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1.
Bioact Mater ; 19: 103-114, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441115

RESUMO

Calcium phosphates (CaP) represent an important class of osteoconductive and osteoinductive biomaterials. As proof-of-concept, we show how a multi-component CaP formulation (monetite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium pyrophosphate) guides osteogenesis beyond the physiological envelope. In a sheep model, hollow dome-shaped constructs were placed directly over the occipital bone. At 12 months, large amounts of bone (∼75%) occupy the hollow space with strong evidence of ongoing remodelling. Features of both compact bone (osteonal/osteon-like arrangements) and spongy bone (trabeculae separated by marrow cavities) reveal insights into function/need-driven microstructural adaptation. Pores within the CaP also contain both woven bone and vascularised lamellar bone. Osteoclasts actively contribute to CaP degradation/removal. Of the constituent phases, only calcium pyrophosphate persists within osseous (cutting cones) and non-osseous (macrophages) sites. From a translational perspective, this multi-component CaP opens up exciting new avenues for osteotomy-free and minimally-invasive repair of large bone defects and augmentation of the dental alveolar ridge.

2.
Bioact Mater ; 19: 88-102, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441114

RESUMO

Autologous mosaicplasty is a common approach used to treat osteochondral defects in clinical practice. Gap integration between host and transplanted plugs requires bone tissue reservation and hyaline cartilage regeneration without uneven surface, graft necrosis and sclerosis. However, poor gap integration is a serious concern, which eventually leads to deterioration of joint function. To deal with such complications, this study has developed a strategy to effectively enhance integration of the gap region following mosaicplasty by applying injectable bioactive supramolecular nanofiber-enabled gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogel (BSN-GelMA). A rabbit osteochondral defect model demonstrated that BSN-GelMA achieved seamless osteochondral healing in the gap region between plugs of osteochondral defects following mosaicplasty, as early as six weeks. Moreover, the International Cartilage Repair Society score, histology score, glycosaminoglycan content, subchondral bone volume, and collagen II expression were observed to be the highest in the gap region of BSN-GelMA treated group. This improved outcome was due to bio-interactive materials, which acted as tissue fillers to bridge the gap, prevent cartilage degeneration, and promote graft survival and migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by releasing bioactive supramolecular nanofibers from the GelMA hydrogel. This study provides a powerful and applicable approach to improve gap integration after autologous mosaicplasty. It is also a promising off-the-shelf bioactive material for cell-free in situ tissue regeneration.

4.
Eur J Paediatr Dent ; 23(2): 128-130, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722851

RESUMO

AIM: Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a common clinical condition in which the throat narrows or collapses repeatedly during sleep, causing obstructive sleep apnoea events. This disorder is present in the paediatric population with a prevalence estimated between 1.2% and 5.8%. Down Syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal alteration associated with mental disability and characterised by other clinical manifestations, and its incidence is estimated at 1/800 births worldwide. Most of the craniofacial features typical of DS represent a risk factor for the development of OSAS. Routine screening has been recommended in some countries but it is still not a standard practice. The aim of this study is the Italian linguistic validation of a questionnaire for the diagnosis of OSAS in children with Down Syndrome. METHODS: After careful review of the existing scientific literature, a specific questionnaire was selected for the diagnosis of OSAS in children with DS. The questionnaire was then translated into Italian and administered to 111 parents of children with Down syndrome, for online completion. The last part of the questionnaire was dedicated to the comprehension of the questionnaire itself, with a specific focus on its clarity, accuracy and difficulty in completing it. CONCLUSION: The positive feedback registered in the comprehension part of the questionnaire, certified the good quality of the Italian translation and confirmed the questionnaire as a useful screening method to identify the comorbidity of OSAS and DS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Criança , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Down/epidemiologia , Humanos , Linguística , Faringe , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Bioact Mater ; 19: 75-87, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441117

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is one of the most disabling consequences of aging, osteoporotic fractures and higher risk of the subsequent fractures leading to substantial disability and deaths, indicating both local fractures healing and the early anti-osteoporosis therapy are of great significance. Teriparatide is strong bone formation promoter effective in treating osteoporosis, while side effects limit clinical applications. Traditional drug delivery is lack of sensitive and short-term release, finding a new non-invasive and easily controllable drug delivery to not only repair the local fractures but also improve total bone mass has remained a great challenge. Thus, bioinspired by the natural bone components, we develop appropriate interactions between inorganic biological scaffolds and organic drug molecules, achieving both loaded with the teriparatide in the scaffold and capable of releasing on demand. Herein, biomimetic bone microstructure of mesoporous bioglass, a near-infrared ray triggered switch, thermosensitive liposomes based on a valve, and polydopamine coated as a heater is developed rationally for osteoporotic bone regeneration. Teriparatide is pulsatile released from intelligent delivery, not only rejuvenating osteoporotic bone defect, but also presenting strong systemic anti-osteoporosis therapy. This biomimetic bone carrying novel drug delivery platform is well worth expecting to be a new promising strategy and clinically commercialized to help patients survive from the osteoporotic fracture.

6.
Bioact Mater ; 19: 50-74, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441116

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) stem cell culture systems have attracted considerable attention as a way to better mimic the complex interactions between individual cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) that occur in vivo. Moreover, 3D cell culture systems have unique properties that help guide specific functions, growth, and processes of stem cells (e.g., embryogenesis, morphogenesis, and organogenesis). Thus, 3D stem cell culture systems that mimic in vivo environments enable basic research about various tissues and organs. In this review, we focus on the advanced therapeutic applications of stem cell-based 3D culture systems generated using different engineering techniques. Specifically, we summarize the historical advancements of 3D cell culture systems and discuss the therapeutic applications of stem cell-based spheroids and organoids, including engineering techniques for tissue repair and regeneration.

9.
J Cell Sci ; 136(5)2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35403186

RESUMO

Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles whose assembly and function rely on the conserved bidirectional intraflagellar transport (IFT) system, which is powered by anterograde kinesin-2 and retrograde cytoplasmic dynein-2 motors. Nematodes additionally employ a cell-type-specific kinesin-3 motor, KLP-6, which moves within cilia independently of IFT and regulates ciliary content and function. Here, we provide evidence that a KLP-6 homolog, KIF13B, undergoes bursts of bidirectional movement within primary cilia of cultured immortalized human retinal pigment epithelial (hTERT-RPE1) cells. Anterograde and retrograde intraciliary velocities of KIF13B were similar to those of IFT (as assayed using IFT172-eGFP), but intraciliary movement of KIF13B required its own motor domain and appeared to be cell-type specific. Our work provides the first demonstration of motor-driven, intraciliary movement by a vertebrate kinesin other than kinesin-2 motors.


Assuntos
Cílios , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Cílios/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Flagelos/metabolismo , Humanos , Microtúbulos
10.
J Cell Sci ; 136(5)2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502670

RESUMO

The precise regulation of microtubule length during mitosis is essential to assemble and position the mitotic spindle and segregate chromosomes. The kinesin-13 Kif2C or MCAK acts as a potent microtubule depolymerase that diffuses short distances on microtubules, whereas the kinesin-8 Kif18b is a processive motor with weak depolymerase activity. However, the individual activities of these factors cannot explain the dramatic increase in microtubule dynamics in mitosis. Using in vitro reconstitution and single-molecule imaging, we demonstrate that Kif18b, MCAK and the plus-end tracking protein EB3 (also known as MAPRE3) act in an integrated manner to potently promote microtubule depolymerization at very low concentrations. We find that Kif18b can transport EB3 and MCAK and promotes their accumulation to microtubule plus ends through multivalent weak interactions. Together, our work defines the mechanistic basis for a cooperative Kif18b-MCAK-EB network at microtubule plus ends, that acts to efficiently shorten and regulate microtubules in mitosis, essential for correct chromosome segregation.


Assuntos
Microtúbulos , Segregação de Cromossomos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mitose , Fuso Acromático/metabolismo
12.
Expert Syst Appl ; 211: 118545, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35996556

RESUMO

The outbreak of COVID-19 has exposed the privacy of positive patients to the public, which will lead to violations of users' rights and even threaten their lives. A privacy-preserving scheme involving virus-infected positive patients is proposed by us. The traditional ciphertext policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) has the features of enhanced plaintext security and fine-grained access control. However, the encryption process requires the high computational performance of the device, which puts a high strain on resource-limited devices. After semi-honest users successfully decrypt the data, they will get the real private data, which will cause serious privacy leakage problems. Traditional cloud-based data management architectures are extremely vulnerable in the face of various cyberattacks. To address the above challenges, a verifiable ABE scheme based on blockchain and local differential privacy is proposed, using LDP to perturb the original data locally to a certain extent to resist collusion attacks, outsourcing encryption and decryption to corresponding service providers to reduce the pressure on mobile terminals, and deploying smart contracts in combination with blockchain for fair execution by all parties to solve the problem of returning wrong search results in a semi-honest cloud server. Detailed security proofs are performed through the defined security goals, which shows that the proposed scheme is indeed privacy-protective. The experimental results show that the scheme is optimized in terms of data accuracy, computational overhead, storage performance, and fairness. In terms of efficiency, it greatly reduces the local load, enhances personal privacy protection, and has high practicality as well as reliability. As far as we know, it is the first case of applying the combination of LDP technology and blockchain to a tracing system, which not only mitigates poisoning attacks on user data, but also improves the accuracy of the data, thus making it easier to identify infected contacts and making a useful contribution to health prevention and control efforts.

13.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(3): 469-473, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018148

RESUMO

Mechanisms regulating neurogenesis involve broad and complex processes that represent intriguing therapeutic targets in the field of regenerative medicine. One influential factor guiding neural stem cell proliferation and cellular differentiation during neurogenesis are epigenetic mechanisms. We present an overview of epigenetic mechanisms including chromatin structure and histone modifications; and discuss novel roles of two histone modifiers, Ezh2 and Suv4-20h1/Suv4-20h2 (collectively referred to as Suv4-20h), in neurodevelopment and neurogenesis. This review will focus on broadly reviewing epigenetic regulatory components, the roles of epigenetic components during neurogenesis, and potential applications in regenerative medicine.

14.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(3): 474-477, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018149

RESUMO

Sleep is a critical part of our daily routine. It impacts every organ and system of our body, from the brain to the heart and from cellular metabolism to immune function. A consistent daily schedule of quality of sleep makes a world of difference to our health and well-being. Despite its importance, so many individuals have trouble sleeping well. Poor quality sleep has such a detrimental impact on many aspects of our lives; it affects our thinking, learning, memory, and movements. Further, and most poignantly, poor quality sleep over time increases the risk of developing a serious medical condition, including neurodegenerative disease. In this review, we focus on a potentially new non-pharmacological treatment that improves the quality of sleep. This treatment, called photobiomodulation, involves the application of very specific wavelengths of light to body tissues. In animal models, these wavelengths, when applied at night, have been reported to stimulate the removal of fluid and toxic waste-products from the brain; that is, they improve the brain's inbuilt house-keeping function. We suggest that transcranial nocturnal photobiomodulation, by improving brain function at night, will help improve the health and well-being of many individuals, by enhancing the quality of their sleep.

15.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(3): 478-484, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018150

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by motor impairments caused by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Levodopa is an effective and well-tolerated dopamine replacement agent. However, levodopa provides only symptomatic improvements, without affecting the underlying pathology, and is associated with side effects after long-term use. Cell-based replacement is a promising strategy that offers the possibility to replace lost neurons in Parkinson's disease treatment. Clinical studies of transplantation of human fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue have provided evidence that the grafted dopaminergic neurons can reinnervate the striatum, release dopamine, integrate into the host neural circuits, and improve motor functions. One of the limiting factors for cell therapy in Parkinson's disease is the low survival rate of grafted dopaminergic cells. Different factors could cause cell death of dopaminergic neurons after grafting such as mechanical trauma, growth factor deprivation, hypoxia, and neuroinflammation. Neurotrophic factors play an essential role in the survival of grafted cells. However, direct, timely, and controllable delivery of neurotrophic factors into the brain faces important limitations. Different types of cells secrete neurotrophic factors constitutively and co-transplantation of these cells with dopaminergic neurons represents a feasible strategy to increase neuronal survival. In this review, we provide a general overview of the pioneering studies on cell transplantation developed in patients and animal models of Parkinson's disease, with a focus on neurotrophic factor-secreting cells, with a particular interest in mesenchymal stromal cells; that co-implanted with dopaminergic neurons would serve as a strategy to increase cell survival and improve graft outcomes.

16.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(3): 485-491, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018151

RESUMO

Recent studies have proposed three lymphatic drainage systems in the brain, that is, the glymphatic system, the intramural periarterial drainage pathway, and meningeal lymphatic vessels, whose roles in various neurological diseases have been widely explored. The glymphatic system is a fluid drainage and waste clearance pathway that utilizes perivascular space and aquaporin-4 protein located in the astrocyte endfeet to provide a space for exchange of cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid. The intramural periarterial drainage pathway drives the flow of interstitial fluid through the capillary basement membrane and the arterial tunica media. Meningeal lymphatic vessels within the dura mater are involved in the removal of cerebral macromolecules and immune responses. After ischemic stroke, impairment of these systems could lead to cerebral edema, accumulation of toxic factors, and activation of neuroinflammation, while restoration of their normal functions can improve neurological outcomes. In this review, we summarize the basic concepts of these drainage systems, including drainage routes, physiological functions, regulatory mechanisms, and detection technologies. We also focus on the roles of lymphatic drainage systems in brain injury after ischemic stroke, as well as recent advances in therapeutic strategies targeting these drainage systems. These findings provide information for potential novel strategies for treatment of stroke.

17.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(3): 492-496, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018152

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among young adults in many countries including the United States. Difficulty in the regeneration of neurons is one of the main obstacles that leave spinal cord injury patients with permanent paralysis in most instances. Recent research has found that preventing acute and subacute secondary cellular damages to the neurons and supporting glial cells can help slow the progression of spinal cord injury pathogenesis, in part by reactivating endogenous regenerative proteins including Noggin that are normally present during spinal cord development. Noggin is a complex protein and natural inhibitor of the multifunctional bone morphogenetic proteins, and its expression is high during spinal cord development and after induction of spinal cord injury. In this review article, we first discuss the change in expression of Noggin during pathogenesis in spinal cord injury. Second, we discuss the current research knowledge about the neuroprotective role of Noggin in preclinical models of spinal cord injury. Lastly, we explain the gap in the knowledge for the use of Noggin in the treatment of spinal cord injury. The results from extensive in vitro and in vivo research have revealed that the therapeutic efficacy of Noggin treatment remains debatable due to its neuroprotective effects observed only in early phases of spinal cord injury but little to no effect on altering pathogenesis and functional recovery observed in the chronic phase of spinal cord injury. Furthermore, clinical information regarding the role of Noggin in the alleviation of progression of pathogenesis, its therapeutic efficacy, bioavailability, and safety in human spinal cord injury is still lacking and therefore needs further investigation.

18.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(3): 497-502, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018153

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence indicates that ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase is critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis and that it has both nuclear and cytoplasmic functions. However, the functions of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated that when lost lead to cerebellar degeneration are still unknown. In this review, we first describe the role of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated in cerebellar pathology. In addition to its canonical nuclear functions in DNA damage response circuits, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated functions in various cytoplasmic and mitochondrial processes that are critically important for cellular homeostasis. We discuss these functions with a focus on the role of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated in maintaining the homeostatic redox state. Finally, we describe the unique functions of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated in various types of neuronal and glial cells including cerebellar granule neurons, astrocytes, and microglial cells.

19.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(3): 503-505, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018154

RESUMO

Neurodegeneration affects a large number of cell types including neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes, and neural stem cells. Neural stem cells can generate new neuronal populations through proliferation, migration, and differentiation. This neurogenic potential may be a relevant factor to fight neurodegeneration and aging. In the last years, we can find growing evidence suggesting that melatonin may be a potential modulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. The lack of therapeutic strategies targeting neurogenesis led researchers to explore new molecules. Numerous preclinical studies with melatonin observed how melatonin can modulate and enhance molecular and signaling pathways involved in neurogenesis. We made a special focus on the connection between these modulation mechanisms and their implication in neurodegeneration, to summarize the current knowledge and highlight the therapeutic potential of melatonin.

20.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(3): 506-512, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018155

RESUMO

Ferroptosis, a new non-necrotizing programmed cell death (PCD), is driven by iron-dependent phospholipid peroxidation. Ferroptosis plays a key role in secondary traumatic brain injury and secondary spinal cord injury and is closely related to inflammation, immunity, and chronic injuries. The inhibitors against ferroptosis effectively improve iron homeostasis, lipid metabolism, redox stabilization, neuronal remodeling, and functional recovery after trauma. In this review, we elaborate on the latest molecular mechanisms of ferroptosis, emphasize its role in secondary central nervous trauma, and update the medicines used to suppress ferroptosis following injuries.

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