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1.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 1-11, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229021

RESUMO

A pesar de los descubrimientos recientes, los pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) aún enfrentan desafíos para lograr la remisión. Los objetivos del estudio fueron identificar las características de los pacientes con el Inventario de Personalidad de Freiburg y la intensidad de la enfermedad colónica, comorbilidades que podrían estar relacionadas con la personalidad de los sujetos. Los datos se recopilaron en el período 2019-2020 de 46 pacientes y utilizaron métodos no paramétricos. En comparación con el grupo de control, las escalas de Inhibición, Problemas de salud y Emocionalidad tenían puntuaciones brutas significativamente más altas. Las escalas de Orientación Social, Franqueza y Extraversión tuvieron puntajes brutos significativamente más bajos. El estado de salud fue un factor médico que influyó en la escala de Quejas Somáticas, los pacientes que tenían lesiones o comorbilidades tenían puntuaciones brutas significativamente más altas. Los pacientes que tenían comorbilidades además de la EII tenían puntuaciones brutas considerablemente más altas en la escala de Excitabilidad. Se requieren intervenciones psicoterapéuticas de cambio en la percepción de la vida para abordar la descripción del sufrimiento subjetivo relacionado con molestias físicas (escala de quejas somáticas), una fuerte orientación hacia el rendimiento (escala de tensión), cambios de humor, ansiedad y pesimismo (escala de emocionalidad). Otra intervención es la reconsideración y (re)priorización de valores, como la familia, las relaciones íntimas, los amigos, la salud, el crecimiento, el desarrollo, el trabajo equilibrado, todos los cuales pueden promover una sensación de bienestar y equilibrio.(AU)


Despite recent discoveries, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) still face challenges with attainment of remission. The objectives of the study were to identify the characteristics of patients with the Freiburg Personality Inventory and the intensity of the intestinal disease, comorbidities that could be related to the personality of the subjects. Data were collected in the period 2019–2020 from 46 patients and used nonparametric methods. Compared to the normative sample, the Inhibitedness, Health Concerns, and Emotionality scales had significantly higher raw scores. The Social Orientation, Frankness, and Extraversionscales had significantly lower raw scores. Health status was a medical factor that influenced the Somatic Complaintsscale, patients who had lesions or comorbidities had significantly higher raw scores. Patients who had comorbidities in addition to IBD had considerably higher raw scores on the Excitability scale. Psychotherapeutic change interventions regarding life perception are required to tackle the description of subjective suffering related to physical inconveniences (Somatic Complaintsscale), a strong orientation toward performance (Strainscale), mood swings, anxiety, and pessimism (Emotionality scale). Another intervention is reconsidering values and (re) prioritization, such as family, intimate relationships, friends, health, growth, development, balanced work, all of which can promote a feeling of well-being and balance.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Psicoterapia/métodos , Sintomas Afetivos , Doença de Crohn/psicologia , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Medicina do Comportamento , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Colite Ulcerativa
2.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100415], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230356

RESUMO

Purpose: An increasing number of studies support the beneficial relationship between physical activity and stress coping in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, there has been limited understanding of the variables that may influence the nature of this relationship. Therefore, based on the social-cognitive framework and previous research, we aimed to examine the association between the habitual physical activity of people with MS and their coping effectiveness. Furthermore, we sought to determine the extent to which self-efficacy acts as a mediator in this relationship, considering the level of disability as a moderator variable. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 351 people with MS participated. The participants were asked to complete several assessment tools, including the Mini-COPE Inventory for Measurement—Coping with Stress, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Additionally, a neurologist assessed the severity of the disease using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. Information on the demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants was collected via a self-report survey. Two moderated mediation analyses were conducted as part of the study. Results: The study findings indicated a positive correlation between engagement in physical activity and self-efficacy among participants with high and medium disability levels. This, in turn, demonstrated a positive association with effective stress-coping strategies and a negative association with ineffective coping methods. In particular, a significant relationship was observed between involvement in physical activity and self-efficacy in participants with high disability, while it was not statistically significant in participants with low disability.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Exercício Físico , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Saúde da Pessoa com Deficiência , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Psicologia Clínica , Saúde Mental , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia
3.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 17(3): 359-370, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether ticagrelor in chronic coronary syndrome patients undergoing complex percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) can prevent cardiovascular events is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to evaluate outcomes of complex PCI and the efficacy of ticagrelor vs clopidogrel in stable patients randomized in the ALPHEUS (Assessment of Loading with the P2Y12 inhibitor ticagrelor or clopidogrel to Halt ischemic Events in patients Undergoing elective coronary Stenting) trial. METHODS: All PCI procedures were blindly reviewed and classified as complex if they had at least 1 of the following criteria: stent length >60 mm, 2-stent bifurcation, left main, bypass graft, chronic total occlusion, use of atherectomy or guiding catheter extensions, multiwire technique, multiple stents. The primary endpoint was a composite of type 4a or b myocardial infarction (MI) and major myocardial injury during the 48 hours after PCI. We compared the event rates according to the presence or not of complex PCI criteria and evaluated the interaction with ticagrelor or clopidogrel. RESULTS: Among the 1,866 patients randomized, 910 PCI (48.3%) were classified as complex PCI. The primary endpoint was more frequent in complex PCI (45.6% vs 26.6%; P < 0.001) driven by higher rates of type 4 MI and angiographic complications (12.2% vs 4.8 %; P < 0.001 and 19.3% vs 8.6%; P < 0.05, respectively). The composite of death, MI, and stroke at 48 hours (12.7% vs 5.1 %; P < 0.05) and at 30 days (13.4% vs 5.3%; P < 0.05) was more frequent in complex PCI. No interaction was found between PCI complexity and the randomized treatment for the primary endpoint (Pinteraction = 0.47) nor the secondary endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: In chronic coronary syndrome, patients undergoing a complex PCI have higher rates of periprocedural and cardiovascular events that are not reduced by ticagrelor as compared with clopidogrel.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Humanos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 56, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355606

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Snakebite envenomation poses a significant health risk, particularly in low-resource settings where access to proper treatment is limited. CASE PRESENTATION: This study reports two cases of Russell's viper bites in rural Bangladesh, involving 48 and 35-year-old Bangladesh males, respectively, and highlights the difficulties in providing adequate medical care and in treating any complications that may arise. Both cases involved delayed access to healthcare, initial visit to traditional healers, and the development of severe complications such as coagulopathy, renal failure. After the intervention both cases survived which is scarce in low resource settings. CONCLUSION: The cases underscore the importance of early recognition, appropriate management, and improved healthcare infrastructure to optimize survival outcomes in snakebite cases in resource-limited settings. These cases will contribute valuable insights to the field of snakebite management and provide guidance for improving survival rates and outcomes among snakebite victims in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , Insuficiência Renal , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/complicações , Mordeduras de Serpentes/complicações , Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 39(1): 61-72, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38356209

RESUMO

The 2023 Korean Thyroid Association (KTA) Management Guideline for Patients with Thyroid Nodules constitute an update of the 2016 KTA guideline for thyroid nodules and cancers that focuses specifically on nodules. The 2023 guideline aim to offer updated guidance based on new evidence that reflects the changes in clinical practice since the 2016 KTA guideline. To update the 2023 guideline, a comprehensive literature search was conducted from January 2022 to May 2022. The literature search included studies, reviews, and other evidence involving human subjects that were published in English in MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, and other relevant databases. Additional significant clinical trials and research studies published up to April 2023 were also reviewed. The limitations of the current evidence are discussed, and suggestions for areas in need of further research are identified. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of the 2023 KTA guideline for the management of thyroid nodules released in May 2023 and to give a balanced insight with comparison of recent guidelines from other societies.


Assuntos
Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Bases de Dados Factuais , República da Coreia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/terapia
6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(8): 9968-9979, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358298

RESUMO

Foreseen as foundational in forthcoming oncology interventions are multimodal therapeutic systems. Nevertheless, the tumor microenvironment (TME), marked by heightened glucose levels, hypoxia, and scant concentrations of endogenous hydrogen peroxide could potentially impair their effectiveness. In this research, two-dimensional (2D) Ti3C2 MXene nanosheets are engineered with CeO2 nanozymes and glucose oxidase (GOD), optimizing them for TME, specifically targeting cancer therapy. Following our therapeutic design, CeO2 nanozymes, embodying both peroxidase-like and catalase-like characteristics, enable transformation of H2O2 into hydroxyl radicals for catalytic therapy while also producing oxygen to mitigate hypoxia. Concurrently, GOD metabolizes glucose, thereby augmenting H2O2 levels and disrupting the intracellular energy supply. When subjected to a near-infrared laser, 2D Ti3C2 MXene accomplishes photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT), additionally amplifying cascade catalytic treatment via thermal enhancement. Empirical evidence demonstrates robust tumor suppression both in vitro and in vivo by the CeO2/Ti3C2-PEG-GOD nanocomposite. Consequently, this integrated approach, which combines PTT/PDT and enzymatic catalysis, could offer a valuable blueprint for the development of advanced oncology therapies.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Induzida , Neoplasias , Nitritos , Elementos de Transição , Humanos , Glucose Oxidase , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Titânio/farmacologia , Hipertermia , Neoplasias/terapia , Glucose , Hipóxia , Microambiente Tumoral , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
7.
Biomed Phys Eng Express ; 10(2)2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359447

RESUMO

Purpose.Cardiac radiosurgery is a non-invasive treatment modality for ventricular tachycardia, where a linear accelerator is used to irradiate the arrhythmogenic region within the heart. In this work, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) cine images were used to quantify left ventricle (LV) segment-specific motion during the cardiac cycle and to assess potential advantages of cardiac-gated radiosurgery.Methods.CMR breath-hold cine images and LV contour points were analyzed for 50 controls and 50 heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, EF < 40%). Contour points were divided into anatomic segments according to the 17-segment model, and each segment was treated as a hypothetical treatment target. The optimum treatment window (one fifth of the cardiac cycle) was determined where segment centroid motion was minimal, then the maximum centroid displacement and treatment area were determined for the full cardiac cycle and for the treatment window. Mean centroid displacement and treatment area reductions with cardiac gating were determined for each of the 17 segments.Results.Full motion segment centroid displacements ranged between 6-14 mm (controls) and 4-11 mm (HFrEF). Full motion treatment areas ranged between 129-715 mm2(controls) and 149-766 mm2(HFrEF). With gating, centroid displacements were reduced to 1 mm (controls and HFrEF), while treatment areas were reduced to 62-349 mm2(controls) and 83-393 mm2(HFrEF). Relative treatment area reduction ranged between 38%-53% (controls) and 26%-48% (HFrEF).Conclusion.This data demonstrates that cardiac cycle motion is an important component of overall target motion and varies depending on the anatomic cardiac segment. Accounting for cardiac cycle motion, through cardiac gating, has the potential to significantly reduce treatment volumes for cardiac radiosurgery.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Volume Sistólico , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Phys Med Biol ; 69(5)2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359451

RESUMO

Objective. For response-adapted adaptive radiotherapy (R-ART), promising biomarkers are needed to predict post-radiotherapy (post-RT) responses using routine clinical information obtained during RT. In this study, a patient-specific biomechanical model (BM) of the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) was proposed using the pre-RT maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and tumor structural changes during RT as evaluated using computed tomography (CT). In addition, we evaluated the predictive performance of BM-driven imaging biomarkers for the treatment response of patients with HNSCC who underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT).Approach. Patients with histologically confirmed HNSCC treated with definitive CCRT were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent CT two times as follows: before the start of RT (pre-RT) and 3 weeks after the start of RT (mid-RT). Among these patients, 67 patients who underwent positron emission tomography/CT during the pre-RT period were included in the final analysis. The locoregional control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) prediction performances of whole tumor stress change (TS) between pre- and mid-RT computed using BM were assessed using univariate, multivariate, and Kaplan-Meier survival curve analyses, respectively. Furthermore, performance was compared with the pre and post-RT SUVmax, tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) during RT, and other clinical prognostic factors.Main results. For both univariate, multivariate, and survival curve analyses, the significant prognostic factors were as follows (p< 0.05): TS and TVRR for LC; TS and pre-RT FDG-SUVmaxfor PFS; and TS only for OS. In addition, for 2 year LC, PFS, and OS prediction, TS showed a comparable predictive performance to post-RT FDG-SUVmax.Significance. BM-driven TS is an effective prognostic factor for tumor treatment response after CCRT. The proposed method can be a feasible functional imaging biomarker that can be acquired during RT using only routine clinical data and may provide useful information for decision-making during R-ART.


Assuntos
Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Biomarcadores , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos
9.
Sci Immunol ; 9(92): eadj3945, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363830

RESUMO

Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an immune adaptor protein that senses cyclic GMP-AMP in response to self or microbial cytosolic DNA as a danger signal. STING is ubiquitously expressed in diverse cell populations, including cancer cells, with distinct cellular functions, such as activation of type I interferons, autophagy induction, or triggering apoptosis. It is not well understood whether and which subsets of immune cells, stromal cells, or cancer cells are particularly important for STING-mediated antitumor immunity. Here, using a polymeric STING-activating nanoparticle (PolySTING) with a shock-and-lock dual activation mechanism, we show that conventional type 1 dendritic cells (cDC1s) are essential for STING-mediated rejection of multiple established and metastatic murine tumors. STING status in the host but not in the cancer cells (Tmem173-/-) is important for antitumor efficacy. Specific depletion of cDC1 (Batf3-/-) or STING deficiency in cDC1 (XCR1creSTINGfl/fl) abolished PolySTING efficacy, whereas depletion of other myeloid cells had little effect. Adoptive transfer of wild-type cDC1 in Batf3-/- mice restored antitumor efficacy, whereas transfer of cDC1 with STING or IRF3 deficiency failed to rescue. PolySTING induced a specific chemokine signature in wild-type but not Batf3-/- mice. Multiplexed immunohistochemistry analysis of STING-activating cDC1s in resected tumors correlates with patient survival. Furthermore, STING-cDC1 signature was increased after neoadjuvant pembrolizumab therapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Therefore, we have defined that a subset of myeloid cells is essential for STING-mediated antitumor immunity with associated biomarkers for prognosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Interferon Tipo I , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Células Dendríticas , DNA/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos
10.
Lancet Neurol ; 23(3): 256-266, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder that can be treated with immunotherapy, but the symptoms that remain after treatment have not been well described. We aimed to characterise the clinical features of patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis for 1 year starting within the first year after initial immunotherapy. METHODS: For this prospective cohort study, we recruited patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis as soon as possible after they had received conventional immunotherapy for initial symptoms; patients were recruited from 21 hospitals in Spain. Patients were excluded if they had an interval of more than 1 year since initial immunotherapy, had pre-existing neurodegenerative or psychiatric disorders, or were unable to travel to Hospital Clínic de Barcelona (Barcelona, Spain). Patients visited Hospital Clínic de Barcelona on three occasions-the first at study entry (visit 1), the second 6 months later (visit 2), and the third 12 months after the initial visit (visit 3). They underwent neuropsychiatric and videopolysomnography assessments at each visit. Healthy participants who were matched for age and sex and recruited from Hospital Clínic de Barcelona underwent the same investigations at study entry and at 12 months. Cross-sectional comparisons of clinical features between groups were done with conditional logistic regression, and binary logistic regression was used to assess associations between cognitive outcomes at 12 months and clinical features before initial immunotherapy and at study entry. FINDINGS: Between May 1, 2019, and Sept 30, 2022, 42 participants agreed to be included in this study. 24 (57%) participants had anti-LGI1 encephalitis (mean age 63 years [SD 12]; 13 [54%] were female and 11 [46%] were male) and 18 (43%) were healthy individuals (mean age 62 years [10]; 11 [61%] were female and seven [39%] were male). At visit 1 (median 88 days [IQR 67-155] from initiation of immunotherapy), all 24 patients had one or more symptoms; 20 (83%) patients had cognitive deficits, 20 (83%) had psychiatric symptoms, 14 (58%) had insomnia, 12 (50%) had rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep behaviour disorder, nine (38%) had faciobrachial dystonic seizures, and seven (29%) had focal onset seizures. Faciobrachial dystonic seizures were unnoticed in four (17%) of 24 patients and focal onset seizures were unnoticed in five (21%) patients. At visit 1, videopolysomnography showed that 19 (79%) patients, but no healthy participants, had disrupted sleep structure (p=0·013); 15 (63%) patients and four (22%) healthy participants had excessive fragmentary myoclonus (p=0·039), and nine (38%) patients, but no healthy participants, had myokymic discharges (p=0·0051). These clinical and videopolysomnographic features led to additional immunotherapy in 15 (63%) of 24 patients, which resulted in improvement of these features in all 15 individuals. However, at visit 3, 13 (65%) of 20 patients continued to have cognitive deficits. Persistent cognitive deficits at visit 3 were associated with no use of rituximab before visit 1 (odds ratio [OR] 4·0, 95% CI 1·5-10·7; p=0·0015), REM sleep without atonia at visit 1 (2·2, 1·2-4·2; p=0·043), and presence of LGI1 antibodies in serum at visit 1 (11·0, 1·1-106·4; p=0·038). INTERPRETATION: Unsuspected but ongoing clinical and videopolysomnography alterations are common in patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis during the first year or more after initial immunotherapy. Recognising these alterations is important as they are treatable, can be used as outcome measures in clinical trials, and might influence cognitive outcome. FUNDING: Fundació La Caixa.


Assuntos
Encefalite , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoanticorpos , Estudos Transversais , Encefalite/imunologia , Encefalite/terapia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Leucina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Sono , Espanha , Imunoterapia , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/terapia
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD011866, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38357958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stimulant use disorder is a continuously growing medical and social burden without approved medications available for its treatment. Psychosocial interventions could be a valid approach to help people reduce or cease stimulant consumption. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2016. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of psychosocial interventions for stimulant use disorder in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, three other databases, and two trials registers in September 2023. All searches included non-English language literature. We handsearched the references of topic-related systematic reviews and the included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any psychosocial intervention with no intervention, treatment as usual (TAU), or a different intervention in adults with stimulant use disorder. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We included a total of 64 RCTs (8241 participants). Seventy-three percent of studies included participants with cocaine or crack cocaine use disorder; 3.1% included participants with amphetamine use disorder; 10.9% included participants with methamphetamine use disorder; and 12.5% included participants with any stimulant use disorder. In 18 studies, all participants were in methadone maintenance treatment. In our primary comparison of any psychosocial treatment to no intervention, we included studies which compared a psychosocial intervention plus TAU to TAU alone. In this comparison, 12 studies evaluated cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), 27 contingency management, three motivational interviewing, one study looked at psychodynamic therapy, and one study evaluated CBT plus contingency management. We also compared any psychosocial intervention to TAU. In this comparison, seven studies evaluated CBT, two contingency management, two motivational interviewing, and one evaluated a combination of CBT plus motivational interviewing. Seven studies compared contingency management reinforcement related to abstinence versus contingency management not related to abstinence. Finally, seven studies compared two different psychosocial approaches. We judged 65.6% of the studies to be at low risk of bias for random sequence generation and 19% at low risk for allocation concealment. Blinding of personnel and participants was not possible for the type of intervention, so we judged all the studies to be at high risk of performance bias for subjective outcomes but at low risk for objective outcomes. We judged 22% of the studies to be at low risk of detection bias for subjective outcomes. We judged most of the studies (69%) to be at low risk of attrition bias. When compared to no intervention, we found that psychosocial treatments: reduce the dropout rate (risk ratio (RR) 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 0.91; 30 studies, 4078 participants; high-certainty evidence); make little to no difference to point abstinence at the end of treatment (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.41; 12 studies, 1293 participants; high-certainty evidence); make little to no difference to point abstinence at the longest follow-up (RR 1.22, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.62; 9 studies, 1187 participants; high-certainty evidence); probably increase continuous abstinence at the end of treatment (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.97; 12 studies, 1770 participants; moderate-certainty evidence); may make little to no difference in continuous abstinence at the longest follow-up (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.46; 4 studies, 295 participants; low-certainty evidence); reduce the frequency of drug intake at the end of treatment (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.35, 95% CI -0.50 to -0.19; 10 studies, 1215 participants; high-certainty evidence); and increase the longest period of abstinence (SMD 0.54, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.68; 17 studies, 2118 participants; high-certainty evidence). When compared to TAU, we found that psychosocial treatments reduce the dropout rate (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.97; 9 studies, 735 participants; high-certainty evidence) and may make little to no difference in point abstinence at the end of treatment (RR 1.67, 95% CI 0.64 to 4.31; 1 study, 128 participants; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether they make any difference in point abstinence at the longest follow-up (RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.99; 2 studies, 124 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Compared to TAU, psychosocial treatments may make little to no difference in continuous abstinence at the end of treatment (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.53; 1 study, 128 participants; low-certainty evidence); probably make little to no difference in the frequency of drug intake at the end of treatment (SMD -1.17, 95% CI -2.81 to 0.47, 4 studies, 479 participants, moderate-certainty evidence); and may make little to no difference in the longest period of abstinence (SMD -0.16, 95% CI -0.54 to 0.21; 1 study, 110 participants; low-certainty evidence). None of the studies for this comparison assessed continuous abstinence at the longest follow-up. Only five studies reported harms related to psychosocial interventions; four of them stated that no adverse events occurred. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review's findings indicate that psychosocial treatments can help people with stimulant use disorder by reducing dropout rates. This conclusion is based on high-certainty evidence from comparisons of psychosocial interventions with both no treatment and TAU. This is an important finding because many people with stimulant use disorders leave treatment prematurely. Stimulant use disorders are chronic, lifelong, relapsing mental disorders, which require substantial therapeutic efforts to achieve abstinence. For those who are not yet able to achieve complete abstinence, retention in treatment may help to reduce the risks associated with stimulant use. In addition, psychosocial interventions reduce stimulant use compared to no treatment, but they may make little to no difference to stimulant use when compared to TAU. The most studied and promising psychosocial approach is contingency management. Relatively few studies explored the other approaches, so we cannot rule out the possibility that the results were imprecise due to small sample sizes.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Entrevista Motivacional , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Humanos , Intervenção Psicossocial , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Aconselhamento , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos
12.
Int Wound J ; 21(2): e14720, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358123

RESUMO

This study was conducted with a descriptive and cross-sectional design to demonstrate the effect of social appearance anxiety and body perception on quality of life in burn patients. The study was conducted in the intensive care units and burn clinic of Elazig Firat University Hospital between 17 February 2022 and 30 April 2022. Data were collected from 94 burn patients using the Personal Information Form, Social Appearance Anxiety Scale, Body-Cathexis Scale and Quality of Life Scale-Short Form. Most participants were 30 years old and under, male, married, had no children and had an education level of high school or below. Most had social security and an income equal to their expenses. They were not uncomfortable with coming to the hospital, and 1-3 months had passed since the burn incident. They did not spend time outside, and most had no part of their bodies that they did not like, while 26.1% did not like their feet. A negative relationship was detected between the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale and Body-Cathexis Scale, and a positive relationship between the total and sub-dimensions of the Quality of Life Scale (p > 0.05). There was a negative relationship between the Body-Cathexis Scale and the Quality of Life Scale total and sub-dimensions (p < 0.05), and a positive relationship between the total and sub-dimensions of the Quality of Life Scale (p < 0.05).


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Queimaduras/terapia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Percepção
13.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 57: e20230280, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To clinically validate a terminological subset of the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®) to care for people with chronic kidney disease undergoing conservative treatment. METHOD: Prospective study of clinical validation assessment of 117 nursing diagnoses/outcomes statements and 199 nursing intervention statements. It was operationalized through the following steps: implementation of the Nursing Process in an outpatient clinic in Southeast Brazil; preparation of case studies; analysis of agreement between specialist nurses. The Kappa. Kruskal-Wallis coefficient of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 people with chronic kidney disease. Diagnoses/outcomes and interventions were evaluated with almost perfect/perfect agreement and excellent ICC. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that there was no significant difference between the assessments. The study allowed the clinical validation of a subset with 110 nursing diagnoses/outcomes and 195 nursing interventions. CONCLUSION: Care for people with chronic kidney disease undergoing conservative treatment based on the proposed subset has become applicable to clinical practice.


Assuntos
Processo de Enfermagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Terminologia Padronizada em Enfermagem , Humanos , Tratamento Conservador , Estudos Prospectivos , Diagnóstico de Enfermagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
14.
Neurosurg Rev ; 47(1): 87, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369598

RESUMO

The efficacy of growth factor gene-modified stem cells in treating spinal cord injury (SCI) remains unclear. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of growth factor gene-modified stem cells in restoring motor function after SCI. Two reviewers searched four databases, including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus, to identify relevant records. Studies on rodents assessing the efficacy of transplanting growth factor gene-modified stem cells in restoring motor function after SCI were included. The results were reported using the standardized mean difference (SMD) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Analyses showed that growth factor gene-modified stem cell transplantation improved motor function recovery in rodents with SCI compared to the untreated (SMD = 3.98, 95% CI 3.26-4.70, I2 = 86.8%, P < 0.0001) and stem cell (SMD = 2.53, 95% CI 1.93-3.13, I2 = 86.9%, P < 0.0001) groups. Using growth factor gene-modified neural stem/histone cells enhanced treatment efficacy. In addition, the effectiveness increased when viral vectors were employed for gene modification and high transplantation doses were administered during the subacute phase. Stem cells derived from the human umbilical cord exhibited an advantage in motor function recovery. However, the transplantation of growth factor gene-modified stem cells did not significantly improve motor function in male rodents (P = 0.136). Transplantation of growth factor gene-modified stem cells improved motor function in rodents after SCI, but claims of enhanced efficacy should be approached with caution. The safety of gene modification remains a significant concern, requiring additional efforts to enhance its clinical translatability.


Assuntos
Roedores , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Medula Espinal
16.
Age Ageing ; 53(2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that atrial fibrillation (AF) is an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia, even in the absence of thromboembolic events and stroke. Whether rhythm-control therapy can protect cognitive function remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of rhythm-control strategies in patients with AF regarding cognitive function and dementia risk. METHODS: We systematically searched the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases for randomised clinical trials, cohort and case-control studies evaluating the associations between rhythm-control strategies and cognitive function outcomes up to May 2023. We assessed the risk of bias using the ROBINS-I and the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Both fixed- and random-effects models were used to create summary estimates of risk. RESULTS: We included a total of 14 studies involving 193,830 AF patients. In the pooled analysis, compared with rate-control, rhythm-control therapy was significantly associated with a lower risk of future dementia (hazard ratio (HR) 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62-0.89; I2 = 62%). Among the rhythm-control strategies, AF ablation is a promising treatment that was related to significantly lower risks of overall dementia (HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.56-0.68; I2 = 42%), Alzheimer's disease (HR 0.78; 95% CI 0.66-0.92; I2 = 0%) and vascular dementia (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.42-0.80; I2 = 31%). Pooled results also showed that compared with patients without ablation, those who underwent AF ablation had significantly greater improvement in cognitive score (standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.85; 95% CI 0.30-1.40; P = 0.005; I2 = 76%). CONCLUSIONS: Rhythm-control strategies, especially ablation, are effective in protecting cognitive function, reducing dementia risk and thus improving quality of life in AF patients.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Humanos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Cognição , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/etiologia , Demência/prevenção & controle
17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1338345, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38370355

RESUMO

Prolactinomas (PRLomas) constitute approximately half of all pituitary adenomas and approximately one-fifth of them are diagnosed in males. The clinical presentation of PRLomas results from direct prolactin (PRL) action, duration and severity of hyperprolactinemia, and tumor mass effect. Male PRLomas, compared to females, tend to be larger and more invasive, are associated with higher PRL concentration at diagnosis, present higher proliferative potential, are more frequently resistant to standard pharmacotherapy, and thus may require multimodal approach, including surgical resection, radiotherapy, and alternative medical agents. Therefore, the management of PRLomas in men is challenging in many cases. Additionally, hyperprolactinemia is associated with a significant negative impact on men's health, including sexual function and fertility potential, bone health, cardiovascular and metabolic complications, leading to decreased quality of life. In this review, we highlight the differences in pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment of PRLomas concerning the male sex.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Hiperprolactinemia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Prolactinoma , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Prolactinoma/terapia , Prolactinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperprolactinemia/diagnóstico , Hiperprolactinemia/etiologia , Hiperprolactinemia/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/etiologia , Adenoma/terapia
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1325317, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38370357

RESUMO

Osteoporosis (OP) is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue, resulting in heightened vulnerability to fractures due to increased bone fragility. This condition primarily arises from an imbalance between the processes of bone resorption and formation. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported to potentially constitute one of the most crucial mechanisms influencing the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. In essence, mitochondria play a crucial role in maintaining the delicate equilibrium between bone formation and resorption, thereby ensuring optimal skeletal health. Nevertheless, disruption of this delicate balance can arise as a consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction. In dysfunctional mitochondria, the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) becomes uncoupled, resulting in reduced ATP synthesis and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Reinforcement of mitochondrial dysfunction is further exacerbated by the accumulation of aberrant mitochondria. In this review, we investigated and analyzed the correlation between mitochondrial dysfunction, encompassing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) alterations, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) impairment, mitophagy dysregulation, defects in mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics, as well as excessive ROS accumulation, with regards to OP (Figure 1). Furthermore, we explore prospective strategies currently available for modulating mitochondria to ameliorate osteoporosis. Undoubtedly, certain therapeutic strategies still require further investigation to ensure their safety and efficacy as clinical treatments. However, from a mitochondrial perspective, the potential for establishing effective and safe therapeutic approaches for osteoporosis appears promising.


Assuntos
Doenças Mitocondriais , Osteoporose , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Estudos Prospectivos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Osteoporose/terapia , Osteoporose/patologia
19.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1331841, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38370403

RESUMO

Background: Breast cancer (BRCA) is a common malignancy in women, and its resistance to immunotherapy is a major challenge. Abnormal expression of genes is important in the occurrence and development of BRCA and may also affect the prognosis of patients. Although many BRCA prognosis model scores have been developed, they are only applicable to a limited number of disease subtypes. Our goal is to develop a new prognostic score that is more accurate and applicable to a wider range of BRCA patients. Methods: BRCA patient data from The Cancer Genome Atlas database was used to identify breast cancer-related genes (BRGs). Differential expression analysis of BRGs was performed using the 'limma' package in R. Prognostic BRGs were identified using co-expression and univariate Cox analysis. A predictive model of four BRGs was established using Cox regression and the LASSO algorithm. Model performance was evaluated using K-M survival and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The predictive ability of the signature in immune microenvironment and immunotherapy was investigated. In vitro experiments validated POLQ function. Results: Our study identified a four-BRG prognostic signature that outperformed conventional clinicopathological characteristics in predicting survival outcomes in BRCA patients. The signature effectively stratified BRCA patients into high- and low-risk groups and showed potential in predicting the response to immunotherapy. Notably, significant differences were observed in immune cell abundance between the two groups. In vitro experiments demonstrated that POLQ knockdown significantly reduced the viability, proliferation, and invasion capacity of MDA-MB-231 or HCC1806 cells. Conclusion: Our 4-BRG signature has the potential as an independent biomarker for predicting prognosis and treatment response in BRCA patients, complementing existing clinicopathological characteristics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Prognóstico , Mama , Biologia Computacional , Imunoterapia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
20.
Circ Heart Fail ; 17(2): e010973, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical evaluation of central venous pressure is difficult, depends on experience, and is often inaccurate in patients with chronic advanced heart failure. We assessed the ultrasound-assessed internal jugular vein (JV) distensibility by ultrasound as a noninvasive tool to identify patients with normal right atrial pressure (RAP ≤7 mm Hg) in this population. METHODS: We measured JV distensibility as the Valsalva-to-rest ratio of the vein diameter in a calibration cohort (N=100) and a validation cohort (N=101) of consecutive patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction who underwent pulmonary artery catheterization for advanced heart failure therapies workup. RESULTS: A JV distensibility threshold of 1.6 was identified as the most accurate to discriminate between patients with RAP ≤7 versus >7 mm Hg (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.64-0.84]) and confirmed in the validation cohort (receiver operating characteristic, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.73-0.92]). A JV distensibility ratio >1.6 had predictive positive values of 0.86 and 0.94, respectively, to identify patients with RAP ≤7 mm Hg in the calibration and validation cohorts. Compared with patients from the calibration cohort with a high JV distensibility ratio (>1.6; n=42; median RAP, 4 mm Hg; pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, 11 mm Hg), those with a low JV distensibility ratio (≤1.6; n=58; median RAP, 8 mm Hg; pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, 22 mm Hg; P<0.0001 for both) were more likely to die or undergo a left ventricular assist device implant or heart transplantation (event rate at 2 years: 42.7% versus 18.2%; log-rank P=0.034). CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-assessed JV distensibility identifies patients with chronic advanced heart failure with normal RAP and better outcomes. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03874312.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Pressão Atrial , Veias Jugulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar , Cateterismo de Swan-Ganz , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Volume Sistólico
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