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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338917

RESUMO

Viruses have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to manipulate host cell processes and utilize intracellular organelles to facilitate their replication. These complex interactions between viruses and cellular organelles allow them to hijack the cellular machinery and impair homeostasis. Moreover, viral infection alters the cell membrane's structure and composition and induces vesicle formation to facilitate intracellular trafficking of viral components. However, the research focus has predominantly been on the immune response elicited by viruses, often overlooking the significant alterations that viruses induce in cellular organelles. Gaining a deeper understanding of these virus-induced cellular changes is crucial for elucidating the full life cycle of viruses and developing potent antiviral therapies. Exploring virus-induced cellular changes could substantially improve our understanding of viral infection mechanisms.


Assuntos
Viroses , Replicação Viral , Humanos , Organelas/ultraestrutura , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38343495

RESUMO

Purpose: Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (AECOPD) is a sudden worsening of symptoms in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), such as cough, increased sputum volume, and sputum purulence. COPD and AECOPD are characterized by damage to cilia and increased mucus secretion. Mucociliary clearance (MCC) functions as part of the primary innate system of the lung to remove harmful particles and pathogens together with airway mucus and is therefore crucial for patients with COPD. Methods: AECOPD was induced by cigarette smoke exposure (80 cigarettes/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) instillation (200 µg, on days 1, 14, and 84). Rats administered Lianhua Qingke (LHQK) (0.367, 0.732, and 1.465 g/kg/d) or Eucalyptol, Limonene, and Pinene Enteric Soft Capsules (ELP, 0.3 g/kg/d) intragastrically. Pulmonary pathology, Muc5ac+ goblet cell and ß-tubulin IV+ ciliated cells, and mRNA levels of forkhead box J1 (Foxj1) and multiciliate differentiation and DNA synthesis associated cell cycle protein (MCIDAS) were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunofluorescence staining, and RT-qPCR, respectively. Ciliary morphology and ultrastructure were examined through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was recorded using a high-speed camera. Results: Compared to the model group, LHQK treatment groups showed a reduction in inflammatory cell infiltration, significantly reduced goblet cell and increased ciliated cell proportion. LHQK significantly upregulated mRNA levels of MCIDAS and Foxj1, indicating promoted ciliated cell differentiation. LHQK protected ciliary structure and maintained ciliary function via increasing the ciliary length and density, reducing ciliary ultrastructure damage, and ameliorating random ciliary oscillations, consequently enhancing CBF. Conclusion: LHQK enhances the MCC capability of ciliated cells in rat with AECOPD by preserving the structural integrity and beating function of cilia, indicating its therapeutic potential on promoting sputum expulsion in patients with AECOPD.


Assuntos
Cílios , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Cílios/patologia , Cílios/ultraestrutura , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Depuração Mucociliar , Células Epiteliais , RNA Mensageiro
3.
J Morphol ; 285(2): e21672, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361267

RESUMO

The digenean complex life cycle includes various morphological forms with different locomotory and behavioral activities, and the functional specialization of their nervous system is of importance for the transmission of these parasites. Adult digeneans acquire many adaptive features associated with the final settlement in a vertebrate host. Our study describes the general morphology and ultrastructure of the nervous system of the adult renicolid digenean Renicola parvicaudatus parasitizing the renal tubules of herring gulls. Using immunocytochemical and electron microscopic methods, we identified the distinctive characteristics of ganglia and synapses in the studied species. A comparative analysis of the organization of the nervous system of adult individuals and their continuously-swimming stylet cercariae revealed a number of stage-related differences in the composition of ganglia, the distribution of serotonin- and FMRFamide-immunoreactive neurons, the cytomorphology of neuron somata and free sensory endings. Thus, in adults, the presence of FMRFamide-positive neuron somata, accessory muscle bundles in the ganglionic cortex, and eight types of neuronal vesicles was detected, but no glia-like elements were identified. Their neurons are characterized by a larger volume of cytoplasm and also show greater ultrastructural diversity. Although the sensory papillae of adults do not vary in their external morphology as much as those of larvae, their sensory bulbs are more diverse in cytomorphology. Following our previous data on the "support" cell processes related to various tissues of the larvae and considered as glia-like structures, we also briefly present the identified features of the parenchyma, attachment organs and excretory system of adult individuals. The excretory system of adult R. parvicaudatus is characterized by the presence of unique terminal cells with several flame tufts, which are not typical either for the larvae of this species or for other digeneans studied so far. We also used molecular phylogenetic analysis to clarify species identification.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso , Trematódeos , Animais , FMRFamida , Filogenia , Sistema Nervoso/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Sinapses/ultraestrutura , Larva
4.
Science ; 383(6682): eadj9198, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300992

RESUMO

Mapping single-neuron projections is essential for understanding brain-wide connectivity and diverse functions of the hippocampus (HIP). Here, we reconstructed 10,100 single-neuron projectomes of mouse HIP and classified 43 projectome subtypes with distinct projection patterns. The number of projection targets and axon-tip distribution depended on the soma location along HIP longitudinal and transverse axes. Many projectome subtypes were enriched in specific HIP subdomains defined by spatial transcriptomic profiles. Furthermore, we delineated comprehensive wiring diagrams for HIP neurons projecting exclusively within the HIP formation (HPF) and for those projecting to both intra- and extra-HPF targets. Bihemispheric projecting neurons generally projected to one pair of homologous targets with ipsilateral preference. These organization principles of single-neuron projectomes provide a structural basis for understanding the function of HIP neurons.


Assuntos
Axônios , Mapeamento Encefálico , Hipocampo , Neurônios , Animais , Camundongos , Axônios/fisiologia , Axônios/ultraestrutura , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Neurônios/classificação , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Rede Nervosa , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
5.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297365, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329988

RESUMO

The legs of insects play an important role in their daily behaviour, especially reproduction. Entomologists have performed much research on the role of the leg in different behaviours of beetles, an important group in the insect family, but relatively little has been done to study the ultrastructure and transcriptome of their legs. Hence, we systematically studied the ultrastructure and gene expression of the leg of G. cantor, a polygynous beetle, and compared its male and female diversity. In this study, we found the fore-leg, mid-leg and hind-leg of the female were significantly longer than those of the male. From the perspective of intuitive structural differences, we also compared the ultrastructures of the adhesion structure (tarsal) of males and females. The tarsal functional structure of the adult leg mainly includes sensilla and an adhesion structure. The sensilla on the tarsal joint mainly include sensilla chaetica (SCh II, SCh III) and sensilla trichodea (ST II). The adhesion structure includes disc-shaped bristles (di), lanceolate bristles (la), serrated bristles (se), spatula-shaped bristles (spl) and mushroom-shaped bristles (mus). Although there was no significant difference in sensillum distribution or type between males and females, there were significant differences in the distribution and species of adhesion structures between the fore-leg, mid-leg, and hind-leg of the same sex and between males and females. Therefore, different adhesion structures play different roles in various behaviours of beetles. On the other hand, the transcriptome results of male and female legs were screened for a subset of olfaction- and mechanics-related genes. We discovered that the male leg showed upregulation of 1 odorant binding protein (OBP), 2 Olfactory receptors (ORs) and 2 Chemosensory proteins (CSPs). Meanwhile, the female leg showed upregulation of 3 OBPs, 1 OR, 1 Gustatory receptor (GR) and 3 Mechanosensitive proteins (MSPs). An in-depth examination of the ultrastructure and molecular composition of the legs can elucidate its function in the reproductive behavior of G. cantor. Moremore, this investigation will serve as a cornerstone for subsequent research into the underlying behavioral mechanisms.


Assuntos
Besouros , Piridazinas , Animais , Camundongos , Feminino , Masculino , Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Sensilas/ultraestrutura , Piridazinas/metabolismo , Antenas de Artrópodes/anatomia & histologia
6.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 29(1): 28, 2024 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38287838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The centrosome is the main center of the organization of microtubules (MT) in the cell, the origin for the formation of flagella and cilia, as well as the site of many regulatory intracellular processes. In diploid cells, the centrosome includes two centrioles connected to some additional structures and surrounded by pericentriolar material. METHODS: The ultrastructure of the cells was studied using transmission electron microscopy on serial ultrathin sections. RESULTS: Here, using transmission electron microscopy on a complete series of ultrathin sections of the centrosome region, we studied the relation between the number of centrioles and ploidy in diploid cells of female wasps and haploid cells of male in the parasitoid wasp Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera). It showed that the haploid cells of the male insect have the same number of centrioles as the diploid cells of the female. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that there is no strict correlation between the number of chromosome sets (ploidy) and the number of centrioles in haplodiploid insects.


Assuntos
Centríolos , Vespas , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Centríolos/genética , Centríolos/ultraestrutura , Vespas/genética , Haploidia , Diploide , Centrossomo
7.
Nature ; 625(7995): 500-507, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233621

RESUMO

Inspired by biology's most sophisticated computer, the brain, neural networks constitute a profound reformulation of computational principles1-3. Analogous high-dimensional, highly interconnected computational architectures also arise within information-processing molecular systems inside living cells, such as signal transduction cascades and genetic regulatory networks4-7. Might collective modes analogous to neural computation be found more broadly in other physical and chemical processes, even those that ostensibly play non-information-processing roles? Here we examine nucleation during self-assembly of multicomponent structures, showing that high-dimensional patterns of concentrations can be discriminated and classified in a manner similar to neural network computation. Specifically, we design a set of 917 DNA tiles that can self-assemble in three alternative ways such that competitive nucleation depends sensitively on the extent of colocalization of high-concentration tiles within the three structures. The system was trained in silico to classify a set of 18 grayscale 30 × 30 pixel images into three categories. Experimentally, fluorescence and atomic force microscopy measurements during and after a 150 hour anneal established that all trained images were correctly classified, whereas a test set of image variations probed the robustness of the results. Although slow compared to previous biochemical neural networks, our approach is compact, robust and scalable. Our findings suggest that ubiquitous physical phenomena, such as nucleation, may hold powerful information-processing capabilities when they occur within high-dimensional multicomponent systems.


Assuntos
DNA , Redes Neurais de Computação , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Simulação por Computador , DNA/química , DNA/ultraestrutura , Cinética , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia de Fluorescência
8.
Nature ; 626(7997): 169-176, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38267577

RESUMO

To coordinate cellular physiology, eukaryotic cells rely on the rapid exchange of molecules at specialized organelle-organelle contact sites1,2. Endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contact sites (ERMCSs) are particularly vital communication hubs, playing key roles in the exchange of signalling molecules, lipids and metabolites3,4. ERMCSs are maintained by interactions between complementary tethering molecules on the surface of each organelle5,6. However, due to the extreme sensitivity of these membrane interfaces to experimental perturbation7,8, a clear understanding of their nanoscale organization and regulation is still lacking. Here we combine three-dimensional electron microscopy with high-speed molecular tracking of a model organelle tether, Vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)-associated protein B (VAPB), to map the structure and diffusion landscape of ERMCSs. We uncovered dynamic subdomains within VAPB contact sites that correlate with ER membrane curvature and undergo rapid remodelling. We show that VAPB molecules enter and leave ERMCSs within seconds, despite the contact site itself remaining stable over much longer time scales. This metastability allows ERMCSs to remodel with changes in the physiological environment to accommodate metabolic needs of the cell. An amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated mutation in VAPB perturbs these subdomains, likely impairing their remodelling capacity and resulting in impaired interorganelle communication. These results establish high-speed single-molecule imaging as a new tool for mapping the structure of contact site interfaces and reveal that the diffusion landscape of VAPB at contact sites is a crucial component of ERMCS homeostasis.


Assuntos
Retículo Endoplasmático , Mitocôndrias , Membranas Mitocondriais , Movimento , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular , Humanos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/química , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/ultraestrutura , Mitocôndrias/química , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Membranas Mitocondriais/química , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/ultraestrutura , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica , Imageamento Tridimensional , Sítios de Ligação , Difusão , Fatores de Tempo , Mutação , Homeostase
9.
Cell ; 187(2): 360-374.e19, 2024 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176410

RESUMO

The very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) comprises eight LDLR type A (LA) domains and supports entry of distantly related alphaviruses, including Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Semliki Forest virus (SFV). Here, by resolving multiple cryo-electron microscopy structures of EEEV-VLDLR complexes and performing mutagenesis and functional studies, we show that EEEV uses multiple sites (E1/E2 cleft and E2 A domain) to engage more than one LA domain simultaneously. However, no single LA domain is necessary or sufficient to support efficient EEEV infection. Whereas all EEEV strains show conservation of two VLDLR-binding sites, the EEEV PE-6 strain and a few other EEE complex members feature a single amino acid substitution that enables binding of LA domains to an additional site on the E2 B domain. These structural and functional analyses informed the design of a minimal VLDLR decoy receptor that neutralizes EEEV infection and protects mice from lethal challenge.


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Vírus da Encefalite Equina do Leste , Encefalomielite Equina , Receptores de LDL , Animais , Camundongos , Alphavirus/fisiologia , Vírus da Encefalite Equina do Leste/fisiologia , Vírus da Encefalite Equina do Leste/ultraestrutura , Encefalomielite Equina/metabolismo , Cavalos , Ligação Proteica , Receptores de LDL/ultraestrutura
10.
Biofabrication ; 16(2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38241707

RESUMO

Sustainable treatment of aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) represents an unmet medical need and therefore requires new curative and regenerative approaches based on appropriatein vitromodels. Tissue specific hydrogels retain the individual biochemical composition of the extracellular matrix and thus promote the inherent cell´s physiological function. Hence, we created a decellularized lacrimal gland (LG) hydrogel (dLG-HG) meeting the requirements for a bioink as the basis of a LG model with potential forin vitroADDE studies. Varying hydrolysis durations were compared to obtain dLG-HG with best possible physical and ultrastructural properties while preserving the original biochemical composition. A particular focus was placed on dLG-HG´s impact on viability and functionality of LG associated cell types with relevance for a futurein vitromodel in comparison to the unspecific single component hydrogel collagen type-I (Col) and the common cell culture substrate Matrigel. Proliferation of LG epithelial cells (EpC), LG mesenchymal stem cells, and endothelial cells cultured on dLG-HG was enhanced compared to culture on Matrigel. Most importantly with respect to a functionalin vitromodel, the secretion capacity of EpC cultured on dLG-HG was higher than that of EpC cultured on Col or Matrigel. In addition to these promising cell related properties, a rapid matrix metalloproteinase-dependent biodegradation was observed, which on the one hand suggests a lively cell-matrix interaction, but on the other hand limits the cultivation period. Concluding, dLG-HG possesses decisive properties for the tissue engineering of a LGin vitromodel such as cytocompatibility and promotion of secretion, making it superior to unspecific cell culture substrates. However, deceleration of biodegradation should be addressed in future experiments.


Assuntos
Aparelho Lacrimal , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Aparelho Lacrimal/metabolismo , Aparelho Lacrimal/ultraestrutura , Hidrogéis/química , Células Endoteliais , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo
11.
eNeuro ; 11(2)2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242692

RESUMO

The olivocerebellar system, which is critical for sensorimotor performance and learning, functions through modules with feedback loops. The main feedback to the inferior olive comes from the cerebellar nuclei (CN), which are predominantly GABAergic and contralateral. However, for the subnucleus d of the caudomedial accessory olive (cdMAO), a crucial region for oculomotor and upper body movements, the source of GABAergic input has yet to be identified. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a disynaptic inhibitory projection from the medial CN (MCN) to the cdMAO via the superior colliculus (SC) by exploiting retrograde, anterograde, and transsynaptic viral tracing at the light microscopic level as well as anterograde classical and viral tracing combined with immunocytochemistry at the electron microscopic level. Retrograde tracing in Gad2-Cre mice reveals that the cdMAO receives GABAergic input from the contralateral SC. Anterograde transsynaptic tracing uncovered that the SC neurons receiving input from the contralateral MCN provide predominantly inhibitory projections to contralateral cdMAO, ipsilateral to the MCN. Following ultrastructural analysis of the monosynaptic projection about half of the SC terminals within the contralateral cdMAO are GABAergic. The disynaptic GABAergic projection from the MCN to the ipsilateral cdMAO mirrors that of the monosynaptic excitatory projection from the MCN to the contralateral cdMAO. Thus, while completing the map of inhibitory inputs to the olivary subnuclei, we established that the MCN inhibits the cdMAO via the contralateral SC, highlighting a potential push-pull mechanism in directional gaze control that appears unique in terms of laterality and polarity among olivocerebellar modules.


Assuntos
Cerebelo , Camundongos , Animais , Núcleo Olivar/fisiologia , Núcleo Olivar/ultraestrutura , Transmissão Sináptica , Núcleos Cerebelares/fisiologia
12.
Structure ; 32(1): 1-2, 2024 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38181725

RESUMO

In this issue of Structure, Subramanian et al. present the cryo-EM structure of Shigella podophage HRP29, which possesses a T7-like tail complex surrounded by six P22/Sf6-like tailspikes and two unique decoration proteins. These colorful masks of HRP29 record the frequent events of horizontal gene transfer during evolution.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Shigella , Shigella/virologia , Bacteriófagos/ultraestrutura
13.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 53(1): e13008, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38230833

RESUMO

Telocytes (TCs) are distinctive interstitial cells due to their characteristic structures and heterogeneity. They are suggested to participate in tissue repair/regeneration. TCs have been identified in many organs of various mammals. However, data on TCs in lower animals are still very limited. In this work, TCs were identified in the myocardium of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structural relationships between TCs and neighbouring cell types were measured using the ImageJ (FiJi) morphometric software. TCs with slender Tps (telepodes) were located around cardiomyocytes (CMC). TEM revealed TCs with long Tps in the stroma between CMC. The homocellular tight junctions were observed between the Tps. The Tps were also very close to the neighbouring CMC. The distance between Tps and CMC was 0.15 ± 0.08 µm. Notably, Tps were observed to adhere to the periphery of the satellite cells. The Tps and the satellite cells established heterocellular structural connections by tight junctions. Additionally, Tps were frequently observed in close proximity to mast cells (MCs). The distance between the Tps and the MCs was 0.19 ± 0.09 µm. These results confirmed that TCs are present in the myocardium of the bullfrog, and that TCs established structural relationships with neighbouring cell types, including satellite cells and MCs. These findings provide the anatomical evidence to support the note that TCs are involved in tissue regeneration.


Assuntos
Miócitos Cardíacos , Telócitos , Animais , Rana catesbeiana , Miocárdio , Telócitos/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária , Mamíferos
14.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 133: 104988, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38157949

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to determine the histo-morphological effects on villous synovium after synovectomy using two different motorized synovial resectors and two different intensities ex-vivo. Thirty-three (n = 33) equine metacarpophalangeal/metatarsophalangeal joints were used. Synovectomy was performed along the dorsomedial/dorsolateral synovium (n = 66) using two motorized synovial resectors (aggressive full radius resector, AFRR, used at two intensities: single treatment, n = 24 vs. triple treatment, n = 21 vs. aggressive meniscus side cutter, AMSC, n = 21). Arthroscopic images were evaluated blindly for resector type and intensity. Histological images were evaluated descriptive for synovial morphology and the extent of tissue loss using a microscopic scale. Scanning electron microscopy described the synovial morphology. The synovectomized areas were specific for each resector used and distinguishable from arthroscopic images. The AFRR demonstrated a clear demarcation between treated and non-treated areas and removed the stratum synoviale completely including parts of the underlying stratum fibrosum. In contrast, the AMSC showed less clear demarcation, villous scaffolds and no involvement of the stratum fibrosum. Triple intense treated AFFR samples resulted in significantly deeper lesions compared to single treatments (p = 0.037) but could not be distinguished on arthroscopic images. The morphological effects on villous synovium differ according to the resector type used. The extent of synovial tissue loss cannot be estimated from arthroscopic images but histologically. The type and use of motorized synovial resector determines the morphological alterations of the treated synovium. Arthroscopic control is considered unsuitable to control synovectomy depth.


Assuntos
Artroscopia , Sinovectomia , Cavalos , Animais , Sinovectomia/veterinária , Artroscopia/métodos , Artroscopia/veterinária , Membrana Sinovial/patologia , Membrana Sinovial/ultraestrutura
15.
Parasitol Int ; 98: 102825, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37981261

RESUMO

Medaka Oryzias latipes is a small freshwater fish widely distributed in Japan. It is a popular ornamental fish and now has been recognized as an important model organism in many areas of biological research. Here we report microsporidian infections for the first time in medaka, from 2 research facilities and a wild population. Infected medaka exhibited abnormal appearance with whitish trunk muscle, and microsporidian spores were detected from the affected tissue. The size of spores was similar in all the three cases: 7.0 µm in length and 3.7-4.2 µm in width. In the histological observation, numerous sporophorous vesicles containing spores or other developmental stages were observed within the myocytes of the trunk muscle. Nucleotide sequence of the ribosomal RNA gene was determined and it was identical among all three cases. A BLAST search revealed it shared 99.5-99.6% identity with Pleistophora hyphessobryconis, a microsporidian known to infect >20 freshwater fish species. Light microscopic observation of spores and histological features also indicated the microsporidian infection in medaka is caused by P. hyphessobryconis. This is the first record of the microsporidian species from medaka and from Japan.


Assuntos
Microsporídios , Microsporidiose , Oryzias , Pleistophora , Animais , Japão/epidemiologia , Pleistophora/genética , Pleistophora/ultraestrutura , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia
16.
Acta Biomater ; 174: 116-126, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38101556

RESUMO

Fibrillar collagens and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are structural biomolecules that are natively abundant to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Prior studies have quantified the effects of GAGs on the bulk mechanical properties of the ECM. However, there remains a lack of experimental studies on how GAGs alter other biophysical properties of the ECM, including ones that operate at the length scales of individual cells such as mass transport efficiency and matrix microstructure. This study focuses on the GAG molecules chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), and hyaluronic acid (HA). CS and DS are stereoisomers while HA is the only non-sulfated GAG. We characterized and decoupled the effects of these GAG molecules on the stiffness, transport, and matrix microarchitecture properties of type I collagen hydrogels using mechanical indentation testing, microfluidics, and confocal reflectance imaging, respectively. We complement these biophysical measurements with turbidity assays to profile collagen aggregate formation. Surprisingly, only HA enhanced the ECM indentation modulus, while all three GAGs had no effect on hydraulic permeability. Strikingly, we show that CS, DS, and HA differentially regulate the matrix microarchitecture of hydrogels due to their alterations to the kinetics of collagen self-assembly. In addition to providing information on how GAGs define key physical properties of the ECM, this work shows new ways in which stiffness measurements, microfluidics, microscopy, and turbidity kinetics can be used complementarily to reveal details of collagen self-assembly and structure. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are integral to the structure, function, and bioactivity of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Despite widespread interest in collagen-GAG composite hydrogels, there is a lack of quantitative understanding of how different GAGs alter the biophysical properties of the ECM across tissue, cellular, and subcellular length scales. Here we show using mechanical, microfluidic, microscopy, and analytical methods and measurements that the GAG molecules chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid differentially regulate the mechanical, transport, and microstructural properties of hydrogels due to their alterations to the kinetics of collagen self-assembly. As such, these results will inform improved design and utilization of collagen-based scaffolds of tailored composition, mechanical properties, molecular availability due to mass transport, and microarchitecture.


Assuntos
Sulfatos de Condroitina , Ácido Hialurônico , Sulfatos de Condroitina/farmacologia , Sulfatos de Condroitina/química , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Dermatan Sulfato/farmacologia , Dermatan Sulfato/química , Dermatan Sulfato/ultraestrutura , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Glicosaminoglicanos , Colágeno , Matriz Extracelular
17.
Nature ; 625(7995): 611-617, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38123676

RESUMO

The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) polymerase is a multifunctional RNA-dependent RNA polymerase composed of the large (L) protein and the phosphoprotein (P). It transcribes the RNA genome into ten viral mRNAs and replicates full-length viral genomic and antigenomic RNAs1. The RSV polymerase initiates RNA synthesis by binding to the conserved 3'-terminal RNA promoters of the genome or antigenome2. However, the lack of a structure of the RSV polymerase bound to the RNA promoter has impeded the mechanistic understanding of RSV RNA synthesis. Here we report cryogenic electron microscopy structures of the RSV polymerase bound to its genomic and antigenomic viral RNA promoters, representing two of the first structures of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in complex with its RNA promoters in non-segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. The overall structures of the promoter-bound RSV polymerases are similar to that of the unbound (apo) polymerase. Our structures illustrate the interactions between the RSV polymerase and the RNA promoters and provide the structural basis for the initiation of RNA synthesis at positions 1 and 3 of the RSV promoters. These structures offer a deeper understanding of the pre-initiation state of the RSV polymerase and could aid in antiviral research against RSV.


Assuntos
Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/enzimologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , RNA Viral/biossíntese , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/química , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/ultraestrutura , Replicação Viral/genética , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , RNA Subgenômico/biossíntese , RNA Subgenômico/genética , RNA Subgenômico/metabolismo
18.
Nature ; 626(7997): 186-193, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38096901

RESUMO

The long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1, hereafter L1) retrotransposon has generated nearly one-third of the human genome and serves as an active source of genetic diversity and human disease1. L1 spreads through a mechanism termed target-primed reverse transcription, in which the encoded enzyme (ORF2p) nicks the target DNA to prime reverse transcription of its own or non-self RNAs2. Here we purified full-length L1 ORF2p and biochemically reconstituted robust target-primed reverse transcription with template RNA and target-site DNA. We report cryo-electron microscopy structures of the complete human L1 ORF2p bound to structured template RNAs and initiating cDNA synthesis. The template polyadenosine tract is recognized in a sequence-specific manner by five distinct domains. Among them, an RNA-binding domain bends the template backbone to allow engagement of an RNA hairpin stem with the L1 ORF2p C-terminal segment. Moreover, structure and biochemical reconstitutions demonstrate an unexpected target-site requirement: L1 ORF2p relies on upstream single-stranded DNA to position the adjacent duplex in the endonuclease active site for nicking of the longer DNA strand, with a single nick generating a staggered DNA break. Our research provides insights into the mechanism of ongoing transposition in the human genome and informs the engineering of retrotransposon proteins for gene therapy.


Assuntos
DNA Complementar , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos , RNA , Retroelementos , Transcrição Reversa , Humanos , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , DNA Complementar/biossíntese , DNA Complementar/genética , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos/genética , Retroelementos/genética , RNA/química , RNA/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Endonucleases/química , Endonucleases/metabolismo , Endonucleases/ultraestrutura , Terapia Genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA/química , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA/ultraestrutura , DNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA
19.
Dev Cell ; 59(2): 199-210.e11, 2024 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38159567

RESUMO

Microtubule doublets (MTDs) comprise an incomplete microtubule (B-tubule) attached to the side of a complete cylindrical microtubule. These compound microtubules are conserved in cilia across the tree of life; however, the mechanisms by which MTDs form and are maintained in vivo remain poorly understood. Here, we identify microtubule-associated protein 9 (MAP9) as an MTD-associated protein. We demonstrate that C. elegans MAPH-9, a MAP9 homolog, is present during MTD assembly and localizes exclusively to MTDs, a preference that is in part mediated by tubulin polyglutamylation. We find that loss of MAPH-9 causes ultrastructural MTD defects, including shortened and/or squashed B-tubules with reduced numbers of protofilaments, dysregulated axonemal motor velocity, and perturbed cilia function. Because we find that the mammalian ortholog MAP9 localizes to axonemes in cultured mammalian cells and mouse tissues, we propose that MAP9/MAPH-9 plays a conserved role in regulating ciliary motors and supporting the structure of axonemal MTDs.


Assuntos
Axonema , Caenorhabditis elegans , Animais , Camundongos , Axonema/metabolismo , Axonema/ultraestrutura , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Cílios/metabolismo , Mamíferos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Movimento , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
20.
Nature ; 625(7995): 578-584, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38123677

RESUMO

The symptoms of malaria occur during the blood stage of infection, when parasites invade and replicate within human erythrocytes. The PfPCRCR complex1, containing PfRH5 (refs. 2,3), PfCyRPA, PfRIPR, PfCSS and PfPTRAMP, is essential for erythrocyte invasion by the deadliest human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Invasion can be prevented by antibodies3-6 or nanobodies1 against each of these conserved proteins, making them the leading blood-stage malaria vaccine candidates. However, little is known about how PfPCRCR functions during invasion. Here we present the structure of the PfRCR complex7,8, containing PfRH5, PfCyRPA and PfRIPR, determined by cryogenic-electron microscopy. We test the hypothesis that PfRH5 opens to insert into the membrane9, instead showing that a rigid, disulfide-locked PfRH5 can mediate efficient erythrocyte invasion. We show, through modelling and an erythrocyte-binding assay, that PfCyRPA-binding antibodies5 neutralize invasion through a steric mechanism. We determine the structure of PfRIPR, showing that it consists of an ordered, multidomain core flexibly linked to an elongated tail. We also show that the elongated tail of PfRIPR, which is the target of growth-neutralizing antibodies6, binds to the PfCSS-PfPTRAMP complex on the parasite membrane. A modular PfRIPR is therefore linked to the merozoite membrane through an elongated tail, and its structured core presents PfCyRPA and PfRH5 to interact with erythrocyte receptors. This provides fresh insight into the molecular mechanism of erythrocyte invasion and opens the way to new approaches in rational vaccine design.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos , Malária Falciparum , Complexos Multiproteicos , Parasitos , Plasmodium falciparum , Proteínas de Protozoários , Animais , Humanos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/química , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Dissulfetos/química , Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Vacinas Antimaláricas/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/metabolismo , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/patologia , Merozoítos/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/química , Complexos Multiproteicos/imunologia , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/ultraestrutura , Parasitos/metabolismo , Parasitos/patogenicidade , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/ultraestrutura
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