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1.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 53(2): e13023, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372086

RESUMO

As technology has developed in recent years, the use of three-dimensional (3D) scanners and printers has become widespread in the medical field. However, since this field is new, all kinds of methodological and experimental related studies gain importance. This study aimed to identify the differences between the calliper measurements by determining the craniometric data on the models constructed by scanning the crania of New Zealand Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.), preferred as experimental animals, with a three-dimensional scanner. Therefore, a total of 12 New Zealand rabbits including 6 females and 6 males were used. After the crania that comprised the study material were macerated, they were subjected to 3D scanning. After the scanning process was completed, they were craniometrically measured both on the scanned models and by using a digital calliper. Analysis of the craniometric data of the 3D scanner showed that there was a difference between sexes at the level of p < 0.05 in widest length between the external acoustic meatus (WLBEAM), skull width and Foramen magnum height (FMH) parameters and cranial index data, and at the level of p < 0.001 in the largest nasal width (LNW) parameter. A statistical difference was found between sexes in frontal length, WLBEAM, LNW and FMH parameters and cranial index values in craniometric data collected with the digital calliper (p < 0.05). Consequently, the data collected in this study were found to be close to each other in both methods, suggesting that the 3D scanner may be used in morphometric studies.


Assuntos
Forame Magno , Crânio , Masculino , Feminino , Coelhos , Animais , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Cefalometria/métodos , Cefalometria/veterinária , Cabeça , Imageamento Tridimensional/veterinária
2.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 70(1): 87-93, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372110

RESUMO

A feeding trial was conducted to examine the effects of different levels of dietary organic selenium (Se) on the growth, body composition, and hematological indices of common carp. Se element was supplemented to the basal diet at the rates of 0.0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mgkg-1. Fish were randomly stocked at a rate of 25 fish into 500L tanks in the Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) system for 10 weeks. Weight gain, final body weight, and specific growth rate were significantly higher (p<0.05) in fish fed 0.5 mgkg-1 followed by 1 and 2 mgkg-1 treatment diets fish. The lowest growth rate values were detected in fish-fed basal diets. Feed consumption of fish fed Se was not significantly different (p>0.05), also the survival rate was similar among the treatment groups. Whole-body composition showed that fish fed 1 mgkg-1 had significantly higher (p<0.05) body moisture and protein as dry weight basis. The highest fiber content was in fish fed 2 mgkg-1, but ash was significantly higher in fish fed only 0.5 mgkg-1 and fat remained unaffected. Whole-body Se concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) increased with increasing Se levels in test diets. the red blood cells and hemoglobin were significantly higher (p<0.05) in fish fed only 0.5mgkg-1 and the basal diet. The white blood cells increased in fish fed the basal and 2 mgkg-1 diet, but the lymphocyte percentage was increased (p<0.05) in fish fed basal and 0.5 mgkg-1. The study concludes that dietary Se has an overall positive effect on common carp. Growth performance, protein content in fish body, selenium deposition and some hematological parameters were observed in fish fed dietary organic selenium specifically in fish fed 0.5 and 1 mgkg-1. Therefore, inclusion of Se in the diet from 0.5 to 1 mgkg-1 would be an optimal level for common carp feed.


Assuntos
Carpas , Selênio , Animais , Selênio/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Aquicultura , Composição Corporal , Ração Animal/análise
3.
Res Vet Sci ; 169: 105162, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301341

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of varying levels of dietary Cynara scolymus (CS) powder on growth performance, carcass characteristics, intestinal microbiota, immune and haemato-biochemical parameters in female quails. A total of 120-day-old female quails used for the research were divided into 3 treatment groups: 0% CS, 0.75% CS and 1.50% CS having 4 replicates (n = 10). Blood samples collected were analyzed for differential leukocyte count, red blood cell count and its indices, uric acid, lipid profile, liver enzymes, calcium, phosphorous, creatinine, thyroid hormone, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and antibody titres. Quails were euthanized for evaluation of carcass and microbial bacteria and sensory characteristics of the breast and thigh meat. Supplementation of CS at 0.75% and 1.50% increased (P < 0.05) wing, drumstick, ileum, jejunum and spleen lengths, high-density lipoprotein, and decreased (P < 0.05) low-density lipoprotein: high-density lipoprotein ratio. Diets supplemented with 0.75% CS increased (P < 0.05) albumin while 1.50% decreased (P < 0.05) abdominal fat and increased (P < 0.05) corpuscular volume, red blood cell count, lactobacillus population, and color of thigh meat. Both CS levels (0.75% and 1.50%) may improve intestinal morphology, quality of meat, immunity, erythropoiesis, intestinal microbial population, and decrease bad cholesterol in quails.


Assuntos
Cynara scolymus , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Feminino , Animais , Codorniz , Pós/farmacologia , Coturnix , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Lipoproteínas HDL , Ração Animal/análise
4.
Vet Microbiol ; 290: 109995, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301451

RESUMO

Gallibacterium anatis is a Gram-negative bacterium found in the respiratory and genital tracts of various animals, primarily poultry. Its association with septicemia and high mortality in poultry, along with the rise in multidrug-resistant strains, has amplified concerns. Recent research uncovered significant variability in antibiotic resistance profiles among G. anatis isolates from different Austrian flocks, and even between different organs within the same bird. In response, in the present study 60 of these isolates were sequenced and a combination of comparative genomics and genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis was applied to understand the genetic variability of G. anatis across flocks and organs and to identify genes related to antibiotic resistance. The results showed that each flock harbored one or two strains of G. anatis with only a few strains shared between flocks, demonstrating a great variability among flocks. We identified genes associated with resistance to nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, cefoxitin, tetracycline, ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole. Our findings revealed that G. anatis may develop antibiotic resistance through two mechanisms: single-nucleotide mutations and the presence of specific genes that confer resistance. Unexpectedly, some tetracycline-resistant isolates lacked all known tetracycline-associated genes, suggesting the involvement of novel mechanisms of tetracycline resistance that require additional exploration. Furthermore, our functional annotation of resistance genes highlighted the citric acid cycle pathway as a potential key modulator of antibiotic resistance in G. anatis. In summary, this study describes the first application of GWAS analysis to G. anatis and provides new insights into the acquisition of multidrug resistance in this important avian pathogen.


Assuntos
Pasteurellaceae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Galinhas/microbiologia , Tetraciclina , Aves Domésticas/genética , Resistência a Tetraciclina/genética , Genômica , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
5.
Vet Microbiol ; 290: 110010, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306768

RESUMO

To investigate the critical role of the S gene in determining pathogenesis of TW-like avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), we generated two recombinant IBVs (rGDaGD-S1 and rGDaGD-S2) by replacing either the S1 or S2 region of GD strain with the corresponding regions from an attenuated vaccine candidate aGD strain. The virulence and pathogenicity of these recombinant viruses was assessed both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated the mutations in the S2 region led to decreased virulence, as evidenced by reduced virus replication in embryonated chicken eggs and chicken embryonic kidney cells as well as observed clinical symptoms, gross lesions, microscopic lesions, tracheal ciliary activity, and viral distribution in SPF chickens challenged with recombinant IBVs. These findings highlight that the S2 subunit is a key determinant of TW-like IBV pathogenicity. Our study established a foundation for future investigations into the molecular mechanisms underlying IBV virulence.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vacinas Virais , Embrião de Galinha , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Oligopeptídeos
6.
Vet Microbiol ; 290: 109992, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306769

RESUMO

Brachyspira species are Gram negative, anaerobic bacteria that colonise the gut of many animals, including poultry. In poultry, Brachyspira species can be commensal (B. innocens, B. murdochii, 'B. pulli') or pathogenic (B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia, B. alvinipulli or rarely B. hyodysenteriae), the latter causing avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS). Antimicrobial therapy options for treatment is limited, frequently involving administration of the pleuromutilin, tiamulin, in water. In this study 38 Brachyspira isolates from chickens in the UK, representing both commensal and pathogenic species, were whole genome sequenced to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to a number of antimicrobials was also determined. We identified several new variants of blaOXA in B. pilosicoli and B. pulli isolates, and variations in tva which led to two new tva variants in B.murdochii and B.pulli. A number of isolates also harboured mutations known to encode AMR in the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. The percentage of isolates that were genotypically multi-drug resistance (MDR) was 16%, with the most common resistance profile being: tetracycline, pleuromutilin and beta-lactam, which were found in three 'B. pulli' and one B. pilosicoli. There was good correlation with the genotype and the corresponding antibiotic MIC phenotypes: pleuromutilins (tiamulin and valnemulin), macrolides (tylosin and tylvalosin), lincomycin and doxycycline. The occurrence of resistance determinants identified in this study in pathogenic Brachyspira, especially those which were MDR, is likely to impact treatment of AIS and clearance of infections on farm.


Assuntos
Brachyspira , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Resistência beta-Lactâmica , Reino Unido , Diterpenos
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 43, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is an acute febrile infectious disease caused by the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), which has brought huge economic losses to the world's cattle industry. At present, commercial inactivated BVDV vaccines may cause some adverse reactions during use. This study aims to develop a safer and more efficient inactivated BVDV vaccine. METHODS: Here, we described the generation and preclinical efficacy of a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inactivated BVDV type 1 vaccine in mice, and administered it separately with commercial vaccine (formaldehyde inactivated) in mice to study its efficacy. RESULTS: The BVDV type 1 IgG, IFN- γ, IL-4 and neutralizing antibody in the serum of the H2O2 inactivated vaccine group can be maintained in mice for 70 days. The IgG level reached its maximum value of 0.67 on the 42nd day, significantly higher than the commercial formaldehyde inactivated BVDV type 1 vaccine. IFN- γ and IL-4 reached their maximum values on the 28th day after immunization, at 123.16 pg/ml and 143.80 pg/ml, respectively, slightly higher than commercial vaccines, but the effect was not significant. At the same time the BVDV-1 neutralizing antibody titer reached a maximum of 12 Nu on the 42nd day post vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The H2O2 inactivated BVDV vaccine has good safety and immunogenicity, which provides a potential solution for the further development of an efficient and safe BVDV vaccine.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Doenças dos Bovinos , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 1 , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Bovinos , Camundongos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Diarreia/veterinária , Formaldeído , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Imunoglobulina G , Interleucina-4 , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 290: 110006, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308931

RESUMO

Porcine infectious pleuropneumonia (PCP) is a severe disease of porcine caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP). The spread of PCP remains a threat to the porcine farms and has been known to cause severe economic losses. The cAMP receptor protein (CRP) serves as a pivotal player in helping bacteria adapt to shifts in their environment, particularly when facing the challenges posed by bacterial infections. In this study, we investigated the role of CRP in APP. Our results revealed that crp mutant (Δcrp) strains were more sensitive to acidic and osmotic stress resistance and had lower biofilm formation ability than wild-type (WT) strains. Furthermore, the Δcrp strains showed deficiencies in anti-phagocytosis, adhesion, and invasion upon interaction with host cells. Mice infected with the Δcrp strains demonstrated reduced bacterial loads in their lungs compared to those infected with the WT strains. This study reveals the pivotal role of crp gene expression in regulating pleuropneumonia growth, stress resistance, iron utilization, biofilm formation, phagocytosis, adhesion, invasion and colonization. Our discoveries offer novel perspectives on understanding the development and progression of APP infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Actinobacillus , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , Pleuropneumonia , Doenças dos Roedores , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Suínos , Camundongos , Pleuropneumonia/microbiologia , Pleuropneumonia/veterinária , Biofilmes , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae/metabolismo , Proteína Receptora de AMP Cíclico/genética , Pulmão/microbiologia , Infecções por Actinobacillus/veterinária , Infecções por Actinobacillus/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
9.
Res Vet Sci ; 169: 105161, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309195

RESUMO

Dogs use their teeth for a multitude of tasks and, as such, it is vital for their health and wellbeing that their oral health is maintained. Persistent deciduous teeth (PDT), those that fail to fall out at the appropriate time, are associated with malocclusion (misaligned bite), soft tissue trauma and increased risk of periodontal disease. The objective of the current study was to perform a retrospective analysis of veterinary medical data to understand the effect of dog breed size, dog breed and body weight on prevalence of PDT. Medical records collected from almost 3 million dogs visiting a chain of veterinary hospitals across the United States over a 5-year period showed an overall prevalence of 7% for PDT, the data represented 60 breeds with extra-small breeds (<6.5 kg) showing significantly higher prevalence (15%) than all other breed sizes (P < 0.001). Statistical modelling of extra-small, small and medium-small breed sizes showed that those on Wellness Plans or that had not received a dental prophylaxis for at least two years had significantly increased odds of PDT being detected (Odds ratio 2.72-3.2 and 2.17-3.36 respectively, P < 0.0001). Dogs with a below ideal body condition score had a decreased odds of PDT (Odds ratio 0.57-0.89, P < 0.0001) whereas those above ideal had an increased odds (Odds ratio 1.11-1.60, P < 0.0001). The findings from this extensive dataset highlight the importance of regular veterinarian examinations to identify and remove PDT, helping to avoid increasing the risk of associated issues such as periodontal disease and malocclusion.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Má Oclusão , Doenças Periodontais , Animais , Cães , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prevalência , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/genética , Má Oclusão/veterinária , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/veterinária , Peso Corporal , Dente Decíduo
10.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 106: 102128, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309206

RESUMO

Helicobacter species (spp.) is a gram-negative spiral-shaped motile bacterium that causes gastritis in pigs and also colonizes in the human stomach. The present study assessed the prevalence of Helicobacter spp. in pig gastric mucosa and the stool of pig farmers in Assam, India. A total of 403 stomach samples from pig slaughter points, 74 necropsy samples of pigs from pig farms, and 97 stool samples from pig farmers were collected. Among the pig stomach samples, 43 (20.09%) of those with gastritis showed the presence of Gram-negative, spiral-shaped organisms, while only 3.04% of stomach samples without lesions had these organisms. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of urease-positive stomach samples revealed tightly coiled Helicobacter bacteria in the mucus lining. Histopathological examination showed chronic gastritis with hemorrhagic necrosis, leucocytic infiltration, and lymphoid aggregates. PCR confirmed the presence of Helicobacter suis in 19.63% of pig stomach samples and 2.08% of pig farmer stool samples. Additionally, 3.12% of the stool samples from pig farmers were positive for Helicobacter pylori. Phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct clusters of Helicobacter suis with other Helicobacter spp. These findings highlight the prevalence of Helicobacter in both pig gastric mucosa and pig farmer stool. The findings highlight the need for improved sanitation and hygiene practices among pig farmers to minimize the risk of Helicobacter infection in humans.


Assuntos
Gastrite , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter heilmannii , Helicobacter , Humanos , Suínos , Animais , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/veterinária , Fazendeiros , Incidência , Filogenia , Gastrite/epidemiologia , Gastrite/veterinária , Gastrite/microbiologia , Helicobacter/genética
11.
J Virol Methods ; 325: 114890, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309371

RESUMO

Epizootics of Koi herpesvirus (KHV) cause mass mortality in koi carp (Cyprinus rubrofuscus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) worldwide. Rapid and accurate virus detection technology is crucial for preventing pathogen spread and minimizing damage. Although several diagnostic assays have been developed for KHV, the analytical and diagnostic performance of the detection methods has not been evaluated. In this study, we developed and validated the diagnostic performance of two molecular diagnostic assays, cross-priming amplification-based lateral flow assay (CPA-LFA) and TaqMan probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To detect KHV, primers and probe were designed based on the thymidine kinase (TK) genes. The detection limits of developed CPA-LFA and real-time PCR assays were determined to be 675.69 copies/µL and 8.384 copies/µL, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the developed assay were determined using fish samples (n = 179). CPA-LFA was found to be 93.67% and 100%, respectively, and real-time PCR was found to be 100% and 100%, respectively. Therefore, the newly developed CPA-LFA and real-time PCR assays accurately and rapidly detect KHV. CPA-LFA is particularly suitable for point-of-care diagnosis because of its simple diagnostic process, and real-time PCR analysis is most suitable for precise diagnosis because it can detect low viral loads.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Animais , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Apresentação Cruzada , Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , Herpesviridae/genética
12.
Res Vet Sci ; 169: 105164, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324973

RESUMO

Mediterranean area represents the main habitat of Testudo hermanni. Clinical signs of disease of these tortoises are non-specific, making the hematology results crucial in revealing underlying pathological conditions. However, accurate automated identification of blood cell populations is hampered by the presence of nucleated erythrocytes (NRBC) and thrombocytes (Thr), necessitating manual methods such as counting chambers. The aim of the study was to assess the performance of the novel automated hematology analyzer Sysmex XN-1000 V, which includes a a specific channel (WNR) for counting NRBC, in accurately identify and quantify the different blood cell populations of Testudo hermanni. Additionally, its agreement with manual counts was evaluated. Fifty heparinized blood samples were initially counted using the Neubauer improved chamber and then analysed twice with Sysmex XN-1000 V. Thirteen out of 50 samples were instrumentally counted again after 48 h to assess the inter-assay precision. All WNR scattergrams were re-analysed using an ad hoc gate panel to differentiate two populations: NRBCs (weak fluorescence signal) and WBC + Thr (high fluorescence signal). Sysmex XN-1000 V demonstrated optimal intra- and inter-assay precision for NRBCs (CV 0.98% ± 1.96; 1.31% ± 2.98) and moderate precision for WBC + Thr (CV 9.24% ± 16.61; 12.69% ± 10.35). No proportional nor constant errors were observed between the methods for both the populations. The instrumental NRBC counts were consistently slightly lower, while WBC + Thr counts were slightly higher compared to manual counts. These findings suggest that Sysmex XN-1000 V can be used for analyzing cell populations in heparinized blood of Testudo hermanni. However, specific instrumental reference intervals are suggested.


Assuntos
Hematologia , Tartarugas , Animais , Leucócitos , Eritroblastos , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/veterinária
13.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 106: 102126, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325127

RESUMO

Aiming at identifying the reservoir and contamination sources of Coxiella burnetii in Northern Algeria, we investigated the molecular presence of the bacterium in 599 samples (blood, placenta, liver, spleen, and uterus) collected from cattle, sheep, dogs and cats. Our qPCR results showed that 15/344 (4.36%) blood samples and six/255 (2.35%) organ specimens were positive for C. burnetii. In cattle, three (4%) blood and liver samples were positive. In sheep, one blood (1.19%) and 3 (8.57%) placenta samples were positive. At the Algiers dog pound, 8 (10%) and 3 (5%) blood samples were qPCR positivein dogs and cats, respectively. In addition, MST genotyping showed that MST 33 was present in cattle and sheep, MST 20 in cattle,andMST 21 in dogs and cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças dos Bovinos , Coxiella burnetii , Doenças do Cão , Doenças das Cabras , Febre Q , Doenças dos Ovinos , Gravidez , Feminino , Animais , Cães , Gatos , Bovinos , Ovinos , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Febre Q/veterinária , Febre Q/microbiologia , Genótipo , Argélia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Ruminantes , Cabras , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia
14.
Res Vet Sci ; 169: 105179, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335894

RESUMO

Ovariohysterectomy (OVH) is a widely used surgical procedure in small animal practice. In developing countries, injectable anesthetics such as ketamine and xylazine are commonly used in veterinary medicine. Pharmacological agents with analgesic activity, such as ketamine and meloxicam, are not sufficiently effective in reducing visceral pain. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the visceral analgesia and anti-inflammatory effectiveness of maropitant compared with those of meloxicam during and after OVH in bitches. In this study, thirty-six bitches were randomly divided into the maropitant, meloxicam, and control groups. The heart rate (HR), peripheral oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate were monitored during the procedure. Pain scores were assessed using the University of Melbourne pain scale (UMPS). Rescue analgesia was not necessary for any bitch at any time point. Blood samples were collected before anesthesia induction and 24 h after the operation to determine C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. No significant difference was observed in HR between the control and meloxicam groups when the right ovary was removed, and the HR of the maropitant group was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that of the control group. The pain scores of the maropitant group were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those of the other groups. However, no significant differences were observed in CRP levels between the groups. In conclusion, compared to meloxicam, maropitant provided more effective visceral analgesia in bitches undergoing OVH, although no significant difference was found in its anti-inflammatory effect.


Assuntos
Analgesia , Doenças do Cão , Ketamina , Quinuclidinas , Feminino , Cães , Animais , Meloxicam/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária , Histerectomia/veterinária , Analgesia/veterinária , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico
15.
Res Vet Sci ; 169: 105173, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335895

RESUMO

Colony collapse disorder (CCD) has affected bees worldwide in recent decades, with southwestern Spain being no exception. This disorder is one of the main causes of Apis mellifera mortality and is believed to be caused by environmental, social and sanitary conditions. Dietary supplementation can help to improve some parameters of the general status and sanitary condition of bees, such as infestation by certain recurrent pathogens, including Varroa destructor and Nosema ceranae, by enhancing immune and social response. Thus, the aim of this study was to test a liquid hydrolysed protein supplement on the health and general status of the hive in several apiaries with access to the same natural food and under similar climatic conditions. We selected two groups of ten hives (supplemented by either placebo or protein) from five apiaries where the number of adult bees, amount of brood (open and operculated), honey and pollen reserves, infestation by V. destructor, N. ceranae, deformed wing virus (DWV) and chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) were measured. Additionally, we assess the expression of four immune system-related genes and a gene encoding vitellogenin. At the end of this work, treated hives showed a significant increase in open brood and a decrease in V. destructor infestation. Also, these hives showed a significant decrease in the mortality rate after the cold season. Therefore, supplementation with this product improved the health of the hive and could be a promising tool against bee colony loss.


Assuntos
Mel , Vírus de RNA , Urticária , Varroidae , Abelhas , Animais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Varroidae/fisiologia , Urticária/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais
16.
Res Vet Sci ; 169: 105172, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340379

RESUMO

The establishment of hematological reference intervals (RIs) is an important tool to assess the health status of animals and to evaluate the impact of diseases at individual and population levels. Nowadays, specific RIs of hematological parameters in newborn dromedary camel calves at birth and during the first week after birth, are lacking. Therefore, RIs for the hematological variables from a complete blood cell count were established in 47 healthy newborn dromedary calves (18 females and 29 males). Blood samples were collected within 2 h after birth (d0), at 24 h (d1), at 3 (d3) and 7 days (d7) after birth, and analyzed within 24 h. The RIs were described based on the 95% confidence interval, and possible differences among mean values due to age (sampling time) and sex were investigated. Statistical analysis showed that age affected all the hematological variables except MCV, MCH, and MCHC, indicating that the adaptational process to the extrauterine life continues for several days after birth; sex affected most of the hematological variables, with higher RBC and PLT count, HGB, PCV, neutrophil population and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio at d7 in females compared to males. These findings suggest possible sex-based differences in the physiological maturation mechanisms and deserves further investigations. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of hematological RIs for newborn dromedary calves at birth up to 7 days of age; the RIs registered in the present study in newborns differ from those reported in adult dromedaries in literature, thus confirming the need for the adoption of separated reference ranges according to age also in the dromedary camel, as previously reported for other species.


Assuntos
Camelus , Hematologia , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/veterinária , Neutrófilos , Valores de Referência
17.
Res Vet Sci ; 169: 105156, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340380

RESUMO

Glycemic variability (GV) refers to swings in blood glucose levels and is an emerging measure of glycemic control in clinical practice. It is associated with micro- and macrovascular complications and poor clinical outcomes in diabetic humans. Although an integral part of patient assessment in human patients, it is to a large extent neglected in insulin-treated diabetic dogs. This prospective pilot study was performed to describe canine within-day GV in non-diabetic dogs with the aim to provide a basis for the interpretation of daily glucose profiles, and to promote GV as an accessible tool for future studies in veterinary medicine. Interstitial glucose concentrations of ten non-diabetic, non-obese beagles were continuously measured over a 48-h period using a flash glucose monitoring system. GV was assessed using the common indices MAGE (mean amplitude of glycemic excursion), GVP (Glycemic variability percentage) and CV (coefficient of variation). A total of 2260 sensor measurements were obtained, ranging from 3.7 mmol/L (67 mg/dL) to 8.5 mmol/L (153 mg/dL). Glucose profiles suggested a meal-dependent circadian rhythmicity with small but significant surges during the feeding periods. No differences in GV indices were observed between day and night periods (p > 0.05). The MAGE (mmol/L), GVP (%) and CV (%) were 0.86 (± 0.19), 7.37 (± 1.65), 6.72 (± 0.89) on day one, and 0.83 (± 0.18), 6.95 (± 1.52), 6.72 (± 1.53) on day two, respectively. The results of this study suggest that GV is low in non-diabetic dogs and that glucose concentrations are kept within narrow ranges.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Doenças do Cão , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos Piloto , Diabetes Mellitus/veterinária , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/veterinária
18.
Res Vet Sci ; 169: 105174, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340381

RESUMO

Statins are inhibitors of the mevalonic acid pathway that mediates cellular metabolism by producing cholesterol and isoprenoids and are widely used in treating hypercholesterolaemia in humans. Lipophilic statins, including simvastatin, induce death in various tumour cells. However, the cytotoxic mechanisms of statins in tumour cells remain largely unexplored. This study aimed to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanisms of simvastatin in canine lymphoma cells. Simvastatin induced cell death via c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and autophagy in canine T-cell lymphoma cell lines Ema and UL-1, but not in B-cell lines. Cell death was mediated by induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis in UL-1 cells, but not in Ema cells. Blockade of autophagy by lysosomal inhibitors attenuated simvastatin-induced JNK activation and cell death. Isoprenoids, including farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, attenuated simvastatin-induced autophagy, JNK activation, and cell death. In UL-1 cells, simvastatin treatment resulted in the cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, which was altered to G0/1 phase cell cycle arrest by treatment with lysosomal inhibitors. These findings demonstrate that depletion of isoprenoids by simvastatin induces autophagy-mediated cell death via downstream JNK activation and cell cycle dysregulation in canine T-cell lymphoma cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Doenças do Cão , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Linfoma de Células T , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Sinvastatina/farmacologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclo Celular , Divisão Celular , Apoptose , Morte Celular , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Autofagia , Linfoma de Células T/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Células T/veterinária , Terpenos/farmacologia , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Res Vet Sci ; 169: 105177, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350170

RESUMO

Subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows is often misdiagnosed because it lacks clinical signs and detection indicators. However, it is highly prevalent and may transform into clinical ketosis if not treated promptly. Due to the negative energy balance, a large amount of fat is mobilized, producing NEFA that exceeds the upper limit of liver processing, which in turn leads to the disturbance of liver lipid metabolism. The silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) is closely related to hepatic lipid metabolism disorders. Exosomes as signal transmitters, also play a role in the circulatory system. We hypothesize that the circulating exosome-mediated adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα)-SIRT1 pathway regulates lipid metabolism disorders in SCK cows. We extracted the exosomes required for the experiment from the peripheral circulating blood of non-ketotic (NK) and SCK cows. We investigated the effect of circulating exosomes on the expression levels of mRNA and protein of the AMPKα-SIRT1 pathway in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA)-induced dairy cow primary hepatocytes using in vitro cell experiments. The results showed that circulating exosomes increased the expression levels of Lipolysis-related genes and proteins (AMPKα, SIRT1, and PGC-1α) in hepatocytes treated with 1.2 mM NEFA, and inhibited the expression of lipid synthesis-related genes and protein (SREBP-1C). The regulation of exosomes on lipid metabolism disorders caused by 1.2 mM NEFA treatment showed the same trend as for SIRT1-overexpressing adenovirus. The added exosomes could regulate NEFA-induced lipid metabolism in hepatocytes by mediating the AMPKα-SIRT1 pathway, consistent with the effect of transfected SIRT1 adenovirus.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Exossomos , Cetose , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Exossomos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/metabolismo , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/veterinária , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Cetose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo
20.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 106: 102140, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350247

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is an intestinal protozoan that cause diarrhea in livestock all over the world and have zoonotic importance. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in horses in Egypt and evaluate the associated risk factors. A total of 420 fecal samples were collected from three governorates (Giza, Kafr ElSheikh and Qalyubia) and examined microscopically using Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 29% and Kafr ElSheikh governorate had the highest rate in comparison to other areas. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in examined horses had significant association with sex, age, type of management, absence of bedding and presence of dogs. The higher prevalence rate was observed in females (32.2%), age group less than two years (43.2%), mixed (grazing and stable) horses (36.1%), animals had history of diarrhea (33%), absence of bedding (35.1%) and contact with dogs (35.7%). These findings give baseline data for further research. It is necessary to establish control strategy for Cryptosporidium spp. infection in order to lower the risk of infection in animals and human.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Feminino , Animais , Humanos , Cães , Cavalos , Pré-Escolar , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Egito/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fezes , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Gado
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