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1.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 1-11, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229021

RESUMO

A pesar de los descubrimientos recientes, los pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) aún enfrentan desafíos para lograr la remisión. Los objetivos del estudio fueron identificar las características de los pacientes con el Inventario de Personalidad de Freiburg y la intensidad de la enfermedad colónica, comorbilidades que podrían estar relacionadas con la personalidad de los sujetos. Los datos se recopilaron en el período 2019-2020 de 46 pacientes y utilizaron métodos no paramétricos. En comparación con el grupo de control, las escalas de Inhibición, Problemas de salud y Emocionalidad tenían puntuaciones brutas significativamente más altas. Las escalas de Orientación Social, Franqueza y Extraversión tuvieron puntajes brutos significativamente más bajos. El estado de salud fue un factor médico que influyó en la escala de Quejas Somáticas, los pacientes que tenían lesiones o comorbilidades tenían puntuaciones brutas significativamente más altas. Los pacientes que tenían comorbilidades además de la EII tenían puntuaciones brutas considerablemente más altas en la escala de Excitabilidad. Se requieren intervenciones psicoterapéuticas de cambio en la percepción de la vida para abordar la descripción del sufrimiento subjetivo relacionado con molestias físicas (escala de quejas somáticas), una fuerte orientación hacia el rendimiento (escala de tensión), cambios de humor, ansiedad y pesimismo (escala de emocionalidad). Otra intervención es la reconsideración y (re)priorización de valores, como la familia, las relaciones íntimas, los amigos, la salud, el crecimiento, el desarrollo, el trabajo equilibrado, todos los cuales pueden promover una sensación de bienestar y equilibrio.(AU)


Despite recent discoveries, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) still face challenges with attainment of remission. The objectives of the study were to identify the characteristics of patients with the Freiburg Personality Inventory and the intensity of the intestinal disease, comorbidities that could be related to the personality of the subjects. Data were collected in the period 2019–2020 from 46 patients and used nonparametric methods. Compared to the normative sample, the Inhibitedness, Health Concerns, and Emotionality scales had significantly higher raw scores. The Social Orientation, Frankness, and Extraversionscales had significantly lower raw scores. Health status was a medical factor that influenced the Somatic Complaintsscale, patients who had lesions or comorbidities had significantly higher raw scores. Patients who had comorbidities in addition to IBD had considerably higher raw scores on the Excitability scale. Psychotherapeutic change interventions regarding life perception are required to tackle the description of subjective suffering related to physical inconveniences (Somatic Complaintsscale), a strong orientation toward performance (Strainscale), mood swings, anxiety, and pessimism (Emotionality scale). Another intervention is reconsidering values and (re) prioritization, such as family, intimate relationships, friends, health, growth, development, balanced work, all of which can promote a feeling of well-being and balance.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Psicoterapia/métodos , Sintomas Afetivos , Doença de Crohn/psicologia , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Medicina do Comportamento , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Colite Ulcerativa
2.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100415], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230356

RESUMO

Purpose: An increasing number of studies support the beneficial relationship between physical activity and stress coping in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, there has been limited understanding of the variables that may influence the nature of this relationship. Therefore, based on the social-cognitive framework and previous research, we aimed to examine the association between the habitual physical activity of people with MS and their coping effectiveness. Furthermore, we sought to determine the extent to which self-efficacy acts as a mediator in this relationship, considering the level of disability as a moderator variable. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 351 people with MS participated. The participants were asked to complete several assessment tools, including the Mini-COPE Inventory for Measurement—Coping with Stress, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Additionally, a neurologist assessed the severity of the disease using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. Information on the demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants was collected via a self-report survey. Two moderated mediation analyses were conducted as part of the study. Results: The study findings indicated a positive correlation between engagement in physical activity and self-efficacy among participants with high and medium disability levels. This, in turn, demonstrated a positive association with effective stress-coping strategies and a negative association with ineffective coping methods. In particular, a significant relationship was observed between involvement in physical activity and self-efficacy in participants with high disability, while it was not statistically significant in participants with low disability.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Exercício Físico , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Saúde da Pessoa com Deficiência , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Psicologia Clínica , Saúde Mental , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2739, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302678

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited, progressively debilitating blood disorder. Emerging gene therapies (GTx) may lead to a complete remission, the benefits of such can only be realized if GTx is affordable and accessible in the low-and middle-income countries (LMIC) with the greatest SCD burden. To estimate the health impacts and country-specific value-based prices (VBP) of a future gene therapy for SCD using a cost-utility model framework. We developed a lifetime Markov model to compare the costs and health outcomes of GTx versus standard of care for SCD. We modeled populations in seven LMICs and six high-income countries (HICs) estimating lifetime costs and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in comparison to estimates of a country's cost-effectiveness threshold. Each country's unique VBP for GTx was calculated via threshold analysis. Relative to SOC treatment alone, we found that hypothetical GTx reduced the number of people symptomatic with SCD over time leading to fewer DALYs. Across countries, VBPs ranged from $3.6 million (US) to $700 (Uganda). Our results indicate a wide range of GTx prices are required if it is to be made widely available and may inform burden and affordability for 'target product profiles' of GTx in SCD.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Humanos , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Anos de Vida Ajustados pela Incapacidade , Cadeias de Markov , Renda , Países em Desenvolvimento , Análise Custo-Benefício
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2722, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302693

RESUMO

Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) affects 2-5% of the global population, with imbalances in the skin microbiome implicated in its development. This study assessed the impact of an oily suspension containing Lactobacillus crispatus P17631 and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei I1688 (termed EUTOPLAC) on SD symptoms and the skin mycobiome-bacteriome modulation. 25 SD patients were treated with EUTOPLAC for a week. Symptom severity and skin mycobiome-bacteriome changes were measured at the start of the treatment (T0), after seven days (T8), and three weeks post-treatment (T28). Results indicated symptom improvement post-EUTOPLAC, with notable reductions in the Malassezia genus. Concurrently, bacterial shifts were observed, including a decrease in Staphylococcus and an increase in Lactobacillus and Lacticaseibacillus. Network analysis highlighted post-EUTOPLAC instability in fungal and bacterial interactions, with increased negative correlations between Malassezia and Lactobacillus and Lacticaseibacillus genera. The study suggests EUTOPLAC's potential as a targeted SD treatment, reducing symptoms and modulating the mycobiome-bacteriome composition.


Assuntos
Dermatite Seborreica , Malassezia , Microbiota , Micobioma , Probióticos , Humanos , Dermatite Seborreica/terapia , Dermatite Seborreica/microbiologia , Pele , Bactérias , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
5.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 71, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38303002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melissa officinalis (MO) is a well-known medicinal plant species used in the treatment of several diseases; it is widely used as a vegetable, adding flavour to dishes. This study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of MO Extract against hyperthyroidism induced by Eltroxin and γ-radiation. METHODS: Hyperthyroidism was induced by injecting rats with Eltroxin (100 µg/kg/ day) for 14 days and exposure to γ-radiation (IR) (5 Gy single dose). The hyperthyroid rats were orally treated with MO extract (75 mg/kg/day) at the beginning of the second week of the Eltroxin injection and continued for another week. The levels of thyroid hormones, liver enzymes and proteins besides the impaired hepatic redox status and antioxidant parameters were measured using commercial kits. The hepatic gene expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its inhibitor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1(Keap-1) in addition to hepatic inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α), Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and fibrogenic markers such as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-ß1) were determined. RESULTS: MO Extract reversed the effect of Eltroxin + IR on rats and attenuated the thyroid hormones. Moreover, it alleviated hyperthyroidism-induced hepatic damage by inhibiting the hepatic enzymes' activities as well as enhancing the production of proteins concomitant with improving cellular redox homeostasis by attenuating the deranged redox balance and modulating the Nrf2/Keap-1 pathway. Additionally, MO Extract alleviated the inflammatory response by suppressing the TNF- α and MCP-1 and prevented hepatic fibrosis via Nrf2-mediated inhibition of the TGF-ß1/Smad pathway. CONCLUSION: Accordingly, these results might strengthen the hepatoprotective effect of MO Extract in a rat model of hyperthyroidism by regulating the Nrf-2/ Keap-1 pathway.


Assuntos
Hipertireoidismo , Hepatopatias , Melissa , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Ratos , Expressão Gênica , Hipertireoidismo/complicações , Hipertireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado , Melissa/química , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Tiroxina/genética , Tiroxina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/terapia
6.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 19(1): 36, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38303068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acid Sphingomyelinase Deficiency (ASMD) is an ultra-rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by intracellular lipid accumulation resulting from reduced function of acid sphingomyelinase. Olipudase alfa, an enzyme replacement therapy, was recently approved in several countries for the treatment of the non-neurologic manifestations of ASMD. Studies demonstrate improvement in organomegaly, pulmonary function and lipid profiles with olipudase alfa, yet little is known about its impact on quality of life (QoL) for patients and caregivers. The purpose of this study is to better understand the real-life impact of ASMD on patients and caregivers and assess how olipudase alfa impacts QoL for pediatric patients and their caregivers. METHODS: Caregivers of pediatric patients (≤ 18 years of age) with a confirmed diagnosis of ASMD that received olipudase alfa for at least 12 months were recruited in early 2022 through national patient organizations to participate in a global online questionnaire followed by semi-structured interviews. Ten caregivers of patients with ASMD who utilized olipudase alfa as an experimental therapy for pediatric patients participated in the study. Quantitative analysis of the results was undertaken, and qualitative data was analyzed using an inductive thematic approach. RESULTS: Ten eligible participants completed questionnaires, and 8 of the 10 went on to participate in structured interviews. Symptom burden of ASMD and impact on symptomatology and quality of life after olipudase alfa use are reported here. Five themes emerged from analysis: (1) ASMD is a systemic disease with a wide array of manifestations that significantly impact QoL; (2) Olipudase alfa was associated with improvements in all non-neurologic manifestations of ASMD; (3) Participants perceived the risk associated with olipudase alfa to be low and the benefits to greatly outweigh any risk or burden; (4) Participants reported an unmet need to treat the neurologic manifestations of the disease despite the benefits of olipudase alfa in the management of non-neurological symptoms; (5) Participants felt all patients with ASMD need access to olipudase alfa based on the life-changing experience they perceived. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the sustained positive impact olipudase alfa had in many domains that are deemed important to patients and families living with ASMD and outline the extensive unmet need for patients and families living with ASMD.


Assuntos
Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas , Doenças de Niemann-Pick , Proteínas Recombinantes , Esfingomielina Fosfodiesterase , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas/métodos , Doenças de Niemann-Pick/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Esfingomielina Fosfodiesterase/uso terapêutico
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2762, 2024 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307884

RESUMO

Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is a therapeutic option for hyperlipoproteinemia(a) (hyper-Lp(a)) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). LA improves blood rheology, reduces oxidative stress parameters and improves endothelial function. The underlying molecular mechanisms of LA beneficial effects are unknown, but it has been suggested that LA exhibits multiple activities beyond simply removing lipoproteins. We hypothesized that LA removes not only lipoproteins, but also extracellular vesicles (EVs). To test this hypothesis, we performed a prospective study in 22 patients undergoing LA for hyper-Lp(a) and ASCVD. Different EVs subtypes were measured before and directly after LA, and after 7 days. We used calibrated flow cytometry to detect total particle concentration (diameter > ~ 100 nm), total lipoproteins concentration (diameter > 200 nm, RI > 1.51), total EV concentration (diameter > 200 nm, RI < 1.41), concentrations of EVs derived from erythrocytes (CD235a+; diameter > 200 nm, RI < 1.41), leukocytes (CD45+; diameter > 200 nm, RI < 1.41) and platelets (CD61+, PEVs; diameter > 200 nm, RI < 1.41). LA reduced the concentrations of all investigated EVs subtypes and lipoproteins. Lp(a) concentration was lowered by 64.5% [(58% - 71%); p < 0.001]. Plasma concentrations of EVs > 200 nm in diameter derived from platelets (CD61 +), leukocytes (CD45+) and erythrocytes (CD235a+) decreased after single LA procedure by 42.7% [(12.8-54.7); p = 0.005], 42.6% [(29.7-54.1); p = 0.030] and 26.7% [(1.0-62.7); p = 0.018], respectively, compared to baseline. All EV subtypes returned to the baseline concentrations in blood plasma after 7 days. To conclude, LA removes not only Lp(a), but also cell-derived EVs, which may contribute to LA beneficial effects.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos , Vesículas Extracelulares , Hiperlipoproteinemias , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Lipoproteína(a) , Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Aterosclerose/terapia
8.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 993, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307904

RESUMO

The concept of precision cell therapy targeting tumor-specific mutations is appealing but requires surface-exposed neoepitopes, which is a rarity in cancer. B cell receptors (BCR) of mature lymphoid malignancies are exceptional in that they harbor tumor-specific-stereotyped sequences in the form of point mutations that drive self-engagement of the BCR and autologous signaling. Here, we use a BCR light chain neoepitope defined by a characteristic point mutation (IGLV3-21R110) for selective targeting of a poor-risk subset of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. We develop murine and humanized CAR constructs expressed in T cells from healthy donors and CLL patients that eradicate IGLV3-21R110 expressing cell lines and primary CLL cells, but neither cells expressing the non-pathogenic IGLV3-21G110 light chain nor polyclonal healthy B cells. In vivo experiments confirm epitope-selective cytolysis in xenograft models in female mice using engrafted IGLV3-21R110 expressing cell lines or primary CLL cells. We further demonstrate in two humanized mouse models lack of cytotoxicity towards human B cells. These data provide the basis for advanced approaches of resistance-preventive and biomarker-guided cellular targeting of functionally relevant lymphoma driver mutations sparing normal B cells.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Humanos , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , Linfócitos B , Mutação , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética , Linfócitos T
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2761, 2024 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307949

RESUMO

Resistance training is an exercise against resistance designed to train the endurance and strength of muscle. To observe the effect of intervention of periodic resistance training on obese patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. A total of 60 obese patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy were randomized into resistance training group and aerobic exercise group (30 patients each group) for observing the changes of blood glucose, body weight, blood lipid, insulin resistance, serum creatinine (Scr), urinary microalbumin, urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) calculated by urinary creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after 12 weeks of intervention, and relevant significance as well. The number of patients with hypoglycemia during the intervention was also recorded. After 12 weeks of intervention, the weight, Body mass index (BMI), Waist, Triglyceride (TG), Cholesterol (TC), Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), Fasting glucose (FBG), Fasting insulin (FINS), Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and urine Albumin-Creatinine Ratio (uACR) were decreased and GFR was increased in both groups (P < 0.05), but the effect was more significant in the resistance training group. GFR was increased from 92.21 ± 10.67 mL/(min·1.73 m2) to 100.13 ± 12.99 mL/(min·1.73 m2) in resistance training group (P < 0.05). In the aerobic exercise group, GFR was increased from 89.98 ± 9.48 mL/(min·1.73 m2) to 92.51 ± 11.35 mL/(min·1.73 m2) (P > 0.05). Periodic resistance training can not only control the weight, blood sugar and blood lipid of obese patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy, but also improve the urinary albumin excretion rate and glomerular filtration rate of early obese patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy, and delay the progression of diabetic nephropathy. It is an effective non-drug intervention.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Treinamento de Força , Humanos , Creatinina , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Glicemia , Colesterol , Lipídeos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Albuminas
10.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 99(2): 318-335, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309939

RESUMO

Research cannot maximize population health unless it improves health for all members of the public, including special populations such as children, older adults, and people living with rare diseases. Each of these categories require special considerations when planning and performing clinical trials, and common threads of ethical conduct of research in vulnerable populations appear throughout. In this review, definitions of each of the three categories of special population (children, older adults, and rare diseases) are discussed in terms of US research regulations, the unique challenges to conducting clinical trials for these special populations, critical ethical issues, and opportunities for innovative ways to design and operationalize clinical trials in special populations. Additional critical attention is focused on factors that influence the generalizability of study results to reduce health disparities, as well as the importance of community engagement and advocacy groups that can help to educate potential trial participants of the benefits of clinical trial participation.


Assuntos
Doenças Raras , Populações Vulneráveis , Criança , Humanos , Idoso , Doenças Raras/terapia
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2848, 2024 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310116

RESUMO

In recent years, due to the shortage of blood products, some extensive burn patients were forced to adopt an "ultra-restrictive" transfusion strategy, in which the hemoglobin levels of RBC transfusion thresholds were < 7 g/dl or even < 6 g/dl. This study investigated the prognostic impacts of ultra-restrictive RBC transfusion in extensive burn patients. This retrospective multicenter cohort study recruited extensive burns (total body surface area ≥ 50%) from three hospitals in Eastern China between 1 January 2016 and 30 June 2022. Patients were divided into an ultra-restrictive transfusion group and a restrictive transfusion group depending on whether they received timely RBC transfusion at a hemoglobin level < 7 g/dl. 1:1 ratio propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to balance selection bias. Modified Poisson regression and linear regression were conducted for sensitive analysis. Subsequently, according to whether they received timely RBC transfusion at a hemoglobin level < 6 g/dl, patients in the ultra-restrictive transfusion group were divided into < 6 g/dl group and 6-7 g/dl group to further compare the prognostic outcomes. 271 eligible patients with extensive burns were included, of whom 107 patients were in the ultra-restrictive transfusion group and 164 patients were in the restrictive transfusion group. The ultra-restrictive transfusion group had a significantly lower RBC transfusion volume than the restrictive transfusion group (11.5 [5.5, 21.5] vs 17.3 [9.0, 32.5] units, p = 0.004). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of in-hospital mortality, risk of infection, hospital length of stay, and wound healing time after PSM or multivariate adjustment (p > 0.05). Among the ultra-restrictive transfusion group, patients with RBC transfusion threshold < 6 g/dl had a significantly higher hospital mortality than 6-7 g/dl (53.1% vs 21.3%, p = 0.001). For extensive burn patients, no significant adverse effects of ultra-restrictive RBC transfusion were found in this study. When the blood supply is tight, it is acceptable to adopt an RBC transfusion threshold of < 7 g/dL but not < 6 g/dL.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Humanos , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Transfusão de Sangue , Queimaduras/terapia , Queimaduras/etiologia , Hemoglobinas/análise
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2850, 2024 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310134

RESUMO

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has benefits for motor rehabilitation in stroke patients, but its clinical application is limited due to inter-individual heterogeneous effects. Recently, optimized tDCS that considers individual brain structure has been proposed, but the utility thereof has not been studied in detail. We explored whether optimized tDCS provides unique electrode positions for each patient and creates a higher target electric field than the conventional approach. A comparative within-subject simulation study was conducted using data collected for a randomized controlled study evaluating the effect of optimized tDCS on upper extremity function in stroke patients. Using Neurophet tES LAB 3.0 software, individual brain models were created based on magnetic resonance images and tDCS simulations were performed for each of the conventional and optimized configurations. A comparison of electrode positions between conventional tDCS and optimized tDCS was quantified by calculation of Euclidean distances. A total of 21 stroke patients were studied. Optimized tDCS produced a higher electric field in the hand motor region than conventional tDCS, with an average improvement of 20% and a maximum of 52%. The electrode montage for optimized tDCS was unique to each patient and exhibited various configurations that differed from electrode placement of conventional tDCS. Optimized tDCS afforded a higher electric field in the target of a stroke patient compared to conventional tDCS, which was made possible by appropriately positioning the electrodes. Our findings may encourage further trials on optimized tDCS for motor rehabilitation after stroke.


Assuntos
Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Humanos , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Eletrodos
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2840, 2024 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310152

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a global health challenge, and patient education plays a crucial role in its early detection and treatment. Despite progress in AI technology, as exemplified by transformer-like models such as ChatGPT, there remains a lack of in-depth understanding of their efficacy for medical purposes. We aimed to assess the proficiency of ChatGPT in the field of popular science, specifically in answering questions related to CRC diagnosis and treatment, using the book "Colorectal Cancer: Your Questions Answered" as a reference. In general, 131 valid questions from the book were manually input into ChatGPT. Responses were evaluated by clinical physicians in the relevant fields based on comprehensiveness and accuracy of information, and scores were standardized for comparison. Not surprisingly, ChatGPT showed high reproducibility in its responses, with high uniformity in comprehensiveness, accuracy, and final scores. However, the mean scores of ChatGPT's responses were significantly lower than the benchmarks, indicating it has not reached an expert level of competence in CRC. While it could provide accurate information, it lacked in comprehensiveness. Notably, ChatGPT performed well in domains of radiation therapy, interventional therapy, stoma care, venous care, and pain control, almost rivaling the benchmarks, but fell short in basic information, surgery, and internal medicine domains. While ChatGPT demonstrated promise in specific domains, its general efficiency in providing CRC information falls short of expert standards, indicating the need for further advancements and improvements in AI technology for patient education in healthcare.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Medicina Interna , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Manejo da Dor , Benchmarking , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2826, 2024 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310156

RESUMO

The number of cancer cases diagnosed during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has decreased. This study investigated the impact of the pandemic on the clinical practice of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using a novel nationwide REgistry for Advanced Liver diseases (REAL) in Japan. We retrieved data of patients initially diagnosed with HCC between January 2018 and December 2021. We adopted tumor size as the primary outcome measure and compared it between the pre-COVID-19 (2018 and 2019) and COVID-19 eras (2020 and 2021). We analyzed 13,777 patients initially diagnosed with HCC (8074 in the pre-COVID-19 era and 5703 in the COVID-19 era). The size of the maximal intrahepatic tumor did not change between the two periods (mean [SD] = 4.3 [3.6] cm and 4.4 [3.6] cm), whereas the proportion of patients with a single tumor increased slightly from 72.0 to 74.3%. HCC was diagnosed at a similar Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage. However, the proportion of patients treated with systemic therapy has increased from 5.4 to 8.9%. The proportion of patients with a non-viral etiology significantly increased from 55.3 to 60.4%. Although the tumor size was significantly different among the etiologies, the subgroup analysis showed that the tumor size did not change after stratification by etiology. In conclusion, the characteristics of initially diagnosed HCC remained unchanged during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, regardless of differences in etiology. A robust surveillance system should be established particularly for non-B, non-C etiology to detect HCC in earlier stages.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Pandemias , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Sistema de Registros , Teste para COVID-19
15.
Acta Neuropathol ; 147(1): 31, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310187

RESUMO

Anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) meningoencephalomyelitis (autoimmune GFAP astrocytopathy) is a new autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) disease diagnosable by the presence of anti-GFAP autoantibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid and presents as meningoencephalomyelitis in the majority of patients. Only few neuropathological reports are available and little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms. We performed a histopathological study of two autopsies and nine CNS biopsies of patients with anti-GFAP autoantibodies and found predominantly a lymphocytic and in one autopsy case a granulomatous inflammatory phenotype. Inflammatory infiltrates were composed of B and T cells, including tissue-resident memory T cells. Although obvious astrocytic damage was absent in the GFAP-staining, we found cytotoxic T cell-mediated reactions reflected by the presence of CD8+/perforin+/granzyme A/B+ cells, polarized towards astrocytes. MHC-class-I was upregulated in reactive astrocytes of all biopsies and two autopsies but not in healthy controls. Importantly, we observed a prominent immunoreactivity of astrocytes with the complement factor C4d. Finally, we provided insight into an early phase of GFAP autoimmunity in an autopsy of a pug dog encephalitis that was characterized by marked meningoencephalitis with selective astrocytic damage with loss of GFAP and AQP4 in the lesions.Our histopathological findings indicate that a cytotoxic T cell-mediated immune reaction is present in GFAP autoimmunity. Complement C4d deposition on astrocytes could either represent the cause or consequence of astrocytic reactivity. Selective astrocytic damage is prominent in the early phase of GFAP autoimmunity in a canine autopsy case, but mild or absent in subacute and chronic stages in human disease, probably due to the high regeneration potential of astrocytes. The lymphocytic and granulomatous phenotypes might reflect different stages of lesion development or patient-specific modifications of the immune response. Future studies will be necessary to investigate possible implications of pathological subtypes for clinical disease course and therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso , Encefalomielite , Meningoencefalite , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Encefalomielite/patologia , Astrócitos/patologia , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Meningoencefalite/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Meningoencefalite/patologia , Autoanticorpos
16.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 131, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310237

RESUMO

The capability to gather heterogeneous data, alongside the increasing power of artificial intelligence to examine it, leading a revolution in harnessing multimodal data in the life sciences. However, most approaches are limited to unimodal data, leaving integrated approaches across modalities relatively underdeveloped in computational pathology. Pathogenomics, as an invasive method to integrate advanced molecular diagnostics from genomic data, morphological information from histopathological imaging, and codified clinical data enable the discovery of new multimodal cancer biomarkers to propel the field of precision oncology in the coming decade. In this perspective, we offer our opinions on synthesizing complementary modalities of data with emerging multimodal artificial intelligence methods in pathogenomics. It includes correlation between the pathological and genomic profile of cancer, fusion of histology, and genomics profile of cancer. We also present challenges, opportunities, and avenues for future work.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Inteligência Artificial , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Oncologia/métodos , Prognóstico
17.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 24(1): 62, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT) is the validated non-pharmacological treatment for chronic pain in pediatric patients. While some suggested CBT were comparable to the usual care in reducing children's functional abdominal pain. This meta-analysis was designed to systematically review the literature for RCTs that investigated the efficacy of CBT in children with functional abdominal pain (FAP). METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched for papers published up to October 2022. Studies applying different CBT delivery methods (in-person, web-based, phone-based) were included in this meta-analysis to evaluate the comprehensive effectiveness of CBT compared with usual care. Weighted and standardized mean difference with the 95% confidence intervals were used for the synthesis of the results. Primary outcome was the decrease of functional disability inventory (FDI) and the secondary outcomes were the decrease of severity in pain intensity, depression, anxiety, gastrointestinal symptoms, and improvement in physical quality of life (QoL). RESULTS: A total of 10 RCTs with 1187 children were included in the final analysis. The results showed that CBT resulted in better effect in reducing functional disability inventory (SMD=-2.282, 95%CI: -4.537 to -0.027, P = 0.047), pain intensity (SMD=-0.594, 95%CI: -1.147 to -0.040, P = 0.036), and improving QoL (SMD = 14.097, 95%CI: 0.901 to 27.292, P = 0.036) compared with the control groups. Comparable effects were observed in the severity of depression (SMD=-0.493, 95%CI: -1.594 to 0.608, P = 0.380), anxiety (SMD=-0.062, 95%CI: -0.640 to 0.517, P = 0.835), and gastrointestinal symptoms (SMD=-1.096 95%CI: -2.243 to 0.050, P = 0.061) between CBT and usual treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We observed the differences in post-treatment FAP and pain intensity for children receiving CBT compared with children receiving treatment as usual. CBT in the setting of FAP demonstrates promising developments and highlights the need for future research.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Qualidade de Vida , Criança , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Dor Abdominal/terapia , Cognição
18.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 130, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310272

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockades have been prized in circumventing and ablating the impediments posed by immunosuppressive receptors, reaching an exciting juncture to be an innovator in anticancer therapy beyond traditional therapeutics. Thus far, approved immune checkpoint blockades have principally targeted PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 with exciting success in a plethora of tumors and yet are still trapped in dilemmas of limited response rates and adverse effects. Hence, unveiling new immunotherapeutic targets has aroused immense scientific interest in the hope of expanding the clinical application of immune checkpoint blockades to scale new heights. Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G), a non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule, is enriched on various malignant cells and is involved in the hindrance of immune effector cells and the facilitation of immunosuppressive cells. HLA-G stands out as a crucial next-generation immune checkpoint showing great promise for the benefit of cancer patients. Here, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the expression pattern and immunological functions of HLA-G, as well as its interaction with well-characterized immune checkpoints. Since HLA-G can be shed from the cell surface or released by various cells as free soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) or as part of extracellular vesicles (EVs), namely HLA-G-bearing EVs (HLA-GEV), we discuss the potential of sHLA-G and HLA-GEV as predictive biomarkers. This review also addresses the advancement of HLA-G-based therapies in preclinical and clinical settings, with a focus on their clinical application in cancer.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Neoplasias , Humanos , Antígenos HLA-G , Neoplasias/terapia , Biomarcadores , Imunoterapia , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo
19.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 23(1): 52, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in diabetic patients are still suboptimal, and it is unclear if diabetic patients might derive a benefit from the use of drug-coated balloons. AIMS: To evaluate the impact of diabetes mellitus on the outcomes of patients undergoing PCI with sirolimus-coated balloon (SCB) MagicTouch (Concept Medical, India). METHODS: We conducted a subgroup analysis of the prospective, multicenter, investigator-initiated EASTBOURNE registry, evaluating the performance of MagicTouch SCB in patients with and without diabetes. The study primary endpoint was target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 12-month follow-up. Secondary clinical endpoints were major adverse clinical events (MACE), death, myocardial infarction (MI), and BARC 2-5 bleedings. RESULTS: Among 2,083 enrolled patients, a total of 864 suffered from diabetes (41.5%). Patients with diabetes had a numerically higher occurrence of TLR (6.5% vs. 4.7% HR 1.38, 95%CI 0.91-2.08), all-cause death (3.8% vs. 2.6%, HR 1.81, 95%CI 0.95-3.46), and MACE (12.2% vs. 8.9%; HR 1.26 95%CI 0.92-1.74). The incidence of spontaneous MI was significantly higher among diabetic patients (3.4% vs. 1.5%, HR 2.15 95%CI 1.09-4.25); bleeding events did not significantly differ. The overall incidence of TLR was higher among in-stent restenosis (ISR) as compared to de-novo coronary lesions, irrespectively from diabetes status. CONCLUSIONS: In the EASTBOURNE DIABETES registry, diabetic patients treated with the MagicTouch SCB did not have a significant increase in TLR when compared to non-diabetic patients; moreover, diabetic status did not affect the study device performance in terms of TLR, in both de-novo lesions and ISR.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Reestenose Coronária , Diabetes Mellitus , Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Humanos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Sirolimo/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/induzido quimicamente , Sistema de Registros , Reestenose Coronária/epidemiologia , Reestenose Coronária/etiologia
20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311957

RESUMO

Fat emulsion is a drug commonly used clinically for parenteral nutrition support in critically ill patients.With the development of the pharmaceutical industry, fat emulsion has formed a variety of different formulations, among which different types of fat emulsion have their own metabolic and body energy supply characteristics, and the application indications are also different. In addition to providing the supply of nutrients, the role of fat emulsion in anti-toxicity, immune regulation, anti-inflammatory, anti-shock, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and other aspects has gradually been discovered. This article reviews the existing evidence-based medical evidence and expounds the mechanism and therapeutic role of fat emulsion in the treatment of critically ill patients with poisoning. Its value in the treatment of critically ill patients with poisoning was discussed, and some references were provided for the application of non-nutritional functions of fat emulsion in the future.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas , Humanos , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/metabolismo , Estado Terminal/terapia , Nutrição Parenteral
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