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2.
Swiss J Palaeontol ; 143(1): 4, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328031

RESUMO

Placodonts were durophagous reptiles of the Triassic seas with robust skulls, jaws, and enlarged, flat, pebble-like teeth. During their evolution, they underwent gradual craniodental changes from the Early Anisian to the Rhaetian, such as a reduction in the number of teeth, an increase in the size of the posterior palatal teeth, an elongation of the premaxilla/rostrum, and a widening of the temporal region. These changes are presumably related to changes in dietary habits, which, we hypothesise, are due to changes in the type and quality of food they consumed. In the present study, the dental wear pattern of a total of nine European Middle to Late Triassic placodont species were investigated using 2D and 3D microwear analyses to demonstrate whether there could have been a dietary shift or grouping among the different species and, whether the possible changes could be correlated with environmental changes affecting their habitats. The 3D analysis shows overlap between species with high variance between values and there is no distinct separation. The 2D analysis has distinguished two main groups. The first is characterised by low number of wear features and high percentage of large pits. The other group have a high feature number, but low percentage of small pits. The 2D analysis showed a correlation between the wear data and the size of the enlarged posterior crushing teeth. Teeth with larger sizes showed less wear feature (with higher pit ratio) but larger individual features. In contrast, the dental wear facet of smaller crushing teeth shows more but smaller wear features (with higher scratch number). This observation may be related to the size of the food consumed, i.e., the wider the crown, the larger food it could crush, producing larger features. Comparison with marine mammals suggests that the dietary preference of Placochelys, Psephoderma and Paraplacodus was not exclusively hard, thick-shelled food. They may have had a more mixed diet, similar to that of modern sea otters. The diet of Henodus may have included plant food, similar to the modern herbivore marine mammals and lizards. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s13358-024-00304-x.

3.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328051

RESUMO

Pendrin and prestin are evolutionary conserved membrane proteins that are essential for normal hearing. Pendrin is an anion transporter required for normal development and maintenance of ion homeostasis in the inner ear, while prestin is a voltage-dependent motor responsible for cochlear amplification essential for high sensitivity and frequency selectivity of mammalian hearing. Dysfunction of these proteins result in hearing loss in humans, and numerous deafness-associated pendrin and prestin variants have been identified in patients. However, the pathogenic impacts of many of these variants are ambiguous. Here we report results from our ongoing efforts in experimentally characterizing pendrin and prestin variants using in vitro functional assays, providing invaluable information regarding their pathogenicity.

4.
Front Vet Sci ; 11: 1325211, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328260

RESUMO

Introduction: Spontaneous pneumothorax in dogs is predominantly caused by the rupture of air-filled lesions, such as bullae or blebs. The efficacy of Computed Tomography (CT) in detecting these lesions has been deemed limited due to its reportedly low sensitivity. This retrospective, cross-sectional study investigates the utility of CT in eight dogs diagnosed with recurrent pneumothorax, all of which had surgical confirmation of the cause of the pneumothorax. Materials and methods: Thoracic radiographs were obtained before and the day following the CT studies. Initially, a CT study was conducted without positive pressure ventilation (pre-PPV CT). Subsequent CT studies were performed post-evacuation of pneumothorax and with positive pressure ventilation of 15 cmH2O until lung atelectasis was resolved (post-PPV CT). The pre-PPV CT and post-PPV CT images were anonymized and reviewed by two board-certified radiologists. The presence and morphology of air-filled lesions were evaluated on all images. Surgical findings were recorded and compared to the CT findings. Results: Air-filled lesions were detected in 5 out of 8 dogs in the pre-PPV CT studies and in all 8 dogs in the post-PPV CT studies. The CT findings of air-filled lesions were consistent with surgical findings. None of the dogs showed increased severity of pneumothorax in radiographs taken the day following the CT studies. Discussions: The study concludes that the resolution of lung atelectasis by evacuation of pneumothorax and positive pressure ventilation during CT studies is feasible and enhances the detection of air-filled lesions in dogs with recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. This could potentially aid in improving surgical planning.

5.
Front Vet Sci ; 11: 1287872, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328261

RESUMO

The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is a vulnerable species in South America and is considered endangered or near extinction in Central America. Therefore, studies describing the reproductive characteristics of this species are pivotal for its conservation. Thus, this study aimed to provide a morphological description of the female reproductive tissues of this species. We collected tissue samples from six female giant anteaters and performed gross, morphological, and histochemical analyses. Five adult subjects and one juvenile were included in the study. In the ovary, classifications were made according to the follicle and oocyte sizes: primordial, primary, secondary, early antral, or antral. Typical follicles with a single oocyte surrounded by a simple or stratified layer of cubic epithelium, atretic follicles, corpora lutea, corpora albicans, and ovarian cysts were also observed. No ovarian lesions were observed. By contrast, endometritis, metritis, mucometra, and endometrial cysts were identified in the uterus. Uterine alterations in these subjects were frequent and could affect reproduction.

6.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 6(1): dlae018, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328262

RESUMO

Background: Referring to the ongoing antimicrobial resistance crisis as a 'silent' pandemic has gained popularity, but there are mixed views on whether such a phrase should be used in public health communication. Some researchers have argued that using the term 'silent pandemic' may lower the perceived threat and hinder mobilization efforts to tackle the problem. Objectives: I investigated the impact of the phrase 'silent pandemic' on perceived threat levels and mobilization intentions. Methods: In three experiments (n = 1677), participants from the UK's general adult population were randomly allocated to either a 'pandemic' or 'silent pandemic' condition, where the different terms were embedded in statements (Experiment 1) or brief information materials (Experiments 2 and 3). The term 'silent pandemic' was also presented with a brief description of its intended meaning (Experiment 3). The participants expressed their perception of the threat and their mobilization intentions. Results: In Experiments 1 and 2, referring to the pandemic as silent did not significantly affect the perceived threat (Cohen's d = -0.06; Cohen's d = 0.08, respectively) or mobilization intentions (Cohen's d = -0.07; Cohen's d = 0.11, respectively). However, in Experiment 3, the term 'silent pandemic' decreased the perceived threat and mobilization intentions (Cohen's d = 0.27; Cohen's d = 0.35, respectively). Conclusions: Describing the pandemic as 'silent' yielded no measurable effects on perceived threat and mobilization intentions but it showed depreciating effects when accompanied by its intended meaning. Taken together, it is advisable to avoid the term.

7.
Front Vet Sci ; 11: 1320452, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328257

RESUMO

Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a neurohormone that not only suppresses reproduction at the brain level but also regulates steroidogenesis and gametogenesis at the gonad level. However, its function in gonadal physiology has received little attention in rabbits. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of GnIH on testicular development and function in prepubertal Minxinan Black rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In the present study, we investigated the serum reproductive hormone concentration, testicular parameters, morphology of seminiferous tubules, apoptosis of testicular cells, and expression of reproductive-related genes in male prepubertal Minxinan Black rabbits intraperitoneally administered with 0, 0.5, 5, or 50 µg quail GnIH-related peptides (qGnIH) for 10 days. Compared with the vehicle, administration with 5 µg of qGnIH downregulated the serum testosterone concentration and mRNA levels of spermatogenic genes (PCNA, FSHR, INHßA, HSF1, and AR) and upregulated the apoptosis rate of testicular cells; administration with 50 µg of qGnIH decreased the serum testosterone concentration and hypothalamic GnIH gene mRNA level and increased the serum LH concentration, pituitary LHß gene mRNA level, testicular weight, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and spermatogenic cell layer thickness. It is concluded that GnIH could exert dual actions on testicular development depending on the male prepubertal rabbits receiving different intraperitoneal doses.

8.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 6(1): dlae014, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328264

RESUMO

Background: Non-allergist delivered PADL is supported by UK and World Health Organization guidelines but is not yet routine in UK hospitals. Understanding the views of healthcare workers (HCWs) on managing patients with penA records and exploring perspectives on delivering a PADL inpatient pathway are required to inform the development of non-allergist delivered PADL pathways. Objective: To explore the perspectives of non-allergist HCWs working in medical specialties on managing patients with penA records, and to explore the enablers and barriers to embedding PADL as a standard of care for inpatients. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with doctors, nurses, pharmacists and medicines optimization pharmacy technicians working in a district general hospital in the UK. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results: The PADL pathway was considered a shared responsibility of the multidisciplinary team, which needed to be structured and supported by a framework. PADL aligns with HCW roles but time to deliver PADL was a barrier. Training for HCWs on the benefits of PADL and delivering PADL for those patients where a penicillin might be beneficial during the current episode of care would both motivate HCWs to deliver PADL. Discussion and conclusion: The PADL pathway was acceptable to HCWs and aligned with their roles and current healthcare processes but their capacity to deliver PADL in a time pressured environment was a significant barrier.

10.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 6(1): dlae015, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328266

RESUMO

Objectives: Post-traumatic osteomyelitis attributed to metallo-ß-lactamase (MBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteria presents a challenging clinical scenario. Cefiderocol emerges as a viable treatment option within the limited therapeutic options available. Patient/case description: In this brief report, we present a case of a Ukrainian patient with osteomyelitis caused by multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which was successfully treated with cefiderocol, facilitated in part by outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT). Results and discussion: Administration of Cefiderocol via OPAT can present a safe and effective option for treatment of post-traumatic osteomyelitis with multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A possible effect on iron homeostasis of extended treatment duration with cefiderocol may be taken into consideration.

11.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 12(2): e5587, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328268

RESUMO

Lipomas are the most prevalent type of benign soft tissue tumors, primarily composed of adipocytes, and typically remain asymptomatic unless they reach a significant size. Although giant lipomas are infrequent, their occurrence on the chest wall, particularly in the interpectoral region, is exceedingly rare. We present a unique case of a 48-year-old man with a massive interpectoral lipoma measuring 19.4 × 12.9 × 9.4 cm, which resulted in venous thoracic outlet syndrome by compressing the subclavian vein. This case highlights the clinical challenges in diagnosing deep-seated chest wall lipomas and underscores the necessity of considering thoracic outlet syndrome as a potential complication, even in the absence of direct neural or arterial compression. The presentation of thoracic outlet syndrome can vary, and a comprehensive evaluation is imperative for accurate diagnosis and management.

13.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 6(1): dlae013, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328263

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on antimicrobial consumption and trends of therapeutic drugs for COVID-19 treatments, including corticosteroids, remdesivir and monoclonal antibodies (tocilizumab) from April 2017 to September 2022 in a secondary care NHS Trust in England. Methods: A retrospective intervention time series analysis was conducted for April 2017 to September 2022 at the Mid Yorkshire Teaching NHS Trust. Data were retrieved from the pharmacy dispensing system as defined daily doses (DDDs) monthly and reported per 1000 occupied bed days (OBDs). Antimicrobial consumption and COVID-19 treatment options were measured. DDDs were calculated according to the classification of antimicrobials for systemic use (J01) and for other drugs classification. Trends for antimicrobial consumption and other therapeutic drugs for treating COVID-19 were also determined in each wave in England. Results: During the pandemic: total antibiotic consumption decreased from 826.4 to 728.2 DDDs per 1000 OBDs (P = 0.0067); piperacillin/tazobactam use increased (P < 0.0001) and ciprofloxacin use decreased (P < 0.0001); there were no changes in Access, Watch, Reserve antibiotic use, and the proportion of antifungal consumption was consistent throughout the study. The use of total antibiotics (P = 0.024), levofloxacin (P = 0.0007), piperacillin/tazobactam (P = 0.0015) and co-amoxiclav (P = 0.0198) increased during wave one. Consumption of COVID-19 treatment drugs was highest during wave two, with 624.3 DDDs per 1000 OBDs for dexamethasone (P = 0.4441), 6.8 DDDs per 1000 OBDs for remdesivir (P < 0.0001) and 35.01 DDDs per 1000 OBDs for tocilizumab (P = 0.2544). Discussion: This study determined the consumption of antimicrobials trends before and during the pandemic. The individual wave antimicrobial consumption indicates maximum consumption in the first wave, advocating for antimicrobial stewardship and preparedness for future pandemics.

14.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 6(1): dlae011, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328265

RESUMO

Background: Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is accelerating antimicrobial resistance (AMR) (Antibiotic resistant infections and associated deaths increase  https://www.gov.uk/government/news/antibiotic-resistant-infections-and-associated-deaths-increase). Pharmacy professionals (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) promote good antibiotic prescribing practice. The traditional role of pharmacy technicians in supporting pharmacists and patients has expanded alongside the clinical expansion of pharmacist roles. (Boughen M, Fenn T. Practice, skill mix and education: the evolving role of pharmacy technicians in Great Britain. Pharmacy (Basel) 2020; 8(2): 50. doi:10.3390/pharmacy8020050) This paper focuses on the opinion of pharmacy technicians and their role in the review of acne management and the evaluation of the UKHSA TARGET acne 'How to…' review resources. Aims and objectives: To explore the impact of the TARGET resources on the capability, opportunity and motivation of pharmacy technicians in general practice in managing patients with acne.To evaluate the usefulness of the acne 'How to…' review resources. Materials and methods: A primarily quantitative study using an electronic survey asking UK-based pharmacy technicians to rate their agreement on a five-point Likert scale with 21 predefined statements, themed on the COM-B model and usefulness of the TARGET resources for acne. Discussion: The survey found that capability and opportunity in managing acne in the group familiar with TARGET resources was higher than the group not familiar with TARGET resources. Scores for motivation in both groups were high; pharmacy technicians have the motivation to undertake infection management roles, whether or not they are familiar with the TARGET toolkit.The acne 'How to…' review resources were overall rated as useful in supporting the review of patients with acne. Conclusion: The TARGET materials are effective resources that helps to upskill pharmacy technicians in the area of AMS, increasing capability and opportunity in the management of acne.

15.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 12(2): e5602, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328272

RESUMO

Background: Superficial infection is a common minor complication of transcutaneous implants that can be challenging to predict or diagnose. Although it remains unclear whether superficial infections progress to deep infections (which may require implant removal), predicting and treating any infection in these patients is important. Given that flap thinning during stage II surgery requires compromising vascularity for stability of the skin penetration aperture, we hypothesized that early skin temperature changes predict long-term superficial infection risk. Methods: We obtained standardized thermal imaging and recorded surface temperatures of the aperture and overlying flaps 2 weeks postoperatively for the first 34 patients (46 limbs) treated with the Osseointegrated Prosthesis for the Rehabilitation of Amputees transfemoral implant system. We used two-sided t tests to compare temperatures surrounding the aperture and adjacent soft tissues in patients with and without subsequent infection. Results: During median follow-up of 3 years, 14 limbs (30.4%) developed 23 superficial infections. At patients' initial 2-week visit, mean skin temperature surrounding the aperture was 36.3ºC in limbs that later developed superficial infections and 36.7ºC in uninfected limbs (P = 0.35). In four patients with bilateral implants who later developed superficial infection in one limb, average temperature was 1.5ºC colder in the infected limb (P = 0.12). Conclusions: Superficial infections remain a frequent complication of transfemoral osseointegration surgery. We did not find differences in early heat signatures between limbs subsequently complicated and those not complicated by superficial infection. Further research should explore more objective measures to predict, diagnose, and prevent infections after osseointegration surgery.

16.
Vaccine X ; 17: 100452, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328274

RESUMO

Influenza virus has presented a considerable healthcare challenge during the past years, particularly in vulnerable groups with compromised immune systems. Therapeutics and vaccination have always been in research annals since the spread of influenza. Efforts have been going on to develop an antiviral therapeutic approach that could assist in better disease management and reduce the overall disease complexity, resistance development, and fatality rates. On the other hand, vaccination presents a chance for effective, long-term, cost-benefit, and preventive response against the morbidity and mortality associated with the influenza. However, the issues of resistance development, strain mutation, antigenic variability, and inability to cure wide-spectrum and large-scale strains of the virus by available vaccines remain there. The article gathers the updated data for the therapeutics and available influenza vaccines, their mechanism of action, shortcomings, and trials under clinical experimentation. A methodological approach has been adopted to identify the prospective therapeutics and available vaccines approved and within the clinical trials against the influenza virus. Review contains influenza therapeutics, including traditional and novel antiviral drugs and inhibitor therapies against influenza virus as well as research trials based on newer drug combinations and latest technologies such as nanotechnology and organic and plant-based natural products. Most recent development of influenza vaccine has been discussed including some updates on traditional vaccination protocols and discussion on next-generation and upgraded novel technologies. This review will help the readers to understand the righteous approach for dealing with influenza virus infection and for deducing futuristic approaches for novel therapeutic and vaccine trials against Influenza.

17.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 12(2): e5593, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328270

RESUMO

Background: Lebanon's ongoing economic crisis since 2019 has seen an unprecedented migration of professional healthcare workers. This article analyzes the adequacy of registered plastic surgeons in Lebanon in 2023. Methods: A list of registered plastic surgeons was obtained from the Lebanese Order of Physicians. Registered plastic surgeons were contacted via email or phone and were asked to fill in a survey questionnaire addressing their work status. Additionally, the number of plastic surgeon graduates, between 2018 and 2022, was obtained from Lebanese medical schools. Results: Of the 162 plastic surgeons registered with the Lebanese Order of Physicians in 2023, 158 responded to the survey (97.5%). The work settings of the active plastic surgeons fell into three categories: working in Lebanon full time, splitting work between Lebanon and abroad, and exclusively working abroad. The ratio of plastic surgeons practicing full time in Lebanon is 1.11 per 100,000 inhabitants, which is significantly below the recommended ratio of 2.01. Twenty eight percent of the plastic surgeons working in Lebanon are aged between 65 and 75 years. Meanwhile, an average of only three graduates (2018-2022) enter the workforce annually after completing training in plastic and reconstructive surgery residency. Among the various subspecialties within plastic and reconstructive surgery, aesthetic surgery was the most commonly practiced by those surveyed. Conclusions: There is a relative shortage of plastic surgeons in Lebanon that is compounded by a significant focus on aesthetic procedures. Implementation of strategies is needed to bridge this gap and meet the needs of the underserved people of Lebanon.

18.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 12(2): e5586, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328271

RESUMO

Background: It is desirable to achieve breast symmetry after unilateral surgery for breast tumors. Thus, contralateral balancing is often required, but it is still debated whether symmetrization surgery should be performed alongside reconstruction or as a delayed procedure. Therefore, we aimed to compare revision rates, complication rates, and satisfaction levels between those who underwent immediate versus delayed symmetrization. Methods: A systematic review was designed to summarize the revision surgery rates, complication rates, and satisfaction levels of patients who underwent contralateral breast symmetrization at the same time as breast reconstruction. We included articles published between 2010 and 2022 in databases such as PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase. Results: Most studies showed no difference or lower revision rates for immediate symmetrization, except for one study where immediate symmetrization had a revision rate twice that of delayed symmetrization. There were no significant differences in complication rates between the two groups. Regarding satisfaction levels, most studies showed that the immediate group had higher scores regardless of statistical significance; however, breast-related satisfaction was significantly higher in the immediate group than in the delayed group. Conclusion: This systematic review demonstrates that immediate symmetrization surgery does not increase revision surgery and complication rates or decrease satisfaction levels.

19.
Internet Interv ; 35: 100717, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328276

RESUMO

Background: Temstem is a smartphone app developed with and for clinical voice hearing individuals with the aim to reduce their voice hearing distress and improve social functioning. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with adult outpatients suffering from distressing and frequent auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) was conducted. Participants were randomized to unguided 'Temstem+AVH monitoring' or unguided 'AVH monitoring only' (control condition). Assessments were performed at baseline, post-intervention (week 5-6), and follow-up (week 9-10). Primary outcomes were voice hearing distress and social functioning, as measured with Experience Sampling Method (ESM), consisting of multiple daily questionnaires during six days. In addition, voices and mood were self-monitored with help of a daily reflective questionnaire. Analyses were linear regression models (intention-to-treat). Results: 44 Participants were allocated to Temstem and 45 to the control condition. No significant differences between the groups were found on both primary outcomes. Conclusion: Our results do not support the effectiveness of stand-alone use of Temstem versus symptom monitoring on voice hearing distress or social functioning in voice hearing individuals. In order to potentially improve effectiveness of an mHealth tool in a population of people with frequent and distressing voices, we recommend to involve persons with lived experience in all stages of development and research; to thoroughly test the (technological) usability before performing an RCT; to test whether guidance of a therapist is needed to optimize effectiveness; and to provide prompts to remind the user to actually use the tool.

20.
Internet Interv ; 35: 100720, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328277

RESUMO

Background: Loneliness is a widespread phenomenon associated with a number of negative health outcomes. Older individuals may constitute one important target group with a need for effective interventions. However, despite evidence showing that addressing maladaptive social cognition (e.g., via cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT]) is the most effective intervention strategy for reducing loneliness, most existing programs aimed at older individuals do not use that method. Further, in terms of mental health service use, older individuals have been found to be an extremely undertreated population. When developing interventions, active involvement of end users in the development process is essential to increase later uptake. Objective: The aim of the present study was to develop an internet-based CBT intervention for loneliness in older individuals (i.e., aged ≥65 years) applying a user-centered design. The present report provides an in-depth description of the development process. Methods: Two phases of qualitative data collection were conducted in parallel with intervention development using a sample of N = 12 participants including both potential end users (i.e., older adults) as well as experts (i.e., psychotherapists). Measures included semi-structured interviews and usability testing. Results: In Phase 1 interviews, participants indicated that they were predominantly positive about the idea of an internet-based program for loneliness targeting older individuals. Individualization and interactivity were named as crucial features. In Phase 2, usability testing of a prototype program provided important insights into technical barriers to intervention use. Further, participants reported that they were missing content on philosophy/theology and the role of descendants/relatives. Valuable insights from Phase 1 and Phase 2 were incorporated into the intervention program resulting in a 7-module internet-based self-help CBT intervention. Discussion: Findings of this study highlight the significance of including relevant stakeholders in the development process of an intervention. Additionally, results emphasize the high acceptance of internet-based interventions in this population, but also underline the need for considering age-specific aspects when developing treatments.

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