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1.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 66(1): e1-e6, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer and is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Primary prevention strategies target reducing HPV acquisition through vaccination, limiting exposure (e.g. delayed sexual debut, barrier contraception) and health education focusing on sexual behaviour and tobacco use. METHODS:  The ImmunoVACCS study, conducted from 2019 to 2022 in two provinces in South Africa, examined sociodemographic characteristics, sexual practices, and knowledge of cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine among young female vaccine recipients. It encompassed participants from the previously conducted vaccine implementation trials, VACCS 1 and VACCS 2 (2011-2014). Recruitment involved telephonic contact with eligible potential participants. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. RESULTS:  One hundred and eleven participants took part in the current study (median age: 20 years; age range: 16-22 years). Most sexually active participants had their first engagement in secondary school (96.2%), and 77.2% used contraception during their last sexual activity. Knowledge gaps were evident, with only 13.5% recognising cervical cancer's cervix origin and 3.6% attributing it to a virus. Despite this, 70.3% had heard of a vaccine for cervical cancer. Less than half knew about the importance of regular Pap smears (49.5%), vaccine protection (44.1%) or condom use (20.7%) against HPV and cervical cancer. CONCLUSION:  The current study demonstrates that young women still lack complete information on cervical cancer and its risk factors even after receiving health education linked with vaccination.Contribution: This study underscores the necessity of ongoing education about HPV, its risks and preventive measures among young women to combat cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Comportamento Sexual , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Humanos , Feminino , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 91(1): e1-e7, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708767

RESUMO

Newcastle disease (ND) is endemic in Angola. Several outbreaks of ND occurred in small backyard flocks and village chickens with high mortality in the southern provinces of the country, Cunene, Namibe and Huíla, in 2016 and 2018. In those years, 15 virulent ND virus (NDV) strains were isolated and grouped within subgenotype 2 of genotype VII (subgenotype VII.2). We now present a study on the thermostability of the isolates, aiming at the selection of the most thermostable strains that, after being genetically modified to reduce their virulence, can be adapted to the production of vaccines less dependent on cold chain and more adequate to protect native chickens against ND. Heat-inactivation kinetics of haemagglutinin (Ha) activity and infectivity (I) of the isolates were determined by incubating aliquots of virus at 56 °C for different time intervals. The two isolates from Namibe province showed a decrease in infectivity of 2 log10 in ≤ 10 min, therefore belonging to the I-phenotype, but while the NB1 isolate from 2016 maintained the Ha activity up to 30 min and was classified as thermostable virus (I-Ha+), the Ha activity of the 2018 NB2 isolate decreased by 2 log2 in 30 min, being classified as a thermolabile virus (I-Ha-). Of the 13 NDV isolates from Huíla province, 10 isolates were classified as thermostable, eight with phenotype I+Ha+ and 2 with phenotype I-Ha+. The other three isolates from this province were classified as thermolabile viruses (I-Ha-).Contribution: This study will contribute to the control and/or eradication of Newcastle disease virus in Angola. The thermostable viral strains isolated from chickens in the country can be genetically manipulated by reverse genetic technology in order to reduce their virulence and use them as a vaccine in the remote areas of Angola.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Doença de Newcastle , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/patogenicidade , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/genética , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/classificação , Animais , Doença de Newcastle/virologia , Doença de Newcastle/epidemiologia , Angola/epidemiologia , Virulência , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Temperatura Alta
3.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 70(4): e20230972, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the frequency of rotavirus, adenovirus, and rota-adenovirus co-infections and investigate the fecal leukocyte rate associated with these infections in patients with gastroenteritis. METHODS: This is a retrospective study. We identified patients who were admitted to the pediatric emergency department with acute gastroenteritis and had their stool samples tested for rotavirus and/or adenovirus antigens. Among them, we determined the individuals who underwent stool microscopy tests on the same day and recorded their results. RESULTS: A total of 1,577 patients who underwent testing for rotavirus and/or adenovirus antigens in their stool samples were identified. Among these patients, 583 individuals had concurrent fecal microscopy results. The prevalence of solely rotavirus antigen positivity was 16.4%, solely adenovirus antigen positivity was 2.9%, and rota-adenovirus co-infections were detected in 1.8% of the children. The fecal leukocyte rates in children infected with rotavirus, adenovirus, and rota-adenovirus co-infections were 4.8, 13.3, and 88.9%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The presence of fecal leukocytes was detected at a high rate in cases of viral gastroenteritis, especially in rota-adenovirus co-infections. Therefore, clinicians should not consider only bacterial pathogens in the presence of fecal leukocytes.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Fezes , Gastroenterite , Infecções por Rotavirus , Humanos , Gastroenterite/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Criança , Contagem de Leucócitos , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Leucócitos , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/imunologia , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação
4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 327, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717623

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subset of T cells participating in a variety of diseases including mycoplasmal pneumonia, contagious ecthyma, and so on. The role of Tregs in goat contagious ecthyma is not completely understood due to the lack of species-specific antibodies. Here, we developed a combination of CD4 and CD25 fluorescence monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to recognize goat Tregs and assessed its utility in flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining. Using immunofluorescence staining, we found that the frequency of Treg cells was positively correlated with the viral load during orf virus infection. These antibodies could serve as important tools to monitor Tregs during orf virus infection in goats. KEY POINTS: • A combination of fluorescent mAbs (C11 and D12) was prepared for the detection of goat Tregs. • C11 and D12 are effective in flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, and C11 has excellent species specificity. • The frequency of Treg cells was positively correlated with the viral load during orf virus infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Citometria de Fluxo , Cabras , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Carga Viral , Animais , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Ectima Contagioso/diagnóstico , Ectima Contagioso/imunologia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Vírus do Orf/imunologia , Imunofluorescência/métodos , Antígenos CD4/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10540, 2024 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719945

RESUMO

Viruses are crucial for regulating deep-sea microbial communities and biogeochemical cycles. However, their roles are still less characterized in deep-sea holobionts. Bathymodioline mussels are endemic species inhabiting cold seeps and harboring endosymbionts in gill epithelial cells for nutrition. This study unveiled a diverse array of viruses in the gill tissues of Gigantidas platifrons mussels and analyzed the viral metagenome and transcriptome from the gill tissues of Gigantidas platifrons mussels collected from a cold seep in the South Sea. The mussel gills contained various viruses including Baculoviridae, Rountreeviridae, Myoviridae and Siphovirdae, but the active viromes were Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, and Podoviridae belonging to the order Caudovirales. The overall viral community structure showed significant variation among environments with different methane concentrations. Transcriptome analysis indicated high expression of viral structural genes, integrase, and restriction endonuclease genes in a high methane concentration environment, suggesting frequent virus infection and replication. Furthermore, two viruses (GP-phage-contig14 and GP-phage-contig72) interacted with Gigantidas platifrons methanotrophic gill symbionts (bathymodiolin mussels host intracellular methanotrophic Gammaproteobacteria in their gills), showing high expression levels, and have huge different expression in different methane concentrations. Additionally, single-stranded DNA viruses may play a potential auxiliary role in the virus-host interaction using indirect bioinformatics methods. Moreover, the Cro and DNA methylase genes had phylogenetic similarity between the virus and Gigantidas platifrons methanotrophic gill symbionts. This study also explored a variety of viruses in the gill tissues of Gigantidas platifrons and revealed that bacteria interacted with the viruses during the symbiosis with Gigantidas platifrons. This study provides fundamental insights into the interplay of microorganisms within Gigantidas platifrons mussels in deep sea.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Bivalves , Brânquias , Metagenômica , Animais , Metagenômica/métodos , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Brânquias/microbiologia , Brânquias/virologia , Brânquias/metabolismo , Bivalves/microbiologia , Bivalves/virologia , Bivalves/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma , Viroma/genética , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Simbiose/genética , Metagenoma
6.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 183, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pigs are susceptible to several ruminant pathogens, including Coxiella burnetti, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). These pathogens have already been described in the pig population, although the dynamics of the infection and the impact on pig farms are currently unclear. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of these infections in the pig population of the Campania region, southern Italy, and to evaluate the risk factors associated with a greater risk of exposure. RESULTS: A total of 414 serum samples belonging to 32 herds were tested for the presence of antibodies against SBV, Coxiella, and BVD using commercial multispecies ELISA kits. SBV (5.3%) was the most prevalent pathogen, followed by Coxiella (4.1%) and BVD (3%). The risk factors included in the study (age, sex, province, farming system, ruminant density and major ruminant species) had no influence on the probability of being exposed to BVD and Coxiella, except for the location, in fact more pigs seropositive to Coxiella were found in the province of Caserta. However, the univariate analysis highlighted the influence of age, location, and sex on exposure to SBV. The subsequent multivariate analysis statistically confirmed the importance of these factors. The presence of neutralizing antibodies for SBV and BVDV, or antibodies directed towards a specific phase of infection for Coxiella was further confirmed with virus-neutralization assays and phase-specific ELISAs in a large proportion of positive samples. The presence of high neutralizing antibody titers (especially for SBV) could indicate recent exposures. Twelve of the 17 positive samples tested positive for antibodies against Coxiella phase I or II antigens, indicating the presence of both acute and chronic infections (one animal tested positive for both phases antibodies). CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates a non-negligible exposure of pigs from southern Italy to the above pathogens. Further studies are necessary to fully understand the dynamics of these infections in pigs, the impact on productivity, and the public health consequences in the case of Coxiella.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Febre Q , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Febre Q/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/imunologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Orthobunyavirus/imunologia , Orthobunyavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coxiella burnetii/imunologia , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/veterinária , Pseudorraiva/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária
7.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 82, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rumen microbiome enables ruminants to digest otherwise indigestible feedstuffs, thereby facilitating the production of high-quality protein, albeit with suboptimal efficiency and producing methane. Despite extensive research delineating associations between the rumen microbiome and ruminant production traits, the functional roles of the pervasive and diverse rumen virome remain to be determined. RESULTS: Leveraging a recent comprehensive rumen virome database, this study analyzes virus-microbe linkages, at both species and strain levels, across 551 rumen metagenomes, elucidating patterns of microbial and viral diversity, co-occurrence, and virus-microbe interactions. Additionally, this study assesses the potential role of rumen viruses in microbial diversification by analyzing prophages found in rumen metagenome-assembled genomes. Employing CRISPR-Cas spacer-based matching and virus-microbe co-occurrence network analysis, this study suggests that the viruses in the rumen may regulate microbes at strain and community levels through both antagonistic and mutualistic interactions. Moreover, this study establishes that the rumen virome demonstrates responsiveness to dietary shifts and associations with key animal production traits, including feed efficiency, lactation performance, weight gain, and methane emissions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a substantive framework for further investigations to unravel the functional roles of the virome in the rumen in shaping the microbiome and influencing overall animal production performance. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Metagenoma , Rúmen , Vírus , Rúmen/microbiologia , Rúmen/virologia , Animais , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Viroma , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Ruminantes/virologia , Metano/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1366908, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725449

RESUMO

Background: Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) is a novel non-invasive and comprehensive technique for etiological diagnosis of infectious diseases. However, its practical significance has been seldom reported in the context of hematological patients with high-risk febrile neutropenia, a unique patient group characterized by neutropenia and compromised immune responses. Methods: This retrospective study evaluated the results of plasma cfDNA sequencing in 164 hematological patients with high-risk febrile neutropenia. We assessed the diagnostic efficacy and clinical impact of mNGS, comparing it with conventional microbiological tests. Results: mNGS identified 68 different pathogens in 111 patients, whereas conventional methods detected only 17 pathogen types in 36 patients. mNGS exhibited a significantly higher positive detection rate than conventional methods (67.7% vs. 22.0%, P < 0.001). This improvement was consistent across bacterial (30.5% vs. 9.1%), fungal (19.5% vs. 4.3%), and viral (37.2% vs. 9.1%) infections (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). The anti-infective treatment strategies were adjusted for 51.2% (84/164) of the patients based on the mNGS results. Conclusions: mNGS of plasma cfDNA offers substantial promise for the early detection of pathogens and the timely optimization of anti-infective therapies in hematological patients with high-risk febrile neutropenia.


Assuntos
Neutropenia Febril , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metagenômica , Humanos , Metagenômica/métodos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia Febril/microbiologia , Neutropenia Febril/sangue , Neutropenia Febril/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/microbiologia , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/virologia
9.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1384417, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726013

RESUMO

Nipah virus (NiV) poses a significant threat to human and livestock populations across South and Southeast Asia. Vaccines are required to reduce the risk and impact of spillover infection events. Pigs can act as an intermediate amplifying host for NiV and, separately, provide a preclinical model for evaluating human vaccine candidate immunogenicity. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the immunogenicity of an mRNA vectored NiV vaccine candidate in pigs. Pigs were immunized twice with 100 µg nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccine encoding soluble G glycoprotein from the Malaysia strain of NiV, formulated in lipid nanoparticles. Potent antigen-binding and virus neutralizing antibodies were detected in serum following the booster immunization. Antibody responses effectively neutralized both the Malaysia and Bangladesh strains of NiV but showed limited neutralization of the related (about 80% amino acid sequence identity for G) Hendra virus. Antibodies were also capable of neutralizing NiV glycoprotein mediated cell-cell fusion. NiV G-specific T cell cytokine responses were also measurable following the booster immunization with evidence for induction of both CD4 and CD8 T cell responses. These data support the further evaluation of mRNA vectored NiV G as a vaccine for both pigs and humans.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Infecções por Henipavirus , Vírus Nipah , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Vírus Nipah/imunologia , Vírus Nipah/genética , Suínos , Infecções por Henipavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Henipavirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Imunização Secundária , Citocinas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Lipossomos , Nanopartículas
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303138, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722890

RESUMO

Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is an oncogenic virus whose infection can cause diverse diseases, most notably adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL or ATLL), an aggressive and fatal malignancy of CD4 T cells. The oncogenic ability of HTLV-I is mostly attributed to the viral transcriptional transactivator Tax. Tax alone is sufficient to induce specific tumors in mice depending on the promotor used to drive Tax expression, thereby being used to understand HTLV-I tumorigenesis and model the tumor types developed in Tax transgenic mice. Tax exerts its oncogenic role predominantly by activating the cellular transcription factor NF-κB. Here, we report that genetic deletion of NF-κB1, the prototypic member of the NF-κB family, promotes adrenal medullary tumors but suppresses neurofibromas in mice with transgenic Tax driven by the HTLV-I Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) promoter. The adrenal tumors are derived from macrophages. Neoplastic macrophages also infiltrate the spleen and lymph nodes, causing splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy in mice. Nevertheless, the findings could be human relevant, because macrophages are important target cells of HTLV-I infection and serve as a virus reservoir in vivo. Moreover, the spleen, lymph nodes and adrenal glands are the most common sites of tumor cell infiltration in HTLV-I-infected patients. These data provide new mechanistic insights into the complex interaction between Tax and NF-κB, therefore improving our understanding of HTLV-I oncogenic pathogenesis. They also expand our knowledge and establish a new animal model of macrophage neoplasms and adrenal tumors.


Assuntos
Produtos do Gene tax , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano , Macrófagos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Animais , Camundongos , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/genética , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/patogenicidade , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/virologia , Produtos do Gene tax/metabolismo , Produtos do Gene tax/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/virologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/genética , Sequências Repetidas Terminais/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302692, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722893

RESUMO

Tobacco vein necrosis (TVN) is a complex phenomenon regulated by different genetic determinants mapped in the HC-Pro protein (amino acids N330, K391 and E410) and in two regions of potato virus Y (PVY) genome, corresponding to the cytoplasmic inclusion (CI) protein and the nuclear inclusion protein a-protease (NIa-Pro), respectively. A new determinant of TVN was discovered in the MK isolate of PVY which, although carried the HC-Pro determinants associated to TVN, did not induce TVN. The HC-Pro open reading frame (ORF) of the necrotic infectious clone PVY N605 was replaced with that of the non-necrotic MK isolate, which differed only by one amino acid at position 392 (T392 instead of I392). The cDNA clone N605_MKHCPro inoculated in tobacco induced only weak mosaics at the systemic level, demostrating that the amino acid at position 392 is a new determinant for TVN. No significant difference in accumulation in tobacco was observed between N605 and N605_MKHCPro. Since phylogenetic analyses showed that the loss of necrosis in tobacco has occurred several times independently during PVY evolution, these repeated evolutions strongly suggest that tobacco necrosis is a costly trait in PVY.


Assuntos
Nicotiana , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Mutação Puntual , Potyvirus , Proteínas Virais , Nicotiana/virologia , Potyvirus/genética , Potyvirus/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Necrose , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303137, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722911

RESUMO

The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a significant public health concern owing to its expanding habitat and vector competence. Disease outbreaks attributed to this species have been reported in areas under its invasion, and its northward expansion in Japan has caused concern because of the potential for dengue virus infection in newly populated areas. Accurate prediction of Ae. albopictus distribution is crucial to prevent the spread of the disease. However, limited studies have focused on the prediction of Ae. albopictus distribution in Japan. Herein, we used the random forest model, a machine learning approach, to predict the current and potential future habitat ranges of Ae. albopictus in Japan. The model revealed that these mosquitoes prefer urban areas over forests in Japan on the current map. Under predictions for the future, the species will expand its range to the surrounding areas and eventually reach many areas of northeastern Kanto, Tohoku District, and Hokkaido, with a few variations in different scenarios. However, the affected human population is predicted to decrease owing to the declining birth rate. Anthropogenic and climatic factors contribute to range expansion, and urban size and population have profound impacts. This prediction map can guide responses to the introduction of this species in new areas, advance the spatial knowledge of diseases vectored by it, and mitigate the possible disease burden. To our knowledge, this is the first distribution-modelling prediction for Ae. albopictus with a focus on Japan.


Assuntos
Aedes , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais , Aedes/virologia , Aedes/fisiologia , Japão , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Distribuição Animal , Dengue/transmissão , Dengue/epidemiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos Biológicos
13.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0291155, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Central African Republic (CAR) is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of viral hepatitis infection in the world. Coinfection with HIV increases the morbidity and mortality beyond that of mono-infection with either hepatitis or HIV. The present study describes the geographic distribution of viral hepatitis infections and molecular characterization of these viruses in the CAR. METHODOLOGY: Out of 12,599 persons enrolled during the fourth Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey of 2010 in the CAR, 10,621 Dried Blood Spot (DBS) samples were obtained and stored at -20°C. Of these DBS, 4,317 samples were randomly selected to represent all regions of the CAR. Serological tests for hepatitis B, D, and C viruses were performed using the ELISA technique. Molecular characterization was performed to identify strains. RESULTS: Of the 4,317 samples included, 53.2% were from men and 46.8% from women. The HBsAg prevalence among participants was 12.9% and that HBc-Ab was 19.7%. The overall prevalence of HCV was 0.6%. Co-infection of HIV/HBV was 1.1% and that of HBV/HDV was 16.6%. A total of 77 HBV, 6 HIV, and 6 HDV strains were successfully sequenced, with 72 HBV (93.5%) strains belonging to genotype E and 5 (6.5%) strains belonging to genotype D. The 6 HDV strains all belonged to clade 1, while 4 recombinants subtype were identified among the 6 strains of HIV. CONCLUSION: Our study found a high prevalence of HBV, HBV/HDV and HBV/HIV co-infection, but a low prevalence of HCV. CAR remains an area of high HBV endemicity. This study's data and analyses would be useful for establishing an integrated viral hepatitis and HIV surveillance program in the CAR.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Feminino , Masculino , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Adulto , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , República Centro-Africana/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/virologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Filogenia , Pré-Escolar , Prevalência
14.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301225, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: University spring break carries a two-pronged SARS-CoV-2 variant transmission risk. Circulating variants from universities can spread to spring break destinations, and variants from spring break destinations can spread to universities and surrounding communities. Therefore, it is critical to implement SARS-CoV-2 variant surveillance and testing strategies to limit community spread before and after spring break to mitigate virus transmission and facilitate universities safely returning to in-person teaching. METHODS: We examined the SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate and changes in variant lineages before and after the university spring break for two consecutive years. 155 samples were sequenced across four time periods: pre- and post-spring break 2021 and pre- and post-spring break 2022; following whole genome sequencing, samples were assigned clades. The clades were then paired with positivity and testing data from over 50,000 samples. RESULTS: In 2021, the number of variants in the observed population increased from four to nine over spring break, with variants of concern being responsible for most of the cases; Alpha percent composition increased from 22.2% to 56.4%. In 2022, the number of clades in the population increased only from two to three, all of which were Omicron or a sub-lineage of Omicron. However, phylogenetic analysis showed the emergence of distantly related sub-lineages. 2022 saw a greater increase in positivity than 2021, which coincided with a milder mitigation strategy. Analysis of social media data provided insight into student travel destinations and how those travel events may have impacted spread. CONCLUSIONS: We show the role that repetitive testing can play in transmission mitigation, reducing community spread, and maintaining in-person education. We identified that distantly related lineages were brought to the area after spring break travel regardless of the presence of a dominant variant of concern.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Viagem , Humanos , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Universidades , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Filogenia , Estações do Ano
15.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302690, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rabies virus (RABV; species Lyssavirus rabies) is causing one of the oldest zoonotic diseases known to mankind, leading to fatal encephalomyelitis in animals and humans. Despite the existence of safe and effective vaccines to prevent the disease, an estimated 99% of human rabies deaths worldwide are caused by dog-mediated rabies with children at the highest risk of infection. Rabies has been endemic in Madagascar for over a century, yet there has been little research evaluating local knowledge and practices impacting on the rabies control and prevention. Thus, this study was undertaken to better understand the dog ecology including canine vaccine coverage and to assess knowledge and practices of dog owners and veterinarians. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 123 dog-owning households in thirteen fokontanys in Mahajanga from July 4 to September 13, 2016. Single and multi-member dog-owning households in the study area on the day of the interview were eligible for inclusion and purposively selected with the support of a local guide. The survey included a household questionnaire capturing information on the dog's demographics, husbandry practices, knowledge and practices towards rabies and its control measures; the dog ecology questionnaire collected dog characteristics, vaccination status and husbandry practices. All households that reported a dog bite incident, were invited to participate in a dog bite questionnaire. In addition, direct observations of roaming dogs were conducted to assess dog population demographics and to document behavioural characteristics. Two veterinarians were purposively selected and took part in an interview during the survey period, providing information on rabies control activities, including dog-care practices in the area. Descriptive and inferential data analyses were performed using Epi Info version 7.1.5.0 (CDC Atlanta, USA). RESULTS: We recorded a total of 400 dogs, of which 338 (84.5%) were owned amongst 123 households. More than half (67.8%) of owned dogs were between 1 to 5 years old and 95.6% were kept for guarding purposes. 45% of the surveyed dogs had free access to roam outside the premises. The majority (85.4%) of dog owners were knowledgeable that a dog bite could potentially transmit RABV to humans. 19 dog bites were reported and of these 73.6% were caused by the owner's or a neighbour's dog. In 6 of the 19 cases, children between 7 and 15 years of age were the victims. Dog vaccination coverage against rabies was 34% among owned dogs. Of the participants aware of a veterinarian, the majority (55/82) indicated that they accessed veterinarian services at irregular intervals. The main obstacles to vaccinations cited by dog owners were limited financial resources and difficulty accessing veterinary care. CONCLUSION: This study contributes to enhanced understanding of the dog ecology including canine vaccine coverage as well as knowledge and practices of dog owners in Madagascar. Most dogs in the study area were accessible for preventive vaccination through their owners, however only one third of the investigated canine population was vaccinated against rabies. Concerted national efforts towards rabies prevention and control should aim to address financial challenges and access to veterinary services.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Vacina Antirrábica , Raiva , Cães , Animais , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Raiva/epidemiologia , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vacina Antirrábica/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ecologia , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia
16.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302868, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723001

RESUMO

To identify a biomarker for the early diagnosis of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV), we investigated the expression of a microRNA, bta-miR-375, in cattle serum. Using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis, we measured bta-miR-375 levels in 27 samples from cattle with EBL (EBL cattle), 45 samples from animals infected with BLV but showing no clinical signs (NS cattle), and 30 samples from cattle uninfected with BLV (BLV negative cattle). In this study, we also compared the kinetics of bta-miR-375 with those of the conventional biomarkers of proviral load (PVL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and thymidine kinase (TK) from the no-clinical-sign phase until EBL onset in three BLV-infected Japanese black (JB) cattle. Bta-miR-375 expression was higher in NS cattle than in BLV negative cattle (P < 0.05) and greater in EBL cattle than in BLV negative and NS cattle (P < 0.0001 for both comparisons). Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated that bta-miR-375 levels distinguished EBL cattle from NS cattle with high sensitivity and specificity. In NS cattle, bta-miR-375 expression was increased as early as at 2 months before EBL onset-earlier than the expression of PVL, TK, or LDH isoenzymes 2 and 3. These results suggest that serum miR-375 is a promising biomarker for the early diagnosis of EBL.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Diagnóstico Precoce , Leucose Enzoótica Bovina , Vírus da Leucemia Bovina , MicroRNAs , Animais , Bovinos , Leucose Enzoótica Bovina/diagnóstico , Leucose Enzoótica Bovina/sangue , Leucose Enzoótica Bovina/virologia , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Vírus da Leucemia Bovina/genética , Curva ROC , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue
17.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303099, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723009

RESUMO

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a globally significant tick-borne zoonotic pathogen that causes fatal haemorrhagic disease in humans. Despite constituting an ongoing public health threat, limited research exists on the presence of CCHFV among herdsmen, an occupationally exposed population that has prolonged contact with ruminants and ticks. This cross-sectional study, conducted between October 2018 and February 2020 in Kwara State, Nigeria, was aimed at assessing CCHFV seroprevalence among herdsmen and non-herdsmen febrile patients, and identifying the associated risk factors. Blood samples from herdsmen (n = 91) and febrile patients in hospitals (n = 646) were analyzed for anti-CCHFV IgG antibodies and CCHFV S-segment RNA using ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. Results revealed a remarkably high CCHFV seroprevalence of 92.3% (84/91) among herdsmen compared to 7.1% (46/646) in febrile patients. Occupational risk factors like animal and tick contact, tick bites, and hand crushing of ticks significantly contributed to higher seroprevalence in the herdsmen (p<0.0001). Herdsmen were 156.5 times more likely (p<0.0001) to be exposed to CCHFV than febrile patients. Notably, the odds of exposure were significantly higher (OR = 191.3; p<0.0001) in herdsmen with a history of tick bites. Although CCHFV genome was not detectable in the tested sera, our findings reveal that the virus is endemic among herdsmen in Kwara State, Nigeria. CCHFV should be considered as a probable cause of febrile illness among humans in the study area. Given the nomadic lifestyle of herdsmen, further investigations into CCHF epidemiology in this neglected population are crucial. This study enhances our understanding of CCHFV dynamics and emphasizes the need for targeted interventions in at-risk communities.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/epidemiologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/virologia , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/imunologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Animais , Adulto Jovem , Febre/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Carrapatos/virologia , Adolescente
18.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2343552, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723789

RESUMO

The main aim of our study was to investigate the specific contribution of a 9-valent human papillomavirus vaccine (9vHPV) to the recurrence risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) in women vaccinated post-excision. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective monocentric cohort study in women aged 22-49 years undergoing conization between 2014 and 2023. The 9vHPV-vaccinated women were matched to unvaccinated women for age and follow-up duration in a 1:2 ratio to eliminate allocation bias. The risk of CIN2+ recurrence was estimated by the incidence rate ratio using Poisson regression with adjustment for comorbidities, smoking status, nulliparity, CIN grade, positive cone margin, and HPV genotypes. The CIN2+ recurrence rates in 147 women enrolled in the analysis were 18 and 2 cases per 100,000 person-days for unvaccinated and vaccinated women, respectively, during a mean follow-up period of 30 months (±22 months). A reduction in CIN2+ recurrences by 90% (95% confidence interval: 12-99%) was documented in 9vHPV-vaccinated participants compared to women undergoing only surgical excision. Moreover, vaccinated women with a positive cone margin showed a 42% (though non-significant) reduction in relapse (p = .661). Full post-conization vaccination with the 9vHPV contributed to an additional reduction in the risk of CIN2+ recurrence. This finding is consistent with current knowledge and suggests a high adjuvant effect of the 9vHPV vaccine.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Displasia do Colo do Útero , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Displasia do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Displasia do Colo do Útero/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto Jovem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Conização/métodos , Vacinação
19.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3924, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724518

RESUMO

An effective HIV-1 vaccine must elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against highly diverse Envelope glycoproteins (Env). Since Env with the longest hypervariable (HV) loops is more resistant to the cognate bnAbs than Env with shorter HV loops, we redesigned hypervariable loops for updated Env consensus sequences of subtypes B and C and CRF01_AE. Using modeling with AlphaFold2, we reduced the length of V1, V2, and V5 HV loops while maintaining the integrity of the Env structure and glycan shield, and modified the V4 HV loop. Spacers are designed to limit strain-specific targeting. All updated Env are infectious as pseudoviruses. Preliminary structural characterization suggests that the modified HV loops have a limited impact on Env's conformation. Binding assays show improved binding to modified subtype B and CRF01_AE Env but not to subtype C Env. Neutralization assays show increases in sensitivity to bnAbs, although not always consistently across clades. Strikingly, the HV loop modification renders the resistant CRF01_AE Env sensitive to 10-1074 despite the absence of a glycan at N332.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , HIV-1 , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização , Células HEK293 , Sequência Consenso , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Ligação Proteica , Epitopos/imunologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10660, 2024 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724525

RESUMO

Influenza Like Illness (ILI) and Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) cases are more prone to Influenza and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Accordingly, we genetically characterized Influenza and SARS-CoV-2 in 633 ILI and SARI cases by rRT-PCR and WGS. ILI and SARI cases showed H1N1pdm09 prevalence of 20.9% and 23.2% respectively. 135 (21.3%) H1N1pdm09 and 23 (3.6%) H3N2 and 5 coinfection (0.78%) of H1N1pdm09 and SARS-CoV-2 were detected. Phylogenetic analysis revealed H1N1pdm09 resemblance to clade 6B.1A.5a.2 and their genetic relatedness to InfA/Perth/34/2020, InfA/Victoria/88/2020 and InfA/Victoria/2570/2019. Pan 24 HA and 26 NA nonsynonymous mutations and novel HA (G6D, Y7F, Y78H, P212L, G339R, T508K and S523T) and NA (S229A) mutations were observed. S74R, N129D, N156K, S162N, K163Q and S164T alter HA Cb and Sa antibody recognizing site. Similarly, M19T, V13T substitution and multiple mutations in transmembrane and NA head domain drive antigenic drift. SARS-CoV-2 strains genetically characterized to Omicron BA.2.75 lineage containing thirty nonsynonymous spike mutations exhibited enhanced virulence and transmission rates. Coinfection although detected very minimal, the mutational changes in H1N1pdm09 and SARS-CoV-2 virus infected individuals could alter antibody receptor binding sites, allowing the viruses to escape immune response resulting in better adaptability and transmission. Thus continuous genomic surveillance is required to tackle any future outbreak.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Genoma Viral/genética , Idoso , Coinfecção/virologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Mutação , Lactente
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