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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253613, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345548

RESUMO

Abstract Soybean meal is an inexpensive plant origin protein which has been used in practical diets as a replacement of animal protein such as fish meal or chicken meal, due to the uneconomical price of animal protein diets. Consequently, a research study was conducted on some commercial species of Indian major carps i.e. Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) and Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822) to estimate optimum dietary protein requirement of soy bean meal in diet in an intensive polyculture. Three different diets (SBM I, SBM II and SBM III) were formulated by 80%, 50% and 20% replacement of fish meal with soybean meal from a 45% fish meal diet (control).Highest monthly mean weight gain was obtained by SBM II (with 35% CP and about 50% substitution of fish meal), while SBM III (45% Crude Protein and about 20% substitution of fish meal) was stood second. All tested diets respond enormously by producing high yield as compare to control diet, though SBM II generated highest yield among all. On the bases of the following research, it was revealed that the SBM can surrogate even50% fish meal without any augmentation of other amino acids in the diet of Indian major carps.


Resumo O farelo de soja é uma proteína de origem vegetal de baixo custo que tem sido usada em dietas práticas como um substituto da proteína animal, como farinha de peixe ou farinha de frango, devido ao preço não econômico das dietas com proteína animal. Consequentemente, um estudo/pesquisa foi realizado com algumas espécies comerciais de carpas principais indianas, ou seja, Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) e Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822), para estimar a necessidade ideal de proteína dietética de farelo de soja na dieta em uma policultura intensiva. Três dietas diferentes (SBM I, SBM II e SBM III) foram formuladas por 80%, 50% e 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe por farelo de soja de uma dieta de 45% de farinha de peixe (controle). O maior ganho de peso médio mensal foi obtido por SBM II (com 35% PB e cerca de 50% de substituição de farinha de peixe), enquanto SBM III (45% de proteína bruta e cerca de 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe) ficou em segundo lugar. Todas as dietas testadas respondem enormemente produzindo alto rendimento em comparação com a dieta controle, embora SBM II tenha gerado o maior rendimento entre todas. Com base na pesquisa a seguir, foi revelado que o SBM pode substituir até 50% da farinha de peixe sem qualquer aumento de outros aminoácidos na dieta das carpas principais indianas.


Assuntos
Animais , Carpas , Cyprinidae , Soja , Alimentos Marinhos , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250916, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345552

RESUMO

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.


Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis ​​por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Ciclídeos , Moringa , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Folhas de Planta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252093, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355861

RESUMO

Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the diet of the free-living crab-eating fox by identifying the stomach contents of the 17 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) roadkilled in two conservation units, both located in the Amazon rainforest. The food items were quantified by frequency of occurrence (FO) and percentage of occurrence (PO). The stomach contents were analysed for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), and mineral matter (MM). Nitrogen-free extractives (NFE), metabolisable energy (ME) values, as well as the energy need for maintenance were estimated. The composition of the diet for the crab-eating fox presented 29 food items from the different taxonomic groups, with a greater diversity of items of animal origin (n=22), although the highest frequency of occurrence was gramineae (Poaceae) (41.18%). Among the items of animal origin, 21% were mammals, 18% reptiles, 10% amphibians, 9% invertebrates and 3% birds. A high content of CF (62.76%) were determined. Nitrogen-free extractive and dry matter averages were 5.91% and 141.82 kcal/100g, respectively. The average maintenance energy was 447.01 kcal/day. These findings suggesting that the crab-eating foxes have a generalist diet with an omnivorous diet in the Amazon basin, feeding on gramineae, fruits, insects, snakes, amphibians, birds and small mammals and have the same feeding habit that present in other Brazilian biomes.


Resumo Este estudo objetivou analisar a dieta do cachorro-do-mato, de vida livre, por meio da identificação do conteúdo estomacal de 17 Cerdocyon thous atropelados em duas unidades de conservação da Floresta Amazônica. O conteúdo estomacal foi analisado e os itens alimentares foram quantificados pela frequência de ocorrência (FO) e percentagem de ocorrência (PO). Também foram avaliados os teores de matéria seca (MS), proteína bruta (PB), fibra bruta (FB), extrato etéreo (EE) e, matéria mineral (MM). Foram estimados o extrativo não-nitrogenado (ENN), a energia metabolizável (EM) e a necessidade energética de manutenção. A composição da dieta do cachorro-do-mato apresentou 29 itens alimentares dos diferentes grupos taxonômicos, tendo uma maior diversidade de itens de origem animal (n=22), ainda que a maior FO tenha sido de gramíneas (Poaceae) (41.18%). Dentre os itens de origem animal, 21% eram mamíferos, 18% répteis, 10% anfíbios, 9% invertebrados e 3% aves. Determinou-se um alto teor de FB (62.76%). A média do ENN e da MS foi 5.91% e 141.82 kcal/100g, respectivamente. A média da energia de manutenção foi 447.01 kcal/dia. Estes achados sugerem que o cachorro-do-mato encontrado na Bacia Amazônica é um animal generalista com uma dieta onívora, se alimentando de gramíneas, frutos, insetos, serpentes, anfíbios, aves e pequenos mamíferos, portanto com o mesmo hábito alimentar relatado a esta espécie quando encontrada em outros biomas brasileiros.


Assuntos
Animais , Floresta Úmida , Raposas , Brasil , Dieta/veterinária
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250723, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355902

RESUMO

Abstract This study assessed the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole effect on the main indicators of the quality of sheep meat obtained from infected and deworming animals. A total of 20 heads of Akzhaik meat and wool sheep (i.e. 2 years of age, of different sex) were used in a 20-day experiment and 2 groups of 10 heads were formed (n = 4). The sheep were fed with the basic diet (i.e. control, group CON), without adding anything, and the second group was fed the basic diet orally with the addition of a dose of 1.2 g / head (an experimental group). At the end of the experiment, a control slaughter was carried out from each group in order to study the biochemical composition of meat and its quality. The anthelmintic feed additive albendazole did not have a significant effect on the indicators (organoleptic and physicochemical) of meat quality (P> 0.04). However, the ratio of fat and ash in the meat of the control group has differences in indicators and is reduced by 24.81% and 0.03%, respectively. The drug had a significant effect on the biological value of meat in the experimental group, where there is a higher content of essential amino acids (P = 0.06), nonessential (P = 0.05) concentrations in comparison with the CON groups. The results obtained show that the meat of the experimental groups of sheep, when using the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole, did not have a significant effect on organoleptic parameters, but significantly positively influenced the metabolism, live weight gain and biological value of meat.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol sobre os principais indicadores de qualidade da carne ovina obtida de animais infectados e desparasitados. Um total de 20 cabeças de carne Akzhaik e ovelhas de lã (ou seja, 2 anos de idade, de sexo diferente) foi usado em um experimento de 20 dias e dois grupos de 10 cabeças foram formados (n = 4). As ovelhas foram alimentadas com dieta básica (ou seja, controle, grupo CON), sem adicionar nada, e o segundo grupo foi alimentado com dieta básica por via oral com a adição de uma dose de 1,2 g / cabeça (um grupo experimental). Ao final do experimento, foi realizado um abate controle de cada grupo para estudar a composição bioquímica da carne e sua qualidade. O aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol não teve efeito significativo sobre os indicadores (organolépticos e físico-químicos) de qualidade da carne (P > 0,04). No entanto, a proporção de gordura e cinzas na carne do grupo de controle tem diferenças nos indicadores e é reduzida em 24,81% e 0,03%, respectivamente. A droga teve efeito significativo sobre o valor biológico da carne no grupo experimental, onde há maior teor de aminoácidos essenciais (P = 0,06), concentrações não essenciais (P = 0,05) em comparação com os grupos CON. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a carne dos grupos experimentais de ovinos, ao utilizar o aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol, não teve efeito significativo nos parâmetros organolépticos, mas influenciou positivamente de forma significativa no metabolismo, ganho de peso vivo e valor biológico da carne.


Assuntos
Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Anti-Helmínticos , Ovinos , Albendazol , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/análise
5.
Curr Microbiol ; 80(3): 89, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36723699

RESUMO

Mastitis occurrence in dairy cows is a broad topic that involves several sectors, from antimicrobial resistance and virulence of strains to economic implications and cattle management practices. Here, we assessed the molecular characterization (antimicrobial resistance determinants, virulence genes, sequences type, serotypes, and plasmid types) of 178 Escherichia coli strains isolated from milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis using a genome-based k-mers approach. Of these, 53 (29.8%) showed multidrug resistance by disc diffusion. We selected eight multidrug-resistant mastitis-associated E. coli for whole-genome sequencing and molecular characterization based on raw data using k-mers. We assessed antimicrobial resistance genes, virulence factors, serotypes, Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), and plasmid types. The most antimicrobial resistance gene found were blaTEM-1B (7/8), tetA (6/8), strA (6/8), strB (6/8), and qnrB19 (5/8). A total of 25 virulence factors were detected encoding adhesins, capsule, enzymes/proteins, increased serum survival, hemolysin, colicins, and iron uptake. These virulence factors were associated with Extraintestinal Pathogenic E. coli. Three pandemic clones were found: ST10, ST101, and ST69. Two E. coli were assigned in the O117 serogroup and one in the O8:H25 serotype. The most common plasmid groups were IncFII (7/8) and IncFIB (6/8). Our findings contribute to the knowledge of virulence mechanisms, epidemiological aspects, and antimicrobial resistance determinants of E. coli strains obtained from clinical mammary infections of cows.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Mastite Bovina , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Escherichia coli , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética
6.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0280795, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36724177

RESUMO

The goal of cancer screening is to detect disease at an early stage when treatment may be more effective. Cancer screening in dogs has relied upon annual physical examinations and routine laboratory tests, which are largely inadequate for detecting preclinical disease. With the introduction of non-invasive liquid biopsy cancer detection methods, the discussion is shifting from how to screen dogs for cancer to when to screen dogs for cancer. To address this question, we analyzed data from 3,452 cancer-diagnosed dogs to determine the age at which dogs of certain breeds and weights are typically diagnosed with cancer. In our study population, the median age at cancer diagnosis was 8.8 years, with males diagnosed at younger ages than females, and neutered dogs diagnosed at significantly later ages than intact dogs. Overall, weight was inversely correlated with age at cancer diagnosis, and purebred dogs were diagnosed at significantly younger ages than mixed-breed dogs. For breeds represented by ≥10 dogs, a breed-based median age at diagnosis was calculated. A weight-based linear regression model was developed to predict the median age at diagnosis for breeds represented by ≤10 dogs and for mixed-breed dogs. Our findings, combined with findings from previous studies which established a long duration of the preclinical phase of cancer development in dogs, suggest that it might be reasonable to consider annual cancer screening starting 2 years prior to the median age at cancer diagnosis for dogs of similar breed or weight. This logic would support a general recommendation to start cancer screening for all dogs at the age of 7, and as early as age 4 for breeds with a lower median age at cancer diagnosis, in order to increase the likelihood of early detection and treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Neoplasias , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Cães , Animais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/veterinária , Registros , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 55(1): 59, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36723688

RESUMO

Consuming saline water causes animals salinity stress, which leads to many adapting metabolic changes that could negatively affect its performance and the quality of the derived products. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of increasing diet protein level on the productive performance of growing lambs drinking natural saline water in Egyptian semi-arid region. Twenty-four growing Barki lambs (4-5 months old) with an initial body weight of 20.7 ± 0.25 kg were randomly distributed into four similar groups for 150 days. Two diets were formulated: low protein and high protein levels (concentrate feed mixture containing 14% and 20% crude protein (CP) on dry matter basis, respectively). Within each level of CP, natural saline water was represented by low saline (LS) and high saline (HS) water, containing 658 and 2100 mg/L of total dissolved solids, respectively. Results showed that the HS water increased (p = 0.02) water intake by about 18% and had adverse effect (p < 0.001) on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance. The ruminal pH values, total volatile fatty acids, and ammonia-N concentrations were not affected by drinking the HS water. However, the protein supplementation enhanced the HS lambs' nutrients digestion and showed greater growth performance. The HS water decreased (p < 0.001) the serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and increased (p = 0.03) the urea-N by about 9%. The protein supplementation amended the serum ALT and AST concentrations of HS lambs. It is concluded that the dietary protein supply was affective sustainable management strategy against the deleterious effect of drinking high saline water on growing lambs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Digestão , Ovinos , Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Carneiro Doméstico , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Líquidos , Rúmen/metabolismo
8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1875, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36726018

RESUMO

Bovine tuberculosis is a contagious bacterial disease of worldwide economic, zoonotic and welfare importance caused mainly by Mycobacterium bovis infection. Current regulatory diagnostic methods lack sensitivity and require improvement. We have developed a multiplex serological test for bovine tuberculosis and here we provide an estimate of the diagnostic accuracy of the test in cattle. Positive and negative reference serum samples were obtained from animals from Europe and the United States of America. The diagnostic specificity estimate was 98.4% and 99.7% using high sensitivity and high specificity settings of the test respectively. Tuberculin boosting did not affect the overall specificity estimate. The diagnostic sensitivity in samples from Mycobacterium bovis culture positive animals following tuberculin boosting was 93.9%.The relative sensitivity following boosting in tuberculin test positive, lesion positive animals and interferon gamma test positive, lesion positive animals was 97.2% and 96.9% respectively. In tuberculin test negative, lesion positive animals and in interferon gamma test negative, lesion positive animals, the relative sensitivity following tuberculin boosting was 88.2% and 83.6% respectively. The results show that the test has high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity and can detect infected animals that are missed by tuberculin and interferon gamma testing.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculose Bovina , Animais , Bovinos , Tuberculina , Interferon gama , Teste Tuberculínico/veterinária , Teste Tuberculínico/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Vet Res ; 54(1): 8, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36726112

RESUMO

Porcine respiratory disease is one of the most important health problems in pig production worldwide. Cranioventral pulmonary consolidation (CVPC) and pleurisy are the two most common lesions in the respiratory tract of slaughtered pigs. The present review paper discusses pathogens involved in the lesions, lesion prevalence, scoring systems, advantages and disadvantages of slaughterhouse examination, and the impact of CVPC and pleurisy on performance, carcass, and meat quality. Cranioventral pulmonary consolidation and pleurisy in slaughter pigs are characteristic for infections with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, respectively, although other pathogens may cause similar lesions and/or be involved in their development. The overall prevalence of CVPC and pleurisy in slaughter pigs are still high, being the prevalence of CVPC generally higher than that of chronic pleurisy. The advantages and disadvantages of slaughterhouse examination are discussed in relation to practical aspects, the assessment of lesions, the number and representativeness of the examined animals and the interpretation and value of the results for the stakeholders. The main scoring methods for CVPC and pleurisy are shortly reviewed. In general, scoring methods can be applied rapidly and easily, although significant variation due to abattoir and observer remains. Artificial intelligence-based technologies that automatically score lesions and facilitate processing of data may aid solving these problems. Cranioventral pulmonary consolidation and pleurisy have a major negative impact on pig performance, and the effects increase the extension of the lesions and/or presence of multiple lesions. The performance losses caused by these lesions, however, vary significantly between studies and farms, possibly due to differences in study population and used methodology. Both lesions also have a negative impact on different carcass and meat quality parameters, leading to increased risk for poor processing and storage of the carcasses. Monitoring lung lesions of slaughter pigs should be optimized and implemented routinely; however, it is recommended to complement this information with farm data and laboratory results for specific pathogens.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias , Pleurisia , Doenças dos Suínos , Suínos , Animais , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Inteligência Artificial , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/patologia , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Pleurisia/patologia , Pleurisia/veterinária
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 19(1): 31, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36726139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of a water-soluble formulation of tylvalosin (Aivlosin® 625 mg/g granules) on disease caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyop) was investigated in two animal studies. In a PRRSV challenge model in pregnant sows (n = 18), six sows received water medicated at target dose of 5 mg tylvalosin/kg body weight/day from 3 days prior to challenge until the end of gestation. Six sows were left untreated, with a third group remaining untreated and unchallenged. Sows were challenged with PRRSV-2 at approximately 85 days of gestation. Cytokines, viremia, viral shedding, sow reproductive parameters and piglet performance to weaning were evaluated. In a dual infection study (n = 16), piglets were challenged with Mhyop on days 0, 1 and 2, and with PRRSV-1 on day 14 and euthanized on day 24. From day 10 to 20, eight piglets received water medicated at target dose of 20 mg tylvalosin/kg body weight/day and eight piglets were left untreated. Cytokines, viremia, bacteriology and lung lesions were evaluated. RESULTS: In the PRRSV challenge study in pregnant sows, tylvalosin significantly reduced the levels of serum IL-8 (P < 0.001), IL-12 (P = 0.032), TNFα (P < 0.001) and GM-CSF (P = 0.001). IL-8 (P = 0.100) tended to be lower in uterus of tylvalosin sows. All piglets from tylvalosin sows surviving to weaning were PRRSV negative in faecal swabs at weaning compared to 33.3% PRRSV positive piglets from untreated sows (P = 0.08). In the dual challenge study in piglet, tylvalosin reduced serum IL1ß, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-1α, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-18, GM-CSF, TGFß1, TNFα, CCL3L1, MIG, PEPCAM-1 (P < 0.001) and increased serum IFNα, IL-1ra and MIP-1b (P < 0.001). In the lungs, tylvalosin reduced IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12 compared to untreated pigs (P < 0.001) and tended to reduce TNFα (P = 0.082). Lung lavage samples from all tylvalosin treated piglets were negative for Mhyop (0 cfu/mL) compared to the untreated piglets which had mean Mhyop counts of 2.68 × 104 cfu/mL (P = 0.023). CONCLUSION: Overall, tylvalosin reduced both local and systemic proinflammatory cytokines after challenge with respiratory pathogens in sows and in piglets. Tylvalosin was effective in reducing Mhyop recovery from the lungs and may reduce virus shedding in piglets following transplacental PRRSV infection in sows.


Assuntos
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Doenças dos Suínos , Gravidez , Suínos , Animais , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Interleucina-10 , Viremia/veterinária , Interleucina-8 , Citocinas , Interleucina-12 , Peso Corporal , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 46, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36726184

RESUMO

Onchocerca lupi is an emerging canine ocular pathogen with zoonotic potential. In Europe, known endemic areas are the Iberian Peninsula and Greece, but the parasite has also been found in Romania, Hungary, and Germany. A 5-year-old Irish Wolfhound was presented in August 2021 with ocular discharge. A subconjunctival granulomatous nodule containing several nematode fragments was removed. Molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene confirmed the presence of O. lupi genotype 1. This is the first report of autochthonous O. lupi infection in a dog from Austria.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Filariose , Oncocercose Ocular , Oncocercose , Animais , Cães , Oncocercose Ocular/diagnóstico , Oncocercose Ocular/tratamento farmacológico , Oncocercose Ocular/veterinária , Áustria , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Oncocercose/diagnóstico , Oncocercose/veterinária , Oncocercose/parasitologia , Onchocerca/genética
12.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 38: 100830, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725159

RESUMO

A wide range of vertebrate species are competent reservoirs of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, where the pathogen is maintained in the enzootic cycle and transmitted to humans through activities of tick vectors. An insight into the role and diversity of these reservoirs is vital in understanding the epidemiology of this pathogen. Here, we determined the prevalence, distribution and reservoir diversity of A. phagocytophilum using a systematic review and meta-analysis. Data pooling was performed by the random-effects model, heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran's Q-test and publication bias by Egger's regression test. Eighty-nine studies from 33 countries across 5 continents revealed A. phagocytophilum pooled prevalence of 15.18% (95% CI: 11.64, 19.57). Continental estimates varied significantly (p < 0.0001), with a range of 2.88% (95% CI: 0.25, 26.20) in South America to 19.91% (95% CI: 13.57, 28.24) in Europe. Country-based estimates ranged between 2.93% (95% CI: 1.17, 7.16) in Slovakia and 71.58% (95% CI: 25.91, 94.77) in Norway. Studies on A. phagocytophilum were concentrated in Europe (51.69%; 46/89) by continent and the USA (22.47%; 20/89) by country. Prevalence in wildlife (17.64%; 95% CI: 12.21-28.59) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that among domestic animals (10.68%; 95% CI: 6.61-16.83). Diverse species of wildlife, domestic animals and birds were infected by A. phagocytophilum. To curtail the public health, veterinary and economic consequences of A. phagocytophilum infections, we recommend an all-inclusive epidemiological approach that targets the human, animal and environmental components of the disease.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose , Ehrlichiose , Carrapatos , Animais , Humanos , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens
13.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 38: 100833, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725160

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses of quebracho extract tannins (Schinopsis lorenzii) (EQ) included in the basal diet (DB) on the count of eggs per gram of feces (EPG), count of parasites in the abomasum, hematological, and immunological parameters in lambs naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Forty-eight lambs were evaluated for 42 days and divided into four groups (n = 12): CONT- lambs that received DB without EQ supplementation; G1%- DB with EQ at 1% of dry matter intake (DMI) level; G3%- DB with EQ at the 3% of DMI level; G6%- DB with EQ at the 6% DMI level. For EPG counts, feces were collected weekly. For counting abomasal parasites, at the end of the experiment (D42) half of the lambs in each group were slaughtered. For hematological and immunological analysis, venous blood samples were collected at D0, D21, and D42 to perform the erythrocyte count, mean cell volume (MCV), hematocrit, differential leukocyte count, total plasma protein dosage, and serum IgA class anti-H. contortus using an indirect enzyme immunoassay (ELISA). In the EPG count, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the groups compared with the control. Analysis of the abomasal parasite count showed Haemonchus contortus in its entirety; however, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the number of males, females, and total parasites. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed in erythrocyte count, MCV, hematocrit, and total plasma protein. The average total leukocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil counts showed no difference (p > 0.05). However, the averages of segmented neutrophils in the G1% and G3% groups presented a reduction in the percentage of cells (p < 0.05) between D21 and D42. Regarding the lymphocyte count, a difference was observed in the CONT and G3% groups at D21 and D42 (p < 0.05), when compared to D0. The analyses of the average absorbance of anti-Haemonchus contortus serum IgA showed no difference (p > 0.05), when the groups were analyzed over time or when compared between them. It can be concluded that the inclusion of different doses of tannins from EQ did not alter the parasitological, hematological, and immunological parameters of lambs infected with H. contortus.


Assuntos
Hemoncose , Haemonchus , Doenças Parasitárias , Doenças dos Ovinos , Feminino , Masculino , Ovinos , Animais , Taninos , Carneiro Doméstico , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Imunoglobulina A , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/veterinária
14.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 38: 100827, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725157

RESUMO

The intensive use of anthelmintic drugs to control Fasciola hepatica infections in dairy cattle has resulted in the emergence of anthelmintic resistance. Cases of resistance to triclabendazole (TCBZ) have been reported worldwide. The main goal of this research was to evaluate the main five fasciolicides to control fasciolosis in dairy cattle in the Mantaro Valley, Peru. Two fecal egg count reduction tests were performed. In a first study, 24 naturally F. hepatica infected cattle were randomly grouped into three experimental groups (n = 8). Groups were treated with either TCBZ, nitroxynil (NTX) or closantel (CLOS). In a second experiment, 55 naturally infected cows were grouped into three experimental groups and treated with either TCBZ (n = 18), rafoxanide (RFX) + albendazole (ABZ) (n = 19) or clorsulon (CLN) + ivermectin (IVM) (n = 18). Therapeutic efficacy was determined following the WAAVP guidelines by measuring reduction in fluke egg output at days 15 and 30 post-treatment. Bootstrapping method was used to obtain the 95% confidence intervals. The efficacy of TCBZ was inadequate in both studies (≤80.8%). Closantel showed high efficacy (≥ 90%) at both days, while NTX showed 92.9% (83-100) and 82.1% (53.6-100), efficacy, at days 15 and 30, respectively. Efficacy for RFX were 92.1% (79.6-98.9) and 97.4% (94.1-99.4); and for CLN, 98.8% (97.6-100) and 80.1% (44.7-99.4), at days 15 and 30, respectively. The outcome of this study indicates reduced therapeutic efficacy of TCBZ against F. hepatica in an important dairy area of the Peruvian central highlands but also demonstrates the validity of four alternatives.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Fasciola hepatica , Fasciolíase , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Peru , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Fasciolíase/tratamento farmacológico , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Triclabendazol/uso terapêutico , Nitroxinila/uso terapêutico , Rafoxanida/uso terapêutico
15.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 38: 100829, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725161

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is endemic in humans and livestock in many pastoral communities in Kenya. The distribution of the disease is enhanced by several factors, including livestock trade, which has allowed for the spread of CE to non-endemic areas such as western Kenya. Dogs' roaming behaviour, with consequent contamination of the environment with intestinal parasites, could then lead to parasite establishment. This study examined dogs' infection levels with taeniid eggs and their potential role in contaminating the environment with intestinal parasites. METHODOLOGY: We selected sixteen ruminant slaughterhouses in Busia and Bungoma Counties, and around each slaughterhouse we identified ten homesteads owning free-roaming dogs. We administered a questionnaire on dog management practices to the homestead owner and collected a faecal sample from the dog's rectum. In homesteads around 8 of the 16 slaughterhouses, we collared dogs with a GPS tracker to assess their movement patterns. The faecal samples were examined microscopically following zinc-chloride sieving-floatation technique for the presence of taeniid eggs and other canine intestinal parasites. Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 gene and sequencing were used to confirm taeniid eggs identified during microscopy. Additionally, the Coproantigen-ELISA was used to detect the presence of taeniid antigen in a sub-set of the faecal samples. RESULTS: Helminths detected in the 155 dogs sampled included hookworms (n = 92; 59.4%), ascarids (n = 15; 9.7%), and taeniids (n = 1; 0.6%). Through Copro-PCR, 13 eggs extracted from the sample of the only taeniid infected dog were sequenced and identified as E. canadensis (G6/7) [n = 1], Taenia multiceps [n = 1], and Taenia serialis [n = 6]; the remaining were indeterminate. Of the 77 faecal samples tested for E. granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) with the Copro-ELISA, 64 (83.1%) were negative, 12 (15.6%) were positive, while 1 (1.3%) was suspicious. The dogs travelled a median of 13.5 km daily, and 28 dogs visited the slaughterhouses during the 5-day recording period. CONCLUSION: The results indicate a relatively high carriage of zoonotic parasites by free-roaming domestic dogs in western Kenya, which poses a risk to human and livestock populations. We report for the first time a domestic lifecycle of Echinococcus canadensis and Taenia multiceps in western Kenya, as well as a presumptive sylvatic cycle of coenurosis by T. serialis. We recommend an extensive and ongoing Copro-antigen survey of dog faeces, broader assessment of dog parasites with zoonotic potential, adherence to slaughterhouse management practices, and dog-ownership programmes to highlight the importance of deworming and restricted dog movements.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Echinococcus , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Taenia , Cães , Animais , Humanos , Echinococcus/genética , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Quênia/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
16.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 55(1): 60, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725815

RESUMO

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a large global outbreak. The reports of domestic animals' infection with SARS-CoV-2 raise concerns about the virus's longer-lasting spread, the establishment of a new host reservoir, or even the evolution of a new virus, as seen with COVID-19. In this review, we focus on the susceptibility of domestic animals, especially companion animals, towards SARS-CoV-2 in light of existing studies of natural infection, experimental infection, and serological surveys. Susceptibility of domestic and companion animals to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , COVID-19/veterinária , Animais de Estimação , Surtos de Doenças
17.
J Vet Sci ; 24(1): e2, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36726274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypothermia is a crucial environmental factor that elevates the risk of cardiovascular disease, but the underlying effect is unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the role of cold stress (CS) in cardiac injury and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: In this study, a chronic CS-induced myocardial injury model was used; mice were subjected to chronic CS (4°C) for three hours per day for three weeks. RESULTS: CS could result in myocardial injury by inducing the levels of heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70), enhancing the generation of creatine phosphokinase-isoenzyme (CKMB) and malondialdehyde (MDA), increasing the contents of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) interleukin1b (IL-1ß), IL-18, IL-6, and triggering the depletion of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH). Multiple signaling pathways were activated by cold exposure, including pyroptosis-associated NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3)-regulated caspase-1-dependent/Gasdermin D (GSDMD), inflammation-related toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-mediated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), as well as oxidative stress-involved thioredoxin-1/thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) signaling pathways, which play a pivotal role in myocardial injury resulting from hypothermia. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide new insights into the increased risk of cardiovascular disease at extremely low temperatures.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipotermia , Doenças dos Roedores , Ratos , Camundongos , Animais , Piroptose/fisiologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Doenças Cardiovasculares/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Hipotermia/veterinária , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Inflamação/veterinária , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular
18.
J Vet Sci ; 24(1): e12, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36726277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arthroscopic exploration of ventromedial part of canine coxofemoral joint is limited in conventional dorsal approach. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the efficacy of a medial arthroscopic approach to the coxofemoral joint of dogs by analyzing the joint visible area and performing a safety analysis. METHODS: Arthroscopic approaches to the coxofemoral joint were made in five cadavers using a traditional (dorsal) and novel (medial) approach. Three observers scored the visible area of images and videos of the acetabulum and femur. A safety analysis was performed via dissection of the medial hind limb. The distance between neurovascular structures and arthroscopic portals was measured. RESULTS: The acetabulum was more visible in the dorsal than in the medial approach, with mean visualization scores of 16 ± 0.00 and 11.83 ± 1.26, respectively. The medioventral side of the femur was significantly more visible in the medial than in the dorsal approach, with mean visualization scores of 3.9 ± 0.99 and 6.93 ± 0.58, respectively. Safety analysis confirmed the medial portal site was safe, provided that the surgeon has comprehensive knowledge of the joint. The minimum distance from the arthroscopic medial portals to the nearest neurovascular structures was 2.5 mm. CONCLUSIONS: A medial arthroscopic approach to the canine coxofemoral joint has potential clinical application. Dorsal and medial approaches differ significantly and have distinct purposes. The medial approach is useful to access the ventromedial joint, making it an eligible diagnostic method for an arthroscopic evaluation of this area.


Assuntos
Artroscopia , Doenças do Cão , Cães , Animais , Artroscopia/veterinária , Artroscopia/métodos , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Acetábulo , Fêmur/cirurgia , Cadáver , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia
19.
J Vet Sci ; 24(1): e14, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36726279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of feline hindlimb full-thickness skin defects is challenging. On the other hand, the use of a semitendinosus (ST) myocutaneous flap for their coverage has not been reported. OBJECTIVES: To describe the ST flap and compare it with second intention healing for managing hindlimb full-thickness skin defects. METHODS: In 12 purpose-bred laboratory domestic short-haired cats, two wounds were made on each tibia. The wounds in group A (n = 12) were covered with ST flaps, and those in group B (n = 12) were left to heal by second intention. In both groups, clinical assessment scoring and planimetry were performed between one-30 d postoperatively. Computed tomography-angiography (CTA) was performed on days zero, 10, and 30, and histological examinations were performed on days zero and 14 and at 6 and 12 mon postoperatively. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences in the clinical assessment scores were observed between groups A and B on days 14 (p = 0.046) and 21 (p = 0.016). On the other hand, the time for complete healing was similar in the two groups. CTA revealed significant differences in the muscle width (day 0 compared to days 10 and 30 [p = 0.001, p = 0.026, respectively], and days 10 to 30 [p = 0.022]), ST muscle density, and the caliber of the distal caudal femoral artery and vein (day 0 compared to day 10 [p < 0.001], and days 10 to 30 [p < 0.001]). Histologically significant differences in inflammation, degeneration, edema, neovascularization, and fibrosis were observed on day 14 compared to zero and 6 mon, but no differences were found between the time interval of 6 and 12 mon. CONCLUSIONS: An ST flap can be used effectively to manage hindlimb full-thickness skin defects.


Assuntos
Músculos Isquiossurais , Retalho Miocutâneo , Gatos/cirurgia , Animais , Transplante de Pele/veterinária , Membro Posterior/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Vet Sci ; 24(1): e8, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36726275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasites in livestock cause huge economic setbacks. Moreover, these parasites can threaten human health when also present in companion animals. OBJECTIVES: The study examined the prevalence and burden of intestinal parasites among roaming/migrating animals (goats, sheep, cattle, and dogs) to provide insights into the risk of potential human parasitic infections. METHODS: A total of 1,741 fecal samples from goats (n = 920), sheep (n = 335), cattle (n = 230) and dogs (n = 256) were obtained randomly across 18 local government areas in Edo State, Nigeria. The parasite samples were recovered and identified under a microscope. Molecular tools were used to identify Toxocara spp. RESULTS: Eighteen different parasites were isolated. Among the different groups of parasites observed, nematodes occurred the most, followed by protozoans. Among nematodes, Haemonchus was most prevalent in goats (28.04%) and sheep (29.85%), while Strongyloides (10.86%) and Bunostomum (8.69%) were relatively high in cattle. Strongyloides (3.9%), hookworm (3.9%), and Toxocara (3.12%) were the predominant parasites in dogs. For protozoan parasites, Eimeria was most common in all 4 animal hosts. Several goats (2.39%) and sheep (2.38%) tested positive for Fasciola spp. Molecular analysis confirmed Toxocara canis in dogs for the first time in Nigeria. CONCLUSIONS: The major parasites recovered from these roaming/migrating animals have zoonotic potentials that can threaten human health.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças do Cão , Doenças das Cabras , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Doenças dos Ovinos , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Ovinos , Cães , Prevalência , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Cabras , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
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