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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130835, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416487

RESUMO

A novel deep eutectic solvents (DES) was successfully applied as an emulsifier in vortex assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in honey and fruit samples. Based on the result of toxicity study, DES provides new opportunities for the safe delivery and application. The predominant parameters affecting extraction efficiency were thoroughly optimized and studied in detail. Under optimum parameters, the calibration curve was determined in the concentration range of 0.1 to 200 µgL-1 with excellent determination coefficients values of 0.9989 to 0.9999. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 0.01 - 0.09 µgL-1 and 0.03 - 0.2 µgL-1, respectively. Application of the developed method to honey and fruit samples gave acceptable recovery values 83 - 109% with relative standard deviation below than 9.5%. The suggested approach has also proven to be simple, cost-effective, rapid, and non-toxic in nature.


Assuntos
Mel , Microextração em Fase Líquida , Praguicidas , Frutas/química , Mel/análise , Limite de Detecção , Compostos Organofosforados/toxicidade , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Solventes
2.
Food Chem ; 368: 130816, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416489

RESUMO

Acrylamide (AA), a potential carcinogen, is commonly formed in foods rich in carbohydrates at high heat. It is known that AA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is responsible for its toxicity. Previously we found AA exposure increased miR-27a-5p expression in livers of SD rats. Here, the regulation mechanism of miR-27a-5p in mitochondrial dysfunction was investigated in rat liver cell lines (IAR20) and SD rats. The results showed that the overexpressed miR-27a-5p contributes to modulating mitochondrial dysfunction and Btf3 is identified as its target gene. The knockdown of Btf3 increases the cleaved PARP1 level and the phosphorylation of ATM and p53, which results in mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, the miR-27a-5p-Btf3-ATM-p53 axis might play a vital role in the promotion of AA-induced cell apoptosis through disrupting mitochondrial structure and function. This would provide a potential target for the assessment and intervention of AA toxicity.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose , MicroRNAs/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624943

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the effect of chlorpyrifos on the expression of autophagy related proteins in rat hippocampal neurons, and to explore the role of autophagy in central nerve injury caused by acute chlorpyrifos poisoning. Methods: In October 2018, 35 male clean grade SD rats were randomly divided into 7 groups according to the observation time point, namely 0.5 d, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 5 d and 7 d groups and the control group, with 5 rats in each group. Each observation group was given 81.5 mg/kg chlorpyrifos by gavage, and the control group was given olive oil by gavage. The general conditions and poisoning symptoms of rats were observed continuously after exposure. The expressions of autophagy related proteins Beclin1, P62/SQSTM1 and LC3 in hippocampus were detected by Western blot. The cell morphology and LC3 expression in brain were observed by immunohistochemical staining. Results: Western blot results showed that compared with the control group, the expression of Beclin1 protein in hippocampal neurons of rats in the 1 d, 2 d, and 3 d groups increased, while the expression of P62/SQSTM1 protein in the 0.5 d, 1 d, and 2 d groups decreased, and the expression of LC3 protein was decreased in the 2 d group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05) . The results of immunohistochemistry showed that the hippocampal neurons of rats in the 5 d group were arranged disorderly, and some nuclei contours disappeared, especially in the 7 d group. The LC3 protein was expressed in the cytoplasm, and the expression level gradually increased, reaching a peak on the second day. Conclusion: The early activation of autophagy in rats with acute chlorpyrifos poisoning may be involved in chlorpyrifos induced hippocampal neuronal injury.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Animais , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Hipocampo , Masculino , Neurônios , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624962

RESUMO

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a kind of exogenous chemicals widely existing in the environment, which cause serious harm to the environment and human health. At present, the impact of this type of substance on the thyroid has attracted much attention.This review summarized the effects of EDCs on thyroid hormones, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) /protein kinase B (Akt) /mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway and its role in thyroid diseases, and explore the role of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in EDCs-induced apoptosis and autophagy of thyroid follicular epithelial cells.This paper could provide further understandings for thyroid diseases induced by the autophagy and apoptosis of thyroid follicular epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Células Epiteliais da Tireoide , Apoptose , Autofagia , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais da Tireoide/metabolismo
5.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 728, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The seminal vesicles synthesise bioactive factors that support gamete function, modulate the female reproductive tract to promote implantation, and influence developmental programming of offspring phenotype. Despite the significance of the seminal vesicles in reproduction, their biology remains poorly defined. Here, to advance understanding of seminal vesicle biology, we analyse the mouse seminal vesicle transcriptome under normal physiological conditions and in response to acute exposure to the reproductive toxicant acrylamide. Mice were administered acrylamide (25 mg/kg bw/day) or vehicle control daily for five consecutive days prior to collecting seminal vesicle tissue 72 h following the final injection. RESULTS: A total of 15,304 genes were identified in the seminal vesicles with those encoding secreted proteins amongst the most abundant. In addition to reproductive hormone pathways, functional annotation of the seminal vesicle transcriptome identified cell proliferation, protein synthesis, and cellular death and survival pathways as prominent biological processes. Administration of acrylamide elicited 70 differentially regulated (fold-change ≥1.5 or ≤ 0.67) genes, several of which were orthogonally validated using quantitative PCR. Pathways that initiate gene and protein synthesis to promote cellular survival were prominent amongst the dysregulated pathways. Inflammation was also a key transcriptomic response to acrylamide, with the cytokine, Colony stimulating factor 2 (Csf2) identified as a top-ranked upstream driver and inflammatory mediator associated with recovery of homeostasis. Early growth response (Egr1), C-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (Ccl8), and Collagen, type V, alpha 1 (Col5a1) were also identified amongst the dysregulated genes. Additionally, acrylamide treatment led to subtle changes in the expression of genes that encode proteins secreted by the seminal vesicle, including the complement regulator, Complement factor b (Cfb). CONCLUSIONS: These data add to emerging evidence demonstrating that the seminal vesicles, like other male reproductive tract tissues, are sensitive to environmental insults, and respond in a manner with potential to exert impact on fetal development and later offspring health.


Assuntos
Glândulas Seminais , Transcriptoma , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Animais , Citocinas , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Reprodução/genética
6.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(5): 1478-1484, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the toxic damage and possible mechanism of chronic exposure of ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) to the marrow micro-environment of the mice, and the protective effect of chitooligosaccharides. METHODS: Mice were treated with different doses (150, 300, 600 mg/kg) of chitosan after exposure to PM2.5, and then the mice were divided into: high dose group, medium dose group, low dose group according to the given dose, and the model group and the drug group were set as well. The productions of inflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-8, TPO and VCAM-1 in marrow tissues were detected by ELISA, the expression of CXCL12 and CXCR4 protein in bone marrow tissues were measured by Western blot. RESULTS: Compared with the mice in control group, IL-2 secretion and CXCL12 expression were decreased in the bone marrow of PM2.5 infected mice, while the secretion of IL-8, TPO and VCAM-1 were significantly increased, and CXCR4 expression was significantly up-regulated (P<0.05). Compared with the mice in control group, drug group and other dose groups, IL-2 secretion in the bone marrow of the mice in high-dose group was significantly increased, and IL-8, TPO and VCAM-1 secretion were significantly decreased (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Chronic exposure of PM2.5 shows some toxicity effect on marrow micro-environment. Chitosan oligosaccharide can reduce the pathologic damage of bone marrow and the toxicity to bone marrow microenvironment caused by PM2.5 at a certain extent.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Sistema Hematopoético , Animais , Medula Óssea , Camundongos , Material Particulado/toxicidade
7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 109: 171-180, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607666

RESUMO

Polymyxin B (PMB) is considered as the last line of antibiotic defense available to humans. The environmental effects of the combined pollution with PMB and heavy metals and their interaction mechanisms are unclear. We explored the effects of the combined pollution with PMB and arsenic (As) on the microbial composition of the soil and in the earthworm gut, as well as the spread and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The results showed that, compared with As alone, the combined addition of PMB and As could significantly increase the bioaccumulation factor and toxicity of As in earthworm tissues by 12.1% and 16.0%, respectively. PMB treatment could significantly increase the abundance of Actinobacteria in the earthworm gut (from 35.6% to 45.2%), and As stress could significantly increase the abundance of Proteobacteria (from 19.8% to 56.9%). PMB and As stress both could significantly increase the abundance of ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs), which were positively correlated, indicating that ARGs might be horizontally transferred. The inactivation of antibiotics was the main resistance mechanism that microbes use to resist PMB and As stress. Network analysis showed that PMB and As might have antagonistic effects through competition with multi-drug resistant ARGs. The combined pollution by PMB and As significantly promoted the relative abundance of microbes carrying multi-drug resistant ARGs and MGEs, thereby increasing the risk of transmission of ARGs. This research advances the understanding of the interaction mechanism between antibiotics and heavy metals and provides new theoretical guidance for the environmental risk assessment and combined pollution management.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Oligoquetos , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Arsênio/toxicidade , Genes Bacterianos , Polimixina B/toxicidade , Solo
8.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 110: 38-47, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593193

RESUMO

To assess groundwater nitrate contamination and its human health risks, 489 unconfined groundwater samples were collected and analyzed from Zhangjiakou, northern China. The spatial distribution of principle hydrogeochemical results showed that the average concentrations of ions in descend order was HCO3-, SO42-, Na+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, Mg2+ and K+, among which the NO3- concentrations were between 0.25 and 536.73 mg/L with an average of 29.72 mg/L. In total, 167 out of 489 samples (~ 34%) exceeded the recommended concentration of 20 mg/L in Quality Standard for Groundwater of China. The high NO3- concentration groundwater mainly located in the northern part and near the boundary of the two geomorphic units. As revealed by statistical analysis, the groundwater chemistry was more significantly affected by anthropogenic sources than by the geogenic sources. Moreover, human health risks of groundwater nitrate through oral and dermal exposure pathways were assessed by model, the results showed that about 60%, 50%, 32% and 26% of the area exceeded the acceptable level (total health index>1) for infants, children, adult males and females, respectively. The health risks for different groups of people varied significantly, ranked: infants> children> adult males>adult females, suggesting that younger people are more susceptible to nitrate contamination, while females are more resistant to nitrate contamination than males. To ensure the drinking water safety in Zhangjiakou and its downstream areas, proper management and treatment of groundwater will be necessary to avoid the health risks associated with nitrate contamination.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nitratos/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 110: 48-54, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593194

RESUMO

Acetochlor is a widely used herbicide in agricultural production. Studies have shown that acetochlor has obvious environmental hormone effects, and long-term exposure may pose a threat to human health. To quantify the hazards of acetochlor in drinking water, a health risk assessment of acetochlor was conducted in major cities of China based on the data of acetochlor residue concentrations in drinking water. The approach of the Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSD) method is used to extrapolate from animal testing data to reflect worst case human toxicity. Results show that hazard quotients related to acetochlor residues in drinking water for different age groups range from 1.94 × 10-4 to 6.13 × 10-4, so, there are no indication of human risk. Compared to the total estimated hazard quotient from oral intake of acetochlor, the chronic exposure imputed to acetochlor residues in drinking water in China accounts for 0.4%. This paper recommends 0.02 mg/L to be the maximum acetochlor residue concentration level in drinking water and source water criteria.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Qualidade da Água , Animais , Herbicidas/análise , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Toluidinas/análise , Toluidinas/toxicidade
10.
J Wound Care ; 30(Sup9a): IIi-IIv, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Local anaesthetics are often used in plastic surgery practice. Through their mechanism of action, local anaesthetics produce a sympathetic blockage with a subsequent vasodilatation and a resulting local increase of perfusion. The effect of vasodilation of the local anaesthetics causes bleeding locally resulting in haematoma, bruising and/or pain. We present an experimental study of the effects of local anaesthetics on delayed bleeding. METHOD: In this animal study, 36 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of nine animals: lidocaine; lidocaine and epinephrine; bupivacaine; and control. An epigastric flap model was harvested. Local anaesthetics that are frequently used in daily practice were administered in equal amounts to the harvested flap. RESULTS: After 24 hours, the rats were euthanised to collect and measure all coagula under the epigastric flap. No statistically significant differences in relation to the amount of coagulum were found between the groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that proper haemostasis is achieved, there is no difference on the effect of delayed bleeding between the local anaesthetics which are often used.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Anestésicos Locais/toxicidade , Animais , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Retalhos Cirúrgicos
11.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1182: 338941, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602200

RESUMO

It is the first time to investigate local distribution patterns of mercury (Hg) in mice organs after Hg and Se exposure with detection of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Two batch of adult mice were employed to be exposed to inorganic mercury (iHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) with or without Se at the dose of 55 µmol kg-1. Tissue sections of brain, kidney, liver, and spleen from one batch mice were prepared to get local imaging of Hg by LA-ICP-MS. Tissues from another batch mice were used to quantify Hg and Se in tissues with ICP-MS after acid digestion. The results indicated that, for mice exposed to iHg, Hg mainly distributed in kidney, a little in liver, and hardly in brain and spleen; for mice exposed to MeHg, lower amount of Hg was found in kidney, liver and spleen, and almost no Hg was found in brain. It was interesting that for Hg and Se co-administration groups, higher level of Hg was observed in kidney, liver, spleen and even in brain than single Hg administration groups. In addition, Se level in organ tissues increased obviously not only in Se exposure group but also in MeHg exposure group, while the phenomenon was not observed in iHg exposure group. HepG2 cells were employed to investigate Se and Hg interactions in single cell level, similar bioaccumulation behavior of Hg was found between cells and mice organs. Higher level of Hg was observed in cells cultured with Se and Hg medium than cells cultured with single Hg medium. The results are expected to provide new insight to investigate Hg and Se interactions in animal bodies and in-vitro cells.


Assuntos
Terapia a Laser , Mercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Selênio , Animais , Fígado , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Camundongos , Selênio/toxicidade
12.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1182: 338935, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602208

RESUMO

Toxicological studies of nanoparticles (NPs) are highly demanded nowadays but they are very challenging. In the in vitro assays, the understanding of the role of cell culture media is crucial to derive a proper interpretation of the toxicological results and to do so, new analytical tools are necessary. In this context, an analytical strategy based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-TQ-MS) has been developed for the first time for the detection and characterization of both 5 and 30 nm PtNPs, as well as ionic platinum species, in commonly used cell culture media. For this purpose, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium, DMEM-high glucose, DMEM-F12, DMEM 31053-028, and Roswell Park Memorial Institute, RPMI-1640 (supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and antibiotics) at several incubation times (24, 48, and 96 h at 37 °C) were tested. After a careful optimization and analytical performance, the developed method allows to simultaneously study the oxidation process, leading to the release of ionic species, and the increase in the hydrodynamic volume of PtNPs, probably related to the formation of new biological entities (protein corona). The magnitude of both processes was found to be dependent on the tested cell culture media and incubation times. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) were used as complementary techniques to study the important process of both soft and hard protein corona formation. The feasibility of the HPLC-ICP-TQ-MS to get relevant information for toxicological studies has been demonstrated and in light of our results, the influence of the cell culture media on the behavior of PtNPs should not be underestimated.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Platina , Bioensaio , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Platina/toxicidade
13.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 40(5): 409-417, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602454

RESUMO

Astrocytes are greatly impacted by oxidative stress, which can also be related to neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, preventing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is crucial for maintaining healthy cells. Large conductance Ca2+-activated big potassium (BK) channel openers are effective in eliminating the effects of oxidative stress. The present study aims to determine if NS11021, a BK channel opener, protects the astrocytes from harmful effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is an oxidative stress inducer. For this purpose, primary astrocyte cultures were incubated with H2O2, NS11021, and Iberiotoxin both separately and together. H2O2 decreased cell viability by approximately 50% and increased the number of ROS-positive astrocytes. However, NS11021, but not Iberiotoxin, reversed the deleterious effects of H2O2 on cell viability and decreased ROS production. Moreover, dysregulations in Cyclin D1/CDK6/p21 gene expressions under conditions of oxidative stress were regulated again by the opener. To the best of our knowledge, this study has been the first to reveal that NS11021 reversed the deleterious effects of H2O2 on cell viability by regulating ROS production in astrocytes. Its effect may also be related to the regulation of cell cycle at the transcriptional level. NS11021 may also be used as an agent for the treatment of oxidative-stress related dysfunction of astrocytes.


Assuntos
Astrócitos , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Alta , Sobrevivência Celular , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxigênio , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
14.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 109: 161-170, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607665

RESUMO

Decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209) is generally utilized in multiple polymer materials as common brominated flame retardant. BDE-209 has been listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which was considered to be reproductive toxin in the environment. But it still remains unclear about the effects of BDE-209 on DNA methylation and the induced-male reproductive toxicity. Due to the extensive epigenetic regulation in germ line development, we hypothesize that BDE-209 exposure impacts the statue of DNA methylation in spermatocytes in vitro. Therefore, the mouse GC-2spd (GC-2) cells were used for the genome wide DNA methylation analysis after treated with 32 µg/mL BDE-209 for 24 hr. The results showed that BDE-209 caused genomic methylation changes with 32,083 differentially methylated CpGs in GC-2 cells, including 16,164 (50.38%) hypermethylated and 15,919 (49.62%) hypomethylated sites. With integrated analysis of DNA methylation data and functional enrichment, we found that BDE-209 might affect the functional transcription in cell growth and sperm development by differential gene methylation. qRT-PCR validation demonstrated the involvement of p53-dependent DNA damage response in the GC-2 cells after BDE-209 exposure. In general, our findings indicated that BDE-209-induced genome wide methylation changes could be interrelated with reproductive dysfunction. This study might provide new insights into the mechanisms of male reproductive toxicity under the environmental exposure to BDE-209.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Retardadores de Chama , Animais , Dano ao DNA , Epigênese Genética , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Células Germinativas , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos
15.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 109: 219-236, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607670

RESUMO

Certain poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) exhibit significant bioaccumulation/biomagnification behaviors in ecosystems. PFASs, such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) and related precursors, have elicited attention from both public and national regulatory agencies, which has resulted in worldwide restrictions on their production and use. Apex predators occupy the top trophic positions in ecosystems and are most affected by the biomagnification behavior of PFASs. Meanwhile, the long lifespans of apex predators also lead to the high body burden of PFASs. The high body burden of PFASs might be linked to adverse health effects and even pose a potential threat to their reproduction. As seen in previous reviews of PFASs, knowledge is lacking between the current stage of the PFAS body burden and related effects in apex predators. This review summarized PFAS occurrence in global apex predators, including information on the geographic distribution, levels, profiles, and tissue distribution, and discussed the trophic transfer and ecotoxicity of PFASs. In the case where legacy PFASs were restricted under international convention, the occurrence of novel PFASs, such as 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFESA) and perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS), in apex predators arose as an emerging issue. Future studies should develop an effective analytical method and focus on the toxicity and trophic transfer behavior of novel PFASs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Ecossistema , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Distribuição Tecidual
16.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 109: 88-101, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607677

RESUMO

The inessential heavy metal/loids cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As), which often co-occur in polluted paddy soils, are toxic to rice. Silicon (Si) treatment is known to reduce Cd and As toxicity in rice plants. To better understand the shared mechanisms by which Si alleviates Cd and As stress, rice seedlings were hydroponically exposed to Cd or As, then treated with Si. The addition of Si significantly ameliorated the inhibitory effects of Cd and As on rice seedling growth. Si supplementation decreased Cd and As translocation from roots to shoots, and significantly reduced Cd- and As-induced reactive oxygen species generation in rice seedlings. Transcriptomics analyses were conducted to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the Si-mediated response to Cd or As stress in rice. The expression patterns of the differentially expressed genes in Cd- or As-stressed rice roots with and without Si application were compared. The transcriptomes of the Cd- and As-stressed rice roots were similarly and profoundly reshaped by Si application, suggesting that Si may play a fundamental, active role in plant defense against heavy metal/loid stresses by modulating whole genome expression. We also identified two novel genes, Os01g0524500 and Os06g0514800, encoding a myeloblastosis (MYB) transcription factor and a thionin, respectively, which may be candidate targets for Si to alleviate Cd and As stress in rice, as well as for the generation of Cd- and/or As-resistant plants. This study provides valuable resources for further clarification of the shared molecular mechanisms underlying the Si-mediated alleviation of Cd and As toxicity in rice.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Arsênio/toxicidade , Cádmio/toxicidade , Oryza/genética , Raízes de Plantas , Plântula/genética , Silício/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Transcriptoma
17.
Anticancer Res ; 41(10): 4761-4769, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The early stage of atherosclerosis (AS) demonstrates a lipid-driven inflammatory cytokine increase. In the present study, we aimed to use ultrasound-targeted microbubble delivery (UTMD) therapy with the Endostar-loaded target microbubbles (MBs) to reduce AS-related inflammatory response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Normal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were placed in a parallel-plate flow chamber. MBs were perfused through the parallel-plate flow chamber to mimic physiological blood flow. Five groups were set up: G1: Negative control (normal HUVECs); G2: LPS control (LPS induced HUVECs); G3: ICAM-1-loaded-MBs (MBi); G4: Endostar-loaded-MBs (MBe) and G5: Endostar-ICAM-1-loaded-MBs (MBei). mRNA expression of inflammatory factors and release of inflammatory cytokines were detected by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: After treatment with MBei, the mRNA expression of cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31) (p=0.004), endothelin-1 (ET-1) (p=0.010), von willebrand factor (vWF) (p=0.018), extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) (p=0.046) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) (p=0.003) were significantly reduced compared to LPS-induced HUVECs. Release of inflammatory cytokines including tissue factor (TF) (p=0.033), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TF-PI) (p=0.019), ET-1 (p=0.014), vWF (p=0.030) and blood-coagulation factor VIIα (FVIIα) (p=0.000) were also significantly reduced compared to LPS-induced HUVECs. CONCLUSION: UTMD therapy can inhibit the inflammatory response by reducing atherosclerotic-related inflammatory factors, suggesting a potential treatment at the early-stage of AS.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbolhas , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/terapia , Adesão Celular , Endostatinas/química , Endostatinas/farmacologia , Fibrinolíticos/química , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/imunologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Ultrassom
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 685, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599667

RESUMO

A standard method to test the aquatic toxicity of biologically active household chemicals (BAHC), including those with very low water solubility, is proposed. The method uses the common marine models Paracentrotus lividus embryos and Acartia clausi larvae, in order to advance towards derivation of water quality criteria for these emerging pollutants that currently lack environmental standards. Depending on the water solubility and octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) of the substance, the protocol consists of testing the toxicity of the substances by serial dilutions of water stocks, dimethyl-sulfoxide stocks, or 100 mg/L lixiviates in seawater. When this method is applied to eleven model BAHC, the pharmaceutical fluoxetine, the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene, and the UV filters broadly present in cosmetics octocrylene and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, are classified as very toxic to aquatic life, since their EC50 values are < 1 mg/L. In general, both biological models, P. lividus and A. clausi, yield the same classification of the substances tested, but variations in the classification of aquatic toxicity depending on methodological aspects are discussed. The use of A. clausi nauplii provides more protecting value to the toxicity parameters obtained by using this protocol.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Cosméticos/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Técnicas de Diluição do Indicador , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
19.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 29(9): 844-848, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638202

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the dynamic expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 in liver tissue of rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver fibrosis. Methods: Rat liver fibrosis model was established by intraperitoneal injection of CCl(4). Rat liver tissue histopathological changes were detected by HE and Masson-trichrome staining. Immunohistochemical staining, Western blot and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR were used to detect SHP2 protein and mRNA expression in rat liver tissue. One-way analysis of variance was used for the comparison of means between multiple groups, and the LSD test was used for further inter-group comparison. Results: CCl(4)-induced rat liver fibrosis model was successfully constructed, and with the extension of modeling time, the degree of liver fibrosis in rats were aggravated gradually. Immunohistochemical staining results showed that SHP2 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm of rat liver tissues. With the aggravation of liver fibrosis, the number of cells with positive expression of SHP2 was aggravated gradually (P < 0.05). Western blot and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR results showed that the expressions of SHP2 protein and mRNA in rat fibrotic liver tissues at different times in week 2, 4, 6, and 8 were higher in modeling than control group (P < 0.05), and was aggravated gradually with the liver fibrosis aggravation (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The expression of SHP2 protein and mRNA in the liver tissue of rats with CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis increased gradually with the degree of liver fibrosis, and the degree of increase was consistent with the degree of liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Tetracloreto de Carbono , Cirrose Hepática , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640679

RESUMO

Water pollution caused by hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) ions represents a serious hazard for human health due to the high systemic toxicity and carcinogenic nature of this metal species. The optical sensing of Cr(VI) through specifically engineered nanomaterials has recently emerged as a versatile strategy for the application to easy-to-use and cheap monitoring devices. In this study, a one-pot oxidative method was developed for the cage opening of C60 fullerene and the synthesis of stable suspensions of N-doped carbon dots in water-THF solutions (N-CDs-W-THF). The N-CDs-W-THF selectively showed variations of optical absorbance in the presence of Cr(VI) ions in water through the arising of a distinct absorption band peaking at 550 nm, i.e., in the transparency region of pristine material. Absorbance increased linearly, with the ion concentration in the range 1-100 µM, thus enabling visual and ratiometric determination with a limit of detection (LOD) of 300 nM. Selectivity and possible interference effects were tested over the 11 other most common heavy metal ions. The sensing process occurred without the need for any other reactant or treatment at neutral pH and within 1 min after the addition of chromium ions, both in deionized and in real water samples.


Assuntos
Fulerenos , Carbono , Cromo/toxicidade , Colorimetria , Humanos , Íons , Água
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