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1.
Gene ; 806: 145920, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455026

RESUMO

Depression is deemed a mood disorder characterized by a high rate of relapse. Therefore, overcoming of the recurrent depression is globally expecting. Kososan, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, has been clinically used for mild depressive mood, and our previous studies have shown some evidence for its antidepressive-like efficacy in experimental animal models of depression. However, it remains unclear whether kososan has beneficial effects on recurrent depression. Here, we examined its effect using a mouse model of modified repeated social defeat stress (SDS) paradigm. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to a 5-min SDS from unfamiliar aggressive CD-1 mice for 5 days. Kososan extract (1.0 kg/kg/day) or an antidepressant milnacipran (60 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 26 days (days 7-32) to depression-like mice with social avoidant behaviors on day 6. Single 5 min of SDS was subjected to mice recovered from the social avoidance on day 31, and then the recurrence of depression-like behaviors was evaluated on day 32. Hippocampal gene expression patterns were also assayed by DNA microarray analysis. Water- or milnacipran-administered mice resulted in a recurrence of depression-like behaviors by re-exposure of single SDS, whereas kososan-administered mice did not recur depression-like behaviors. Distinct gene expression patterns were also found for treating kososan and milnacipran. Collectively, this finding suggests that kososan exerts a preventive effect on recurrent depression-like behaviors in mice. Pretreatment of kososan is more useful for recurrent depression than that of milnacipran.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Derrota Social , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Depressão/genética , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Japão , Masculino , Medicina Kampo/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Milnaciprano/farmacologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/classificação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Recidiva , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
2.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26(spe): e20210179, 2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1292850

RESUMO

Objetivo: O estudo objetivou compreender as repercussões da pandemia da Covid-19 no cuidado de lactentes prematuros, na perspectiva de mães e profissionais de saúde. Método: Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas nos meses de junho e julho de 2020, por meio de ligação telefônica, com 14 mães e quatro profissionais de saúde do serviço de follow-up de uma maternidade pública da Paraíba, Brasil. Resultados: A partir da análise temática indutiva, os impactos da pandemia no cuidado ao lactente nascido prematuro, foram: sobrecarga e afastamento dos profissionais dos serviços de saúde, desativação temporária da unidade mãe canguru, descontinuidade da assistência ao prematuro, medo materno de expor a criança à Covid-19 e baixa condição socioeconômica. Foram elencadas estratégias de enfrentamento para o cuidado dos lactentes durante a pandemia, como: maior espaçamento das consultas, acompanhamento por meio telefônico e cumprimento das medidas de biossegurança. Conclusão e implicações para a prática: A pandemia exigi adaptações na assistência, tornando necessárias novas formas de cuidado a essas crianças, como exemplo, as consultas de acompanhamento remotas, a fim de garantir o seu direito à vida e saúde


Objective: The study aimed at understanding the repercussions of the Covid-19 pandemic in the care of premature infants, from the perspective of mothers and health professionals. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the months of June and July 2020, over the telephone, with 14 mothers and four health professionals from the follow-up service of a public maternity hospital in Paraíba, Brazil. Results: From the inductive thematic analysis, the impacts of the pandemic on the care of premature infants were as follows: overload and distancing of health service professionals, temporary deactivation of the Kangaroo mother unit, discontinuity of care for the premature infant, maternal fear of exposing the child to Covid-19 and low socioeconomic status. Coping strategies for the care of infants during the pandemic were listed, such as: greater spacing between consultations, phone follow-up and compliance with biosafety measures. Conclusion and implications for the practice: The pandemic required adaptations in care, which make new forms of care necessary for these children, such as remote follow-up consultations, in order to guarantee their right to life and health


Objetivo: El estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender las repercusiones de la pandemia de Covid-19 en la atención de bebés prematuros, desde la perspectiva de las madres y los profesionales de la salud. Método: Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas en los meses de junio y julio de 2020, por medio de llamadas telefónicas, a 14 madres y cuatro profesionales de la salud del servicio de seguimiento de una maternidad pública en Paraíba, Brasil. Resultados: A partir del análisis temático inductivo, los efectos de la pandemia en la atención de bebés prematuros fueron los siguientes: sobrecarga y distanciamiento de profesionales de los servicios de salud, inhabilitación temporal de la unidad Madre Canguro, discontinuidad de la atención al bebé prematuro, miedo materno a exponer al niño al Covid-19 y nivel socioeconómico bajo. Se enumeraron estrategias de afrontamiento para la atención infantil durante la pandemia, tales como: mayor intervalo entre consultas, seguimiento telefónico y cumplimiento de medidas de bioseguridad. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica: La pandemia requirió adaptaciones en la atención, que hacen necesarias nuevas formas de atención para estos niños, como las consultas de monitoreo remoto, para garantizar su derecho a la vida y a la salud


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Lactente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pessoal de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , COVID-19 , Cuidado do Lactente , Mães , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Consulta Remota , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Cobertura Vacinal , Medo , Método Canguru , Higiene das Mãos , Distanciamento Físico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle
3.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e56113, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224567

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever a escolha do parto domiciliar planejado acompanhado por enfermeira obstétrica em um centro urbano de grande porte, na perspectiva de mulheres brasileiras. Métodos: estudo qualitativo guiado pela Grounded Theory. Foram entrevistadas dez mulheres com idade entre 20 e 41 anos que tiveram parto domiciliar planejado acompanhadas por enfermeiras obstétricas. As participantes foram recrutadas por meio de rede social, acessando um grupo de mulheres que escreveram sobre seu parto domiciliar. Resultados: Emergiram duas categorias: Não vendo possibilidade de parir naturalmente no ambiente hospitalar e Pensando na segurança do parto domiciliar planejado. O hospital representou vários aspectos desfavoráveis como intervenções desnecessárias e solidão. As mulheres consideravam o lar um lugar seguro para parir, conectado aos cuidados de enfermeiras obstétricas. Conclusão: há mulheres que não desejam parir no hospital, preferindo parir em casa e do ponto de vista dos direitos humanos e dos cuidados desmedicalizados, as enfermeiras obstétricas devem apoiar as mulheres nessa sua decisão.


Objective: to describe the choice of planned homebirth attended by a nurse midwife in a large urban centre, from the perspective of Brazilian women. Methods: in this Grounded Theory study, ten women aged 20 to 41 years, who had a planned homebirth accompanied by a nurse midwife, were interviewed. Participants were recruited through a social network by accessing a group of women who wrote about their homebirth. Results: two categories emerged: seeing no possibility of giving birth naturally in the hospital environment; and thinking about the safety of a planned homebirth. Hospital represented several unfavourable aspects, such as unnecessary interventions and loneliness. Women thought of home as a safe place to give birth, connected with nurse midwife care. Conclusion: there are women who do not wish to give birth in hospital, but prefer to give birth at home and, from the point of view of human rights and de-medicalized care, nurse midwives should support women in their decision.


Objetivo: describir la elección del parto domiciliario planificado con enfermera obstétrica en un gran centro urbano, desde la perspectiva de mujeres brasileñas. Métodos: estudio cualitativo guiado por la Grounded Theory. Se entrevistó a diez mujeres entre 20 y 41 años que tuvieron parto domiciliario planificado, siendo acompañadas de enfermeras obstétricas. Las participantes fueron reclutadas a través de red social, accediendo a un grupo de mujeres que escribieron sobre su parto en domicilio. Resultados: surgieron dos categorías: las que no veían posibilidad de dar a luz naturalmente en el hospital y las que pensaron en la seguridad del parto domiciliario planificado. El hospital representó varios aspectos desfavorables como intervenciones innecesarias y soledad. Las mujeres consideraban que el hogar era un ambiente seguro para dar a luz, vinculado al cuidado de enfermeras obstétricas. Conclusión: hay mujeres que no desean dar a luz en el hospital, prefieren hacerlo en casa y, desde el punto de vista de los derechos humanos y de los cuidados sin la intervención de un médico, las enfermeras obstétricas deben apoyarlas en esa decisión.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Parto Domiciliar/enfermagem , Parto Normal/enfermagem , Enfermeiras Obstétricas , Gestantes/psicologia , Segurança do Paciente , Parto Domiciliar/psicologia , Parto Normal/psicologia
4.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e52717, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224536

RESUMO

Objetivo: compreender a construção dos significados da morte pelos profissionais de saúde frente ao cuidado à pessoa com câncer. Método: estudo qualitativo realizado em ambiente online, com a participação de 34 profissionais de saúde. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas, interpretadas segundo análise temática. Resultados: duas categorias analíticas emergiram dos dados, indicando que os significados atribuídos à morte pelos participantes foram: como um processo inerente ao ciclo da vida humana, passagem para a outra vida, e fim do sofrimento tanto do paciente quanto dos profissionais de saúde. As dificuldades que apontaram em lidar com a morte se referem à falta de suporte psicológico, escassez de conhecimento sobre morte, cuidados paliativos e comunicação de más notícias. Conclusão: os profissionais construíram diferentes significados à morte de seus pacientes, tais como um processo natural da vida, vontade de um ser superior, passagem para uma nova existência e término do sofrimento dessas pessoas.


Objective: to understand the construction of meanings of death by healthcare professionals caring for people with cancer. Method: this qualitative study was carried out in an online environment through semi-structured interviews of 34 health professionals, which were interpreted using thematic analysis. Results: two analytical categories emerged from the data, indicating that the meanings attributed to death by the participants were: a process inherent in the human life cycle, a transition to the next life, and an end to the suffering of both patient and health professionals. The difficulties they pointed to in dealing with death related to lack of psychological support, lack of knowledge about death, palliative care, and communicating bad news. Conclusion: the professionals constructed different meanings to their patients' deaths: a natural process of life, the will of a higher being, a transition to a new existence, and an end to these people's suffering.


Objetivo: comprender la construcción de los significados de la muerte desde el punto de vista de los profesionales de la salud ante el cuidado a la persona con cáncer. Metodología: estudio cualitativo realizado en un entorno online, con la participación de 34 profesionales de la salud. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas, interpretadas según análisis temático. Resultados: de los datos surgieron dos categorías analíticas que indicaron que los significados atribuidos a la muerte por los participantes fueron: como u proceso inherente al ciclo de vida humano, transición a otra vida y fin al sufrimiento tanto del paciente como de los profesionales de la salud. Las dificultades que señalaron para afrontar la muerte se refieren a la falta de apoyo psicológico, escasez de conocimiento sobre la muerte, cuidados paliativos y comunicación de malas noticias. Conclusión: los profesionales han construido diferentes significados para la muerte de sus pacientes: un proceso natural de la vida, la voluntad de un ser superior, un paso a una nueva existencia y el fin del sufrimiento de estas personas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prática Profissional , Atitude Frente a Morte , Pessoal de Saúde , Morte , Oncologistas , Neoplasias , Cuidados Paliativos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Oncologistas/psicologia , Hospitais , Neoplasias/psicologia
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(40)2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599096

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic led to lockdowns in countries across the world, changing the lives of billions of people. The United Kingdom's first national lockdown, for example, restricted people's ability to socialize and work. The current study examined how changes to socializing and working during this lockdown impacted ongoing thought patterns in daily life. We compared the prevalence of thought patterns between two independent real-world, experience-sampling cohorts, collected before and during lockdown. In both samples, young (18 to 35 y) and older (55+ y) participants completed experience-sampling measures five times daily for 7 d. Dimension reduction was applied to these data to identify common "patterns of thought." Linear mixed modeling compared the prevalence of each thought pattern 1) before and during lockdown, 2) in different age groups, and 3) across different social and activity contexts. During lockdown, when people were alone, social thinking was reduced, but on the rare occasions when social interactions were possible, we observed a greater increase in social thinking than prelockdown. Furthermore, lockdown was associated with a reduction in future-directed problem solving, but this thought pattern was reinstated when individuals engaged in work. Therefore, our study suggests that the lockdown led to significant changes in ongoing thought patterns in daily life and that these changes were associated with changes to our daily routine that occurred during lockdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Isolamento Social , Pensamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resolução de Problemas , Cognição Social , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 6(1): 38, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has sparked heated debate among scholars on the relevance of lockdowns. There are those in favor of the lockdown and others who are critical of it. However, despite the increased interest in understanding the relevance of lockdowns, there still has not been much focus on its relevance in countries like Zambia. Thus, with the help of the Social Representation Theory (SRT), we set out to explore and document the local characterization of the lockdown by residents of Lusaka, Zambia. METHODS: We recruited our participants through convenient and purposive sampling techniques. This was done through the use of the ZAMTEL public phone records. Initial contact was made to potential participants, and they were asked of their availability and willingness to participate in the interview. Upon agreeing to participate, they were included in the sample. A total of 68 people were selected to take part in this study. Their age ranged from 20 to 76 years old. 33 of them were male and 35 females. After this, we conducted interviews with the 68 participants. Due to COVID-19 restrictions, our interviews were conducted via telephone in conformity with the recommendations from the IRB in Lusaka and the advice of the ministry of health. We anonymized the demographic characteristics and responses from our participants. Later, thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The lockdown was on one hand lauded for slowing down the incidence rates, preventing fatalities, and protecting the healthcare system from collapse. On the other hand, it was criticized for exacerbating poverty levels, unemployment rates, increasing the rate of mental health problems, aiding gender-based violence, and intensifying political repression and corruption. The results speak to the complexity in the characterization of the lockdown as a response to COVID-19 in Lusaka, Zambia. This observation demonstrates the folly of viewing, applying and characterizing the COVID-19 lockdown as a 'one-size-fits-all' approach in Lusaka, Zambia. CONCLUSION: Rather than establishing the lockdown as an incontestable good, as it is depicted by some scholars or as useless by its critics, our findings instead demonstrate the diversity and complexity in how it is locally viewed by Lusaka residents. The study provides grounds for caution on simplistic and binary characterization of lockdowns. It indicates the need for careful dialog between the designers of lockdowns and citizens in order to tailor such interventions to local realities in context-specific ways. It also shows that though the development of such interventions, all the various and complex elements it embodies must be taken into account in order to realize optimum outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/psicologia , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/instrumentação , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27315, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596131

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Participation in volunteer activity has positive effects on health among elderly. Few studies have investigated the association between volunteer activity and depression among Chinese elderly. This study aimed to examine the association between volunteer activity and depression among the elderly in China regarding rural-urban differences.Totally 8255 subjects from the 2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were selected in this study. Depression was assessed by 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Types and frequency of volunteer activity were measured in the questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between volunteer activity and depression of elderly.In our study, the urban elderly had lower depressive scores than rural elderly (6.7 ±â€Š5.8 vs. 9.1 ±â€Š6.7). After adjustment for all covariates, our results revealed that almost daily participation in formal volunteer activities was negatively associated with depression among urban elderly (B = -2.69, SE = 1.05, P = .010); almost daily caring for a sick or disabled adult was positively associated with depression among both urban and rural elderly (urban:B = 3.13, SE = 1.54, P = .043; rural:B = 2.56, SE = 1.18, P = .031).These findings suggested that there was a negative association between formal volunteer activity and depression among urban elderly, while there was a positive association between caring for a sick or disabled adult and depression among both urban and rural elderly. The government should take effective measures to encourage the elderly to participate in formal volunteer activities to prevent them from depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Voluntários/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 122, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The availability of various types of COVID-19 vaccines and diverse characteristics of the vaccines present a dilemma in vaccination choices, which may result in individuals refusing a particular COVID-19 vaccine offered, hence presenting a threat to immunisation coverage and reaching herd immunity. The study aimed to assess global COVID-19 vaccination intention, vaccine characteristics influencing vaccination acceptance and desirable vaccine characteristics influencing the choice of vaccines. METHODS: An anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted between 4 January and 5 March 2021 in 17 countries worldwide. Proportions and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and vaccine characteristics influencing vaccination acceptance were generated and compared across countries and regions. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. RESULTS: Of the 19,714 responses received, 90.4% (95% CI 81.8-95.3) reported likely or extremely likely to receive COVID-19 vaccine. A high proportion of likely or extremely likely to receive the COVID-19 vaccine was reported in Australia (96.4%), China (95.3%) and Norway (95.3%), while a high proportion reported being unlikely or extremely unlikely to receive the vaccine in Japan (34.6%), the U.S. (29.4%) and Iran (27.9%). Males, those with a lower educational level and those of older age expressed a higher level of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Less than two-thirds (59.7%; 95% CI 58.4-61.0) reported only being willing to accept a vaccine with an effectiveness of more than 90%, and 74.5% (95% CI 73.4-75.5) said they would accept a COVID-19 vaccine with minor adverse reactions. A total of 21.0% (95% CI 20.0-22.0) reported not accepting an mRNA vaccine and 51.8% (95% CI 50.3-53.1) reported that they would only accept a COVID-19 vaccine from a specific country-of-origin. Countries from the Southeast Asia region reported the highest proportion of not accepting mRNA technology. The highest proportion from Europe and the Americas would only accept a vaccine produced by certain countries. The foremost important vaccine characteristic influencing vaccine choice is adverse reactions (40.6%; 95% CI 39.3-41.9) of a vaccine and effectiveness threshold (35.1%; 95% CI 33.9-36.4). CONCLUSIONS: The inter-regional and individual country disparities in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy highlight the importance of designing an efficient plan for the delivery of interventions dynamically tailored to the local population.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Intenção , Vacinação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am J Psychiatry ; 178(10): 896-902, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592843

RESUMO

Sleep disturbances and depression are closely linked and share a bidirectional relationship. These interconnections can inform the pathophysiology underlying each condition. Insomnia is an established and modifiable risk factor for depression, the treatment of which offers the critical opportunity to prevent major depressive episodes, a paradigm-shifting model for psychiatry. Identification of occult sleep disorders may also improve outcomes in treatment-resistant depression. Sleep alterations and manipulations may additionally clarify the mechanisms that underlie rapid-acting antidepressant therapies. Both sleep disturbance and depression are heterogeneous processes, and evolving standards in psychiatric research that consider the transdiagnostic components of each are more likely to lead to translational progress at their nexus. Emerging tools to objectively quantify sleep and its disturbances in the home environment offer great potential to advance clinical care and research, but nascent technologies require further advances and validation prior to widespread application at the interface of sleep and depression.


Assuntos
Depressão , Transtornos Intrínsecos do Sono , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/tendências , Psicopatologia/métodos , Sono/fisiologia , Transtornos Intrínsecos do Sono/psicologia , Transtornos Intrínsecos do Sono/terapia
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 670, 2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus currently cause a lot of pressure on the health system. Accordingly, many changes occurred in the way of providing health care, including pregnancy and childbirth care. To our knowledge, no studies on experiences of maternity care Providers during the COVID-19 Pandemic have been published in Iran. We aimed to discover their experiences on pregnancy and childbirth care during the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study was a qualitative research performed with a descriptive phenomenological approach. The used sampling method was purposive sampling by taking the maximum variation possible into account, which continued until data saturation. Accordingly, in-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted by including 12 participants, as 4 gynecologists, 6 midwives working in the hospitals and private offices, and 2 midwives working in the health centers. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's seven stage method with MAXQDA10 software. RESULTS: Data analysis led to the extraction of 3 themes, 9 categories, and 25 subcategories. The themes were as follows: "Fear of Disease", "Burnout", and "Lessons Learned from the COVID-19 Pandemic", respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal health care providers experience emotional and psychological stress and work challenges during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, comprehensive support should be provided for the protection of their physical and mental health statuses. By working as a team, utilizing the capacity of telemedicine to care and follow up mothers, and providing maternity care at home, some emerged challenges to maternal care services can be overcome.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Perinatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Ginecologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Materna/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tocologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Perinatal/organização & administração , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Telemedicina/métodos
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1802031, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504895

RESUMO

Background: Testicular cancer is a malignant tumor of the testicles, the male reproductive organs that produce sperm and testosterone. It is one of the most common cancers in young men. This form of cancer can be easily diagnosed by self-examination of testicles and is curable if detected early. Periodic self-examination must be performed for early detection. Due to lack of knowledge on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination techniques, patients can potentially miss early detection. This study is aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding testicular cancer and testicular self-examination among male college students pursuing a Bachelor's degree. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional analytical study was adopted to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination among male college students pursuing a Bachelor's degree and living in Bharatpur Metropolitan City in the Chitwan District of Nepal. The snowball sampling technique was employed to identify the eligible participants. Collected data were entered in SPSS version 22 and analyzed by using the Chi-square test, Pearson's correlation, and binary logistic regression. Results: Out of 402 respondents, majority (56.7%) had poor knowledge regarding testicular cancer and testicular self-examination and only 11.4% had performed testicular self-examination. The majority (67.2%) of the respondents had shown an unfavorable attitude towards testicular cancer (TC) and testicular self-examination (TSE). There was a significant association between the level of knowledge and marital status 4.516 (1.962-10.397) and ethnicity 2.606 (1.443-4.709). Likewise, age 0.396 (0.191-0.821) and marital status 0.347 (0.156-0.775) have been significantly associated with testicular self-examination practice. Regarding favorable attitude, age 0.362 (0.186-0.706) and sources of information from mass media 2.346 (1.328-4.143) have been associated significantly. Conclusion: The study finding shows that the knowledge on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination was low. Due to lack of knowledge and trainings, the potential opportunities for early detection of testicular cancer are missed substantially. Periodic testicular self-examination is vital for early detection of testicular cancer. Hence, it is crucial to implement massive educational campaigns and trainings on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination techniques among young male groups.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Autoexame/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Conhecimento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Nepal , Autoexame/métodos , Autoexame/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/psicologia , Testículo/patologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Health Commun ; 26(7): 473-479, 2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528499

RESUMO

Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to COVID-19 while the short- and long-term impact of COVID-19 on maternal and infant health is only partially understood. We assessed the amount of uncertainty and anxiety pregnant women experienced about COVID-19 and whether, and the extent to which, they engaged in information seeking about COVID-19. In total, 320 pregnant women from 38 states took part in this research. The results showed that pregnant women experienced uncertainty and anxiety about pregnancy and breastfeeding and engaged in information seeking from their healthcare providers. Pregnant women's uncertainty influenced information seeking via anxiety, but the effect varied depending on participants' assessments of coping, communication, and target efficacy. While healthcare providers need to discuss ways to avoid COVID-19 infection, participants were assured that their providers had a plan to help them if they became infected with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Pandemias , Gestantes/psicologia , Incerteza , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Gravidez/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2125538, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533569

RESUMO

Importance: The rate of deaths from overdose has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, and recent US overdose mortality rates have been markedly high. However, scant data are available on the causes of this increase or subpopulations at elevated risk. Objective: To evaluate the rates and characteristics of deaths from drug overdose before vs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, population-based cohort study used data from 4 statewide databases linked at the person level via the Rhode Island Data Ecosystem on adults with deaths due to overdose in Rhode Island from January 1 to August 31, 2019, and January 1 to August 31, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The rates of unintentional deaths from drug-related overdose during the 2019 and 2020 observation periods overall and by sociodemographic characteristics, drugs contributing to the cause of death, location of death, and socioeconomic factors were evaluated. In subgroup analyses restricted to Medicaid beneficiaries (n = 271), the proportions of deaths from overdose by behavioral health treatment and diagnosis claims in the year before death were also examined. Results: A total of 470 adults who died of drug overdose were included in the analysis (353 men [75%]; mean [SD] age, 43.5 [12.1] years). The rate of deaths from overdose in Rhode Island increased 28.1%, from 29.2 per 100 000 person-years in 2019 to 37.4 per 100 000 person-years in 2020 (P = .009). Compared with 2019, rates of deaths due to overdose during 2020 were higher among men (43.2 vs 59.2 per 100 000 person-years; P = .003), non-Hispanic White individuals (31.0 vs 42.0 per 100 000 person-years; P = .005), single individuals (54.8 vs 70.4 per 100 000 person-years; P = .04), deaths involving synthetic opioids (20.8 vs 28.3 per 100 000 person-years; P = .005), and deaths occurring in a personal residence (13.2 vs 19.7 per 100 000 person-years; P = .003). A decrease in the proportion of deaths from overdose involving heroin (11 of 206 [5%] vs <2% [exact value suppressed]; P = .02) and an increase among persons experiencing job loss (16 of 206 [8%] vs 41 of 264 [16%]; P = .01) from 2019 to 2020 were observed. Among individuals who died of overdose and were Medicaid beneficiaries, the proportions of those aged 50 to 59 years with anxiety (11 of 121 [9%] vs 29 of 150 [19%]; P = .03), men with depression (27 of 121 [22%] vs 57 of 150 [38%]; P = .008), and men with anxiety (28 of 121 [23%] vs 55 of 150 [37%]; P = .02) increased during 2020 compared with 2019. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, during the first 8 months of 2020, the rate of deaths from overdose increased in Rhode Island compared with the same period in 2019, and several emerging characteristics of deaths from drug overdose during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic were identified. These findings may inform interventions that address macroenvironmental changes associated with the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quarentena/psicologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rhode Island/epidemiologia
16.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539323

RESUMO

Objectives: Children's mental health and wellbeing declined during the first COVID-19 lockdown (Spring 2020), particularly among those from disadvantaged settings. We compared mental health and wellbeing of school-aged children observed pre-pandemic in 2018 and after the first lockdown was lifted and schools reopened in Fall 2020. Methods: In 2018, we surveyed 476 grade 4-6 students (9-12 years old) from 11 schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities in Northern Canada that participate in a school-based health promotion program targeting healthy lifestyle behaviours and mental wellbeing. In November-December 2020, we surveyed 467 grade 4-6 students in the same schools. The 12 questions in the mental health and wellbeing domain were grouped based on correlation and examined using multivariable logistic regression. Results: There were no notable changes pre-pandemic vs. post-lockdown in responses to each of the 12 questions or any of the sub-groupings. Conclusion: Supporting schools to implement health promotion programs may help mitigate the impact of the pandemic on children's mental health and wellbeing. The findings align with recent calls for schools to remain open as long as possible during the pandemic response.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde da Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Áreas de Pobreza , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The new tobacco related products (TRP) have modified the smoking patterns, which have been scarcely evaluated by independent studies. Our objective was to describe the patterns of electronic cigarette (e-cig) and tobacco heating products (THP) use among Spanish population. METHODS: An electronic survey aimed to population who had used at least once in their lifetime e-cigs or THPs was used to gather personal data, patterns of e-cig and THP use, as well as risk perceptions and intention to quit these products. Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to analyze qualitative and non-parametric quantitative variables, respectively, establishing statistical significance if p values <0.05. RESULTS: The responses of 175 subjects were included. From them, 107 had consumed e-cig, 33 THP and 35 both devices. The daily use was more common among THP users, who were older than e-cig and both devices' consumers (median age 43 vs 38 vs 35 years old, p=0.013). Of the overall group, 94% referred to have smoked conventional cigarettes at least once in their lifetime, and from them 36% referred a daily cigarette consumption at the time of the survey. Regarding the risk perception of the TRP, 70%, 55% y 63% of the subjects that had used e-cig, THP, and both devices, respectively, considered that these products were less harmful for their own health than conventional cigarettes. Concerning their intention to quit any tobacco product, 51% and 64% of e-cig and THP users respectively, showed interest in quitting these devices. CONCLUSIONS: The previous and current conventional cigarettes use is frequent among TRPs consumers. The risk perception of these products is low; however, a considerable intention to quit these products is reported.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Calefação , Humanos , Intenção , Medição de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604260, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566554

RESUMO

Objectives: The chronic restrictions to mitigate the new SARS-CoV-2 virus may result in pandemic fatigue. This study set out to develop a short, reliable, valid, and gender-invariant instrument-the Pandemic Fatigue Scale (PFS). Methods: In the first phase, 300 students responded to a pilot questionnaire that allowed the reduction and refinement of the items. In the second phase, the validity, reliability, and invariance of the scale were explored among a sample of 596 participants. Results: Factor exploratory and confirmatory analyses confirmed a robust adjustment for the bifactorial structure that explained 79,36% of the variance. The two factors identified were 1) people's demotivation in continuing to follow the recommended protective behaviors (neglect) and 2) people's boredom regarding the pandemic-related information (boredom). The pattern of relations between the Pandemic Fatigue Scale and other variables-find through correlation, mediation, and path analyses-and the gender differences-find in the ANOVA analyses-provided strong evidence of the construct validity. Moreover, the PFS was shown to be invariant regarding gender in a multigroup factor confirmatory analysis. Conclusion: The instrument can be of utility for professionals and researchers to assess pandemic fatigue, a variable that can affect the adoption of protective measure to avoid catching and spreading the virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fadiga , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Fadiga/diagnóstico , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(10): 484-487, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550102

RESUMO

Despite the well-documented need for nurse-focused efforts on health and wellness, too few healthcare organizations have made a meaningful impact on this issue. Nurse health should be integrated into the strategic and operational workings of the organization. Environments of health and wellness require attention, accountability, action, and accessibility. Although individual choice is the starting point, true success will be achieved when nurse health is a nonnegotiable outcome consistent with quality, safety, finance, and patient experience.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/organização & administração , Equipe de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Estresse Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Humanos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia
20.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(10): 526-531, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550106

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study explored the experience of pediatric ICU (PICU) nurses who volunteered at a camp for families of children and adolescents with cancer. BACKGROUND: PICU nurses are at risk of developing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, compassion fatigue, depression, and burnout due to exposure(s) to traumatic events. Spending time with patients, families, and nurse colleagues at camp may reduce the effects of this exposure. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted using content analysis. Fifteen nurse participants completed a precamp questionnaire and semistructured focus groups immediately following camp. Individual interviews were conducted 6 months after camp. RESULTS: Three categories emerged: 1) personal factors, changes in the nurses themselves; 2) patient and family factors, changes in how nurses perceived patients and families; and 3) work-related factors, relationships with colleagues. CONCLUSIONS: Supporting PICU nurses to participate with patients, families, and colleagues outside of the hospital may reduce burnout and support nurses' well-being.


Assuntos
Fadiga por Compaixão/psicologia , Estado Terminal/enfermagem , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/organização & administração , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Neoplasias , Relações Profissional-Família , Voluntários/psicologia
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