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1.
Gene ; 806: 145935, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478821

RESUMO

Soluble molecules of programmed death ligand 1 (sPD-L1) are known to modulate T-cell depletion, an important mechanism of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence and liver disease progression. In addition, PD-L1 polymorphisms in the 3'-UTR can influence PD-L1 expression and have been associated with cancer risk, although not definitively. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of PD-L1 polymorphisms and circulating levels of sPD-L1 in HBV infection and live disease progression. In this study, five hundred fifty-one HBV infected patients of the three clinically well-defined subgroups chronic hepatitis B (CHB, n = 186), liver cirrhosis (LC, n = 142) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n = 223) and 240 healthy individuals (HC) were enrolled. PD-L1 polymorphisms (rs2297136 and rs4143815) were genotyped by in-house validated ARMS assays. Logistic regression models were applied in order to determine the association of PD-L1 polymorphisms with HBV infection as well as with progression of related liver diseases. Plasma sPD-L1 levels were quantified by ELISA assays. The PD-L1 rs2297136 AA genotype was associated with HBV infection susceptibility (HBV vs. HC: OR = 1.6; 95%CI = 1.1-2.3; p = 0.0087) and disease progression (LC vs. CHB: OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.1-2.9; p = 0.018). Whereas, the rs2297136 GG genotype was a protective factor for HCC development. Plasma sPD-L1 levels were significantly high in HBV patients (p < 0.0001) and higher in the LC followed by CHB and HCC groups. High sPD-L1 levels correlated with increased liver enzymes and with advanced liver disease progression (Child-pugh C > B > A, p < 0.0001) and BCLC classification (BCLC D > C > B > A, p = 0.031). We could, for the first time, conclude that PD-L1 rs2297136 polymorphism and plasma sPD-L1 protein levels associate with HBV infection and HBV-related liver disease progression.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite B Crônica/genética , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Adulto , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Vírus da Hepatite B/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
2.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e56037, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151921

RESUMO

Objetivo: mapear as evidências disponíveis na literatura acerca dos manejos e desfechos da infecção pelo novo coronavírus no puerpério. Método: revisão de escopo conforme o Institute Joanna Briggs, desenvolvida em quatro fontes de dados eletrônicas. A extração, análise e síntese dos dados foi realizada por quatro pesquisadores independentes. Resultados: Nove publicações foram revisadas de 188 localizadas. Seis foram os países produtores das evidências, todas obtidas e publicadas em 2020. Vinte e um casos de COVID-19 no puerpério estiveram tratados nestas publicações, sendo 15 (71,4%) relativos a evoluções graves/exacerbação da doença e seis (28,6%) diagnosticados após a alta hospitalar. Conclusão: O mapeamento aponta para a ocorrência da infecção ou seu agravamento no período pós-parto, com indicativas ao monitoramento de sinais e sintomas, exploração diagnóstica e tratamento acurado e necessidade de acompanhamento próximo das mulheres diagnosticadas com COVID-19, sintomáticas ou não, no período pós-parto.


Objective: to map the evidence available in the literature about management and outcomes of postpartum infection by the new coronavirus. Method: scoping review conducted in four electronic sources, following Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. Data were extracted, analyzed and summarized by four researchers independently. Results: nine of the 188 publications located were reviewed. The evidence, all obtained and published in 2020, was produced in six countries. These publications considered 21 cases of postpartum COVID-19, 15 (71.4%) of which related to severe developments / exacerbation of the disease and six (28.6%) diagnosed after hospital discharge. Conclusion: the mapping points to the occurrence of infection or worsening of the disease in the postpartum period, indicating the need for monitoring of signs and symptoms, diagnostic exploration and accurate treatment and the need for close monitoring of postpartum women diagnosed with COVID-19, whether symptomatic or not.


Objetivo: mapear las evidencias disponibles en la literatura sobre el manejo y los resultados de la infección por el nuevo coronavirus en el período posparto. Método: revisión del alcance según el Instituto Joanna Briggs, desarrollada en cuatro fuentes de datos electrónicas. La extracción, el análisis y la síntesis de los datos fueron realizados por cuatro investigadores independientes. Resultados: se revisaron nueve publicaciones de 188 encontradas. Fueron seis los países que produjeron las evidencias, obtenidas y publicadas en 2020. En estas publicaciones se trataron 21 casos de COVID-19 en el período posparto, 15 (71,4%) de los cuales estaban relacionados con evoluciones graves/exacerbación de la enfermedad y seis (28,6%) diagnosticados tras el alta hospitalaria. Conclusión: el mapeo apunta hacia la ocurrencia de la infección o su agravamiento en el posparto, con indicaciones de seguimiento de indicios y síntomas, exploración diagnóstica, tratamiento preciso y la necesidad de un seguimiento cercano a las mujeres diagnosticadas con COVID-19, sintomáticas o no, en el período posparto.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Saúde da Mulher , Período Pós-Parto , COVID-19 , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Revisão , Infecções por Coronavirus , Período Pós-Parto/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico
4.
Anticancer Res ; 41(10): 5117-5122, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593462

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of selected tumor markers for the detection of lung cancer recurrence during follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 109 patients and 109 healthy controls. The following biomarkers were selected: Carcinoembryonic antigen; cytokeratin fragment 19; neuron-specific enolase; tissue polypeptide-specific antigen; cytokeratin fragments 8, 18 and 19; insulin-like growth factor 1; pro-gastrin-releasing peptide; and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The biomarkers were assessed individually or using a multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Carcinoembryonic antigen [area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC)=0.6857, p<0.0001] and cytokeratin fragment 19 (AUC=0.6882, p<0.0001) proved best in detecting relapse. The multivariate model indicated insulin-like growth factor 1 (p=0.0006, AUC=0.6225) as the third most useful biomarker. The multivariate model using these three markers achieved the best AUC value of 0.7730 (p=0.0050). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that carcinoembryonic antigen and cytokeratin fragment 19 play a key role in the detection of lung cancer recurrence. A multivariate approach can increase the effectiveness of detection.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Pneumonectomia/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/sangue , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
Anticancer Res ; 41(10): 5171-5177, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Computed tomography and positron emission tomography cannot detect all minute distant metastases and fully evaluate extensive vascular invasion in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of laparotomy only and palliative surgery in PDAC patients planning surgical resection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed 239 PDAC patients planning surgical resection. Patients were divided into two groups based on resection status. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of unresectable disease at laparotomy. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients had unresectable disease at laparotomy. Multivariate analysis revealed that anatomical borderline resectable status (yes/no) (HR=5.458, p=0.012), pretreatment CA19-9 (>260/≤260 ng/ml) (HR=4.907, p=0.041), and tumor size (>25/≤25 mm) (HR=21.42, p=0.004) were associated with unresectable disease at laparotomy. CONCLUSION: Borderline resectable status, pretreatment CA19-9, and tumor size were closely associated with unresectable disease at laparotomy in PDAC patients planning surgical resection.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Antígeno CA-19-9/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Laparotomia/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27310, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596129

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The association between serum total cholesterol (TC) level and incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in patients with follicular thyroid cancer postthyroidectomy is unknown.This was a retrospective study and patients (n = 384) were divided into low and high TC groups according to the median TC level. Incidence of composite ASCVD (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and cardiovascular death) was compared between these 2 groups and factors contributing to the association of TC and ASCVD were evaluated.Patients in the high TC group were older and more likely to have diabetes and have higher C-reactive protein level. After thyroidectomy, serum levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine were lower while thyroid-stimulating hormone level was higher in the high TC group. 31.6% and 39.7% of patients developed hypothyroidism in the low and high TC groups (P < .05) postthyroidectomy. The incidence rate of composite ASCVD was higher in the high TC versus low TC groups, with incidence rate ratio of 1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-2.69), which was mainly driven by a higher incidence rate of myocardial infarction in the high TC group (incidence rate ratio: 2.11 and 95% CI: 1.10-4.20). In unadjusted model, higher TC was associated with 73% higher risk of composite ASCVD. After adjustment for hypothyroidism, the association of higher TC and composite ASCVD was attenuated into insignificance, with hazard ratio of 0.92 and 95% CI: 0.81 to 1.34.Increased TC level was associated with composite ASCVD, which might be attributed to hypothyroidism postthyroidectomy. The use of levothyroxine might help to prevent hypercholestemia and reduce the incidence of ASCVD.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/cirurgia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27314, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596130

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and nasal nitric oxide (nNO) in allergic rhinitis (AR) and patients with or without bronchial asthma (BA).A total of 90 patients who were diagnosed with persistent AR (AR group, n = 30), BA (BA group, n = 30), or allergic rhinitis with bronchial asthma (AR-BA) (AR-BA group, n = 30), were enrolled in this study, along with 30 healthy adult volunteers (control group, n = 30). The participants were further divided into 2 groups based on the results of a skin-prick test (SPT): a highly atopic group (SPT = 3+ and above) and a moderately atopic group (SPT = 2+ and below). All participants underwent FeNO and nNO measurement, an absolute blood eosinophil count, total serum immunoglobulin measurement, and horizontal baseline lung capacity determination.The results showed that the FeNO levels in the 3 observation groups were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < .01), and in the BA group they were significantly higher than in the AR-BA group (P < .01). The levels of nNO in both the AR group and the AR-BA group were higher than those in the control group and the BA group (P < .01), but there was no significant difference between the AR group and the AR-BA group (P > .05). The levels of nNO in the BA group were also significantly different from those in the control group (P < .01).FeNO and nNO are positively correlated with the degree of AR in patients with BA; therefore, nNO levels can be used as an inflammatory marker of AR in patients with BA. FeNO can also be used as an inflammatory marker of AR in patients complicated with BA as a warning indicator of asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/patologia , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Nariz/patologia , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Expiração , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Adulto Jovem
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27336, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596138

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Mixed neuroendocrine non-neuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNEN) is a rare tumor. MiNEN of the gallbladder (GB) with pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PMJ) is extremely rare. The origin of MiNEN of the GB remains unknown; the biliary tract normally lacks neuroendocrine cells. MiNEN of the GB has a poor prognosis; because of its rarity, no treatment or management guidelines have been established yet. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 47-year-old male presenting with right hypochondrial pain and malaise for 3 months was referred to our hospital for further management. DIAGNOSIS: The neuron-specific enolase level was increased. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a mass of 70 mm in size with unclear boundaries in the liver. The GB was surrounded by this mass, narrowing the lumen of the GB. Many swollen lymph nodes were observed in the hepatoduodenal ligament. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed a PMJ with a non-dilated biliary duct. A percutaneous biopsy was performed on the liver mass, and the pathological findings were neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) (small cell type). We diagnosed a NEC of the GB, T3N1M0, stage IIIB (Union for International Cancer Control, 7th edition). INTERVENTIONS: Because of advanced lymph node metastasis, we considered this tumor difficult to cure solely by surgical intervention. After initial chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and irinotecan, a marked reduction in both tumor and lymph node sizes enabled conversion surgery. The pathological diagnosis of the resected tumor was MiNEN consisting of NEC and adenocarcinoma. The primary lesion was the adenocarcinoma occupying the luminal side of the GB. As a postsurgical treatment, the patient received additional irradiation therapy to the common hepatic duct and liver stump because of positive surgical margins. OUTCOMES: At 13 months postoperatively, computed tomography findings revealed the appearance of a hypervascular liver tumor, and laboratory data showed increased serum neuron-specific enolase levels. Chemotherapy was unsuccessful, leading to the death of the patient 36 months from the date of diagnosis. LESSONS: There are several reports on the development of MiNEN of the GB. In our case, a PMJ-related adenocarcinoma of the GB transdifferentiated into NEC. Further accumulation of cases is necessary to establish a treatment strategy for MiNEN of the GB.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/complicações , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/complicações , Má Junção Pancreaticobiliar/complicações , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/terapia , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/sangue
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27352, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596142

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have reported a connection between non-coding RNAs such as circular RNAs (circRNAs) and the prognosis of various cancers. However, the mechanism of circRNA in ovarian cancer and cervical cancer has not been consistent. We evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic roles of circRNAs in ovarian and cervical cancer by meta-analysis. METHODS: Pooled hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were to estimate overall survival. Diagnostic efficacy was estimated by sensitivity, specificity and area under curve. RESULTS: By searching PubMed, Embase, the Web of Science databases, and other sources, we obtained a total of 22 studies with 2059 patients from Asia population. High expression levels of oncogenic circRNAs were significantly associated with poor prognoses both in ovarian and cervical cancer. However, elevated expression levels of tumor-suppressor circRNAs were linked with favorable survival time in ovarian cancer. As for diagnostic role, the area under the curve value in ovarian cancer and cervical cancer is 0.89 and 0.93, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: CircRNAs have the prospect of becoming a promising biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of ovarian and cervical cancer. Accordingly, circRNAs might be novel indicators and targets of therapy for ovarian and cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , RNA Circular/biossíntese , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , RNA Circular/sangue , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/sangue , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 206, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603587

RESUMO

Introduction: type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a global public health crisis. The increment in the cases has contributed significantly to the parallel increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. This paper aimed to analyse the relationship between lipid profile, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) with the glycaemic control of the diabetes patients in Kedah. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted, using the Kedah audit samples data extracted from the National Diabetes Registry (NDR) from the year 2014 to 2018. A total of 25,062 registered type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were selected using the inclusion and exclusion criteria from the registry. Only patients with complete data on their HbA1C, lipid profile, waist circumference and BMI were analysed using SPSS version 21. Results: the means for the age, BMI and waist circumference of the samples were 61.5 (±10.85) years, 27.3 (±5.05) kg/m2 and 89.46 (±13.58) cm, respectively. Poor glycaemic control (HbA1c>6.5%) was observed in 72.7% of the patients, with females having poorer glycaemic control. The BMI and waist circumference were found to be significantly associated with glycaemic control (P<0.001). The total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins values showed positive correlation with glycaemic control (r = 0.178, 0.157, 0.145, p<0.001), while high-density lipoproteins values are negatively correlated (r = -0.019, p<0.001). Conclusion: implementing lifestyle changes such as physical activity and dietary modifications are important in the management of BMI, waist circumference and body lipids, which in turn results in improved glycaemic control.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso , Sistema de Registros , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia
11.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 39(4): 733-744, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600634

RESUMO

Abdominal pain is one of the most common presenting complaints to the emergency department (ED). More often than not, some degree of laboratory testing is used to narrow the differential diagnosis based on the patient's history and examination. Ordering practices are often guided by evidence, habit, consulting services, and institutional/regional culture. This review highlights relevant laboratory studies that may be ordered in the ED, as well as commentary on indications and diagnostic value of these tests.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Líquido Ascítico/química , Biomarcadores/análise , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Creatina/sangue , Eletrólitos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Testes de Função Hepática , Testes de Função Pancreática , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 199, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603580

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in December 2019. The disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Mild respiratory symptoms are the most common manifestations of SARS-CoV-2, but new signs are constantly being discovered as it spreads. Disorders of sodium balance are increasingly described in patients with SARS-CoV-2. We report, here, the cases of two patients presented with COVID-19 and in whom we discovered sodium disorders. The first patient is a 74-year-old man who presented with fatal hypernatremia. The second patient is a 66-years-old man presented with COVID-19 and euvolemic hyponatremia attributed to syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). This hyponatremia persisted long after the respiratory signs disappeared. Sodium balance disorders are increasingly described in the literature; special attention should be paid to the electrolyte status of COVID-19 patients. Pathophysiological mechanisms associating SARS-CoV-2 with these disorders are being studied.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Hipernatremia/virologia , Síndrome de Secreção Inadequada de HAD/virologia , Idoso , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Hipernatremia/diagnóstico , Hiponatremia/diagnóstico , Hiponatremia/virologia , Síndrome de Secreção Inadequada de HAD/diagnóstico , Masculino , Sódio/sangue
13.
Acta Med Indones ; 53(3): 308-314, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611070

RESUMO

COVID-19 became a widespread infectious disease in late 2019. Indonesia currently has the highest COVID-19 mortality rate in Asia, between 4-5 percent. Interestingly, COVID-19-associated coagulopathy characterized by an increase of several procoagulant factor levels, including fibrinogen and D-dimer, that has been associated with higher mortality and unfavorable outcomes. We report a case of a 30-year-old male admitted to the hospital with a profuse vomiting and worsening fever, cough and shortness of breath, and was diagnosed with COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. Seven days after admission, he became deteriorated with significant reduction of oxygen saturation and his coagulation parameter levels were increased with highly suspicion of pulmonary embolism. He was treated with azithromycin, isoprinosine, lopinavir, and fondaparinux with thromboprophylaxis dosage since admission. The role of increased fondaparinux dosage at the time of clinical deterioration was then followed by clinical improvement and reduced D-dimer level. Anticoagulant therapy, mainly with fondaparinux, showed a better prognosis in patients with markedly elevated D-Dimer. Fondaparinux needs to be monitored appropriately to prevent bleeding and adverse. The patient was discharged from the hospital in an improved condition and normal D-Dimer levels. There was no bleeding event nor other major side effects had been found in this case. The decision for increasing dose of anticoagulant may be determined on individual basis, considering risks, benefits, and also the most important is clinical findings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fondaparinux , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Embolia Pulmonar , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Trombofilia , Adulto , Antivirais , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Deterioração Clínica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Fondaparinux/administração & dosagem , Fondaparinux/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Inosina Pranobex/administração & dosagem , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Trombofilia/complicações , Trombofilia/diagnóstico , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombofilia/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Acta Med Indones ; 53(3): 319-325, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611072

RESUMO

One of the main causes of death in COVID-19 is the dysregulation of the host's immune system which leads to cytokine storm, a potentially fatal systemic inflammatory syndrome. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is produced in response to infections and tissue injuries and is believed to play a pivotal role in the event of a cytokine storm, as signified by its increase in the process. Considering the role of IL-6 as a pro-inflammatory cytokine in the process of cytokine storm in COVID-19, perceiving IL-6 as a therapeutic target could prove to be promising. Tocilizumab is a monoclonal antibody that competitively inhibits the binding of IL-6 to its receptor (IL-6R). The use of IL-6R blocker is recommended for severe COVID-19 patients in the latest therapeutic guideline published by the World Health Organization (WHO), but the timing of the administration has not been specified. While previous studies about the use of tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients have shown various results, these studies do not emphasize on plasma IL-6 levels when deciding the time of tocilizumab administration. In this case series, we present three patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 infections that receive tocilizumab as an adjunct to the standard of care therapy. This case series introduces the novel idea that the timely use of tocilizumab as signified by plasma IL-6 levels in moderate to severe COVID-19 patients could potentially improve overall clinical condition and increase survival rate.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , COVID-19 , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Interleucina-6 , Receptores de Interleucina-6/imunologia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596013

RESUMO

Introduction. Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces quorum sensing signalling molecules including 2-alkyl-4-quinolones (AQs), which regulate virulence factor production in the cystic fibrosis (CF) airways.Hypothesis/Gap statement. Culture can lead to condition-dependent artefacts which may limit the potential insights and applications of AQs as minimally-invasive biomarkers of bacterial load.Aim. We aimed to use culture-independent methods to explore the correlations between AQ levels and live P. aeruginosa load in adults with CF.Methodology. Seventy-five sputum samples at clinical stability and 48 paired sputum samples obtained at the beginning and end of IV antibiotics for a pulmonary exacerbation in adults with CF were processed using a viable cell separation technique followed by quantitative P. aeruginosa polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Live P. aeruginosa qPCR load was compared with the concentrations of three AQs (HHQ, NHQ and HQNO) detected in sputum, plasma and urine.Results. At clinical stability and the beginning of IV antibiotics for pulmonary exacerbation, HHQ, NHQ and HQNO measured in sputum, plasma and urine were consistently positively correlated with live P. aeruginosa qPCR load in sputum, compared to culture. Following systemic antibiotics live P. aeruginosa qPCR load decreased significantly (P<0.001) and was correlated with a reduction in plasma NHQ (plasma: r=0.463, P=0.003).Conclusion. In adults with CF, AQ concentrations correlated more strongly with live P. aeruginosa bacterial load measured by qPCR compared to traditional culture. Prospective studies are required to assess the potential of systemic AQs as biomarkers of P. aeruginosa bacterial burden.


Assuntos
4-Quinolonas/isolamento & purificação , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Infecções por Pseudomonas/complicações , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Percepção de Quorum , 4-Quinolonas/sangue , 4-Quinolonas/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Carga Bacteriana , Biomarcadores , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Escarro/química , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19618, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608227

RESUMO

The pathophysiology and the factors determining disease severity in COVID-19 are not yet clear, with current data indicating a possible role of altered iron metabolism. Previous studies of iron parameters in COVID-19 are cross-sectional and have not studied catalytic iron, the biologically most active form of iron. The study was done to determine the role of catalytic iron in the adverse outcomes in COVID-19. We enrolled adult patients hospitalized with a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 and measured serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, hepcidin and serum catalytic iron daily. Primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, and kidney replacement therapy. Associations between longitudinal iron parameter measurements and time-to-event outcomes were examined using a joint model. We enrolled 120 patients (70 males) with median age 50 years. The primary composite outcome was observed in 25 (20.8%) patients-mechanical ventilation was needed in 21 (17.5%) patients and in-hospital mortality occurred in 21 (17.5%) patients. Baseline levels of ferritin and hepcidin were significantly associated with the primary composite outcome. The joint model analysis showed that ferritin levels were significantly associated with primary composite outcome [HR (95% CI) = 2.63 (1.62, 4.24) after adjusting for age and gender]. Both ferritin and serum catalytic iron levels were positively associated with in-hospital mortality [HR (95% CI) = 3.22 (2.05, 5.07) and 1.73 (1.21, 2.47), respectively], after adjusting for age and gender. The study shows an association of ferritin and catalytic iron with adverse outcomes in COVID-19. This suggests new pathophysiologic pathways in this disease, also raising the possibility of considering iron chelation therapy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Ferro/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Hepcidinas/sangue , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Ferro/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transferrina/química , Transferrina/metabolismo
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19675, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608231

RESUMO

Kidney function is affected in COVID-19, while kidney itself modulates the immune response. Here, hypothesize if COVID-19 urine biomarkers level can assess immune activation vs. clinical trajectory. Considering the kidney's critical role in modulating the immune response, we sought to analyze activation markers in patients with pre-existing dysfunction. This was a cross-sectional study of 68 patients. Blood and urine were collected within 48 h of hospital admission (H1), followed by 96 h (H2), seven days (H3), and up to 25 days (H4) from admission. Serum level ferritin, procalcitonin, IL-6 assessed immune activation overall, while the response to viral burden was gauged with serum level of spike protein and αspike IgM and IgG. 39 markers correlated highly between urine and blood. Age and race, and to a lesser extend gender, differentiated several urine markers. The burden of pre-existing conditions correlated with urine DCN, CAIX and PTN, but inversely with IL-5 or MCP-4. Higher urinary IL-12 and lower CAIX, CCL23, IL-15, IL-18, MCP-1, MCP-3, MUC-16, PD-L1, TNFRS12A, and TNFRS21 signified non-survivors. APACHE correlated with urine TNFRS12, PGF, CAIX, DCN, CXCL6, and EGF. Admission urine LAG-3 and IL-2 predicted death. Pre-existing kidney disease had a unique pattern of urinary inflammatory markers. Acute kidney injury was associated, and to a certain degree, predicted by IFNg, TWEAK, MMP7, and MUC-16. Remdesavir had a more profound effect on the urine biomarkers than steroids. Urinary biomarkers correlated with clinical status, kidney function, markers of the immune system activation, and probability of demise in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Biomarcadores/urina , COVID-19/imunologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD/urina , Biomarcadores/sangue , Antígeno Ca-125/urina , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Quimiocinas CC/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-12/urina , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/sangue
18.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257646, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610031

RESUMO

Dialysis patients are both the most likely to benefit from vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 and at the highest risk of not developing an immune response. Data from the medical field are thus mandatory. We report our experience with a BNT162b2-mRNA vaccine in a retrospective analysis of 241 dialysis patients including 193 who underwent anti-Spike-Protein-Receptor-Binding-Domain (RBD) IgG analysis. We show that a pro-active vaccine campaign is effective in convincing most patients to be vaccinated (95%) and frequently elicits a specific antibody response (94.3% after two doses and 98.4% after three doses). Only immunocompromised Status is associated with lack of seroconversion (OR 7.6 [1.5-38.2], p = 0.02). We also identify factors associated with low response (last quartile; IgG<500AU/mL): immunocompromised status, age, absence of RAAS inhibitors, low lymphocytes count, high C Reactive Protein; and with high response (high quartile; IgG>7000AU/mL): age; previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and active Cancer. From this experience, we propose a strategy integrating anti-spike IgG monitoring to guide revaccination and dialysis center management in pandemic times.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Humoral , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
19.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 366, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) was the most common malignancy of biliary tract. Patients with malignancies frequently present with activated coagulation pathways, which might potentially related to tumor progression and prognosis. The purpose of the study was to investigate the clinical significance of preoperative serum fibrinogen levels and platelet counts in GBC patients. METHODS: The preoperative fasting serum fibrinogen levels and platelet counts of 58 patients with GBC were measured by AUV2700 automatic biochemical analyzer, as well as 60 patients with cholesterol polyps and 60 healthy volunteers. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was applied to show the correction between fibrinogen levels and outcome after surgery. RESULTS: The fibrinogen levels of patients with GBC were significantly higher than healthy gallbladder and cholesterol polyp of gallbladder (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). In GBC, fibrinogen levels were associated with tumor depth (p = 0.001), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.002), distant metastasis (p < 0.001) and Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) stage (p < 0.001). The levels in TNM stage IV disease were significantly higher than stage III or stage I + II disease (p = 0.048 and p < 0.001, respectively), and in TNM stage III disease were significantly higher than stage I + II disease (p = 0.002). Furthermore, the overall survival was better in low fibrinogen level group than in high fibrinogen level group (p < 0.001). However, thrombocytosis was not significantly associated with overall survivals (p > 0.05) in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The preoperative serum fibrinogen levels and platelet counts might be reliable biomarkers for the occurance of disease, tumor depth, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and advanced TNM stage in patients with GBC. The serum fibrinogen levels might be a prognostic factor to predict outcome for GBC patients suffering from surgery treatment. Anticoagulation therapy might be considered to control cancer progression in future studies.


Assuntos
Fibrinogênio , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar , Contagem de Plaquetas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fibrinogênio/análise , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/sangue , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/cirurgia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Prognóstico
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 739037, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594341

RESUMO

Background: Transfusion of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) containing high titers of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies serves as therapy for COVID-19 patients. Transfusions early during disease course was found to be beneficial. Lessons from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic could inform early responses to future pandemics and may continue to be relevant in lower resource settings. We sought to identify factors correlating to high antibody titers in convalescent plasma donors and understand the magnitude and pharmacokinetic time course of both transfused antibody titers and the endogenous antibody titers in transfused recipients. Methods: Plasma samples were collected up to 174 days after convalescence from 93 CCP donors with mild disease, and from 16 COVID-19 patients before and after transfusion. Using ELISA, anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD, S1, and N-protein antibodies, as well as capacity of antibodies to block ACE2 from binding to RBD was measured in an in vitro assay. As an estimate for viral load, viral RNA and N-protein plasma levels were assessed in COVID-19 patients. Results: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels and RBD-ACE2 blocking capacity were highest within the first 60 days after symptom resolution and markedly decreased after 120 days. Highest antibody titers were found in CCP donors that experienced fever. Effect of transfused CCP was detectable in COVID-19 patients who received high-titer CCP and had not seroconverted at the time of transfusion. Decrease in viral RNA was seen in two of these patients. Conclusion: Our results suggest that high titer CCP should be collected within 60 days after recovery from donors with past fever. The much lower titers conferred by transfused antibodies compared to endogenous production in the patient underscore the importance of providing CCP prior to endogenous seroconversion.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Convalescença , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Soroconversão , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Doadores de Sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Cinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , RNA Viral/sangue
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