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1.
Food Ethics ; 7(1): 2, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746371

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to take normative aspects of animal welfare in corporate practice from a blind spot into the spotlight, and thus connect the fields of business ethics and animal ethics. Using insights from business ethics and animal ethics, it argues that companies have a strong responsibility towards animals. Its rationale is that animals have a moral status, that moral actors have the moral obligation to take the interests of animals into account and thus, that as moral actors, companies should take the interests of animals into account, more specifically their current and future welfare. Based on this corporate responsibility, categories of corporate impact on animals in terms of welfare and longevity are offered, including normative implications for each of them. The article concludes with managerial implications for several business sectors, including the most animal-consuming and animal-welfare-threatening industry: the food sector. Welfare issues are discussed, including the issue of killing for food production.

2.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210178, 2022. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1339878

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo conhecer as percepções e perspectivas dos profissionais da saúde para o desenvolvimento da Prevenção Quaternária na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Método Pesquisa Apreciativa, que aplicou as fases do "ciclo 4-D", na língua inglesa: discovery, dream, design e destiny. Este artigo analisa os resultados referentes à fase discovery (descoberta), de cujos dois encontros correspondentes participaram nove profissionais da Atenção Primária. Realizou-se análise de conteúdo, seguindo as etapas de pré-análise, exploração do material e tratamento dos dados. Resultados a Prevenção Quaternária representa uma potencialidade na inovação da atenção, com possibilidade de reduzir a medicalização social, que ocorre mediante a sobremedicalização, sobrediagnósticos e sobretratamentos. Como perspectivas, é apresentada a necessidade de conscientização da sociedade e dos profissionais sobre esses excessos e de (re) posicionamento da indústria, do mercado e da mídia sobre o significado de "estar saudável". Conclusão e implicações para prática é necessário atentar para a ética na prestação de cuidados quanto ao rastreio, diagnóstico e tratamento de doenças. A Prevenção Quaternária tem potencial para reverter um modelo hegemônico em relação ao cuidado de indivíduos e famílias ao fomentar a integralidade. A Enfermagem, como prestadora do cuidado, junto com a equipe multiprofissional, deve incorporar ações de Prevenção Quaternária em suas práticas.


Resumen Objetivo conocer las percepciones y perspectivas de los profesionales de la salud para el desarrollo de la Prevención Cuaternaria en Atención Primaria de Salud. Método Investigación Apreciativa, que aplicó las fases del "ciclo 4-D", en inglés: discovery, dream, design y destiny Este artículo analiza los resultados de la fase discovery (descubrimiento), en cuyos dos encuentros correspondientes participaron nueve profesionales de Atención Primaria. Se realizó análisis de contenido, siguiendo los pasos de pre-análisis, exploración de material y procesamiento de datos. Resultados la Prevención Cuaternaria representa un potencial en la innovación asistencial, con posibilidad de reducir la medicalización social, que se produce por sobremedicalización, sobrediagnóstico y sobretratamiento. Como perspectivas, se presenta la necesidad de concienciar a la sociedad y los profesionales sobre estos excesos y de (re) posicionar a la industria, el mercado y los medios de comunicación sobre el significado de "estar sano". Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica es necesario prestar atención a la ética en la prestación de cuidados en cuanto al cribado, diagnóstico y tratamiento de enfermedades. La Prevención Cuaternaria tiene el potencial de revertir un modelo hegemónico en relación al cuidado de las personas y familias al promover la integralidad. La Enfermería, como proveedora de cuidados, junto con el equipo multidisciplinario, deben incorporar las acciones de Prevención Cuaternaria en sus prácticas.


Abstract Objective to know the perceptions and perspectives of health professionals for the development of Quaternary Prevention in Primary Health Care. Method an Appreciative Research, which applied the phases of the "4-D cycle": discovery, dream, design and destiny. This article analyzes the results referring to the discovery phase (discovery), in which nine professionals from Primary Care participated in two corresponding meetings. Content analysis was performed, following the steps of pre-analysis, material exploration and data treatment. Results the Quaternary Prevention represents a potentiality in care innovation, with the possibility of reducing social medicalization, which occurs through over-medicalization, over-diagnosis and overtreatment. As perspectives, it is presented the need for society and professionals to be aware of these excesses and the (re) positioning of the industry, market and media about the meaning of "being healthy". Conclusion and implications for the practice it is necessary to pay attention to ethics in care provision regarding screening, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Quaternary Prevention has potential to revert a hegemonic model in relation to the care of individuals and families by promoting integrality. Nursing, as a care provider, together with the multi-professional team, must incorporate Quaternary Prevention actions in its practices.


Assuntos
Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Medicalização , Prevenção Quaternária , Terapias Complementares , Marketing de Serviços de Saúde , Educação em Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Educação Continuada , Gestor de Saúde , Sobremedicalização , Anamnese
3.
J Bus Ethics ; : 1-22, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866718

RESUMO

A wealth of research documents the critical role of trust for social exchange and cooperative behavior. The ability to inspire trust in others can often be elusive, and distrust can have adverse interpersonal and ethical consequences. Drawing from the literature on social hierarchy and interpersonal judgments, the current research explores the predictive role of a structural paradox between high power and low status in identifying the actors most likely to be distrusted and monitored for ethical misconduct. Across four studies and an internal meta-analysis, we found that the structural paradox was associated with distrust-related judgments and behaviors. In Study 1, high power-low status actors were judged as less trustworthy. In Studies 2 and 3, high power-low status actors were sent less money in a trust game, an effect fully mediated by feelings of dislike. Study 4 revealed that high power-low status actors were more likely to be monitored for cheating, an effect partially mediated by trust judgments. These findings contribute to business ethics research by identifying the structural paradox of high power-low status as a salient contextual influence impacting observers' distrust and monitoring dynamics. Implications for reducing observers' level of distrust of high power-low status actors are discussed.

4.
Philos Manag ; : 1-15, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840580

RESUMO

In this article I maintain that when employers could free workers from the space constraint of the office without incurring unbearable economic losses, it is morally wrong not to grant workers the possibility to work remotely, as this violates the humanity formulation of Kant's categorical imperative. The article therefore aims to contribute to the development of Kantian business ethics, taking into account a series of empirical evidence gathered in the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic. I firstly discuss the Kantian concept of meaningful work and explain why, due to a prejudice that existed with respect to remote work before the Covid-19 pandemic, the issue of freedom from the office was not given normative relevance. I then introduce a Kantian argument in defence of remote work and proceed to discuss two objections. The first objection is that remote work may well foster productivity, but it creates problems in terms of innovation and training of new staff. The second objection is that remote work hinders rather than fosters meaningful work because it deprives employees of social relations and inhibits workplace identity. I conclude by explaining why neither objection undermines the normative argument that workers should be allowed to work remotely as long as the "bearable costs" clause is met.

5.
Trials ; 22(1): 818, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Positive Choices is a whole-school social marketing intervention to promote sexual health among secondary school students. Intervention comprises school health promotion council involving staff and students coordinating delivery; student survey to inform local tailoring; teacher-delivered classroom curriculum; student-run campaigns; parent information; and review of sexual/reproductive health services to inform improvements. This trial builds on an optimisation/pilot RCT study which met progression criteria, plus findings from another pilot RCT of the Project Respect school-based intervention to prevent dating and relationship violence which concluded such work should be integrated within Positive Choices. Young people carry a disproportionate burden of adverse sexual health; most do not report competence at first sex. Relationships and sex education in schools can contribute to promoting sexual health but effects are small, inconsistent and not sustained. Such work needs to be supplemented by 'whole-school' (e.g. student campaigns, sexual health services) and 'social marketing' (harnessing commercial marketing to social ends) approaches for which there is good review-level evidence but not from the UK. METHODS: We will conduct a cluster RCT across 50 schools (minimum 6440, maximum 8500 students) allocated 1:1 to intervention/control assessing outcomes at 33 months. Our primary outcome is non-competent first sex. Secondary outcomes are non-competent last sex, age at sexual debut, non-use of contraception at first and last sex among those reporting heterosexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, dating and relationship violence, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy and unintended pregnancy for girls and initiation of pregnancy for boys. We will recruit 50 school and undertake baseline surveys by March 2022; implement the intervention over the 2022-2024 school years and conduct the economic and process evaluations by July 2024; undertake follow-up surveys by December 2024; complete analyses, all patient and policy involvement and draft the study report by March 2025; and engage in knowledge exchange from December 2024. DISCUSSION: This trial is one of a growing number focused on whole-school approaches to public health in schools. The key scientific output will be evidence about the effectiveness, costs and potential scalability and transferability of Positive Choices. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN No: ISRCTN16723909 . Trial registration summary: Date:. Funded by: National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research Programme (NIHR131487). SPONSOR: LSHTM. Public/scientific contact: Chris Bonell. Public title: Positive Choices trial. Scientific title: Phase-III RCT of Positive Choices: a whole-school social marketing intervention to promote sexual health and reduce health inequalities. Countries of recruitment: UK. INTERVENTION: Positive Choices. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Students in year 8 (age 12-13 years) at baseline deemed competent by schools to participate in secondary schools excluding pupil referral units, schools for those with special educational needs and disabilities, and schools with 'inadequate' Ofsted inspections. STUDY TYPE: interventional study with superiority phase III cluster RCT design. Enrollment: 1/9/21-31/3/22. SAMPLE SIZE: 50 schools and 6440-8500 students. Recruitment status: pending. PRIMARY OUTCOME: binary measure of non-competent first sex. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: non-competent last sex; age at sexual debut; non-use of contraception at first and last sex; number of sexual partners; dating and relationship violence (DRV) victimisation; sexually transmitted infections; pregnancy and unintended pregnancy for girls and initiation of pregnancy for boys using adapted versions of the RIPPLE measures. Ethics review: LSHTM research ethics committee (reference 26411). Completion data: 1/3/25. Sharing statement: Data will be made available after the main trial analyses have been completed on reasonable request from researchers with ethics approval and a clear protocol. Amendments to the protocol will be communicated to the investigators, sponsor, funder, research ethics committee, trial registration and the journal publishing the protocol. Amendments affecting participants' experience of the intervention or important amendments affecting the overall design and conduct of the trial will be communicated to participants.


Assuntos
Saúde Sexual , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Marketing Social
6.
Minds Mach (Dordr) ; 31(2): 239-256, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34720418

RESUMO

As the range of potential uses for Artificial Intelligence (AI), in particular machine learning (ML), has increased, so has awareness of the associated ethical issues. This increased awareness has led to the realisation that existing legislation and regulation provides insufficient protection to individuals, groups, society, and the environment from AI harms. In response to this realisation, there has been a proliferation of principle-based ethics codes, guidelines and frameworks. However, it has become increasingly clear that a significant gap exists between the theory of AI ethics principles and the practical design of AI systems. In previous work, we analysed whether it is possible to close this gap between the 'what' and the 'how' of AI ethics through the use of tools and methods designed to help AI developers, engineers, and designers translate principles into practice. We concluded that this method of closure is currently ineffective as almost all existing translational tools and methods are either too flexible (and thus vulnerable to ethics washing) or too strict (unresponsive to context). This raised the question: if, even with technical guidance, AI ethics is challenging to embed in the process of algorithmic design, is the entire pro-ethical design endeavour rendered futile? And, if no, then how can AI ethics be made useful for AI practitioners? This is the question we seek to address here by exploring why principles and technical translational tools are still needed even if they are limited, and how these limitations can be potentially overcome by providing theoretical grounding of a concept that has been termed 'Ethics as a Service.'

7.
8.
Regen Med ; 16(12): 1029-1036, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761690

RESUMO

Aim: Explore the nature and extent of web-based promotion of stem cell treatments marketed by clinics in the UK. Materials & methods: Web-based analysis of clinics in the UK using predefined variables, with analysis of eligible clinics according to preset criteria of ethical relevance. Results: A majority (79%) of UK clinics were judged to be problematic. Information was found to be lacking, misleading or otherwise problematic in several respects, including a lack of information on risks of adverse effects, unjustifiably optimistic depictions of therapeutic effectiveness, and questionable presentational approaches such as the use of celebrity patient testimonials. Conclusion: In a majority of cases, commercial clinics in the UK portray stem-cell therapies on their websites in ethically questionable ways.

9.
J Bus Ethics ; : 1-22, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812211

RESUMO

Accountability is of universal interest to the business ethics community, but the emphasis to date has been primarily at the level of the industry, organization, or key individuals. This paper unites concepts from relational and felt accountability and team dynamics to provide an initial explanatory framework that emphasizes the importance of social interactions to team accountability. We develop a measure of team accountability using participants in the USA and Europe and then use it to study a cohort of 65 teams of Irish business students over three months as they complete a complex simulation. Our hypotheses test the origins of team accountability and its effects on subsequent team performance and attitudinal states. Results indicate that initial team accountability is strongly related to team trust, commitment, efficacy, and identifying with the team emotionally. In established teams, accountability increases effort and willingness to continue to collaborate but did not significantly improve task performance in this investigation.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814673

RESUMO

Ralston et al offer us an interesting analysis of the consultation process of World Health Organization's (WHO's) "Draft approach on the prevention and management of conflicts of interests in the policy development and implementation of nutrition programs at country level," in which it shows us how the industry tries to frame the discussion in individual conflicts of interest, avoiding structural conflicts of interest. We must not forget other issues of importance in policy-making, such as the imbalance of power between different actors and the strategies of undue influence used by food and beverage corporations. It is essential to develop regulatory-based tools and procedures that embody ethics and good governance and that can be applied systematically and routinely to prevent corporate influence in health policy-making. A global observatory of corporate practices would also be needed to recommend to governments efficient actions to avoid corporate capture of their policies.

11.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2917-2923, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729008

RESUMO

The takeover of Vectura, a healthcare company specialising in inhaled medication, by Philip Morris International raises serious ethical concerns. The European Respiratory Society notes that "health professionals will avoid prescribing drugs from any company that enriches the tobacco industry due to the ethical implications". People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma will also be reluctant to use medications which profit a company that is estimated to kill at least one million people every year. We discuss the practicalities involved in switching people with lung disease to inhaled medications that are not tobacco industry linked. Potential alternative inhaled medications are set out, which are likely to be equally effective for most patients. A consideration of beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, and distributive justice demonstrates strong ethical reasons to support switching away from the prescription of tobacco industry linked products.


Assuntos
Asma , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Indústria do Tabaco , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia
12.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 724311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603034

RESUMO

Pharmacogenomics is becoming an important part of clinical practice and it is considered one of the basic pillars of personalised medicine. However, the rate of pharmacogenomics adoption is still low in many healthcare systems, especially in low- or middle-income countries. The low level of awareness of healthcare specialists could be a potential reason due to which pharmacogenomics application is still in a premature stage but there are several other barriers that impede the aforementioned process, including the lack of the proper promotion of pharmacogenomic testing among interested stakeholders, such as healthcare professionals and biomedical scientists. In this study, we outline the available marketing theories and innovation that are applied to personalized medicine interventions that would catalyze the adoption of pharmacogenomic testing services in clinical practice. We also present the current ethical and legal framework about genomic data and propose ways to tackle the main concerns mentioned in the literature and to improve the marketing perspective of PGx.

13.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e23312, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited regulatory guidance surrounding the use of social media channels for participant recruitment is an interdisciplinary challenge. Establishing stakeholder-informed procedures is essential for ethical and effective use of social media for participant recruitment. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide replicable procedures for developing and implementing guidelines for using social media to recruit participants in research studies. METHODS: Social media use cases at the university were used to identify institutional stakeholders for the initiative. After establishing workflow procedures, a scoping review of web-based materials about recruitment and research on the internet and social media from 19 peer institutions and 2 federal agencies was conducted to inform the structure of the policies and procedures. End users (investigators and study coordinators; N=14) also provided feedback on the policies and procedures and implementation. RESULTS: Representatives (n=7) from 5 institutional offices and 15 subject-matter experts from 5 areas were identified as stakeholders in the development of policies and procedures. Peers with web-based materials (n=16) identified in the scoping review revealed 4 themes that served as a basis for developing our policies and procedures. End user feedback further informed the policies and procedures and implementation. A centrally managed social media account for communicating with participants and hosting advertising campaigns on social media was also established and, when combined with the policies and procedures, resulted in 39 advertising campaigns, and 2846 participants were enrolled in health and clinical research studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our policies and procedures allow research teams to harness the potential of social media to increase study recruitment and participation; the transparent, stakeholder-informed process can be replicated by institutional administrators to establish policies and procedures that meet the interests and needs of their research community.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Publicidade , Humanos , Estudos Interdisciplinares , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
14.
J Bus Ethics ; : 1-16, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602685

RESUMO

Employees' felt neglect by their employer signals to them that their employer violates ethics of care, and thus, it diminishes employee perceptions of work meaning. Drawing upon work meaning theory, we adopt a relationship-based perspective of felt neglect and its downstream outcome- reduction in organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) amid the COVID-19 pandemic. We propose and test a core relational mechanism- relatedness need frustration (RNF)-that transmits the effect of felt neglect onto work meaning. A four-wave survey study of 111 working employees in the USA demonstrated that employees' felt neglect had negative implications for their work meaning and subsequent OCB due to their RNF. Our findings contribute to research on ethics of care and work meaning theory and stress the importance of work meaning amid crises. In addition, our findings suggest steps that employers can take to mitigate employees' felt neglect (a violation of ethics of care) and its negative ramifications.

15.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e049947, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645664

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of social marketing strategies to induce the promotion of cognitive health has received little attention in research. The objective of this scoping review is twofold: (i) to identify the social marketing strategies that have been used in recent years to initiate and maintain health-promoting behaviour; (ii) to advance research in this area to inform policy and practice on how to best make use of these strategies to promote cognitive health. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will use the five-stage methodological framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Articles in English published since 2010 will be searched in electronic databases (the Cochrane Library, DoPHER, the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, PsycInfo, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus). Quantitative and qualitative study designs as well as reviews will be considered. We will include those articles that report the design, implementation, outcomes and evaluation of programmes and interventions concerning social marketing and/or health promotion and/or promotion of cognitive health. Grey literature will not be searched. Two independent reviewers will assess in detail the abstracts and full text of selected citations against the inclusion criteria. A Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses flowchart for Scoping Reviews will be used to illustrate the process of article selection. We will use a data extraction form, present the results through narrative synthesis and discuss them in relation to the scoping review research questions. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for conducting this scoping review. The results of the review will be the first step to advance a conceptual framework, which contributes to the development of interventions targeting the promotion of cognitive health. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. They will also be disseminated to key stakeholders in the field of the promotion of cognitive health.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Marketing Social , Cognição , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Ciências Sociais , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
16.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 45(6): 562-567, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the case reports of complaints regarding food marketing to children over six years and compare Australian marketing Codes to best practice recommendations. METHODS: Case reports on complaints about food marketing to children under the five industry Codes - the Responsible Children's Marketing Initiative, the Quick Service Restaurant Initiative and the Australian Association of National Advertisers Code of Ethics, Code of Advertising and Marketing to Children and Food and Beverages Code - were qualitatively analysed. Reports on the Ad Standards website in the food/beverage groceries and food/beverage venues categories from 2015-2020 were investigated. The most common clauses from the Codes were identified and quotes from reports used to illustrate the determinations. Codes were compared with World Cancer Research Fund recommendations on policy to protect children. RESULTS: Only 14 of 119 complaints resulted in a reported breach of industry Codes. The most common reason for dismissing complaints involved clauses requiring advertisements to be 'primarily' directed to children. The Codes did not align with best practice recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Complaints by the public show concern for food advertising to children but the Australian industry Codes fall short of addressing those concerns. Implications for public health: Government regulation is required to protect children from unhealthy food marketing.

17.
J Bus Ethics ; : 1-18, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34690388

RESUMO

The paper addresses an understudied but highly relevant group of people within corporate organizations and society in general-the marginalized-as well as their narration, and criticism, of personal lived experiences of marginalization in business. They are conventionally perceived to lack traditional forms of power such as public influence, formal authority, education, money, and political positions; however, they still possess the resources to impact their situations, their circumstances, and the structures that determine their situations. Business ethics researchers seldom consider marginalized people's voices and experiences as resources to understand their lives, as demonstrated through a review of 7500 articles published in the Journal of Business Ethics and Business Ethics Quarterly (2000-2019). Only 78 studies included aspects of marginalized groups. 69 of those studies discussed the topic of marginalized groups of people, but without integrating their explicit voices into the text. Only 9 of the 78 articles featured marginalized people's explicit voices about their marginalization experiences incorporated into the text as a source for exploration. None of the identified studies discussed the potential for theorizing based on such voices. This paper contributes to business ethics theory by developing four theoretical possibilities vis-à-vis the critical voices of marginalized people's experiences in business: (a) marginalized theory on critical agency and freedom of speech; (b) the gatekeeping role of academia; (c) primary sources; and (d) a participative perspective. Discussing the theoretical potential of quoting the above voices can enrich business ethics research in terms of the theoretical understanding of marginalized groups in business.

18.
J Bus Ethics ; : 1-13, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703069

RESUMO

This paper contributes to the contemporary business ethics narrative by proposing an approach to corporate ethical decision making (EDM) which serves as an alternative to the imposition of codes and standards to address the ethical consequences of grand challenges, like COVID-19, which are impacting today's society. Our alternative approach to EDM embraces the concept of reflexive thinking and ethical consciousness among the individual agents who collectively are the corporation and who make ethical decisions, often in isolation, removed from the collocated corporate setting. We draw on the teachings of the Canadian philosopher and theologian, Fr. Bernard Lonergan, to conceptualize an approach to EDM which focuses on the ethics of the corporate agent by nurturing the universal and invariant structure that is operational in all human beings. Embracing Lonergan's dynamic cognitive structure of human knowing, and the structure of the human good, we advance a paradigm of EDM in business which emboldens authentic ethical thought, decision making, and action commensurate with virtuous living and germane to human flourishing. Lonergan's philosophy guides us away from the imposition of over-arching corporate codes of ethics and inspires us, as individual agents, to attend to the data of our own consciousness in our ethical decision making. Such cognitional endowment leads us out of the ethics of the 'timeless present' (Islam and Greenwood in Journal of Business Ethics 170: 1-4, 2021) towards ethical authenticity in business, leaving us better placed to reflect upon and address the ethical issues emanating from grand challenges like COVID-19.

19.
AMA J Ethics ; 23(9): E685-691, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710027

RESUMO

An investigator's personal financial interest in technology under investigation or in the company sponsoring the research is a clear conflict of interest (COI). Such financial relationships are common, and ethical questions rightly emerge about COIs' capacity to compromise an investigator's approaches to research. This commentary on a case suggests that COI disclosure is appropriate during the process of facilitating patient-subjects' informed consent because it promotes informed decision making and motivates transparency. But COI disclosures are not always efficacious, nor are they sufficient to address the problem of research bias. This commentary argues that mitigation or elimination of COIs is a more effective strategy than disclosure.


Assuntos
Conflito de Interesses , Médicos , Revelação , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Pesquisadores
20.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(8): 1349-1356, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497226

RESUMO

Conflict of interest (COI) is a conflict between related parties, such as researchers, research institutions, academic societies, and third parties (commercial companies and patients). COI sometimes twists research and clinical practice, resulting in the profit instruction of related individuals or organizations. In medical research, high ethical standards are demanded to protect human rights, life, and safety of study participants, and COI must be properly enforced to maintain study fairness and ensure transparency. In Japan, the Japanese Association of Medical Science issued COI guideline in 2017, which formed the basis of many societies in making their common COI guidelines. The Japanese Society of Hematology issued COI management guideline in 2018 and is strictly managing COI of its members, organization, and clinical guideline committee members. As industry-academia collaboration activities become more active, the concept of COI is deepening; therefore, appropriate COI disclosure should be conducted based on recent trends to promote sound research and business activities.


Assuntos
Conflito de Interesses , Hematologia , Revelação , Humanos , Japão , Sociedades Médicas
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