Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 110
Filtrar
1.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 50(3): 166-175, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481796

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since the emergence of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the world has faced a pandemic with consequences at all levels. In many countries, the health systems collapsed and healthcare professionals had to be on the front line of this crisis. The adverse effects on the mental health of healthcare professionals have been widely reported. This research focuses on identifying the main factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes. METHODS: Descriptive, cross-sectional study based on surveys, applying the PHQ-9, GAD-7, ISI and EIE-R tests to healthcare professionals from Ecuador during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: 1028 participants, distributed in: 557 physicians (54.18%), 349 nurses (33.94%), 29 laboratory workers (2.82%), 27 paramedics (2.62%), 52 psychologists (5.05%) and 14 respiratory therapists (1.36%), from 16 of the 24 provinces of Ecuador. Of these, 27.3% presented symptoms of depression, 39.2% anxiety symptoms, 16.3% insomnia and 43.8% symptoms of PTSD, with the 4 types of symptoms ranging from moderate to severe. The most relevant associated factors were: working in Guayas (the most affected province) (OR = 2.18 for depressive symptoms and OR = 2.59 for PTSD symptoms); being a postgraduate doctor (OR = 1.52 for depressive symptoms and OR = 1.57 for insomnia), perception of not having the proper protective equipment (OR = 1.71 for symptoms of depression and OR = 1.57 for symptoms of anxiety) and being a woman (OR = 1.39 for anxiety). CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare professionals can suffer a significant mental condition that may require psychiatric and psychological intervention. The main associated factors are primarily related to living and working in cities with a higher number of cases and the characteristics of the job, such as being a postgraduate doctor, as well as the perception of security. The main risk factors are primarily related to geographical distribution and job characteristics, such as being a resident physician and self-perception of safety. Further studies are required as the pandemic evolves.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518752

RESUMO

Around the globe, millions of people have experienced suffering and death related to COVID-19, an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus. In Ecuador,the painful impact of the pandemic elicited early responses by the government and by local communities. This critical, positioned and exploratory case study analyses such responses, underscoring the fundamental ethical-political dimension of any academic and professional praxis aimed at the construction of healthier societies worldwide. While critical traditions are familiar with this stance, the inequalities and ideological mechanisms made visible by COVID-19 responses may enable the wider community of researchers and practitioners to join ongoing collective ethical-political efforts. Findings from Ecuador underline the potentially harmful role of neoliberalism and issues of democratic legitimacy, significant problems before and during the pandemic shock and official discourses, which blame communities for their own suffering and death. Neutrality and depoliticized notions of scientific evidence are notoriously insufficient in these scenarios. We need to engage more deeply with diverse forms of global and local community resistance, in times of COVID-19, and beyond. Please refer to the Supplementary Material section to find this article's Community and Social Impact Statement.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257661, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of the COVID 19 pandemic on the mental health of citizens from Asia, Europe, or North America begin to be known, but there are fewer publications on its effects in Latin American countries. In this study, its impact in Ecuador is described, with data collected during the first phase of the pandemic. The objective of this study was to analyse the level of psychological distress in the population of Ecuador during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cross-sectional observational study. The questionnaires were collected through an online self-developed questionnaire, between April 2 and May 17, 2020, using the non-probabilistic sampling methodology: snowball method. The variables considered were sociodemographic variables, physical symptoms, health status, COVID-19 contact history, preventive measures, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The percentage with high psychological distress (PD) (GHQ-12 ≥ 3) has been somewhat lower than that found in Europe, being women, young people, people with higher level of education, living without a partner, not living with children or children under 16 years of age, and with worse perception of health the groups with the highest PD. Differences have been observed with European studies regarding common symptoms, preventive measures to avoid contagion, percentage of infected relatives, or diagnostic tests performed. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the same research instrument, validated in Europe and adapted to Ecuador, has facilitated the comparison of the found results and differences, which can be explained by socio-economic or cultural variables, the health system, level of information, or by preventive measures put in place to prevent the pandemic.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444455

RESUMO

Adherence to preventive measures is influenced by people's knowledge, attitudes and practices towards a disease; therefore, assessing knowledge of COVID-19 is critical in the overall effort to contain the outbreak. This cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduates (n = 3621) of different programs and different levels of education associated with universities in north-central Ecuador. The form consisted of 32 questions covering demographics, symptoms, detection, treatment, transmission, prevention and knowledge of the virus. The rate of correct answers was 75.5% (21.1 ± 5 out of 28), with differences observed regarding program of study, educational level and location of institution (α = 0.05), although effect size analyses showed that these differences could not be considered large. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that lower scores were associated with initial stages of education, careers related to social sciences and location of institution. Participants possessed sufficient knowledge about detection, transmission and prevention, although they overestimated fatality rate and were less confident about the characteristics of the virus and the effectiveness of traditional medicine. Consequently, future educational programs must place emphasis on addressing deficient knowledge. Certainly, improving COVID-19 literacy will promote the appropriate application of protective measures aimed at preventing the virus' spread.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ecuador annually has handwashing and respiratory hygiene campaigns and seasonal influenza vaccination to prevent respiratory virus illnesses but has yet to quantify disease burden and determine epidemic timing. METHODS: To identify respiratory virus burden and assess months with epidemic activity, we followed a birth cohort in northwest Ecuador during 2011-2014. Mothers brought children to the study clinic for routine checkups at ages 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years or if children experienced any acute respiratory illness symptoms (e.g., cough, fever, or difficulty breathing); clinical care was provided free of charge. Those with medically attended acute respiratory infections (MAARIs) were tested for common respiratory viruses via real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). RESULTS: In 2011, 2376 children aged 1-4 years (median 35 months) were enrolled in the respiratory cohort and monitored for 7017.5 child-years (cy). The incidence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was 23.9 (95% CI 17.3-30.5), influenza 10.6 (2.4-18.8), adenoviruses 6.7 (4.6-28.0), parainfluenzas 5.0 (2.3-10.5), and rhinoviruses, bocaviruses, human metapneumoviruses, seasonal coronaviruses, and enteroviruses <3/100 cy among children aged 12-23 months and declined with age. Most (75%) influenza detections occurred April-September. CONCLUSION: Cohort children frequently had MAARIs, and while the incidence decreased rapidly among older children, more than one in five children aged 12-23 months tested positive for RSV, and one in 10 tested positive for influenza. Our findings suggest this substantial burden of influenza occurred more commonly during the winter Southern Hemisphere influenza season.

6.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In early 2020, Ecuador reported one of the highest surges of per capita deaths across the globe. METHODS: We collected a comprehensive dataset containing individual death records between 2015 and 2020, from the Ecuadorian National Institute of Statistics and Census and the Ecuadorian Ministry of Government. We computed the number of excess deaths across time, geographical locations and demographic groups using Poisson regression methods. RESULTS: Between 1 January and 23 September 2020, the number of excess deaths in Ecuador was 36 402 [95% confidence interval (CI): 35 762-36 827) or 208 per 100 000 people, which is 171% of the expected deaths in that period in a typical year. Only 20% of the excess deaths are attributable to confirmed COVID-19 deaths. Strikingly, in provinces that were most affected by COVID-19 such as Guayas and Santa Elena, the all-cause deaths are more than double the expected number of deaths that would have occurred in a normal year. The extent of excess deaths in men is higher than in women, and the number of excess deaths increases with age. Indigenous populations had the highest level of excess deaths among all ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the exceptionally high level of excess deaths in Ecuador highlights the enormous burden and heterogeneous impact of COVID-19 on mortality, especially in older age groups and Indigenous populations in Ecuador, which was not fully revealed by COVID-19 death counts. Together with the limited testing in Ecuador, our results suggest that the majority of the excess deaths were likely to be undocumented COVID-19 deaths.

7.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-6, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study's goal was to determine the perceived risks of infection as well as the perceived risks of hospitalization and death from COVID-19 in Ecuador and Kenya. It also assessed the factors associated with the risk-related perceptions. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies with samples from the adult populations in both countries were conducted to assess the perceived risks of contracting COVID-19. Data were collected online using the Qualtrics platform (Qualtrics, Provo, Utah, United States) from samples of 1050 heads of households, aged 18 years or older, in each country. A total of 3 statistical analyses were conducted: summary statistics, correlation, and linear regression. RESULTS: The average perceived risks of COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death in the Kenyan sample were 27.1%, 43.2%, and 17.2%, respectively, and the values for the Ecuadorian sample were 34%, 32.8%, and 23.3%, respectively. The Pearson's correlation coefficients between the risk measures in each country were less than 0.38. Risk measures were associated with several sociodemographic variables (e.g., income, gender, location), but not with age. CONCLUSIONS: The perceived risks of COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death in Kenya and Ecuador were significantly higher relative to the statistics reported; however, no strong association existed between perceived risk and age, which is a key factor in adverse health outcomes, including death, among COVID-19 infected individuals.

9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198627

RESUMO

In this paper, we group South American countries based on the number of infected cases and deaths due to COVID-19. The countries considered are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The data used are collected from a database of Johns Hopkins University, an institution that is dedicated to sensing and monitoring the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic. A statistical analysis, based on principal components with modern and recent techniques, is conducted. Initially, utilizing the correlation matrix, standard components and varimax rotations are calculated. Then, by using disjoint components and functional components, the countries are grouped. An algorithm that allows us to keep the principal component analysis updated with a sensor in the data warehouse is designed. As reported in the conclusions, this grouping changes depending on the number of components considered, the type of principal component (standard, disjoint or functional) and the variable to be considered (infected cases or deaths). The results obtained are compared to the k-means technique. The COVID-19 cases and their deaths vary in the different countries due to diverse reasons, as reported in the conclusions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Argentina , Brasil , Chile , Colômbia , Equador , Humanos , Peru , Análise de Componente Principal , SARS-CoV-2 , Uruguai , Venezuela
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 558, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) effectively detects the SARS-COV-2 virus. SARS-CoV-2 Nevertheless, some critical gaps remain in the identification and monitoring of asymptomatic people. METHODS: This retrospective study included 733 asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19 subjects, who were submitted to the RT-qPCR test. The objective was to assess the efficacy of an expanded triage of subjects undergoing the RT-qPCR test for SARS-COV-2 to identify the largest possible number of COVID-19 cases in a hospital setting in Ecuador. SARS-CoV-2 Firstly, the sensitivity and specificity as well as the predictive values of an expanded triage method were calculated. In addition, the Kappa coefficient was also determined to assess the concordance between laboratory test results and the expanded triage. RESULTS: Of a total of 733 sputum samples; 229 were RT-qPCR-positive (31.2%) and mortality rate reached 1.2%. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 86.0% (95% confidence interval: 81.0-90.0%) and 37.0% (95% confidence interval: 32.0-41.0%) respectively, with a diagnostic accuracy of 52.0% and a Kappa coefficient of 0.73. An association between the positivity of the test and its performance before 10 days was found. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical sensitivity for COVID-19 detection was within acceptable standards, but the specificity still fell below the values of reference. The lack of symptoms did not always mean to have a negative SARS-COV-2 RT-qPCR test. The expanded triage identified a still unnoticed percentage of asymptomatic subjects showing positive results for the SARS-COV-2 RT-qPCR test. The study also revealed a significant relationship between the number of RT-qPCR-positive cases and the performance of the molecular diagnosis within the first 10 days of COVID-19 in the symptomatic group.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , SARS-CoV-2 , Escarro/virologia , Equador , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Triagem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064780

RESUMO

Due to the COVID-19 global pandemic, guidelines for people's confinement have been implemented to prevent the disease's spread. As a result of this, companies have implemented teleworking as an emerging way to work from home using information technology. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ecuador, with a sample of 204 teleworkers in the city of Quito. The results show that the teleworkers rearranged their bedrooms to carry out their activities. The respondents in each age group stated they did not perceive more significant ailments than those experienced before beginning teleworking. The relationships between the variables were analyzed utilizing the Chi-Square test and Fisher's exact test, finding a relationship between neck ailments and age of p = 0.031 * and between arm/forearm ailments of p = 0.032 *. This study contributes to a greater understanding of the ergonomic situation of the teleworkers and provides us with information to mitigate the ergonomic risks to which they are exposed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Teletrabalho , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Ergonomia , Humanos , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Soc Sci Med ; 281: 114040, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144481

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Stress process theory considers that actual and perceived isolation, caused by mobility restrictions from attempted containment of the COVID-19 pandemic, deteriorates mental health. OBJECTIVE: We examine the relationship between the COVID-19 lockdowns and mental health-related Google searches in 11 Latin American countries. We include the following countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. We also explore how changes in search patterns relate to income support policies and to COVID-19 death rates. METHOD: Using Google Trends data and an event-study design, as well as a difference-in-differences analysis, we investigate the association between country specific stay-at-home orders and internet searches including the following words: insomnia, stress, anxiety, sadness, depression, and suicide. RESULTS: We find three main patterns. First, searches for insomnia peak but then decline. Second, searches for stress, anxiety, and sadness increase and remain high throughout the lockdown. Third, there is no substantial change in depression-related or suicide-related searches after the lockdown. In terms of potential mechanisms, our results suggest that searches declined for suicide and insomnia following the passage of each country's income support, while in countries with higher COVID-19-related death rates, searches for insomnia, stress, and anxiety increased by more. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that, in Latin America, Google searches for words associated with mild mental health disorders increased during the COVID-19 stay-at-home orders. Nonetheless, these conclusions should not be construed as a general population mental health deterioration, as we cannot verify that search indicators are accurately related to the users' current feelings and behaviors, and as internet users may not be representative of the population in this region.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Ferramenta de Busca , Argentina , Bolívia , Chile , Colômbia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Equador , Guatemala , Honduras , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , México , Pandemias , Peru , SARS-CoV-2 , Uruguai
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 531-536, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the constraints in containing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ecuador is limited testing capacity, especially in high-risk populations such as people living in humanitarian shelters. OBJECTIVES: The "United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees" office in Ecuador in collaboration with "Universidad de Las Américas" performed surveillance screening at shelters for women victims of gender-based violence. They had been granted access to RT-qPCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis since July 2020, a few weeks after the general population lockdown was lifted. RESULTS: From 411 people tested, 52 tests were SARS-CoV-2 positive, yielding an overall high attack rate of 12.65%. Moreover, COVID-19 outbreaks were found in nine of 11 shelters that were included in the study. While attacks rates varied among shelters, no association was found with occupancy. CONCLUSION: This study is key to clarifying the epidemiological situation in this highly vulnerable population in Latin America. It highlights the importance of mass testing beyond the symptomatic population to prevent the spread of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Violência de Gênero , Teste para COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Surtos de Doenças , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(2): 587-591, abr.-jun. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279128

RESUMO

Resumen El caso de la covid-19 en Guayaquil demuestra que las esferas médica y científica no están divorciadas de los factores coyunturales políticos, sociales y económicos, sino que se condicionan mutuamente. En particular, las crisis políticas y desigualdades socioeconómicas que afectaban al Ecuador antes de la llegada de la pandemia prepararon el camino para los estragos causados por el nuevo coronavirus en el país.


Abstract The case of covid-19 in Guayaquil shows that the medical and scientific spheres are not divorced from contemporary political, social and economic factors, but that they act upon one another. In particular, the political crises and socioeconomic inequalities that affected Ecuador before the arrival of the pandemic paved the way for the havoc caused by the new coronavirus in the country.


Assuntos
Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Política , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Saúde Pública , Equador/epidemiologia
17.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 28(2): 587-591, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190796

RESUMO

The case of covid-19 in Guayaquil shows that the medical and scientific spheres are not divorced from contemporary political, social and economic factors, but that they act upon one another. In particular, the political crises and socioeconomic inequalities that affected Ecuador before the arrival of the pandemic paved the way for the havoc caused by the new coronavirus in the country.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Equador/epidemiologia , Humanos , Política , Saúde Pública , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
One Health ; : 100267, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056057

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic has challenged public health systems worldwide, particularly affecting developing countries in Latin America like Ecuador. In this report, we exposed the fundamental role of the Ecuadorian universities to improve COVID-19 surveillance in the country, with an overall contribution over 15% of the total SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests done. We highlight the role of our university during the first semester of the COVID-19 pandemic, contributing to a massive free SARS-CoV-2 testing up to almost 10% of the total diagnosis completed in the country, mainly focus on underserved urban, rural and indigenous communities. Finally, we described our contribution to a high quality and low-cost SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR diagnostic in Ecuador.

19.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251295, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999930

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) a global pandemic on 11 March 2020. In Ecuador, the first case of COVID-19 was recorded on 29 February 2020. Despite efforts to control its spread, SARS-CoV-2 overran the Ecuadorian public health system, which became one of the most affected in Latin America on 24 April 2020. The Hospital General del Sur de Quito (HGSQ) had to transition from a general to a specific COVID-19 health center in a short period of time to fulfill the health demand from patients with respiratory afflictions. Here, we summarized the implementations applied in the HGSQ to become a COVID-19 exclusive hospital, including the rearrangement of hospital rooms and a triage strategy based on a severity score calculated through an artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted chest computed tomography (CT). Moreover, we present clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory data from 75 laboratory tested COVID-19 patients, which represent the first outbreak of Quito city. The majority of patients were male with a median age of 50 years. We found differences in laboratory parameters between intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU cases considering C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and lymphocytes. Sensitivity and specificity of the AI-assisted chest CT were 21.4% and 66.7%, respectively, when considering a score >70%; regardless, this system became a cornerstone of hospital triage due to the lack of RT-PCR testing and timely results. If health workers act as vectors of SARS-CoV-2 at their domiciles, they can seed outbreaks that might put 1,879,047 people at risk of infection within 15 km around the hospital. Despite our limited sample size, the information presented can be used as a local example that might aid future responses in low and middle-income countries facing respiratory transmitted epidemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitais Especializados/organização & administração , Hospitais Especializados/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Triagem/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Inteligência Artificial , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Radiografia Pulmonar de Massa/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
20.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(6): 685-688, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971576

RESUMO

Reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 is a rare phenomenon. To date, there has been some cases reported from countries such as United States, Ecuador, Hong Kong, the Netherlands and Belgium. This case report presents the first case of reinfection from Saudi Arabia, and probably the first dental student to have been re-infected with COVID-19. A 24-year-old male dental student presents with reinfection after a period of three months since he was first infected with COVID-19. The signs and symptoms reported by the patient were similar in both instances, except that he developed fever only at the time of reinfection. The infection and reinfection were confirmed with a RT-PCR test reports. This report highlights how it is necessary to continue to observe all the prescriptions recently indicated in the literature in order to avoid new contagion for all health workers after healed from covid-19 or asymptomatic positive, since as seen sometimes the infection does not ensures complete immunity in 100% of cases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Bélgica , Equador , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Reinfecção , Arábia Saudita , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...