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1.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(2): 135, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35024941

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent pathogens, and a causative agent of a variety of infections in humans and animals. Most studies concentrated on characterization of staphylococcus isolates and its antimicrobial resistance from various illness of veterinary importance, but there is no specific study that is available on isolates from reproductive tract of small ruminants and especially its semen. Hence, in the current study, a total of 48 semen samples were collected from healthy bucks of different breeds to investigate the occurrence of S. aureus. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence of the Staphylococcus isolates were determined to assess the adverse effects of them on buck fertility. The bacterial isolates were tentatively confirmed as Staphylococcus spp. based on the Gram's staining, growth on Mannitol salt agar and catalase test. Overall, 75% (n = 36) of the samples were positive for Staphylococcus spp. from the total 48 buck semen ejaculates from different breeds and among them 23 (63.89%) were coagulase-negative (CoNS) and 13 (36.11%) were coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CoPS) strains. The species identified by molecular characterization are S. aureus, S. chromogenes, S. haemolyticus, S. sciuri, S. simulans, and S. epidermidis from buck semen. Further, these isolates exhibited varying degrees of multidrug resistance genotypically as well as phenotypically. The presence of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes may pose a potential threat to reproductive health of animals, the animal handlers and livestock keepers, while simultaneously highlighting the need for vigilant monitoring of these isolates at the time of semen cryopreservation.


Assuntos
Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sêmen , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 54, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028725

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin C supplementation on blood parameters of pre-parturient (PP) dairy cows and growth performance and immune system of their newborn calves. Forty PP cows (at approximately 21 days before calving and an average weight 791 ± 50 kg) were allocated into two experimental treatments: (1) basal diet without vitamin C supplementation (CO) and (2) basal diet with 20 g of vitamin C supplementation from 21 days before calving to parturition (VC). After parturition, the experiment continued by grouping the calves into four dietary treatments with 8 calves in each treatment. The experimental treatments were (1) control calves with no vitamin C supplementation and from cows that received no vitamin C supplement (CON), (2) calves supplemented with 600 mg of vitamin C per day and from cows that received no vitamin C supplement (CVC), (3) calves supplemented with no vitamin C and from cows that received 20 g of vitamin C per day (MVC), and (4) calves supplemented with 600 mg of vitamin C per day and from cows that received 20 g of vitamin C per day (CMVC). Serum concentrations of glucose, HDL and LDL, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, and albumin of cows were not affected by vitamin C supplementation during pre-parturient period. However, cows that received VC diet had lower (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde (MDA) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations, higher total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and vitamin C concentration in their blood compared to CO cows. Vitamin C supplementation had no effect on plasma iron, copper, and zinc concentrations of PP cows. Similarly, vitamin C supplementation had no effect on total feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of suckling calves. However, calves in the CMVC group had higher (P < 0.05) overall daily weight gain compared to the other groups. Calves in the CVC and CMVC groups had lower (P < 0.05) blood MDA concentration on days 7 and 21. The highest (P < 0.05) blood TAC level was recorded in CMVC calves. Control group calves had lower (P < 0.05) blood superoxide dismutase activity compared to the other calves. Blood levels of alanine aminotransferase on days 7 and 21 and aspartate aminotransferase on day 7 were higher (P < 0.05) for calves in the CON and MVC groups. Based on the results, vitamin C supplementation had positive health effects on the oxidative parameters of PP dairy cows and also improved the performance and health status of the calves.


Assuntos
Cobre , Zinco , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Ferro
3.
Vet Parasitol ; 301: 109640, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973595

RESUMO

Infection caused by gastrointestinal nematodes is an important issue for animal health and production. Controlling worm infections improves the sustainability of the sheep industry. Genetic selection of animals that are resistant to gastrointestinal nematodes is another strategy to render sheep production more sustainable by decreasing the use of anthelmintics. The aims of this study were (1) to explore the additive-genetic pattern of EBVs for Famacha© (FAM), packed-cell volume (PVC), and fecal egg counts (FEC) of Santa Ines sheep, (2) to propose a classification of animals that are resistant, resilient and susceptible to gastrointestinal nematodes based on their additive-genetic patterns, and (3) to identify the most suitable animals for selection based on their genetic pattern. A dataset of 2,241 records from 747 animals was used to predict the breeding values for indicator traits of resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes with THRGIBBS1F90 and to carry out cluster analyses was used R software. Three clusters of animals were found in the population using hierarchical cluster analysis of the breeding values for FAM, PCV and FEC. Each cluster was characterized by different additive-genetic patterns identified by k-means non-hierarchical cluster analysis. Among a total of 747 animals, 196 were classified as resistant, 288 as resilient, and 263 as susceptible. Cluster analysis is a valuable tool for data screening that permits to evaluate only selection candidates based on their additive-genetic pattern for gastrointestinal nematode resistance. EBVs for FEC were decisive to divide the population into resilient, resistant and susceptible animals. It is also important to include the EBVs for PCV and FAM to adequately distinguish resistant from resilient animals. Finally, the resistant cluster consisted of the most desirable animals to be used as selection candidates in order to genetically improve resistance to infection with gastrointestinal nematodes. This cluster contained animals with the most appropriate additive-genetic pattern to achieve the breeding goal, with positive breeding values for PCV and negative breeding values for FAM and FEC.


Assuntos
Hemoncose , Haemonchus , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Fezes , Hemoncose/veterinária , Nematoides/genética , Infecções por Nematoides/genética , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética
4.
Vet Parasitol ; 301: 109641, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979475

RESUMO

Ovine neosporosis, caused by the Apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum, leads to reproductive failure worldwide. Nowadays, there is a trend to develop diagnostic techniques using non-invasive samples, such as milk, in order to reduce animal stress, sample collection effort, and costs. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a highly sensitive and specific serological technique, based on a time resolved-fluorescence immunoassay using a N. caninum GRA7 antigen (GRA7-TRFIA), for the detection of anti-N. caninum immunoglobulins G on sheep' full-cream milk samples. An analytical validation was performed, including intra- and inter-assay precision, analytical sensitivity and accuracy. The diagnostic performance of the assay was evaluated by studying the positive-negative discrimination by Mann Whitney U tests. In additon optimal cut-offs, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, and areas under the curve were calculated by three Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analyses, using GRA7-TRFIA and a N. caninum tachyzoite soluble extract-based ELISA (NcSALUVET-ELISA) in blood sera, and the coinciding results of both techniques, as reference techniques. Moreover, Spearman's correlation of GRA7-TRFIA in milk with the techniques in sera and agreement (kappa values) were also estimated. GRA7-TRFIA for milk samples showed an adequate precision, with high analytical sensitivity and accuracy. Regarding ROC analyses, at the optimal cut-offs, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were more than 90 % in all cases. In addition, GRA7-TRFIA values in milk were more positively correlated to GRA7-TRFIA values in blood sera than in the case of values obtained with NcSALUVET-ELISA. GRA7-TRFIA in milk showed an almost perfect agreement with GRA7-TRFIA in blood sera (kappa = 0.98) and with the coinciding results of GRA7-TRFIA and NcSALUVET in blood sera (kappa = 1.00), while it has a substantial agreement with NcSALUVET-ELISA (kappa = 0.69). In the light of these results, GRA7-TRFIA in full-cream milk samples is a highly sensitive technique that could be used for screening anti-N. caninum antibodies in sheep flocks.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Neospora , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Bovinos , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Leite , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 45, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015154

RESUMO

To investigate the potential of Ampelopsis grossedentata extract used as a feed additive, laying performance, egg quality, yolk cholesterol, plasma biochemical parameters, intestinal histology, and gut microbiota of hens (n = 60) were determined between basal diet (CK) and dietary supplementation with A. grossedentata extract (RT) for 11 weeks. The laying rate in RT group was 6.3 percentage points higher than in CK group together with feed conversion rate decreasing. Significant upregulation of immunoglobulin indexes and downregulation of lipid-related indexes in RT group were also found in comparison with CK group, suggesting that dietary supplementation with A. grossedentata extract benefited in immunity enhancing and blood-fat depressing. Meanwhile, the villus height in duodenum and villus height to crypt depth ratio in duodenum and jejunum of RT group were significantly higher than that of CK group, indicating that dietary supplementation with A. grossedentata extract facilitated nutrient adsorption via intestinal histology changing. Moreover, the richness, diversity, and composition of gut microbiota in RT group significantly altered with a comparison of CK group, including beneficial bacterium and pathogenic bacterium, revealing that dietary supplementation with A. grossedentata extract could modify gut microbiota communities to affect intestinal adsorption and pathogen invasion. In addition, the lipid metabolism-related insulin signing pathway was significantly enriched by gut microbiota in RT group, which were conducive to egg production elevation via facilitating blood lipid amelioration and insulin resistance alleviation. These results provided a basis for A. grossedentata extract served as a feed additive in the hen industry.


Assuntos
Ampelopsis , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 48, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018493

RESUMO

Sixteen Rahaji breed beef cattle (112.00 ± 0.15 kg body weight (BW)) were randomly assigned to one of four rations differing in the degree of substitution of sorghum straw with Cattail (Typha domingensis) silage. Growth performance, feed intake, blood profile, and economics of production were evaluated. Completely randomized design was used, and the feeding trial lasted for 42 days. Cattle were fed a total mixed ration of roughage:concentrate (400:600) g/kg dry matter and gamba hay free choice. The control diet (T0) contained 400 g/kg sorghum straw, expressed on a dry matter basis (DM). For additional treatments, Typha silage (TS) was included at 100 (T10), 200 (T20), and 300 (T30) g/kg of the mix replacing an equal DM weight of sorghum straw. Growth rate was similar (P > 0.05) regardless of the TS level. DM (5160.77-5524.96 g/d) and crude protein (846.36-955.82 g/d) intakes were higher (P < 0.05) in T20 and T30 diets, while the acid detergent fiber intake (471.27-512.46 g/d) reduced (P < 0.05) in TS-based diets. Red blood cell concentrations of cattle fed TS-based diets increased (P < 0.05). The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations of cattle fed T20 diet decreased (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. Sodium and albumin concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in cattle fed TS-based diets. Total cost of feeding ($ 49.60-61.62) decreased (P < 0.05) in TS-based diets, while the gross benefit of cattle fed 300 g/kg TS diet ($ 74.98) was enhanced relative to cattle fed T0 and T10 diets. TS can be considered a new resource of feed for cattle.


Assuntos
Silagem , Typhaceae , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Rúmen , Silagem/análise , Zea mays
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(1): e017121, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019026

RESUMO

In June 2012, a tick was found parasitizing a man in the city of São Paulo, who had recently returned from a visit to Pennsylvania, in the northeast of the United States. The tick was removed and sent to the São Paulo State Department of Health, where it was identified as a male of the species Dermacentor variabilis (Say, 1821), according to the literature and taxonomic keys. The tick was subjected to a PCR test to search for rickettsiae, but the result was negative. The fact that a human entered Brazilian territory unaware that he was parasitized by a hard tick not belonging to the national tick fauna is significant because of the possibility that an exotic species could be introduced and take hold in this country. Another major risk to public health is that this arthropod could be infected with the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, as this ectoparasite is the main vector of Spotted Fever on the East Coast of North America.


Assuntos
Dermacentor , Rickettsia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa , Animais , Brasil , Humanos , Masculino , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia rickettsii , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/veterinária
8.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(1): e017421, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019027

RESUMO

The present study aimed to perform an epidemiological and morphological identification of Eimeria infection in sheep in Brazil. Fecal samples from sheep were collected from 20 farms in northern Paraná, Brazil. An epidemiological questionnaire was used to evaluate the risk factors. Fecal samples containing oocysts per gram of feces (OoPG) ≥1000 were subjected to the modified Willis-Mollay method to perform oocyst identification. Sporulated oocysts were observed microscopically for morphological identification. A total of 807 fecal samples were collected. Based on the morphological characteristics of the sporulated oocysts, 10 species of Eimeria were identified, with main species observed: Eimeira ovinoidalis (98.1%), Eimeria crandallis (87.6%), Eimeria parva (79.1%), and Eimeria bakuensis (60.8%). Only 2.6% (7/268) of the sheep were infected with a single species, 4.8% (13/268) contained two different species, and 92.5% (248/268) were infected with three or more species. The analysis of risk factors showed that an intensive rearing, no rotation of pasture, dirt, and slatted floors, and age up to 12 months were associated with infection. This study showed a high prevalence of Eimeria natural infection in sheep from northern Paraná, Brazil. Furthermore, based on the risk factors, good management and hygiene practices must be employed to avoid infection.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Fezes , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(1): e019121, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019029

RESUMO

Millions of people worldwide, and especially schoolchildren, may be infected by geohelminths due to their exposure to a contaminated environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil contamination by Ancylostoma spp. and Toxocara spp. eggs in recreation areas at elementary schools in Pelotas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Sand samples were collected from 22 schools and were processed using the centrifugal flotation method. Helminth eggs with zoonotic potential were found in 12 out of the 22 schools (54.5%). Contamination by Ancylostoma spp. and Toxocara spp. was observed in 36.4% (8/22) and 27.3% (6/22) of the soil samples collected at these schools, respectively. These findings of eggs show that the school communities are exposed to risks of zoonotic transmission.


Assuntos
Ancylostoma , Toxocara , Animais , Brasil , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Instituições Acadêmicas , Solo
10.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e254816, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019106

RESUMO

Pakistan is an agricultural country and fisheries play a very important role in the economic development of the country. Different diseases are prevalent in Pakistani fish but information related to the causative agents is not well-known. Keeping in view the significance of bacterial pathogens as the causative agents of multiple fish diseases, the present study was conducted for identification, characterization and analysis of virulence genes of Aeromonas spp. isolated from diseased fishes. A total of fifty fish samples having multiple clinical indications were collected from different fish farms of district Kasur, Punjab Pakistan. For isolation of Aeromonas spp. samples were enriched and inoculated on Aeromonas isolation medium. Isolates were identified and characterized by different biochemical tests, Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E kit and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. All isolates were screened for three putative virulence genes including aerolysin (aer), haemolysin (hyl) and heat labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt). Seven isolates of Aeromonas (A.) hydrophila were retrieved and identified based on API 20E. These isolates were further confirmed as A. hydrophila on the basis of PCR assays. Three isolates were detected positive for the presence of virulence genes (alt and hyl). Whereas aerolysin (aer) gene was not present in any of A. hydrophila isolates. The present study confirmed A. hydrophila as the causative agent of epizootic ulcerative syndrome and motile Aeromonas septicemia in fish farms of district Kasur, Punjab Pakistan. Moreover, detection of two virulence genes (alt and hyl) in A. hydrophila isolates is a threat for fish consumers of study area.


Assuntos
Aeromonas , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Aeromonas/genética , Aeromonas hydrophila/genética , Animais , Enterotoxinas/genética , Peixes , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Paquistão
11.
J Anim Sci ; 100(1)2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979552

RESUMO

Two experiments were carried out to determine a time-series effect of phytase on phosphorus (P) utilization in growing and finishing pigs using growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, P excretion, and plasma concentrations of minerals as the response criteria for evaluation. In both experiments, treatments were arranged as a 3 × 4 factorial in a randomized complete block design with 3 corn-soybean meal-based diets including a P-adequate positive control (PC), a low-P negative control (NC; no inorganic P), and NC supplemented with phytase at 1,000 FYT/kg (NC + 1,000); and 4 sampling time points at days 7, 14, 21, and 28 in experiment 1, and days 14, 26, 42, and 55 in experiment 2. In both trials, 96 growing pigs with average body weight (BW) of 19.8 ± 1.16 and 49.8 ± 3.21 kg, respectively, were allocated to the 3 diets with 8 replicates pens (4 barrows and 4 gilts) and 4 pigs per pen. In experiment 1, pigs fed the PC had higher (P < 0.01) BW, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) when compared with pigs fed the NC. There was an interaction (P < 0.01) between time and diet on the BW and ADG of pigs while a linear and quadratic increase (P < 0.01) was observed with the ADFI and G:F, respectively, over time. Phytase supplementation improved (P < 0.01) all growth performance responses. Pigs fed the PC had greater (P < 0.01) ATTD of P and Ca than pigs fed the NC. There was no interaction effect on the ATTD of nutrients. Phytase addition improved the ATTD of P and Ca over pigs fed the NC. There was an interaction (P < 0.01) between diet and time on the total and water-soluble P (WSP) excreted. There was a quadratic decrease (P < 0.01) in plasma concentration of Ca in pigs over time. In experiment 2, there was a quadratic increase (P < 0.01) in BW, ADG, and G:F of pigs over time. Similarly, the inclusion of phytase improved (P < 0.05) all growth performance parameters except ADFI. A linear increase (P < 0.05) in the ATTD of DM, P, and Ca occurred over time. Phytase inclusion improved (P < 0.01) the ATTD of P and Ca. Plasma concentrations of P were improved by phytase addition. Phytase supplementation of the NC reduced WSP excretion by 45%, 32%, and 35% over the growing, finishing, and entire grow-finish period, respectively. In conclusion, phytase improves the utilization of P in growing and finishing pigs; however, the magnitude of effect on responses may vary over time.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Fósforo na Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Feminino , Fósforo , Suínos , Zea mays
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 37, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997366

RESUMO

This study investigated the ameliorative effect of dietary tomato powder (TP) on performance and blood characteristics of broilers under heat stress condition. A total of 240 (21 days old), unsexed Marshall broiler chicks were allotted to four dietary treatments having 6 replicates of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design (CRD). The birds were exposed to ambient temperature of 33 °C between 8:00am and 5:00 pm and relative humidity of 81.5% for 2 h per day, throughout the 21-day feeding trial. Data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and polynomial contrast (linear (L) and quadratic (Q)) applied using IBM SPSS version 20. The experimental diets 1 (control), 2, 3, and 4 contained 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5% TP, respectively. Results showed that live weight, weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio increased (L.Q: P < 0.05) while mortality rate reduced (P < 0.05) following increasing dietary inclusion of TP. Birds fed diets containing 0, 2.5, and 5.0% TP had similar feed cost per weight gain which was lower (L: P < 0.001: Q: P < 0.05) than those of birds fed diet containing 7.5% TP. Most hematological parameters and serum enzymes measured were not affected (P > 0.05) by inclusion of TP. Birds fed diets containing 5.0 and 7.5% TP had similar serum cholesterol (L.Q: P < 0.05) and triglyceride (L:P < 0.001:.Q:P < 0.05) concentration which is lower than those of control. It was concluded that tomato powder (especially at 5% inclusion) in the diet of heat-stressed broiler chickens is beneficial for improved growth, health, and production cost with no adverse effect.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Lycopersicon esculentum , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Pós
13.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 38, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997337

RESUMO

This study shows the effectiveness of diet containing Trachyspermum copticum (TC), Majorana hortensis Minch (MH), Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl (SL), and Zingiber officinale (ZO) on the growth performance, biochemical factors, and qualitative agents of eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and their immune responses against Newcastle and Avian Influenza vaccine. For this prepose, 675 quails were divided into 9 groups with three replicates and fed with different treatment diets (basic diet with no supplements (control treatment diet) and diets supplemented with one of two levels (0.5 and 2%) of each plant powders). Data showed that the use of TC 2% increased the Haugh unit significantly (P < 0.05) compared with the control (P < 0.05). At the end of the experiment, shell weight (g) and shell thickness were also remarkably enhanced in treated groups compared with the control group. Moreover, the findings of this study showed the thiobarbituric acid and yolk cholesterol level reduced remarkably (P < 0.05) in the MH and SL groups without significant adverse effect on albumen protein (%) and total protein (%) level. In this study, TC-2%, ZO-2%, and SL-2% all increased the antibody titers against avian influenza. The use of a diet containing MH-2% increased Newcastle disease in Japanese quail in comparison to both controls and different levels of other medicinal herb powders. Based on these results, using these four herbal plant powders in Japanese quail, diets could positively affect their egg qualitative and biochemical factors.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Aviária , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Coturnix , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Imunidade , Óvulo , Codorniz
14.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 55, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029707

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) causes an infectious disease in cattle. Due to its direct relationship with the survival of arthropod vectors, geospatial and climatic features play a vital role in the epidemiology of the disease. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of some machine learning algorithms to forecast the occurrence of LSDV infection based on meteorological and geological attributes. Initially, ExtraTreesClassifier algorithm was used to select the important predictive features in forecasting the disease occurrence in unseen (test) data among meteorological, animal population density, dominant land cover, and elevation attributes. Some machine learning techniques revealed high accuracy in predicting the LSDV occurrence in test data (up to 97%). In terms of area under curve (AUC) and F1 performance metric scores, the artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm outperformed other machine learning methods in predicting the occurrence of LSDV infection in unseen data with the corresponding values of 0.97 and 0.94, respectively. Using this algorithm, the model consisted of all predictive features and the one which only included meteorological attributes as important features showed similar predictive performance. According to the findings of this research, ANN can be used to forecast the occurrence of LSDV infection with high precision using geospatial and meteorological parameters. Applying the forecasting power of these methods could be a great help in conducting screening and awareness programs, as well as taking preventive measures like vaccination in areas where the occurrence of LSDV infection is a high risk.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Doença Nodular Cutânea , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doença Nodular Cutânea/diagnóstico , Doença Nodular Cutânea/epidemiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Vacinação/veterinária
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 53, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study is a baseline survey to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices with regards to the anthrax disease among the communities before demonstrating a One Health approach for elimination of human anthrax in an endemic district of Odisha. A total of 2670 respondents from 112 villages of 14 blocks were interviewed for the study using a structured questionnaire by multi-stage sampling method. Descriptive statistics were reported and logistic regression was performed to estimate the relationship between the variables and knowledge of anthrax. RESULT: Out of 2670 participants in the study, 76.25% were male and about half were illiterate. Most of the respondents (54.19%) were involved in agriculture as an occupation. 71% of the respondents had livestock in their houses and farming was the main purpose for keeping the livestock. Only one-fifth of the respondents (20.26%) knew about anthrax and a majority of them have come across the disease during community outbreaks. Almost 25.9% of livestock owners had knowledge about vaccination against anthrax disease although 83.4% of the livestock owners disposed the animal carcass by burial method. CONCLUSION: The study findings indicated that the community members had poor knowledge of cause, symptoms, transmission and prevention of anthrax disease which may be improved by a One Health approach.


Assuntos
Antraz , Saúde Única , Animais , Antraz/epidemiologia , Antraz/prevenção & controle , Antraz/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Gado , Masculino , Vacinação
16.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 57, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031870

RESUMO

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was standardized for rapid detection of Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. A total of 250 foot swabs were screened from sheep (200) and goats (50) from different districts of Rayalaseema, viz., Chittoor, Nellore, Kadapa, and Anantapur. Out of 250 samples 75 (30.0%) and 85 (34.0%) were positive for D. nodosus and F. necrophorum, respectively. All the 250 samples were screened individually for both the organisms by LAMP. Among them, 104 (41.6%) were found to be positive for D. nodosus and 120 (48.0%) were positive for F. necrophorum. The efficacy of LAMP in terms of sample DNA detection limit was compared with the PCR by using standard dilutions of DNA extracted from D. nodosus and F. necrophorum cultures. The detection limit was found to be higher than PCR for both the organisms. The sensitivity of LAMP is compared with PCR by targeting 16S rRNA gene of D. nodosus and lktA gene of F. necrophorum. In case of D. nodosus, out of 250 samples, 75 (30.0%) were positive by PCR and 104 (41.6%) were positive by LAMP. Among 250 samples, 85 (34.0%) were positive by PCR and 120 (48.0%) were positive by LAMP in case of F. necrophorum. The LAMP was found to be more sensitive than PCR in detecting the organisms with high statistical significance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Fusobacterium , Doenças das Cabras , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Infecções por Fusobacterium/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Cabras , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Padrões de Referência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 56, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031883

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of bael leaf powder (BLP) on growth performance, immunity, serum biochemistry, and caecal microbiology of broiler chickens. Following completely randomised design, a total of 288-day-old CARIBRO-Vishal broiler chickens were randomly divided into six treatment groups consisting of experimental diets formulated as follows - T1 (basal diet), T2 (basal diet + 250 mg bacitracin methylene disalicylate-BMD/kg diet), T3 (basal diet + 5 g BLP/kg diet) T4 (basal diet + 10 g BLP/kg diet), T5 (basal diet + 15 g BLP/kg diet), and T6 (basal diet + 20 g BLP/kg diet). Proximate analysis of green bael leaves revealed 65.6% moisture and on dry matter basis, BLP contained 14.31% protein, 1.89% fat, 16.30% crude fibre, 4.25% calcium, and 2.08% phosphorous. This study revealed no adverse effects of BLP supplementation on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chicken. The BLP supplementation at 20 g/kg diet resulted in higher relative weights of bursa and thymus with better cell mediated (higher foot web index) and humoral immune (higher antibody titre against sheep RBCs) responses in broiler chicken. Lower abdominal fat deposition was observed in broiler chicken fed 20 g BLP/kg diet. Significantly lower serum uric acid, creatinine, AST, and ALT were observed in BLP supplemented chicken which indicates nephro-protective and hepato-protective functions of BLP. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and tissue cholesterol content of broiler chicken decreased progressively with increasing dietary BLP levels. The supplementation of 20 g BLP/kg diet resulted in lower E. coli and Coliform counts, whereas, increasing trend was observed in Lactobacillus count in caecum of broiler chicken. In conclusion, the BLP supplementation at 20 g/kg diet exerted immunomodulatory, anti-hyperlipidaemic, and antibacterial effects in broiler chicken without any adverse effects on the growth performance.


Assuntos
Aegle , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antibacterianos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli , Folhas de Planta , Pós , Ovinos , Ácido Úrico
18.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(2): 137, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032196

RESUMO

Although the spread of plasmid-mediated antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a public health concern, food contamination with plasmid-mediated antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in Vietnam has not been well investigated. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of colistin-resistant, carbapenem-resistant, and endemic blaCTX-M in extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli isolates. Colistin and carbapenem-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from chickens in Vietnam and Japan. Colistin-resistant and AmpC/ESBL-producing E. coli (52% and 93%, respectively) were detected in chickens from Vietnam, in comparison to 52.7%, AmpC/ESBL-producing E. coli found in chicken from Japan. Carbapenem-resistant E. coli has not been isolated in Vietnam and Japan. Genotyping revealed that colistin-resistant E. coli harboured mcr-1, and most of the AmpC/ESBL-related genes were blaCTX-M-55 and blaCTX-M-65 together with blaTEM in Vietnamese chickens and blaCMY-2 in Japanese chickens. Multi-drug resistance analysis showed that ESBL-producing E. coli isolates had greater resistance to quinolones, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol than colistin-resistant E. coli isolates from Vietnam, suggesting the selection of multiple antibiotic resistance genes in ESBL-producing E. coli. In conclusion, colistin-resistant E. coli was detected in approximately half of the chicken samples, the majority of which harboured mcr-1. The high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli has remained constant in the last 5 years. The predominant blaCTX-M in ESBL-producing E. coli was blaCTX-M-55 or blaCTX-M-65, with the coexistence of blaTEM in Vietnam. These results can be implemented in monitoring systems to overcome the development of antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Colistina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Carne , Plasmídeos/genética , Vietnã , beta-Lactamases/genética
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 60, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034203

RESUMO

Trypanosoma evansi, a hemoflagellate protozoan parasite, causes wasting disease called surra in wide range of animals. Although the organism has been reported from various parts of India, data generated from organized epidemiological study is still in infancy in majority states of India. In the present study, livestock of Himachal Pradesh, India, was targeted for epidemiological investigation of T. evansi infections. A total of 440 equines and 444 cattle serum samples were collected from four agro-climatic zones. Furthermore, serum samples of 280 buffaloes from three different agro-climatic zones of Himachal Pradesh were also collected and evaluated for the presence of T. evansi infection by indirect ELISA. Data generated showed higher prevalence in buffalo (23.57%) followed by cattle (22.52%) and equines (1.82%). Disease was found to be more prevalent (P < 0.01) in cattle of lower altitude as compared to those of higher altitudes. No significant variation was seen in prevalence of disease on the basis of age and sex of the animals. Serum biochemical analysis revealed increased levels of BUN in T. evansi-infected equines. Levels of liver function enzymes such as ALT/GGT and AST were found to be significantly elevated (P < 0.01) in seropositive animals whereas glucose levels were significantly lower in surra-seropositive animals as compared to seronegative animals. Immunoblot analysis of whole cell lysate (WCL) antigen of T. evansi using surra-seropositive samples of equines showed immunodominant bands in the range of 100-25 kDa. Bovine-seropositive samples recognized polypeptide bands in the range of 85-32 kDa, including protein clusters of 52-55 and 48-46 kDa. Polypeptide cluster of 62-66 kDa was found common in seropositive samples of bovines and equines from all agro-climatic zones. T. evansi was found to be highly prevalent in livestock of Himachal Pradesh, and thus, there is dire need for designing of proper control strategies against surra.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças dos Cavalos , Trypanosoma , Tripanossomíase , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Índia/epidemiologia , Gado , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase/veterinária
20.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(2): 57, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982247

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis and a serious public health threat in tropical and subtropical areas. The etiologic agents of leptospirosis are pathogenic spirochetes from the genus Leptospira. In severe cases, patients develop a pulmonary hemorrhage that is associated with high fatality rates. Several animal models were established for leptospirosis studies, such as rodents, dogs, and monkeys. Although useful to study the relationship among Leptospira and its hosts, the animal models still exhibit economic and ethical limitation reasons and do not fully represent the human infection. As an attempt to bridge the gap between animal studies and clinical information from patients, we established a three-dimensional (3-D) human lung cell culture for Leptospira infection. We show that Leptospira is able to efficiently infect the cell lung spheroids and also to infiltrate in deeper areas of the cell aggregates. The ability to infect the 3-D lung cell aggregates was time-dependent. The 3-D spheroids infection occurred up to 120 h in studies with two serovars, Canicola and Copenhageni. We standardized the number of bacteria in the initial inoculum for infection of the spheroids and we also propose two alternative culture media conditions. This new approach was validated by assessing the expression of three genes of Leptospira related to virulence and motility. The transcripts of these genes increased in both culture conditions, however, in higher rates and earlier times in the 3-D culture. We also assessed the production of chemokines by the 3-D spheroids before and after Leptospira infection, confirming induction of two of them, mainly in the 3-D spheroids. Chemokine CCL2 was expressed only in the 3-D cell culture. Increasing of this chemokine was observed previously in infected animal models. This new approach provides an opportunity to study the interaction of Leptospira with the human lung epithelium in vitro.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Humanos , Leptospirose/veterinária , Pulmão , Virulência
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