intracellular proteins. An important property of clofoctol is the rapidity of the antimicrobial effect, which allows the complete eradication of the pathogen and makes the development of resistance unlikely. Administered rectally, the drug rapidly accumulates in the tissues. Most of the clinical studies conducted on clofoctol concern the treatment of respiratory diseases in children. The drug appears to be more active in upper rather than in lower respiratory tract infections. Tolerability was reported to be good, with a low incidence of side effects.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Cresóis , Criança , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cresóis/metabolismo , Cresóis/farmacologia , Cresóis/uso terapêutico , Clorobenzenos/metabolismo , Clorobenzenos/farmacologia , Bactérias/metabolismo
14.
BMC Microbiol ; 23(1): 5, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis remains one of the most common pathogens causing infection in surgical patients. Our goal was to evaluate the antibiotic resistance of E. faecalis, causing infections in a surgical clinic, against two antibacterial drugs, ampicillin and teicoplanin. One commonly administered in the past for such infections, ampicillin, and another newer, teicoplanin, which demonstrated exceptionally good efficacy. METHODS: Data from 1882 isolates were retrieved from the microbiology department database during two 5-year periods. Standard biochemical methods were employed for the identification of the isolates. The prevalence of E. faecalis among patients with clinical evidence of infection in a surgical oncology ward was assessed. Confidence interval (CI) as well as standard error (SE) were calculated. Moreover, the annual incidence of E. faecalis infections in this surgical ward was recorded. The susceptibility of E. faecalis to ampicillin and teicoplanin was studied and compared using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Results showed that the incidence of E. faecalis infections in the surgical clinic was increasing. Ampicillin, in the later year period, was not statistically different from teicoplanin in treating E. faecalis infections. Consequently, ampicillin seems currently to be an effective antibiotic against such infections that could be used as empiric therapy.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecalis , Teicoplanina , Humanos , Teicoplanina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ampicilina/farmacologia
15.
BMC Cancer ; 23(1): 24, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a member of the ATP Binding Cassette B1 subfamily (ABCB1), confers resistance to clinically relevant anticancer drugs and targeted chemotherapeutics. However, paradoxically P-glycoprotein overexpressing drug resistant cells are "collaterally sensitive" to non-toxic drugs that stimulate its ATPase activity. METHODS: Cell viability assays were used to determine the effect of low concentrations of tamoxifen on the proliferation of multidrug resistant cells (CHORC5 and MDA-Doxo400), expressing P-gp, their parental cell lines (AuxB1 and MDA-MB-231) or P-gp-CRISPR knockout clones of AuxB1 and CHORC5 cells. Western blot analysis was used to estimate P-gp expression in different cell lines. Apoptosis of tamoxifen-induced cell death was estimated by flow cytometry using Annexin-V-FITC stained cells. Oxidative stress of tamoxifen treated cells was determined by measuring levels of reactive oxygen species and reduced thiols using cell-permeant 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) and 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) DTNB, respectively. RESULTS: In this report, we show that P-gp-expressing drug resistant cells (CHORC5 and MDA-Doxo400) are collaterally sensitive to the anti-estrogen tamoxifen or its metabolite (4-hydroxy-tamoxifen). Moreover, P-gp-knockout clones of CHORC5 cells display complete reversal of collateral sensitivity to tamoxifen. Drug resistant cells exposed to low concentrations of tamoxifen show significant rise in reactive oxygen species, drop of reduced cellular thiols and increased apoptosis. Consistent with the latter, CHORC5 cells expressing high levels of human Bcl-2 (CHORC5-Bcl-2) show significant resistance to tamoxifen. In addition, the presence of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or P-gp ATPase inhibitor, PSC-833, reverse the collateral sensitivity of resistant cells to tamoxifen. By contrast, the presence of rotenone (specific inhibitor of mitochondria complex I) synergizes with tamoxifen. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the use of tamoxifen as collateral sensitivity drug that can preferentially target multidrug resistant cells expressing P-gp at clinically achievable concentrations. Given the widespread use of tamoxifen in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers, this property of tamoxifen may have clinical applications in treatment of P-gp-positive drug resistant breast tumors.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
16.
Microb Cell Fact ; 22(1): 4, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609265

RESUMO

The metabolic potency of fungi as camptothecin producer elevates their prospective use as an industrial platform for commercial production, however, the loss of camptothecin productivity by fungi with the storage and subculturing are the major obstacle. Thus, screening for endophytic fungal isolates inhabiting ethnopharmacological plants with an obvious metabolic stability and sustainability for camptothecin biosynthesis could be one of the most feasible paradigms. Aspergillus terreus ON908494.1, an endophyte of Cestrum parqui was morphologically and molecularly verified, displaying the most potent camptothecin biosynthetic potency. The chemical identity of A. terreus camptothecin was confirmed from the HPLC, FTIR and LC-MS/MS analyses, gave the same molecular structure and mass fragmentation patterns of authentic one. The purified putative camptothecin displayed a strong anticancer activity towards HepG-2 and MCF-7 with IC50 values 0.96 and 1.4 µM, respectively, with no toxicity to OEC normal cells. As well as, the purified camptothecin displayed a significant antifungal activity towards fungal human pathogen Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, and A. parasiticus, ensuring the unique structural activity relationships of A. terreus camptothecin, as a powerful dually active anticancer and antimicrobial agent. The camptothecin productivity of A. terreus was maximized by bioprocessing with Plackett-Burman design, with an overall 1.5 folds increment (170.5 µg/L), comparing to control culture. So, the optimal medium components for maximum yield of camptothecin by A. terreus was acid why (2.0 mL/L), Diaion HP20 (2.0 g/L), Amberlite XAD (2.0 g/L), dextrin (5.0 g/L), glucose (10.0 g/L), salicylic acid (2.0 g/L), serine (4.0 g/L), cysteine (4.0 g/L) and glutamate (10.0 g/L), at pH 6 for 15 days incubation. By the 5th generation of A. terreus, the camptothecin yield was reduced by 60%, comparing to zero culture. Interestingly, the productivity of camptothecin by A. terreus has been completely restored and over increased (210 µg/L), comparing to the 3rd generation A. terreus (90 µg/L) upon addition of methanolic extracts of Citrus limonum peels, revealing the presence of some chemical signals that triggers the camptothecin biosynthetic machinery. The feasibility of complete restoring of camptothecin biosynthetic-machinery of A. terreus for stable and sustainable production of camptothecin, pave the way for using this fungal isolate as new platform for scaling-up the camptothecin production.


Assuntos
Camptotecina , Cestrum , Humanos , Camptotecina/farmacologia , Camptotecina/metabolismo , Endófitos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 22(1): 2, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spectra™ VRE agar (Remel, Lenexa, KS) is a chromogenic agar that is FDA approved for screening patients for VRE colonization. The package insert recommends confirming isolates with identification and susceptibility testing, but confirming every culture delays time to result. Given the agar's historic high specificity for E. faecium isolates, we theorized the agar could be utilized as a stand-alone screening to minimize reagents and time. AIM: Our laboratory sought to develop a workflow to optimize the use of the medium. METHODS: We plated 3,815 rectal swabs to the Spectra VRE agar and compared results to traditional identification and susceptibility testing. RESULTS: Dark blue or purple colonies on the agar demonstrated a sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 85% for detection of VRE faecium, but light blue colonies were significantly less specific for E. faecalis. CONCLUSIONS: We streamlined our workflow to accept dark blue or purple colonies as VRE faecium and plan to perform additional testing only on light blue colonies. Interestingly, higher quantity of growth increased the accuracy of the agar. In the future, growth quantity may be used to further streamline the workflow once more data is obtained.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecium , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina , Humanos , Enterococcus faecalis , Ágar , Vancomicina , Fluxo de Trabalho , Resistência a Vancomicina , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
18.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 25(1): 3, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609338

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common and prevalent degenerative joint disease characterized by degradation of the articular cartilage. However, none of disease-modifying OA drugs is approved currently. Teriparatide (PTH (1-34)) might stimulate chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage regeneration via some uncertain mechanisms. Relevant therapies of PTH (1-34) on OA with such effects have recently gained increasing interest, but have not become widespread practice. Thus, we launch this systematic review (SR) to update the latest evidence accordingly. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and Embase from their inception to February 2022. Studies investigating the effects of the PTH (1-34) on OA were obtained. The quality assessment and descriptive summary were made of all included studies. Overall, 307 records were identified, and 33 studies were included. In vivo studies (n = 22) concluded that PTH (1-34) slowed progression of OA by alleviating cartilage degeneration and aberrant remodeling of subchondral bone (SCB). Moreover, PTH (1-34) exhibited repair of cartilage and SCB, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects. In vitro studies (n = 11) concluded that PTH (1-34) was important for chondrocytes via increasing the proliferation and matrix synthesis but preventing apoptosis or hypertrophy. All included studies were assessed with low or unclear risk of bias in methodological quality. The SR demonstrated that PTH (1-34) could alleviate the progression of OA. Moreover, PTH (1-34) had beneficial effects on osteoporotic OA (OPOA) models, which might be a therapeutic option for OA and OPOA treatment.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Osteoartrite , Humanos , Teriparatida/farmacologia , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico , Teriparatida/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Hipertrofia
19.
Biol Sex Differ ; 14(1): 2, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609358

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Asthma is a chronic airway condition that occurs more often in women than men during reproductive years. Population studies have collectively shown that long-term use of oral contraceptives decreased the onset of asthma in women of reproductive age. In the current study, we hypothesized that steady-state levels of estrogen would reduce airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine challenge. METHODS: Ovariectomized BALB/c mice (Ovx) were implanted with subcutaneous hormone pellets (estrogen, OVX-E2) that deliver consistent levels of estrogen [68 ± 2 pg/mL], or placebo pellets (OVX-Placebo), followed by ovalbumin sensitization and challenge. In conjunction with methacholine challenge, immune phenotyping was performed to correlate inflammatory proteins and immune populations with better or worse pulmonary outcomes measured by invasive pulmonary mechanics techniques. RESULTS: Histologic analysis showed an increase in total cell infiltration and mucus staining around the airways leading to an increased inflammatory score in ovarectomized (OVX) animals with steady-state estrogen pellets (OVX-E2-OVA) as compared to other groups including female-sham operated (F-INTACT-OVA) and OVX implanted with a placebo pellet (OVX-Pl-OVA). Airway resistance (Rrs) and lung elastance (Ers) were increased in OVX-E2-OVA in comparison to F-INTACT-OVA following aerosolized intratracheal methacholine challenges. Immune phenotyping revealed that steady-state estrogen reduced CD3+ T cells, CD19+ B cells, ILC2 and eosinophils in the BAL across all experiments. While these commonly described allergic cells were reduced in the BAL, or airways, we found no changes in neutrophils, CD3+ T cells or CD19+ B cells in the remaining lung tissue. Similarly, inflammatory cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13) were also decreased in OVX-E2-OVA-treated animals in comparison to Female-INTACT-OVA mice in the BAL, but in the lung tissue IL-5, IL-13 and IL-33 were comparable in OVX-E2-OVA and F-INTACT OVA mice. ILC2 were sorted from the lungs and stimulated with exogenous IL-33. These ILC2 had reduced cytokine and chemokine expression when they were isolated from OVX-E2-OVA animals, indicating that steady-state estrogen suppresses IL-33-mediated activation of ILC2. CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutically targeting estrogen receptors may have a limiting effect on eosinophils, ILC2 and potentially other immune populations that may improve asthma symptoms in those females that experience perimenstrual worsening of asthma, with the caveat, that long-term use of estrogens or hormone receptor modulators may be detrimental to the lung microenvironment over time.


Assuntos
Asma , Interleucina-33 , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Interleucina-33/uso terapêutico , Estradiol/farmacologia , Estradiol/uso terapêutico , Imunidade Inata , Interleucina-13/uso terapêutico , Cloreto de Metacolina/farmacologia , Cloreto de Metacolina/uso terapêutico , Alérgenos/uso terapêutico , Resistência das Vias Respiratórias , Interleucina-5/uso terapêutico , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/metabolismo , Citocinas , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico
20.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 284, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609426

RESUMO

The medicinal use of Persea americana in the treatment of some diseases like hypertension, diabetes, is often with dearth of supporting scientific proof. Thus, we evaluated its ethnomedicinal benefits for possible scientific justification. Thirty healthy Wistar rats were randomly grouped in fives. Alloxan was used to induce diabetes in the rats in groups II to VI. The diabetic rats in group II were treated with glibenclamide, while those in group III were not treated. Also, the diabetic rats in groups IV to VI were treated with the ethanol extracts of the stem bark, leaf, and root of P. americana respectively. The parts of P. americana comparatively possess highest amounts of phenols (250.50 ± 0.68-bark), saponin (436.80 ± 3.76-leaf), flavonoid (382.80 ± 0.67-leaf) and tannins (58.34 ± 0.09-root). The extracts exhibited high reducing property (FRAP and total reducing), as well as high ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging ability. The enzyme (alpha-glycosidase and alpha-amylase) inhibitory activity of P. americana increases with increasing concentration of the extracts. Administration of methanol extracts of P. americana bark, leaf and root to alloxan-induced diabetic rats resulted in significant (P < 0.05) decreases in AST, ALP, ALT, Total bilirubin, LPO, plasma glucose and significant (P < 0.05) increases in GSH, CAT and SOD. These effects were like that of glibenclamide. The enzyme inhibitory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of P. americana are some of the benefits derived from its consumption and ethnomedicinal use.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Persea , Ratos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Persea/química , Ratos Wistar , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Glibureto/farmacologia , Aloxano , Carboidratos
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