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1.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 95(3): 559-571, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35220487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Estimate the effort-reward imbalance prevalence (ERI) among physicians. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted from 2005 to 2019 using PRISMA guidelines on the PubMed and EBSCOhost search engines. Data were classified according to the ERI definition used by the authors. A meta-analysis was performed on effort and reward scores and on ERI prevalence rates. RESULTS: Out of 3787 results, we selected 41 studies. The physicians' ERI prevalence rate ranged from 3.50 to 96.9%. The standardized pooled effort mean score was 58.5 for effort and 48.9 for a reward out of 100, respectively. The overall combined ERI rate (when the ratio between effort and reward scores was above 1) was 40.2% among 21,939 practitioners (31.7% in the working European population). ERI rate was 70.2% using a four-point Likert scale and 21.1% using a five-point Likert scale. The highest rate (96.9%) was observed among German rural general practitioners and the lowest rate (3.50%) among Swiss hospital practitioners. The low percentage of variability (I2 = 27%) attributed to effort scores heterogeneity between studies suggested that this dimension is not discriminant in the physician ERI assessment. The high heterogeneity in reward scores (I2 = 83%) indicated that this dimension is sensible in ERI assessment among physicians. The number of items used did not appear as a significant source of heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: Physician job ERI appeared to be higher than in the working population. Studying each dimension and item indicators could help improve psychosocial risk prevention.


Assuntos
Satisfação no Emprego , Médicos , Humanos , Médicos/psicologia , Prevalência , Recompensa , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia
2.
J Neurotrauma ; 39(1-2): 86-92, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626946

RESUMO

This case-control study using baseline data from the population cohort Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study® compared lifetime history of concussion between children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that children with ADHD would have a greater lifetime history of concussion than children without ADHD. Children were recruited from schools across the United States, sampled to provide strong generalizability to the US population. The current sample included 10,585 children (age: mean = 9.9; standard deviation = 0.6; range 9-10 years; 48.9% girls; 64.6% White), including 1085 with ADHD and 9500 without ADHD. The prevalence of prior concussion among children with ADHD was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.6-7.8%) compared with 3.2% (3.1-3.3%) among children without ADHD, meaning current ADHD status was associated with twice the odds of experiencing a prior concussion [χ2 = 44.54; p < 0.001; odds ratio = 2.34 (1.81-3.03)]. No significant differences were observed in proportion of boys and girls with ADHD who had a prior concussion history. The number of current ADHD symptoms were not meaningfully associated with prior concussion history. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with lower rates of reported concussion, but not differentially in association with ADHD. ADHD is associated with twice the lifetime prevalence of prior concussion before age 11 among children from the general U.S. population. Boys and girls with ADHD did not differ in proportions with prior concussion and concussion history was not related to the number of ADHD symptoms reported by parents.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Concussão Encefálica , Adolescente , Atletas/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Psychooncology ; 31(1): 107-115, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425036

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: CanCope is an internet-delivered, cognitive-behavioural intervention adapted from the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders to improve emotion regulation and support the mental health of cancer survivors. Four separate pilot studies evaluated each of CanCope's modules for (1) feasibility and participant satisfaction, and changes in (2) module-specific outcomes, and (3) global measures of emotion dysregulation and anxiety and depressive symptoms, from pre-to-post module delivery. METHODS: Eligible cancer survivors self-selected into one two-week online module designed to improve a specific aspect of emotion regulation ([1] understanding emotions, [2] mindfulness of emotions, [3] cognitive reappraisals, [4] challenging emotion-driven behaviours). RESULTS: Across modules, post-intervention surveys were completed by 17-19 participants, (58.1%-90.5% completion rate for participants who received the intervention). Each module was feasible and participants reported high satisfaction. Moderate-to-large pre-to-post effect sizes in mean differences were observed in module-specific target outcomes (p's < 0.05). Emotion dysregulation significantly decreased across modules 1 to 3 (p's < 0.05) with a non-significant decrease for module 4 (p = 0.13). Anxiety symptoms significantly decreased across all modules (p's < 0.05). Depressive symptoms significantly decreased across modules 1 and 3 (p's < 0.05), with non-significant decreases across modules 2 (p = 0.08) and 4 (p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Each CanCope module demonstrated promise in targeting emotion regulation skills and supporting the mental health of cancer survivors. Randomised controlled trials are required to test the efficacy of CanCope as an intervention in its entirety.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Neoplasias , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Neoplasias/terapia
4.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 17(2): 1-20, dic. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, BNUY, BNUY-Enf | ID: biblio-1392412

RESUMO

El contexto epidemiológico que se vive a nivel mundial desde el comienzo de la pandemia por COVID-19, puso de manifiesto factores de sobrecarga laboral en el personal de la salud, relacionados con la exposición diaria a situaciones que ponen en riesgo su integridad física y mental. Tomando en cuenta el valor social, la validez científica y el beneficio que se genera con la investigación en el campo de la salud, nos propusimos explorar y analizar en qué medida y en qué aspectos la situación de pandemia ha afectado las cargas en enfermería partiendo de la hipótesis de un aumento en la percepción de cargas desde el inicio de la pandemia por COVID-19. En función de los resultados obtenidos, elaboramos recomendaciones y una propuesta que contribuya al desarrollo de un entorno de trabajo saludable para el personal de enfermería, estableciendo medidas de prevención e intervención destinadas a minimizar los riesgos e incrementar la satisfacción laboral. Para el relevamiento de los datos se aplicó una encuesta online, anónima, auto administrada dirigida al personal de enfermería de Uruguay que trabaja en los tres niveles de atención, la cual nos permitió un acercamiento a los principales indicadores de carga física y mental. En términos absolutos se encuestaron 304 licenciados en enfermería y 677 auxiliares. Si se comparan los encuestados con el Registro de Habilitación del MSP (2017), la participación alcanzó el 3,29 % de la población total en enfermería. Se logró la cobertura de los 19 departamentos de Uruguay. Los resultados obtenidos, evidenciaron un incremento en la carga física y mental, a partir del contexto generado por COVID-19, relacionado principalmente con aspectos institucionales, alteraciones fisiológicas, psicoafectivas y sociofamiliares.


The epidemiological context that has been experienced worldwide since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic has revealed factors of work overload in health personnel, related to daily exposure to situations that put their physical and mental integrity at risk. Considering the social value, the scientific validity and the benefit generated by research in the field of health, we set out to explore and analyze to what extent and in what aspects the pandemic situation has affected nursing work load based on the hypothesis of an increase in the perception of burdens since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on the results obtained, we developed recommendations and a proposal that contributes to the development of a healthy work environment for nursing staff, establishing prevention and intervention measures aimed at minimizing risks and increasing job satisfaction. To collect the data, an online, anonymous, self-administered survey was applied to nursing staff in Uruguay who work at the three levels of care, which allowed us to approach the main indicators of physical and mental load. In absolute terms, 304 nursing graduates and 677 auxiliaries were surveyed. When we compare the respondents with the MSP Qualification Registry (2017), participation reached 3.29% of the total nursing population. Coverage of the 19 departments of Uruguay was achieved. The results showed an increase in the physical and mental load, based on the context generated by COVID-19, mainly related to institutional aspects, physiological, psycho-affective and socio-family alterations.


O contexto epidemiológico que se vive mundialmente desde o início da pandemia do COVID-19 tem revelado fatores de sobrecarga de trabalho nos profi ssionais de saúde, relacionados à exposição diária a situações que colocam em risco sua integridade física e mental. Levando em conta o valor social, a validade científica e o benefício gerado pela pesquisa na área da saúde, propusemo-nos a explorar e analisar em que medida e em que aspectos a situação pandêmica afetou as cargas de trabalho de enfermagem com base na hipótese de aumento na percepção de ônus desde o início da pandemia de COVID-19. Com base nos resultados obtidos, desenvolvemos recomendações e uma proposta que contribui para o desenvolvimento de um ambiente de trabalho saudável para a equipe de enfermagem, estabelecendo medidas de prevenção e intervenção paravive minimizar riscos e aumentar a satisfação no trabalho. Para coletar os dados, foi aplicada uma pesquisa online, anônima e autoadministrada aos profissionais de enfermagem do Uruguai que atuam nos três níveis de atenção, o que permitiu abordar os principais indicadores de carga física e mental. Em termos absolutos, foram pesquisados 304 egressos de enfermagem e 677 auxiliares. Se compararmos os respondentes com o Registro de Qualificação MSP (2017), a participação atingiu 3,29% do total da população de enfermagem. A cobertura dos 19 departamentos do Uruguai foi alcançada. Os resultados obtidos mostraram um aumento da carga física e mental, com base no contexto gerado pela COVID-19, principalmente relacionado a aspectos institucionais, alterações fisiológicas, psicoafetivas e sociofamiliares.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Riscos Ocupacionais , Carga de Trabalho , Estresse Ocupacional , COVID-19 , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem , Uruguai , Condições de Trabalho , Esgotamento Profissional , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , COVID-19/psicologia
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(39): e30838, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181024

RESUMO

To investigate the associations of job-related psychological flexibility, coping style and personality types with and their interactions in depression in Chinese physicians. A cross-sectional survey of 444 physicians was conducted by using the convenience sampling method in the municipal hospitals in Zhengzhou, Henan province. Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression, Work-related Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revision Short Scale of China were administered to each participant. Depression tendency scores were significantly higher in healthcare workers with intermediate title, age 31 and older, introvert unstable personality than other counterparts, (P < .01). Female and extrovert stable healthcare workers had significantly higher coping score than male and other personality types (P < .05). The scores of job-related psychological flexibility in healthcare workers with Introvert Stable or working in emergency department were significantly higher than their counterparts (P < .01). General linear model algorithm of machine learning showed that Extrovert Unstable was the main risk factor for depression (ß = 6.74), followed by Extrovert Stable (ß = -4.90), negative coping, positive coping, and length of service. Multivariate regression models showed that a significant interaction existed between coping style, work-related psychological flexibility and Extroversion (ß = -0.103, P < .05), independently explaining 0.7% variance of depression, and that a significant interaction existed between coping style, work-related psychological flexibility and neuroticism (ß = 0.116, P < .05), independently explaining 1.0% variance of depression. Interactions existed between personality types, coping style and work-related psychological flexibility in depression tendency in Chinese healthcare workers, with neuroticism (extrovert unstable) being a risk factor and extroversion (extrovert stable) being a protective factor. Precision prevention strategies could be made based on personality types to reduce depression in health workers.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Médicos , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Médicos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(39): e30866, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181028

RESUMO

Psychological burden, such as depression and anxiety, may be associated with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and poor prognosis of nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP). Non-pharmacological therapy is a substantial part of the management of both illnesses. Our study describes the psychological outcomes in patients with axSpA and NSLBP who were actively looking for non-pharmacological therapy. A total of 60 participants (34 with axSpA and 26 with NSLBP) were included in this cross-sectional study. Anxiety and depression were examined using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), respectively. The relationships between BAI and BDI-II and quality of life (EQ-5D), pain intensity (NRS pain), disease activity (AS disease activity score, ASDAS-CRP), and function (Bath AS Functional Index, BASFI) were determined. The intensity of anxiety and depression did not differ between patients with and without axSpA. In both, axSpA and NSLBP, BAI, and BDI-II scores were inversely correlated with EQ-5D, R = -0.268 (P ˂ .05) and R = -0.486 (P ˂ .0001), respectively. We found a variation in the relationship between pain intensity and psychological outcomes in NSLBP and axSpA. The pain intensity score was correlated with the BDI-II (R = 0.542, P = .001) and BAI (R = 0.489, P = .003) scores only in patients with axSpA. In patients with axSpA, BAI was inversely correlated with disease duration (R = -0.356, P = .039) and positively correlated with increased disease activity and poor function, ASDAS-CRP (R = 0.431, P = .012) and BASFI (R = 0.621, P ˂ .0001) scores. The ASDAS-CRP score was positively correlated with BDI-II (R = 0.562, P = .001), and both disease activity and female sex were identified as risk factors for poor BDI-II outcomes in axSpA patients according to multiple regression analysis. Experiences of anxiety and depression seem to be similar for patients with axSpA and NSLBP in this selected group of participants. However, pain intensity may influence psychological outcomes, mainly in patients with axSpA. Disease activity, impaired function, and female sex were risk factors for anxiety and depression in patients with axSpA.


Assuntos
Espondiloartrite Axial , Dor Lombar , Espondilartrite , Espondilite Anquilosante , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Dor nas Costas , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espondilartrite/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(39): e30868, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181089

RESUMO

The study aims to determine whether there is a relationship between fibromyalgia (FM) disease and depression, anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, fear-avoidance beliefs, and quality of life in female patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia. 37 female patients followed up with FM diagnosis in pain medicine clinic and a control group consisting of 37 healthy women were included in the study. Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics Data Form, Quality of Life Form, fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire, Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Visual Analogue Scale was applied to the participants. When the patients in the FM group were compared to the control group; Statistically lower scores in all Quality of Life Form subscales except emotional role difficulty and social functionality scores; statistically higher scores in both physical and work activity subscales in fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire; statistically higher scores in cognitive symptoms subscale in Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Visual Analogue Scale scores were found. In FM patients, it has been determined that anxiety, depression and perceived pain severity reduce social functionality and quality of life in areas such as mental health, physical function, and emotional role difficulties. It was determined that the functionality and quality of life of patients diagnosed with FM decreased in daily life. An important contribution of the study to the literature is that it shows that the behavior of avoiding activity due to pain-induced fear exacerbates the pain and even contributes to its chronicity. These results, which show the effects of anxiety, depression, anxiety sensitivity, and fear-avoidance behavior on the prognosis of the disease in FM patients, indicate that psychiatric evaluation and treatment in FM patients is an important factor that determines the functionality and quality of life.


Assuntos
Fibromialgia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Fibromialgia/psicologia , Humanos , Dor , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Pers Disord ; 36(5): 505-526, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181488

RESUMO

Although psychotherapy is the first-line treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD), psychopharmacological agents have not been approved yet. Modulating brain functions with noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) interventions, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), may have a role in the treatment of BPD. In light of the limited knowledge available and the emerging interest in the possible role of NIBS as a therapeutic tool, the authors' main aim is to systematically review the literature on the effect of both rTMS and tDCS on BPD symptoms, specifically affective dysregulation, impulsive-behavioral dyscontrol, and cognitive-perceptual difficulties. The review process was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. The research methods were registered on PROSPERO (id code CRD42020209491). Eleven studies were included in the review. Despite the limited number of studies retrieved, preliminary data showed an improvement in all domains. Further studies are needed to understand potential long-term advantages of NIBS.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos
10.
J Pers Disord ; 36(5): 606-622, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181492

RESUMO

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by dysregulated emotion, interpersonal relationships, and impulsivity, and is putatively linked to a known transdiagnostic risk factor, anxiety sensitivity (AS). AS is a dispositional fear of the physical, cognitive, and/or social consequences of arousal-related somatic sensations. Gratz et al. (2008) demonstrated significantly higher AS in outpatients with BPD and a predictive value of AS over and above emotion dysregulation and impulsivity. The present study sought to extend these findings with a larger sample of outpatients with BPD by investigating predictive value of AS dimensions; relations between AS and attachment style; and impact of BPD treatment on AS. Participants completed measures at three time points: pretreatment and 6 and 12 months posttreatment. AS social was the best predictor; attachment anxiety correlated positively with AS global and AS physical. AS levels significantly decreased from pretreatment to 6 months posttreatment. Clinical implications discussed include targeting AS in BPD treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia
11.
J Pers Disord ; 36(5): 583-605, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181493

RESUMO

Despite growing evidence that psychopathy entails reduced emotional processing, the relationship between psychopathic traits and third-person pain perception is poorly understood. This study directly examined perception of others' pain in a sample of male and female students (N = 105) who completed the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP-III) and the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ). Participants watched a video of 60 one-second clips of other people experiencing pain. Following each clip, participants rated the perceived level of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness. Psychopathic traits were unrelated to response bias, suggesting that individuals high in psychopathic traits were no more or less likely to impute pain to others. However, higher levels of psychopathic traits, particularly callous affect and antisocial behavior, were associated with a decreased ability to discriminate others' pain. Sensitivity and response bias were unrelated to TEQ scores. These findings provide novel insights into the influence of psychopathic traits on emotional processing.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Empatia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dor/psicologia , Percepção da Dor/fisiologia
12.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 34(5): 395-412, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181496

RESUMO

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents are often at higher risk than their heterosexual peers for adverse sexual health, violence, mental health, and substance use outcomes. Schools are a vital resource for enhancing protective behaviors and reducing risk behaviors. Sixteen school districts selected schools to implement a sexual health program (exposed) or usual programming (unexposed). We analyzed LGB student health outcomes using 2015 and 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Analyses compared LGB student health outcomes by exposure status across time points using a multilevel approach. Program exposure was associated with decreased odds of ever having sex, ever testing for HIV, and using effective hormonal birth control, and an increased odds of condom use. There were no significant findings among secondary violence, mental health, and substance use outcomes. This evaluation highlights the potential for schools to reduce sexual risk behaviors among LGB youth, and opportunities to improve access to health services.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Homossexualidade Feminina , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
13.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 34(5): 427-439, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181498

RESUMO

HIV risk behaviors and psychological well-being among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (n = 140), were quantitatively described in relation to demographic and psychosocial factors. Most participants were tested for HIV and 41.4% reported living with HIV. Malay participants had significantly higher levels of depression (p < .05), homophobia (p < .01), and needs for social support (p < .01) than Chinese. More Chinese participants reported suicidal thoughts than Malaysians (p < .05). A multivariate analysis revealed that participants with gay/MSM-identified or had lower levels of self-esteem showed significantly higher levels of depression. Future intervention projects should address depression and mental health issues among MSM and strengthen self-esteem and social support through culturally competent support and individual counseling programs (e.g., addressing MSM's conflicts with religious beliefs and norms). Structural changes must be made incrementally to reduce homophobia against MSM in Malaysia while advocating human rights.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos
14.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 31(4): 649-664, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182216

RESUMO

Working with lesbian, gay, bisexual transgender, and queer-identified (LGBTQ) youth can present a uniquely challenging opportunity for clinicians given the rapidly changing landscapes of gender and sexuality and deficits in training and education. The goal of this article is to provide the most up-to-date trends and advances in the mental health care of LGBTQ youth to empower clinicians in delivering evidence-based care. We adapt the "Spheres of Influence" model to challenge the clinician to think more globally about our interventions. When LGBTQ youth are supported at every sphere, we give them the best chance to survive and thrive into adulthood.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual , Sexualidade , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia
15.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 31(4): 679-692, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182218

RESUMO

This article will explore the psychological sequelae of forced family separation in immigration policy, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the youth migrant population, how youth migrants form an identity in their new country, and finally how politics affect the mental health of youth migrants.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Refugiados , Adolescente , Emigração e Imigração , Humanos , Pandemias , Refugiados/psicologia
16.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 31(4): 719-732, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182220

RESUMO

There is limited literature on Arab American mental health, particularly among youth. This chapter will provide an overview of the Arab American/MENA population, their migration to the United States, traditional Arab culture and values, Arab American youth identity, acculturation and acculturation stress, the impact of discrimination on Arab American youth, mental illness in Arab American youth, and cultural variables to consider in seeking help. This chapter will provide recommendations and cultural considerations when working with Arab American youth.


Assuntos
Árabes , Transtornos Mentais , Aculturação , Adolescente , Árabes/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Estados Unidos
17.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 31(4): 733-744, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182221

RESUMO

This article seeks to provide an exploration of the contributors to the mental health of Black and African Americans. We explore the foundations of racism in this country as well as factors leading to systemic racism. It is important to gain an understanding of the multifaceted contributors to disparities in health care and mental health care. Black children and adolescents experience more poverty, discrimination, marginalization, and racism compared with their white counterparts in the United States (APA, 2017). These are factors that greatly impact the mental health of this population. In addition to exploring examples of disparities in diagnosis, treatment, and research on Black youth, we also provide recommendations for clinicians seeking to provide exemplary culturally sensitive care that recognizes the diverse and multifaceted nature of this population.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Racismo , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Criança , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Estados Unidos
18.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 31(4): 745-763, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182222

RESUMO

This article explores the ways East Asian American (EAA) children and adolescents have experienced disparities in the United States throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. The history of racism toward Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AAPI) and the complexities of acculturation are reflected through this contemporary lens. Traditional East Asian (EA) values were disrupted during this period. Implications for children and families are discussed. Persistent underlying xenophobia and racism, such as the model minority myth or perpetual foreigner stereotype, rose to new prominence, furthering emotional distress in EA and EAA youths beyond those already experienced universally by AAPI families during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Aculturação , Adolescente , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Havaiano Nativo ou Outro Ilhéu do Pacífico , Estados Unidos
19.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 372, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic cough lasting for > 8 weeks is a common medical condition that burdens patients. This study aimed to qualitatively describe knowledge, awareness, experiences, and subtypes of burdens (physical, social, psychological) among Japanese patients with refractory chronic cough (refractory to treatment of underlying relevant medical conditions) and unexplained chronic cough (symptoms of unexplained origin). METHODS: This non-interventional, cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2021 among patients (aged ≥ 20 years) with self-reported refractory or unexplained chronic cough. Subjects with a history of comorbid respiratory conditions were excluded. Eligible subjects participated in a 60-min online semi-structured interview. Verbatim terms from interviews were qualitatively transcribed and generated into word clouds, followed by a clustering analysis in which meaningful clusters were chosen, manually coded, and utterances and burdens categorized. RESULTS: A total of 21 participants (95.2% with refractory chronic cough, mean age 53.5 years, and 76.2% being males) with Leicester Cough Questionnaire mean ± standard deviation scores of physical 4.8 ± 1.1, psychological 4.4 ± 1.3, social 4.9 ± 1.4, and total 14.1 ± 3.5 were included. The word cloud identified the most frequently used word ('cough'); etiology ('asthma'); and words associated with change in states ('influence,' 'changing,' 'change') and expressions ('tough,' 'pain,' 'hard,' 'terrible,' 'unpleasant'). The patients experienced 'mental/social burden,' 'physical burden,' 'impact on sleep and meals,' 'impact on work and housework,' 'impact on communication,' 'impact on hobbies and leisure,' and 'economic burden.' By closed coding analysis, the situations or types of burden patients experienced from the cough were ordered sequentially as emotion, working style, acquaintanceship, hobbies and leisure, and sleeping pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated that there were two types of participant clusters, in which one showed mainly the burdens in the social communications such as work-related communication and another one showed the burdens of relationships with others. Also, some participants highlighted 'mental burden,' on social life due to the current pandemic. To relieve these burdens, disease awareness and knowledge should be improved for patients with refractory and unexplained chronic cough. Trial registration The trial was registered under UMIN-CTR as UMIN000042772, on 17/12/2020. The study was approved by the Medical Corporation Toukeikai Kitamachi Clinic (IRB registration number: 11001110).


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Tosse , Doença Crônica , Tosse/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 735, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International research shows marital status impacts the mental health of pregnant women, with prenatal depression and anxiety being higher among non-partnered women. However, there have been few studies examining the relationship between marital status and prenatal mental disorders among Australian women. METHODS: This is a population-based retrospective cohort study using linked data from the New South Wales (NSW) Perinatal Data Collection (PDC) and Admitted Patients Data Collection (APDC). The cohort consists of a total of 598,599 pregnant women with 865,349 admissions. Identification of pregnant women for mental disorders was conducted using the 10th version International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM). A binary logistic regression model was used to estimate the relationship between marital status and prenatal mental disorder after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: Of the included pregnant women, 241 (0.04%), 107 (0.02%) and 4359 (0.5%) were diagnosed with depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and self-harm, respectively. Non-partnered pregnant women had a higher likelihood of depressive disorder (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.75; 95% CI: 2.04, 3.70) and anxiety disorder (AOR = 3.16, 95% CI: 2.03, 4.91), compared with partnered women. Furthermore, the likelihood of experiencing self-harm was two times higher among non-partnered pregnant women (AOR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.82, 2.20) than partnered pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: Non-partnered marital status has a significant positive association with prenatal depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and self-harm. This suggests it would be highly beneficial for maternal health care professionals to screen non-partnered pregnant women for prenatal mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and self-harm.


Assuntos
Doenças Fetais , Web Semântica , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estado Civil , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
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