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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253613, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345548

RESUMO

Abstract Soybean meal is an inexpensive plant origin protein which has been used in practical diets as a replacement of animal protein such as fish meal or chicken meal, due to the uneconomical price of animal protein diets. Consequently, a research study was conducted on some commercial species of Indian major carps i.e. Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) and Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822) to estimate optimum dietary protein requirement of soy bean meal in diet in an intensive polyculture. Three different diets (SBM I, SBM II and SBM III) were formulated by 80%, 50% and 20% replacement of fish meal with soybean meal from a 45% fish meal diet (control).Highest monthly mean weight gain was obtained by SBM II (with 35% CP and about 50% substitution of fish meal), while SBM III (45% Crude Protein and about 20% substitution of fish meal) was stood second. All tested diets respond enormously by producing high yield as compare to control diet, though SBM II generated highest yield among all. On the bases of the following research, it was revealed that the SBM can surrogate even50% fish meal without any augmentation of other amino acids in the diet of Indian major carps.


Resumo O farelo de soja é uma proteína de origem vegetal de baixo custo que tem sido usada em dietas práticas como um substituto da proteína animal, como farinha de peixe ou farinha de frango, devido ao preço não econômico das dietas com proteína animal. Consequentemente, um estudo/pesquisa foi realizado com algumas espécies comerciais de carpas principais indianas, ou seja, Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) e Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822), para estimar a necessidade ideal de proteína dietética de farelo de soja na dieta em uma policultura intensiva. Três dietas diferentes (SBM I, SBM II e SBM III) foram formuladas por 80%, 50% e 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe por farelo de soja de uma dieta de 45% de farinha de peixe (controle). O maior ganho de peso médio mensal foi obtido por SBM II (com 35% PB e cerca de 50% de substituição de farinha de peixe), enquanto SBM III (45% de proteína bruta e cerca de 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe) ficou em segundo lugar. Todas as dietas testadas respondem enormemente produzindo alto rendimento em comparação com a dieta controle, embora SBM II tenha gerado o maior rendimento entre todas. Com base na pesquisa a seguir, foi revelado que o SBM pode substituir até 50% da farinha de peixe sem qualquer aumento de outros aminoácidos na dieta das carpas principais indianas.


Assuntos
Animais , Carpas , Cyprinidae , Soja , Alimentos Marinhos , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250916, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345552

RESUMO

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.


Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis ​​por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Ciclídeos , Moringa , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Folhas de Planta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252093, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355861

RESUMO

Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the diet of the free-living crab-eating fox by identifying the stomach contents of the 17 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) roadkilled in two conservation units, both located in the Amazon rainforest. The food items were quantified by frequency of occurrence (FO) and percentage of occurrence (PO). The stomach contents were analysed for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), and mineral matter (MM). Nitrogen-free extractives (NFE), metabolisable energy (ME) values, as well as the energy need for maintenance were estimated. The composition of the diet for the crab-eating fox presented 29 food items from the different taxonomic groups, with a greater diversity of items of animal origin (n=22), although the highest frequency of occurrence was gramineae (Poaceae) (41.18%). Among the items of animal origin, 21% were mammals, 18% reptiles, 10% amphibians, 9% invertebrates and 3% birds. A high content of CF (62.76%) were determined. Nitrogen-free extractive and dry matter averages were 5.91% and 141.82 kcal/100g, respectively. The average maintenance energy was 447.01 kcal/day. These findings suggesting that the crab-eating foxes have a generalist diet with an omnivorous diet in the Amazon basin, feeding on gramineae, fruits, insects, snakes, amphibians, birds and small mammals and have the same feeding habit that present in other Brazilian biomes.


Resumo Este estudo objetivou analisar a dieta do cachorro-do-mato, de vida livre, por meio da identificação do conteúdo estomacal de 17 Cerdocyon thous atropelados em duas unidades de conservação da Floresta Amazônica. O conteúdo estomacal foi analisado e os itens alimentares foram quantificados pela frequência de ocorrência (FO) e percentagem de ocorrência (PO). Também foram avaliados os teores de matéria seca (MS), proteína bruta (PB), fibra bruta (FB), extrato etéreo (EE) e, matéria mineral (MM). Foram estimados o extrativo não-nitrogenado (ENN), a energia metabolizável (EM) e a necessidade energética de manutenção. A composição da dieta do cachorro-do-mato apresentou 29 itens alimentares dos diferentes grupos taxonômicos, tendo uma maior diversidade de itens de origem animal (n=22), ainda que a maior FO tenha sido de gramíneas (Poaceae) (41.18%). Dentre os itens de origem animal, 21% eram mamíferos, 18% répteis, 10% anfíbios, 9% invertebrados e 3% aves. Determinou-se um alto teor de FB (62.76%). A média do ENN e da MS foi 5.91% e 141.82 kcal/100g, respectivamente. A média da energia de manutenção foi 447.01 kcal/dia. Estes achados sugerem que o cachorro-do-mato encontrado na Bacia Amazônica é um animal generalista com uma dieta onívora, se alimentando de gramíneas, frutos, insetos, serpentes, anfíbios, aves e pequenos mamíferos, portanto com o mesmo hábito alimentar relatado a esta espécie quando encontrada em outros biomas brasileiros.


Assuntos
Animais , Floresta Úmida , Raposas , Brasil , Dieta/veterinária
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250723, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355902

RESUMO

Abstract This study assessed the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole effect on the main indicators of the quality of sheep meat obtained from infected and deworming animals. A total of 20 heads of Akzhaik meat and wool sheep (i.e. 2 years of age, of different sex) were used in a 20-day experiment and 2 groups of 10 heads were formed (n = 4). The sheep were fed with the basic diet (i.e. control, group CON), without adding anything, and the second group was fed the basic diet orally with the addition of a dose of 1.2 g / head (an experimental group). At the end of the experiment, a control slaughter was carried out from each group in order to study the biochemical composition of meat and its quality. The anthelmintic feed additive albendazole did not have a significant effect on the indicators (organoleptic and physicochemical) of meat quality (P> 0.04). However, the ratio of fat and ash in the meat of the control group has differences in indicators and is reduced by 24.81% and 0.03%, respectively. The drug had a significant effect on the biological value of meat in the experimental group, where there is a higher content of essential amino acids (P = 0.06), nonessential (P = 0.05) concentrations in comparison with the CON groups. The results obtained show that the meat of the experimental groups of sheep, when using the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole, did not have a significant effect on organoleptic parameters, but significantly positively influenced the metabolism, live weight gain and biological value of meat.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol sobre os principais indicadores de qualidade da carne ovina obtida de animais infectados e desparasitados. Um total de 20 cabeças de carne Akzhaik e ovelhas de lã (ou seja, 2 anos de idade, de sexo diferente) foi usado em um experimento de 20 dias e dois grupos de 10 cabeças foram formados (n = 4). As ovelhas foram alimentadas com dieta básica (ou seja, controle, grupo CON), sem adicionar nada, e o segundo grupo foi alimentado com dieta básica por via oral com a adição de uma dose de 1,2 g / cabeça (um grupo experimental). Ao final do experimento, foi realizado um abate controle de cada grupo para estudar a composição bioquímica da carne e sua qualidade. O aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol não teve efeito significativo sobre os indicadores (organolépticos e físico-químicos) de qualidade da carne (P > 0,04). No entanto, a proporção de gordura e cinzas na carne do grupo de controle tem diferenças nos indicadores e é reduzida em 24,81% e 0,03%, respectivamente. A droga teve efeito significativo sobre o valor biológico da carne no grupo experimental, onde há maior teor de aminoácidos essenciais (P = 0,06), concentrações não essenciais (P = 0,05) em comparação com os grupos CON. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a carne dos grupos experimentais de ovinos, ao utilizar o aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol, não teve efeito significativo nos parâmetros organolépticos, mas influenciou positivamente de forma significativa no metabolismo, ganho de peso vivo e valor biológico da carne.


Assuntos
Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Anti-Helmínticos , Ovinos , Albendazol , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/análise
5.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279869, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598913

RESUMO

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is an asexual reproductive technique where cloned offspring contain the same genetic material as the original donor. Although this technique preserves the sex of the original animal, the birth of sex-reversed offspring has been reported in some species. Here, we report for the first time the birth of a female foal generated by SCNT of a male nuclear donor. After a single SCNT procedure, 16 blastocysts were obtained and transferred to eight recipient mares, resulting in the birth of two clones: one male and one female. Both animals had identical genetic profiles, as observed in the analysis of 15-horse microsatellite marker panel, which confirmed they are indeed clones of the same animal. Cytogenetic analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization using X and Y specific probes revealed a 63,X chromosome set in the female offspring, suggesting a spontaneous Y chromosome loss. The identity of the lost chromosome in the female was further confirmed through PCR by observing the presence of X-linked markers and absence of Y-linked markers. Moreover, cytogenetic and molecular profiles were analyzed in blood and skin samples to detect a possible mosaicism in the female, but results showed identical chromosomal constitutions. Although the cause of the spontaneous chromosome loss remains unknown, the possibility of equine sex reversal by SCNT holds great potential for the preservation of endangered species, development of novel breeding techniques, and sportive purposes.


Assuntos
Clonagem de Organismos , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear , Masculino , Animais , Cavalos/genética , Feminino , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Clonagem de Organismos/veterinária , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear/veterinária , Cromossomo X/genética , Clonagem Molecular
6.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1414, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697478

RESUMO

Genetic selection for increased milk yield has been a key driver of dairy intensification. The modern dairy cow produces much higher amounts of milk than the cattle of several years ago, and this may have an influence on hematologic values at different stages of lactation and on cows with different levels of milk production. The purpose of the study was to investigate the variations in blood parameters such as Ht, tHb, sO2, FO2Hb, FCOHb, FMetHb, FHHb, pH, pCO2, pO2, standard HCO3-, actual HCO3-, BE, BE ecf, ctCO2, BO2, p50, and ctO2 in cows at different milk production levels. In addition, ions such as Na+, K+ , Ca++, Ca++ (7.4), and Cl-, and AnGap and glucose were examined. Our findings indicated that differences in the examined blood parameters between low and high-production dairy cattle do exist. The most apparent differences were connected with blood pH (p < 0.01), oxygen metabolism (Ht, tHb, sO2, FO2Hb; p < 0.01), and glucose utilization (p < 0.01) The results confirm that the parameters connected with blood oxygen metabolism and glucose metabolism increase significantly in high-production animals. In conclusion, reference values should be considered in light of the lactation stage and level of milk production, because these might influence how changes should be interpreted. The main limitation of the study is the delay to analysis. However, the blood was properly stored (4C), thus changes were delayed. Anyway, it is very hard in the field practice to perform it within 5 min after the blood collection and according to studies it has low impact on clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Dieta , Leite , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Leite/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Polônia , Lactação/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Íons/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo
7.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 93: 101942, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is one of the most prevalent zoonotic diseases. Using serological tests are valid and rapid methods that could be used in the detection of the history of getting brucellosis. Considering that Iran is an endemic country for brucellosis, we aimed to investigate the rate of seroprevalence of brucellosis among livestock and human in Kurdistan province. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Serum sampling was performed from 51 slaughterhouse workers, veterinarians, and husbandry workers, along with 260 livestock (80 cattle, 120 sheep, and 60 goats). Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used for livestock and the anti-Brucella IgG antibody was evaluated in human participants. RESULTS: The seroprevalence (based on ELISA assay) in sheep, goats, and cows was 5.8%, 5%, and 1.2%, respectively. Also, the rate of anti-Brucella IgG was 3.9% among human participants. DISCUSSION: the current study, provided some valuable information on the seroprevalence of brucellosis in animal and human participants from the west of Iran. Considering the effects of brucellosis on causing reproductive disorders, including abortion, placental retention, andendometritis controlling the infection could have a significant impact on terms of economy.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Ovinos , Bovinos , Gravidez , Gado , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Placenta , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , Cabras , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia
8.
Animal ; 17(1): 100695, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608539

RESUMO

Various studies with growing ruminants report increases in nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) when feeding oscillating (OS) dietary CP, whereas limited research with lactating dairy cows demonstrates a lack of improvement in NUE when feeding OS diets. We hypothesised that a total mixed ration (TMR) delivering OS CP (48-h phases of 134 and 171 g CP/kg DM, respectively) compared to a static CP TMR (ST; 152 g CP/kg DM) would result in similar or increased urinary purine derivative excretion (as a marker of microbial protein synthesis (MPS)) and greater urinary nitrogen excretion in lactating dairy cows. Responses in intake, production, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), nutrient balance, and estimated MPS were evaluated using faecal and urine collection in 12 multiparous cows (172 ± 39 d in milk) in a randomised complete block design, where total urinary output was estimated indirectly. All measurements were taken during d 8 (at 1700) to d 16 (at 1700) of the 16-d study that followed a 28-d period in which cows already received their respective treatments. Dry matter intake, yields of milk, protein, fat, lactose, and fat- and protein-corrected milk were similar for ST and OS. Milk composition, BW, and body condition score also did not differ between treatments, except for a tendency for increased milk urea concentration with OS (13.7 vs 12.4 mg/dL). Feed efficiency, NUE and ATTD of organic matter, NDF, CP and gross energy did not differ, but ATTD of crude fat (658 vs 627 g/kg) and starch (980 vs 975 g/kg) increased, and ATTD of DM (702 vs 691 g/kg) tended to increase with OS. Milk energy as a proportion of digested energy tended to decrease with OS (34.6 vs 37.1%), but other energy metabolism variables were not affected by treatment. Estimated urinary nitrogen excretion increased (165 vs 144 g/d), estimated urinary nitrogen as a proportion of nitrogen intake tended to increase (25.3 vs 22.7%), and milk nitrogen as a proportion of digested nitrogen decreased (47.3 vs 51.8%) in response to OS. Estimated urinary excretion of creatinine (184 vs 165 mmol/d), uric acid (29 vs 20 mmol/d) and urea (3.1 vs 2.5 mol/d) increased, but other nitrogen metabolism parameters were not affected by OS. Overall, oscillating dietary CP content did not affect lactational performance, milk NUE, or estimated MPS. However, ATTD of some nutrients increased, postabsorptive energy use for milk synthesis tended to decrease, and estimated urinary nitrogen losses increased with OS.


Assuntos
Digestão , Lactação , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Lactação/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Ureia/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo
9.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 93: 101943, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610227

RESUMO

Dogs are the most cosmopolitan pets of humans and as such a means of transmitting zoonotic parasites to their owners. This study was designed to investigate the diversity, prevalence, pattern of infection, intensity of infections, and the risk factors associated with gastrointestinal parasites of dogs in Kwara Central, North Central, Nigeria. Three hundred and five clinically healthy dogs were sampled. Faecal samples were subjected to the direct smear, simple faecal centrifugation flotation, formol-ether concentration, and the Modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. Oocysts/eggs per gram of faeces were counted using the modified McMaster technique. Data were analysed using univariate logistic regression, multivariate logistic regression, and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A p -value of < 0.05 was considered significant for all analyses. One hundred and sixty-six dogs were positive for at least one species of gastrointestinal parasite, representing 54.43% (95% CI: 44.81 - 59.96) of the sampled population. The study identified Cystoisospora species (15.41%), Cryptosporidium species (25.25%), Ancylostoma species (25.25%), Toxocara canis (19.02%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.54%), Uncinaria stenocephala (6.89%), and Dipylidium caninum (2.30%) as the gastrointestinal parasites infecting dogs in the study area. Coinfection with more than one species of gastrointestinal parasites was a common finding in dogs. The intensity of Cystoisospora spp. among infected dogs ranged between 40 and 980 oocysts per gram of faeces, while that of helminth parasites was 40 - 1560 eggs per gram of faeces. Age, sex, breeds, body condition score, presence of ticks on dogs, the purpose of keeping dog(s), types of housing, types of feed consumed, vaccination status, and treatment with antiparasitics were predators associated with the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites infections. Due to the zoonotic nature of most of the encountered gastrointestinal parasites, there is need for regular antiparasitic treatment, proper dog management, and adequate personal hygiene to prevent zoonosis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Doenças do Cão , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência
10.
Animal ; 17(1): 100683, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610084

RESUMO

The content, composition and variation of vitamin compounds in goat milk have been little studied. An experimental design was based on 28 commercial farms, selected considering the main feeding system (based on main forage and especially pasture access), goat breed (Alpine vs Saanen) and reproductive management (seasonal reproduction), in the main French goat milk production area. Each farm received two visits (spring and autumn) that included a survey on milk production conditions and bulk milk sampling. Milk vitamins (A, E, B2, B6, B9, B12) and carotenoid concentrations plus colour indices were evaluated. A stepwise approach determined the variables of milk production conditions that significantly altered milk indicators. The main forage in the diet was the major factor altering goat milk vitamin and carotenoid concentrations and colour indices. Bulk milk from goats eating fresh grass as forage was richer in α-tocopherol (+64%), pyridoxal (+35%) and total vitamin B6 (+31%), and b* index (characterising milk yellowness in the CIELAB colour space) was also higher (+12%) than in milk from goats eating conserved forages. In milk from goats eating fresh grass, concentrations of pyridoxamine, lutein and total carotenoids were higher than in milk of goats fed corn silage (+24, +118 and +101%, respectively), and retinol and α-tocopherol concentrations were higher than in milk of goats fed partially dehydrated grass (+45 and +55%). Vitamin B2 concentration was higher in milk of goats eating fresh grass than in milk of goats fed hay or corn silage as forage (+10%). However, bulk milk when goats had access to fresh grass was significantly poorer in vitamin B12 than when fed corn silage (-46%) and in γ-tocopherol (-31%) than when fed conserved forage. Alpine goats produced milk with higher vitamin B2 and folate concentrations than Saanen goats (+18 and +14%, respectively). Additionally, the milk colour index that discriminates milks based on their yellow pigment contents was 7% higher in milk from Alpine than Saanen herds, but milk from Saanen goats was richer in lutein (+46%). Goat milks were richer in vitamins B2 and B12 and folates, but poorer in vitamin B6 in autumn than in spring (+12, +133, +15 and -13%, respectively). This work highlights that goat milk vitamin and carotenoid concentrations and colour indices vary mainly according to the main forage of the diet and secondly according to the breed and season.


Assuntos
Leite , Vitaminas , Feminino , Animais , Leite/química , Luteína/análise , alfa-Tocoferol , Lactação , Cor , Melhoramento Vegetal , Carotenoides/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Vitamina A , Poaceae , Zea mays , Ácido Fólico , Cabras
11.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 93: 101946, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621271

RESUMO

Pigeons are common birds around the world and may act as intermediate hosts of the tissue cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sacrocystis spp. This study aimed to provide an overview on the prevalence of and exposure to these parasites in Iranian domestic rock pigeon (Columba livia domestica) through molecular, serological and histopathological examination. Blood and tissue samples (i.e., brain, heart, gizzard, neck, thigh, and pectoral muscles) were taken from 100 pigeons. Sera were screened by agglutination tests for detection of anti- T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies, genomic DNA from tissue samples were assessed by respective species-specific PCRs, and histopathological examination of tissues was carried out. A seroprevalence of 45 % to anti-T. gondii and 35 % to anti-N. caninum IgG was recorded. PCR detected T. gondii DNA in 28 pigeons. Sacrocystis spp. was detected in one animal, but sequencing of the 28 S rRNA gene product did not reveal the identity of the species. Histopathology revealed myocarditis, myositis, and gliosis in the heart, skeletal muscles, and brain, respectively. No Sarcocystis tissue-cysts were detected, but T. gondii tissue cyst-like structures in the brain (i.e., 4 %) and heart (i.e., 3 %) were found by histology. Data reported herein demonstrate that pigeons from Iran are infected with tissue cyst-forming apicomplexans, particularly T. gondii. Since domestic pigeons are in close contact with human populations, and consumption of their meat and egg is popular in different societies, control strategies for minimizing the risk of infection in both pigeons and humans are suggested.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Neospora , Sarcocystis , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Humanos , Animais , Neospora/genética , Sarcocystis/genética , Toxoplasma/genética , Columbidae , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
12.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 93: 101945, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621272

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to evaluate the consequence of a hospitalisation period on antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from wild bird species admitted in the wildlife rescue centre of the Department of Veterinary Sciences (Turin University, Italy). Samples were collected from 121 raptors and 51 synanthropic animals, at the time of arrival as well as 5 and 10 days afterwards for a total of 372 faecal samples, and the susceptibility of E. coli strains was tested to a panel of seven antibacterials. Of the total, 109 animals (63.37 %) presented at least one sample positive for E. coli, 36 strains (39.6 %) were multi-drug resistant (MDR) and 12 (13.2 %) were extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli. During the first 10 days of hospitalisation E. coli strains increased the number of resistances towards each antimicrobial principle, the number of ESBL E. coli and the therapy with fluoroquinolones developed resistance towards ceftriaxone, marbofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and tetracycline. Our results suggest that wild birds act as reservoirs of MDR bacteria, being potential sources for their spreading in the environment and to other species.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Aves/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , beta-Lactamases/genética
13.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 93: 101941, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630814

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was conducted on 274 cats in Southern Brazil to estimate the prevalence of Mycoplasma haemofelis PCR, associated factors, and its correlation with ELISA for FeLV and FIV. The apparent prevalence of M. haemofelis was 6.6% (18/274) (95% CI: 3.6-9.5%), of which 33.3% (6/18) had co-infection with FeLV, 5.6% (1/18) with FIV, and 5.6% (1/18) with both. Male cats were more likely to be positive for M. haemofelis [OR: 7.07 (1.97-25.34)]. Only three M. haemofelis-positive cats showed related clinical changes, such as mucosal pallor. A statistically significant difference was observed between M. haemofelis-positive cats and the negative control group for age, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, and rod neutrophil counts. Mycoplasma haemofelis is prevalent in southern Brazil, with a higher risk in male cats. Most cats could be classified as asymptomatic carriers since they were healthy.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Infecções por Mycoplasma , Gatos , Masculino , Animais , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 19(1): 10, 2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: S. aureus is one of the causative agents of bovine mastitis. The treatment using conventional antimicrobials has been hampered due to the development of antimicrobial resistance and the ability of the bacteria to form biofilms and localize inside the host cells. OBJECTIVES: Here, the efficacy of graphene oxide (GO), a carbon-based nanomaterial, was tested against the biofilms and intracellular S. aureus invitro. Following that, the mechanism for the intracellular antimicrobial activities and GO toxicities was elucidated. METHODS: GO antibiofilm properties were evaluated based on the disruption of biofilm structure, and the intracellular antimicrobial activities were determined by the survival of S. aureus in infected bovine mammary cells following GO exposure. The mechanism for GO intracellular antimicrobial activities was investigated using endocytosis inhibitors. GO toxicity towards the host cells was assessed using a resazurin assay. RESULTS: At 100 ug/mL, GO reduced between 30 and 70% of S. aureus biofilm mass, suggesting GO's ability to disrupt the biofilm structure. At 200 ug/mL, GO killed almost 80% of intracellular S. aureus, and the antimicrobial activities were inhibited when cells were pre-treated with cytochalasin D, suggesting GO intracellular antimicrobial activities were dependent on the actin-polymerization of the cell membrane. At < 250 ug/mL, GO enhanced the viability of the Mac-T cell, and cells were only affected at higher dosages. CONCLUSION: The in vitro efficacy of GO against S. aureus in vitro suggested the compound could be further tested in Vivo to zrecognize its potential as one of the components of bovine mastitis therapy.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Mastite Bovina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Mastite Bovina/tratamento farmacológico , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Biofilmes , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
15.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(6): 611-615, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of Echinococcus infection in small mammals in Shiqu County, Sichuan Province from 2015 to 2020, so as to provide insights into echinococcosis control in Shiqu County. METHODS: One setting with frequent activity of small mammals was sampled as the survey site from each of 9 townships where human alveolar echinococcosis was hyperendemic, in Shiqu County, Sichuan Province from 2015 to 2020. Two quadrats measuring 50 m × 50 m were assigned in each survey site during the period between July and August from 2015 to 2020 to capture all small mammals in quadrats, and the species of small mammals were identified by morphological characteristics. All captured small mammals were dissected in the field and Echinococcus infection was identified by visual examinations. The affected organs of Echinococcus - infected small mammals were collected, and Echinococcus infection was detected using PCR assay, with Echinococcus species characterized. The prevalence of Echinococcus infection was calculated in small mammals, and the trends in the prevalence of Echinococcus infection were analyzed during the period from 2015 to 2020. In addition, the prevalence of Echinococcus infection was compared in small mammals using visual examinations and PCR assay. RESULTS: A total of 2 692 small mammals were captured in the survey sites of Shiqu County from 2015 to 2020, and morphology characterized 1 360 Microtus fuscus (50.52%) and 1 332 Plateau pika (49.48%). The prevalence rates of Echinococcus infection were 35.63%, 19.16%, 21.41%, 8.40%, 7.68% and 4.44% by visual examinations and 18.96%, 5.36%, 5.61%, 4.58%, 3.30% and 0.37% by PCR assay in small mammals in Shiqu County from 2015 to 2020, both showing a tendency towards a decline year by year (χ2 = 215.024 and 117.045, both P values < 0.001). The prevalence of Echinococcus infection was significantly higher in small mammals by visual examinations than by PCR assay during the period from 2015 to 2020 except in 2018 (χ2= 33.597, 21.815, 51.373, 17.268 and 9.537, all P values < 0.01). PCR assay detected a reduction in the prevalence of E. multilocularis infection from 10.21% to 0.37% and a reduction in the prevalence of E. shiquicus infection from 8.75% to 0 in small mammals in Shiqu County from 2015 to 2020, both appearing a tendency towards a decline year by year (χ2 = 117.045 and 43.436, both P values < 0.001). In addition, the prevalence of E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus infections reduced from 15.19% to 0.45% and from 8.23% to 0 in M. fuscus, and the prevalence of E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus infections reduced from 7.76% to 0 and from 9.01% to 0 in P. pika in Shiqu County from 2015 to 2020. CONCLUSIONS: M. fuscus and P. pika were dominant species of small mammals in Shiqu County, Sichuan Province from 2015 to 2020, and E. multilocularis infection was mainly found in M. fuscus and E. shiquicus infection mainly found in P. pika. The prevalence of Echinococcus infection appeared a tendency towards a decline in both M. fuscus and P. pika year by year during the period from 2015 to 2020.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus , Lagomorpha , Animais , Humanos , Prevalência , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus/genética , Mamíferos , Arvicolinae , China/epidemiologia
16.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(6): 654-658, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642909

RESUMO

As a global zoonotic disease, fascioliasis is a serious threat to human and animal health and animal husbandry development. The complexity of the classification and identification of Lymnaeidae, the intermediate host of Fasciola, notably the emergence of its sibling species, leads to misunderstanding of geographical distribution and transmission potential of Fasciola. This review introduces the classification of flukes of the family Fasciolidae, describes the geographical distribution of F. hepatica and F. gigantic, and discusses the co-evolution of Fasciola and Lymnaeidae host snails, and the effects of human activities and ruminant migration on global spread and transmission of Fasciola. In addition, we revisit the intermediate host snails of Fasciola in Africa based on the latest molecular biological evidence.


Assuntos
Fasciola hepatica , Fasciola , Fasciolíase , Animais , Humanos , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Caramujos , África/epidemiologia
17.
Prion ; 17(1): 7-15, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36654484

RESUMO

Eighteenth-century England witnessed the emergence of two neurological diseases in animals. Scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats that appears in classical and atypical forms. Reports of classical scrapie in continental Europe with described symptoms date back to 1750 in what is now western Poland. However, two major outbreaks of scrapie appeared in England prior to the 1800s. References to a sheep disease with a resemblance to scrapie first appear in Southwestern England between 1693 and 1722 and in the East Midlands between 1693 and 1706. Concurrent with the descriptions of scrapie in sheep was a neurological disease of deer first appearing in the East of England. Two 18th-century writers remarked on the symptomatic similarities between the sheep and deer neurological diseases. Multiple outbreaks of the unknown deer disease existing as early as 1772 are examined and are identified as rabies.


Assuntos
Cervos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Doenças Priônicas , Raiva , Scrapie , Animais , Ovinos , Scrapie/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Doenças Priônicas/veterinária , Cabras
18.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 23(1): 18-28, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633561

RESUMO

Background: Chagas disease is one of the world's most neglected tropical diseases, infecting over six million people across the Americas. The hemoparasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent for the disease, circulating in domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic transmission cycles that are maintained by triatomine vectors and a diversity of wild and synanthropic hosts. Public health and wildlife management interventions targeting the interruption of T. cruzi transmission rely on an understanding of the dynamics driving the ecology of this zoonotic pathogen. One wildlife host that purportedly plays a role in the transmission of Chagas disease within the southern United States is the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), although infection prevalence in this species is poorly understood. Materials and Methods: To this end, we conducted a PCR-based surveillance of T. cruzi in 235 wild skunks, representing 4 species, across 76 counties and 10 ecoregions in Texas, United States, along with an evaluation of risk factors associated with the infection. Results: We recovered an overall T. cruzi prevalence of 17.9% for all mephitid taxa aggregated, ranging between 6.7% for plains spotted skunks (Spilogale putorius interrupta) and 42.9% for western spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis). We report the first cases of T. cruzi infection in plains spotted and American hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus leuconotus), of important note for conservation medicine since populations of both species are declining within Texas. Although not statistically significant, we also detected trends for juveniles to exhibit greater infection risk than adults and for differential sex biases in T. cruzi prevalence between taxa, which align with variations in species-specific seasonal activity patterns. No geographic or taxonomic risk factors were identified. Conclusion: Our study contributed key data for population viability analyses and epidemiologic models in addition to providing a baseline for future T. cruzi surveillance among skunks and other wildlife species.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Doença de Chagas , Mephitidae , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Texas/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi
19.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 568, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631508

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive review with meta-analysis to determine the effects of the dose-response relationship between monensin supplementation and dairy cow performance and milk composition. Results from 566 full-text articles and 48 articles with 52 studies were meta-analyzed for pooled estimates. Monensin supplementation up to 23 ppm increased milk production, with the optimal dose being 12.6 ppm. Monensin supplementation at doses ranging from 16 to 96 ppm increased milk production in the prepartum phase (- 28 to 0 day relative to calving). From 60 to 150 DIM, monensin supplementation up to 21 ppm had a significant positive effect on this outcome, while supplementation in the 37 to 96 ppm range caused a decrease in this variable. At 0 to 60 and > 150 DIM, monensin supplementation had no effect on milk yield. At dosages of 22 to 96 ppm, 12 to 36 ppm, and below 58 ppm and 35 ppm, respectively, monensin supplementation resulted in significant decreases in dry matter intake (DMI), milk protein percentage, milk fat percentage, and milk fat yield. Overall, based on the results of this meta-analysis and considering all variables, the recommended optimal dose of monensin could be about 16 ppm.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Lactação , Leite , Monensin , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Dieta/veterinária , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Monensin/administração & dosagem , Monensin/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Gorduras/análise
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 19(1): 7, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary supplementation of full-fat black soldier fly larvae (BSFL full-fat meal; alone or in combination with multi-probiotics) was tested as an alternative to dietary antibiotics in weaning piglets. We also tested the effects of these diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility coefficients, immune status, oxidative stress, intestinal histomorphology, and rectal microbial modulations in weaned pigs. A total of 80 piglets [(Landrace × Large White) × Duroc] of both sexes (a ratio of gilts and barrows; 1:1), were randomly allotted to four diet groups: positive control (PC) diet supplemented with 0.02% amoxicillin; negative control (NC) diet without supplement addition; BSFL12 diet (NC + 12% BSFL full-fat meal); and BSFL + Pro diet (BSFL full-fat meal + 0.1% multi-probiotics, including Bacillus subtilis, B. licheniformis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). All groups had five replicates, with four piglets per replicate. RESULTS: Dietary BSFL + Pro improved the overall average daily gain (P = 0.013), and gain-to-feed ratio (P = 0.032). The BSFL12 and BSFL + Pro diets improved nutrient digestibility and increased the serum levels of immunoglobulin A and glutathione peroxidase, while reducing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The spleen weight was higher and caecal pH was lower in pigs fed the BSFL + Pro diet than in those fed the NC diet (P = 0.011 and P = 0.021, respectively). Pigs fed the BSFL diets had longer duodenal villi, a higher villus height-to-crypt depth ratio (P = 0.004), and shorter crypt depth (P = 0.017) than those fed NC. The BSFL + Pro diet also increased faecal Lactobacillus spp. count (P = 0.008) and reduced Escherichia coli (P = 0.021) counts compared with that seen with PC and NC diets, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary supplementation with BSFL or BSFL + multi-probiotics can improve the growth performance and intestinal health of pigs and may be an effective strategy to replace antibiotics for weaned pigs.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Probióticos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ração Animal/análise , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Larva , Probióticos/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Suínos , Desmame
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