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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130667, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339981

RESUMO

The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of different fertilizers on the physicochemical properties, multi-element and volatile composition of cucumbers. All samples were divided into five groups according to different combinations and amounts of chicken manure, NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer and microbial fertilizer. The co-application of chicken manure (120,000 kg/ha) and NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer (750 kg/ha) achieved the best texture properties, whereas the addition of the microbial fertilizer at 6000 kg/ha significantly improved the color quality of cucumbers. Similarly, the co-application of chicken manure, NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer and microbial fertilizer at 6000 kg/ha enhanced the number and abundance of volatile components detected in the cucumbers. Cucumbers from the control group contained the highest levels of most of the determined elements. Overall, a combination of chicken manure, NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer and 6000 kg/ha microbial fertilizer is recommended as a relatively efficient fertilizer utilization for cucumbers.

2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130624, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339982

RESUMO

Wuyi Rock tea (WRT), a top-ranking oolong tea, possesses characteristic woody, floral, nutty flavor. WRT flavor is mainly formed during the manufacturing process. However, details regarding its formation process are not fully understood yet. In this study, the dynamics of volatile and phenolic components over the whole manufacturing process of WRT were investigated. During withering, despite minor changes in volatile and phenolic components, the central vacuole shrunk remarkably, which reduced the cell mechanical performance and facilitated the subsequent enzymatic fermentation. During fermentation, approximately 78% of flavan-3-ols in fresh tea leaves were oxidized and converted to a diverse mixture of highly heterogeneous oxidation products, such as theaflavins, whereas flavonols, phenolic acids, and xanthine alkaloids remained stable throughout the manufacturing process. Aldehydes, ketones, and heterocyclic compounds, imparting woody, floral, and nutty scent, were mainly formed during the roasting steps. This detailed information can expand our understanding on the formation of WRT flavor.

3.
Food Chem ; 367: 130662, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343799

RESUMO

Gibberellic acid (GA3) is widely applied in agriculture and food worldwide. Profiling the degradation products and their formation pattern under stress are helpful for deeply understanding GA3 regulating plant physiology and GA3 safety in agricultural crops. This study firstly investigated the degradation behavior of GA3. Different stress factors such as light, pH and temperatures were investigated through photolysis and hydrolysis experiments. Five degradation products were identified using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography Q-Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS). Three degradation products were produced under ultraviolet photolysis conditions. Two isomers (iso-GA3 and gibberellenic acid) were formed under alkaline conditions. In order to characterize each degradation product, complete mass fragmentation pathways of all analytes were initially established. These results could provide a practical reference for the safety of agricultural products and the guidance for scientific application of GA3 and proposed storage conditions of GA3.

4.
Food Chem ; 367: 130659, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343800

RESUMO

This study presents a sensitive approach for electrochemical determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in food. The electrochemical sensor was fabricated on a copper electrode (CuE) modified with co-electrodeposited Cu-Ni bimetallic particles. This sensor, fabricated by 30 cycles of cyclic voltametric scanning with a scan rate of 50 mV s-1, exhibits good electrocatalytic ability to 5-HMF oxidation. Under the optimal conditions, linear scan voltammetry (LSV) and chronoamperometry were conducted for the determination of 5-HMF. The results of LSV show that a linear dependency within the 0.4-10 mM range with a detection limit (LOD) of 3.51 µM (S/N = 3) was achieved, while a linear range in 1 × 10-4-11 mM with a LOD of 0.043 µM (S/N = 3) was obtained by chronoamperometric measurement. The electrochemical sensor was finally applied in determination of 5-HMF in various foods, and the reliability and accuracy of the method were assessed by adopting an UV method as a standard method. Results show that the concentrations of 5-HMF in real samples are close to those measured by the standard method. In addition, standard addition method was further performed to evaluate the accuracy of our approach. The recoveries ranged from 90.0% to 110.0% are calculated, demonstrating good accuracy of the electrochemical sensor.

5.
Food Chem ; 367: 130674, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343801

RESUMO

Strontium chloride added to aqueous suspensions of metastable calcium citrate tetrahydrate increased calcium ion activity measured electrochemically without transition of metastable tetrahydrate to stable calcium citrate hexahydrate as shown by DSC. Calcium activity increase was explained by lower solubility of strontium citrate pentahydrate formed (8.9 × 10-4 M at 25 °C) increasing with temperature compared to calcium citrate tetrahydrate (1.6 × 10-3 M) decreasing with temperature. Strontium binding to citrate was found endothermic, ΔH0 = 45 kJ∙mol-1 at 25 °C, while calcium binding shows variation from ΔH0 = 94 kJ∙mol-1 at 10 °C becoming exothermic above physiological temperature with ΔH0 = -9 kJ∙mol-1 at 45 °C as determined from temperature and concentration variation in electric conductivity. These differences in solution thermodynamics and pH effect on complex formation between calcium and strontium citrate are discussed in relation to biomineralization.

6.
Food Chem ; 367: 130710, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343802

RESUMO

The levels of carotenoids and carotenoid esters in pumpkin (C. maxima) slices as affected by hot air drying (60-100 °C, 6-17 h) were assessed via an HPLC-MS/MS method. Among the 25 carotenoids and carotenoid esters identified in pumpkin flesh, xanthophyll diesters (including (all-E)-violaxanthin dipalmitate, lutein 3-O-myristate-3'-O-laurate, lutein 3-O-palmitate-3'-O-laurate, lutein 3-O-myristate-3'-O-palmitate, lutein 3-O-stearate-3'-O-myristate and lutein 3-O-stearate-3'-O-palmitate) accounted for 43% of the total carotenoids (853.6 ± 18.5 µg/g, dried weight). Dihydroxy xanthophylls, especially those containing 5,6-epoxy group, were more heat-labile than carotenes, while xanthophylls were less heat stable than their diester counterparts. The degradation rates (first-order reactions, R2 = 0.983-0.992) for lutein diesters (rate constant: 0.002-0.049 h-1) in pumpkin slices were only 10-20% of that for lutein (rate constant: 0.020-0.243 h-1) during hot air drying, and 76-98% of lutein diesters could be retained in the final dried products.

7.
Food Chem ; 367: 130677, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343803

RESUMO

This study investigated the physicochemical properties and 3D structure of Macadamia integrifolia antimicrobial protein 2 (MiAMP2) and its interaction with palmitoleic acid (POA) or oleic acid (OA) in macadamia oil. The 3D structure of MiAMP2 was constructed for the first time by ab initio modelling using the TrRosetta server. The results showed that MiAMP2 was highly hydrophilic and had seven disulfide bonds and higher α-helix and ß-sheet/turn contents. Molecular simulation showed that the hydrophobic pocket of MiAMP2 created a favourable environment for the binding of POA and OA. Free energy landscape and independent gradient model (IGM) analyses revealed that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces were the major driving forces stabilizing complexes formed by MiAMP2 and POA or OA. The present study provides a theoretical basis and new insight for the future development and utilization of macadamia nut protein in the food industry.

8.
Food Chem ; 367: 130664, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343804

RESUMO

Cyclodextrin-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (CD-DLLME) was developed for the determination of triazole and strobilurin fungicides in water, juice, and vinegar samples using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). Undecanol, which is a green solvent, was selected as the extraction solvent. A cyclodextrin aqueous solution was chosen as the dispersion solvent and demulsifier to avoid the use of a toxic dispersion solvent and eliminate the centrifugation step. Dispersion and phase separation were completed within 1 and 60 s, respectively. The linear range of this method was 1 to 100 µg L-1. The limits of detection were 0.3 µg L-1 along with the preconcentration factor of 133 and enrichment factor of 124. The recovery was 83.2% to 103.2%. This pretreatment method was fast, simple, and environmentally friendly and was successfully applied to the analysis of triazole and strobilurin fungicide residues in water, juice, and vinegar samples.

9.
Food Chem ; 367: 130666, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343805

RESUMO

Considering excess nitrites are detrimental to the human body and environment, designing a rapid, sensitive, and real-time quantitative determination for nitrite is of great significance for environmental preservation and public health. In this paper, Co3O4 nanoflowers coupled with ultrafine MoO3 nanoparticles (MoO3/Co3O4) are obtained via a hybrid electrochemical deposition strategy (HED). The as-designed MoO3/Co3O4/CC integrating electrode exhibits superior electrocatalytic properties towards nitrite oxidation, owing to the synergistic effect between MoO3 and Co3O4 caused by the heterostructure of MoO3/Co3O4. The electrode achieved a low response time of 2 s, an excellent sensitivity of 1704.1 µA mM-1 cm-2, and a low limit of detection of 0.075 µM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the electrode displays promise for nitrite detection in complex food such as water and sausages samples. Our study will provide a significant strategy for the application of bimetallic heterostructure to explore the design of sensing interfaces.

10.
Food Chem ; 367: 130647, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343806

RESUMO

To increase the reuse of food residues, multifrequency countercurrent ultrasonic treatment was used to enhance the extraction yield of defatted mulberry seed protein (DMSP), and sweet-flavored peptides from DMSP hydrolysates (DMSPHs) were obtained for the first time. Here, the DMSP yield was increased by 16.2% (p < 0.05) while the power density was halved compared with single-frequency ultrasonic treatment. According to Fick's second law, a molecular diffusion dynamics model was developed to be suitable for predicting the pretreatment conditions (R2 = 0.9785). After that, the sweet-flavored peptides were purified and the main amino acid sequences were identified, i.e., FEGGSIE, KDFPEAHSQAT, and GSQPAEGAK. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of DMSPHs prepared with tri-frequency treatment was higher than 60%. The DMSPHs retarded the growth of HepG2 cells in vitro, increased the necrotic quadrant (Q1-UL), and extended the S phase. Therefore, the sweet-flavored peptides prepared from DMSPHs using the multifrequency-ultrasonic treatment have significant biological activities.

11.
Food Chem ; 367: 130628, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343807

RESUMO

A spectrophotometric method based on diazo-coupling reaction for nitrite analysis was established and validated, including inter-laboratory validation, linearity, accuracy, precision, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). The time-saving and high-recovery method was established by examining the filtration step, colorimetric process and concentration range of the calibration curve. This method showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999) in the range of 0.025-1.0 µg/mL. The three-level recoveries were between 86.7% and 108.6%, with the coefficient of variation (CV) below 5.8%. Mean nitrite concentration ranges in processed foods were ND-33.47 mg/kg. The mean nitrite intake was 0.8% of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI, 0.07 mg/kg bw/day) for all children and adolescents and 2.8% for the consumer group. The major contributors for all subjects and consumers were ham, sausage and bacon. These results indicated that the improved method was suitable for analyzing nitrite in processed foods and the nitrite exposure levels were safe.

12.
Food Chem ; 367: 130658, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343808

RESUMO

Camel milk is rich in nutrients and its impact on human medicine and nutrition cannot be ignored. We conducted an in-depth analysis of milk proteins obtained from two camel breed (Camelus bactrianus, CB and Camelus dromedarius, CD). Label-free proteomic technology was performed to analysis the MFGM and whey proteomes of CB and CD milk. In total, 1133 MFGM proteins and 627 whey proteins were identified from camel milk. Results revealed that 216 MFGM proteins and 109 whey proteins were significantly different between them. In addition, the cellular process, cell and binding were the predominately GO annotations of milk proteins. KEGG analysis shown that most proteins were involved in metabolic pathways. Furthermore, many proteins were found to be involved in PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, which could be the possible reason for hypoglycemic effect of camel milk. These results could provide a further understanding for unique biological characteristics of camel milk proteins.

13.
Food Chem ; 367: 130653, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343809

RESUMO

A uniform spherical structure covalent organic framework (TAPA-BPDA-COF) was prepared by a facile method at room temperature with tris(4-aminophenyl)amine (TAPA) and 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxaldehyde (BPDA) as building blocks. Based on the solid phase extraction with the TAPA-BPDA-COF as the sorbent and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection, a sensitive analytical method was established for the determination of four neonicotinoid insecticides from water and honey samples. Under the optimum conditions, good linear response for the quantification of the analytes was achieved in the range of 0.3-50.0 ng mL-1 for water samples and in the range of 8.0-500.0 ng g-1 for honey samples. The method recoveries fell in the range of 80.0-121.9% with RSDs less than 7.6%. The limits of detection at the signal to noise ratio of 3 were measured to be in the range of 0.08-0.12 ng mL-1 for water samples and 2.6-3.3 ng g-1 for honey samples, depending on compounds.

14.
Food Chem ; 367: 130663, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343810

RESUMO

Effects of high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) stabilized by egg yolk-modified starch complex on the gelling properties of chicken gels with or without sodium chloride (NaCl)/sodium tripolyphosphate (TP) were studied. The addition of 30 % HIPE increased the hardness from 376 g to 590 g. The NaCl addition further improved textural and viscoelastic properties compared with the gels without NaCl. 30 % HIPE-filled gels with salts (NaCl and TP) has the highest hardness (3562 g) and the lowest cooking loss (3.41 %). Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) revealed that salts, especially TP, could promote the transition of α-helices to ß-sheets structure. Moreover, the chicken gels with TP had higher acyl chain disorder. In summary, the co-addition of HIPE and salt (NaCl/TP) has a positive effect on the formation of chicken gel, thereby providing potential applications in comminuted meat products.

15.
Food Chem ; 367: 130568, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343811

RESUMO

Egg is a versatile ingredient and ubiquitous food. Nevertheless, egg proteins are a common cause of allergy mainly in childhood. Until now, egg eviction has been the best way to prevent this disorder, however, processed food can contribute to mitigate allergies and to guarantee life quality of allergic individuals. This review focuses on discussing and highlighting recent advances in processes to reduce egg allergenicity as well as new approaches to egg allergy management. In recent times, different methods have been developed to reduce egg allergies, by hiding the epitopes or changing the native or conformational structure of the proteins. Despite processing food has not yet been a solution to completely remove the allergenic potential of egg proteins, innovative strategies, such as addition of phenolic compounds, have been developed with promising results.

16.
Food Chem ; 367: 130620, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343812

RESUMO

Artichokes are a rich source of (poly)phenols, mainly caffeoylquinic acids, but little is known about their bioavailability from this source. This study investigated the absorption, metabolism and excretion of (poly)phenols after sous-vide artichoke consumption (5776 µmol of (poly)phenols) by healthy volunteers. Seventy-six (poly)phenol metabolites were identified by UHPLC-MS/MS using authentic standards, including acyl-quinic acids plus C6-C3, C6-C1, C6-C2, C6-C1-N, C6-C0 metabolites, and their phase-II conjugates. The major metabolites were 3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxycinnamic acid, 3'-methoxycinnamic acid-4'-sulfate, and 4'-hydroxycinnamic acid-3'-sulfate, which appeared early in plasma (Tmax < 4 h); plus 3-(3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid, 3-(4'-methoxyphenyl)propanoic acid-3'-glucuronide, 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid and hippuric acids, which appeared later (Tmax > 6 h). The 24 h urinary recovery averaged 8.9% (molar basis) of the (poly)phenols consumed. Hepatic beta-oxidation of 3',4'-dihydroxycinnamic acid and methylated conjugates occurred, but was limited (<0.04%). 3'-Methylation exceeded 4'-methylation and interindividual variability was high, especially for gut microbial metabolites (up to 168-fold).

17.
Food Chem ; 367: 130505, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343813

RESUMO

Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) as a plasticizer is widely used in food and chemical industries. It is harm to human health when it appeared in food and water. A novel near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence molecularly imprinted sensor based on CdTe quantum dots and zeolite imidazolate framework-67 was developed with a sol-gel polymerization method for rapid and sensitive determination of DBP in foodstuff rapidly (only in 1.5 min). The fluorescence imprinted sensor provided a rapid detection method for DBP in the linear response concentration range of 0.05-18.0 µM with a low detection limit of 1.6 nM. Compared with previous fluorescence imprinted sensor, it behaved faster response speed and lower detection limit for determination of DBP. The fluorescence imprinted sensor was used to detect DBP in real samples successfully with satisfied recoveries of 97.2-106.4%, suggesting a potential application in food analysis.

18.
Food Chem ; 367: 130668, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343814

RESUMO

A novel polynomial correction method, order-adaptive polynomial correction (OAPC), was proposed to correct reflectance spectra with operator differences, and convolutional neural network (CNN) was used to develop analysis model to predict behenic acid in edible oils. With application of OAPC, CNN performed well with coefficient of determination of correction (R2cor) of 0.8843 and root mean square error of correction (RMSEcor) of 0.1182, outperforming partial least squares regression, support vector regression and random forest with OAPC, as well as the cases without OAPC. Based on 16 effective wavelengths selected by combination of bootstrapping soft shrinkage, random frog and Pearson's correlation, CNN and OAPC exhibited excellent performance with R2cor of 0.9560 and RMSEcor of 0.0730. Meanwhile, only 5% correction samples were selected by Kennard-Stone for OAPC. Overall, the proposed method could alleviate the impact of operator differences on spectral analysis, thereby providing potential to correct differences from measurement instruments or environments.

19.
Food Chem ; 367: 130622, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343815

RESUMO

This study presents functional KCNGO films obtained by incorporating graphite carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and graphene oxide (GO) into the konjac glucomannan (KGM) matrix. The concept of quasi-pasteurization proposed in current work refers to the shorter time needed and lower sterilization temperature used than that of the conventional pasteurization. The films had a compact microstructure formed by the hydrogen bond interactions, as revealed by morphology characterization, FTIR and rheological analysis. It also had excellent hydrophobicity, thermal stability, mechanical properties and water vapor barrier ability. Notably, this film exhibited potent bactericidal activity against foodborne pathogens based on functions of fast heating and instantaneous low temperature bactericidal (4 min, 55 ± 1 °C). The quasi-pasteurization efficacy and mechanism of films were explored. Moreover, this film was safe and can keep the "fresh-like" characteristics of the tangerines for 24 days. Therefore, a quasi-pasteurization strategy is provided in food preservation field.

20.
Food Chem ; 367: 130671, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343816

RESUMO

Due to environmental issues caused by plastic packaging and growing consumer demand for fresh and safe food, there is a growing interest in antibacterial active food packaging films/coatings containing plant essential oils (EO). For the effective use of EO-incorporated active films/coatings, EO must be effectively integrated encapsulated in active films/coatings, and the integrated encapsulated EO must be released from active films/coatings slowly during storage to exhibit antibacterial effects more durable. Recently, several promising strategies have been proposed to improve the sustained release and retention enhancement of EO in active films/coatings, including particle encapsulation, nanoemulsion, Pickering emulsions, multilayer system, and electrospinning technology. This article reviewed the latest technologies of sustained release and retention enhancement strategies for encapsulating EO in active films/coatings. The advantages and disadvantages of these sustained release and retention enhancement strategies and their practical applications in food preservation are also introduced.

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