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1.
Health Promot Int ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471084

RESUMO

Global shifts toward a disease-oriented, vertical approach to health has involved limiting the right for communities to participate in decision-making. Ecuador's authoritarian legacy has forced civil society and social organizations to adopt 'coping strategies', while large protests recently derived into violent struggles. The country has been severely hit by the COVID-19 pandemic amid corruption scandals involving hospital and food purchases by government during the response. This study critically examines how Ecuador's government took into consideration 'community participation' as a value and tenet of health promotion. Our systematic textual analysis focuses on 53 consecutive resolutions by the National Emergency Operations Committee (EOC) leading the decision-making processes, which, explicitly requires community participation. Results show that the 'lifecycle' of the central government's evolving policy framing centered on law enforcement and the private sector, followed by the social sector. Further, there is no evidence of stakeholders from civil society or organizations taking part in decision-making. Having legitimized the exclusion of community participation in Ecuador's response to the COVID-19 pandemic, it is possible that the government will fail to consider the wider social implications of its impact. In particular, the limits to local governments becoming informed and making decisions without mediation by the National EOC will further impede community participation in health decision-making in the future. This implies that local knowledge and experiences will also not inform health policy.

2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(1): e0008958, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395425

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread rapidly around the globe. Nevertheless, there is limited information describing the characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients in Latin America. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 9,468 confirmed COVID-19 cases reported in Ecuador. We calculated overall incidence, mortality, case fatality rates, disability adjusted life years, attack and crude mortality rates, as well as relative risk and relative odds of death, adjusted for age, sex and presence of comorbidities. A total of 9,468 positive COVID-19 cases and 474 deaths were included in the analysis. Men accounted for 55.4% (n = 5, 247) of cases and women for 44.6% (n = 4, 221). We found the presence of comorbidities, being male and older than 65 years were important determinants of mortality. Coastal regions were most affected by COVID-19, with higher mortality rates than the highlands. Fatigue was reported in 53.2% of the patients, followed by headache (43%), dry cough (41.7%), ageusia (37.1%) and anosmia (36.1%). We present an analysis of the burden of COVID-19 in Ecuador. Our findings show that men are at higher risk of dying from COVID-19 than women, and risk increases with age and the presence of comorbidities. We also found that blue-collar workers and the unemployed are at greater risk of dying. These early observations offer clinical insights for the medical community to help improve patient care and for public health officials to strengthen Ecuador's response to the outbreak.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466348

RESUMO

Empathy plays a fundamental role in health related occupations. In this study, we analysed empathy levels in professionals (117) and students (170) from various healthcare fields in Ecuador during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index was used in an online survey. The results show high levels of empathy in both groups, influenced by age and gender. The students presented higher levels of personal distress, and their age was negatively correlated to empathy. Additionally, professionals working in physical health scored higher levels of personal distress compared to those in the field of emotional health. COVID-19 has placed social health systems in great stress. Despite this, the personal capacities for empathy of both students and health professionals have not been diminished.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Empatia , Pandemias , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Equador , Humanos
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2020 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ecuador is among the worst-hit countries in the world by the COVID-19 pandemic. In terms of confirmed deaths per million inhabitants, as of October 22, Ecuador ranks fourth in the Americas and ninth worldwide according to data from the World Health Organization. In this report we estimate excess deaths due to any cause in Ecuador since the start of the lockdown measures on March 17, 2020 until October 22, 2020. METHODS: Estimates of excess deaths were calculated as the difference between the number of observed deaths from all causes and estimates of expected deaths from all causes. Expected deaths were estimated for the period March 17 to October 22, 2020 from forecasts of an ARIMA model of order (3,0,1) with drift which was applied to daily mortality data for the period January 1, 2014 to March 16, 2020. RESULTS: The number of all-cause excess deaths in Ecuador was estimated to be 36,922 (95% bootstrap confidence interval: 32,314-42,696) during the study period. The peak in all-cause excess mortality in Ecuador may have occurred on April 4, 2020, with 909 excess deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the real impact of the pandemic in Ecuador was much worse than indicated by reports from national institutions. Estimates of excess mortality might provide a better approximation of the true COVID-19 death toll. These estimates might capture not only deaths directly attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic but also deaths from other diseases that resulted from indirect effects of the pandemic.

5.
Vaccine ; 38(51): 8090-8098, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187765

RESUMO

In Latin America, the country of Ecuador was one of the first and most severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to evaluate the demand for a COVID-19 vaccine in Ecuador by estimating individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) for the vaccine, and by assessing the effect of vaccine attributes (duration of protection and efficacy) and individuals' characteristics on this valuation. The sample used (N = 1,050) was obtained through an online survey conducted from April 2 to April 7, 2020. Two levels of vaccine efficacy (70% and 98%) and two levels of vaccine duration of protection (1 and 20 years) were considered. The willingness to pay estimates were obtained using a double-bounded dichotomous-choice contingent valuation format. Survey results show that a very large proportion of individuals (at least 97%) were willing to accept a COVID-19 vaccine, and at least 85% of individuals were willing to pay a positive amount for that vaccine. Conservative estimates of the average WTP values ranged from USD 147.61 to 196.65 and the median WTP from USD 76.9 to 102.5. Only the duration of protection was found to influence individuals' WTP for the vaccine (p < 0.01). On average, respondents were willing to pay 30% more for a COVID-19 vaccine with 20 years of protection relative to the vaccine with 1 year of protection. Regression results show that WTP for the vaccine was associated with income, employment status, the perceived probability of needing hospitalization if contracting the virus causing COVID-19, and region of residence.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242185, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175877

RESUMO

Many affected counties have had experienced a shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. We aimed to investigate the needs of healthcare professionals and the technical difficulties faced by them during the initial outbreak. A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted among the healthcare workforce in the most populous cities from three Latin American countries in April 2020. In total, 1,082 participants were included. Of these, 534 (49.4%), 263 (24.3%), and 114 (10.5%) were physicians, nurses, and other professionals, respectively. At least 70% of participants reported a lack of PPE. The most common shortages were shortages in gown coverall suits (643, 59.4%), N95 masks (600, 55.5%), and face shields (569, 52.6%). Professionals who performed procedures that generated aerosols reported shortages more frequently (p<0.05). Professionals working in the emergency department and primary care units reported more shortages than those working in intensive care units and hospital-based wards (p<0.001). Up to 556 (51.4%) participants reported the lack of sufficient knowledge about using PPE. Professionals working in public institutions felt less prepared, received less training, and had no protocols compared with their peers in working private institutions (p<0.001). Although the study sample corresponded to different hospital centers in different cities from the participating countries, sampling was non-random. Healthcare professionals in Latin America may face more difficulties than those from other countries, with 7 out of 10 professionals reporting that they did not have the necessary resources to care for patients with COVID-19. Technical and logistical difficulties should be addressed in the event of a future outbreak, as they have a negative impact on healthcare workers. Clinical trial registration: NCT04486404.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Colômbia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Equador , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(41)2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033138

RESUMO

We report the metagenome analysis of a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid sample from a confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case in Quito, Ecuador. Sequencing was performed using MinION technology.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240011, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding public perceptions of government responses to COVID-19 may foster improved public cooperation. Trust in government and population risk of exposure may influence public perception of the response. Other population-level characteristics, such as country socio-economic development, COVID-19 morbidity and mortality, and degree of democratic government, may influence perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a novel ten-item instrument that asks respondents to rate key aspects of their government's response to the pandemic (COVID-SCORE). We examined whether the results varied by gender, age group, education level, and monthly income. We also examined the internal and external validity of the index using appropriate predefined variables. To test for dimensionality of the results, we used a principal component analysis (PCA) for the ten survey items. We found that Cronbach's alpha was 0.92 and that the first component of the PCA explained 60% of variance with the remaining factors having eigenvalues below 1, strongly indicating that the tool is both reliable and unidimensional. Based on responses from 13,426 people randomly selected from the general population in 19 countries, the mean national scores ranged from 35.76 (Ecuador) to 80.48 (China) out of a maximum of 100 points. Heterogeneity in responses was observed across age, gender, education and income with the greatest amount of heterogeneity observed between countries. National scores correlated with respondents' reported levels of trust in government and with country-level COVID-19 mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-SCORE survey instrument demonstrated satisfactory validity. It may help governments more effectively engage constituents in current and future efforts to control COVID-19. Additional country-specific assessment should be undertaken to measure trends over time and the public perceptions of key aspects of government responses in other countries.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Governo , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Opinião Pública , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Saúde Pública/métodos , Quarentena/métodos , Confiança , Adulto Jovem
12.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 38(3): [e07], Octubre 20 2020. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, Table 4, Table 5, Table 6
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1128920

RESUMO

Objective. To explore the feelings, stress factors, and adaptation strategies of nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive quantitative study, conducted through the application of a 52-item questionnaire with four sections (feelings, perceived stress, stress-reducing factors, and adaptation strategies). The study population was 227 nursing professionals from "Hospital General del Guasmo Sur" of the Ministry of Public Health, who worked during the peak of the pandemic from March to May 2020. The sample comprised 155 nurses who voluntarily accepted to participate. The study received 127 complete questionnaires for analysis. Results. The data showed the priority of humanist feelings and professional duty for these nurses, mostly young (59% under 35 years of age and with the professional exercise of three and fewer years), against the fear of contagion and the stress of strenuous work. They also revealed the great importance for them of the institutional support, recognition to the staff, and strict organization of safe care, like strategies for coping with this difficult experience. Conclusion. The COVID-19 pandemic represented for nurses from Guayaquil a great professional and emotional challenge. Health services and society could consider these findings to avoid burning out nurses and their professional desertion.


Objetivo. Explorar los sentimientos, factores de estrés y estrategias de adaptación de los enfermeros durante la pandemia del COVID-19 en Guayaquil, Ecuador. Métodos. Estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, de corte transversal, realizado mediante la aplicación de un cuestionario de 52 ítems con cuatro secciones (sentimientos, estrés percibido, factores reductores de estrés y estrategias de adaptación). La población del estudio fueron 227 profesionales de enfermería del "Hospital General del Guasmo Sur" del Ministerio de Salud Pública, que laboraron durante el pico de la pandemia en los meses de marzo a mayo de 2020. La muestra fueron 155 enfermeros que aceptaron voluntariamente participar. Se recibieron 127 cuestionarios completos para el análisis Resultados. Los datos mostraron la prioridad de los sentimientos humanistas y del deber profesional para estos enfermeros, en su mayoría jóvenes (59% menores de 35 años y con ejercicio profesional de tres y menos años), frente al temor al contagio y al estrés de un trabajo extenuante. Revelaron también la gran importancia que tiene para ellos el soporte institucional, el reconocimiento al personal y la estricta organización de una prestación segura, como estrategias para el afrontamiento de esta difícil experiencia. Conclusión. La pandemia del COVID-19 representó para los enfermeros de Guayaquil un gran desafío tanto profesional como emocional. Los servicios de salud y la sociedad podrían considerar estos hallazgos para evitar el desgaste de los enfermeros y su deserción profesional.


Objetivo. Explore os sentimentos, fatores de estresse e estratégias de adaptação de enfermeiras durante a pandemia COVID-19 em Guayaquil, Equador. Métodos. Estudo quantitativo, descritivo, transversal, realizado por meio da aplicação de um questionário de 52 itens com quatro seções (sentimentos, estresse percebido, fatores redutores do estresse e estratégias de adaptação). A população do estudo foi de 227 profissionais de enfermagem do "Hospital Geral de Guasmo Sur" do Ministério da Saúde Pública, que trabalharam durante o pico da pandemia nos meses de março a maio de 2020. A amostra foi de 155 enfermeiros que aceitaram participar voluntariamente. Foram recebidos para análise 127 questionários completos. Resultados. Os dados evidenciaram a prioridade do sentimento humanístico e do dever profissional para esses enfermeiros, em sua maioria jovens (59% menores de 35 anos e com prática profissional de até três anos), frente ao medo do contágio e ao estresse do trabalho extenuante. Também revelaram a grande importância do apoio institucional, do reconhecimento da equipe e da estrita organização de uma prestação segura, como estratégias para o enfrentamento dessa difícil experiência. Conclusão. A pandemia COVID-19 representou um grande desafio profissional e emocional para as enfermeiras de Guayaquil. Os serviços de saúde e a sociedade poderiam considerar essas descobertas para evitar a exaustão do enfermeiro e sua deserção profissional.


Assuntos
Humanos , Estresse Psicológico , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Infecções por Coronavirus , Equador , Pandemias , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros
13.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-4, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the relevance of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) positive case detection policy or model implemented by the Ministry of Public Health (MPH) of Ecuador and to compare it with the experiences of other countries. METHODS: Data contained the daily reports publicized by the MPH. The formulations were carried out under the Conditioned Probability modality applying Bayes' Theorem. All the COVID-19 tests applied in relation to the confirmed cases per million inhabitants were considered to obtain their level of positivity, and compared with the experience of Iceland and South Korea. RESULTS: The probability of detecting positive cases of COVID-19 in Ecuador was higher than Iceland and South Korea, because the diagnostic tests were aimed at symptomatic patients, without identifying asymptomatic or mild symptomatic, who play an important role in the transmission of the disease. In addition, many symptomatic patients were examined but will remain undiagnosed due to the unavailability of tests and the low quality of many of them. CONCLUSIONS: The daily reports on the behavior of the COVID-19 issued by the Ecuadorian government do not adequately represent the growth in the number of those infected each day, nor the actual behavior of the epidemic, affecting possible control measures.

14.
J Community Health ; 45(6): 1158-1167, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915380

RESUMO

Preventing the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (causative agent for COVID-19) requires implementing contact and respiratory precautions. Modifying human behavior is challenging and requires understanding knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) regarding health threats. This study explored KAPs among people in Ecuador. A cross-sectional, internet-based questionnaire was used to assess knowledge about COVID-19, attitudes toward ability to control COVID-19, self-reported practices related to COVID-19, and demographics. A total of 2399 individuals participated. Participants had moderate to high levels of knowledge. Participants expressed mixed attitudes about the eventual control of COVID-19 in Ecuador. Participants reported high levels of adoption of preventive practices. Binomial regression analysis suggests unemployed individuals, househusbands/housewives, or manual laborers, as well as those with an elementary school education, have lower levels of knowledge. Women, people over 50 years of age, and those with higher levels of schooling were the most optimistic. Men, individuals 18-29, single, and unemployed people took the riskiest behaviors. Generally, knowledge was not associated with optimism or with practices. Our findings indicate knowledge about COVID-19 is insufficient to prompt behavioral change among Ecuadorians. Since current COVID-19 control campaigns seek to educate the public, these efforts' impacts are likely to be limited. Given attitudes determine people's actions, further investigation into the factors underlying the lack of confidence in the ability of the world, and of Ecuador, to overcome COVID-19, is warranted. Edu-communicational campaigns should be accompanied by efforts to provide economically disadvantaged populations resources to facilitate adherence to recommendations to prevent the spread of the virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Atmos Pollut Res ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863711

RESUMO

The COVID-19 lockdown presented a peculiar opportunity to study a shift in the photochemical regime of ozone production in Quito (Ecuador) before and after mobility restrictions. Primary precursors such as NO and CO dropped dramatically as early as 13 March 2020, due to school closures, but ambient ozone did not change. In this work we use a chemical box model in order to estimate regimes of ozone production before and after the lockdown. We constrain the model with observations in Quito (ozone, NOx, CO, and meteorology) and with estimations of traffic-associated VOCs that are tightly linked to CO. To this end, we use the closest observational data of VOC/CO ratios at an urban area that shares with Quito conditions of high altitude and is located in the tropics, namely Mexico City. A shift in the chemical regime after mobility restrictions was evaluated in light of the magnitude of radical losses to nitric acid and to hydrogen peroxide. With reduced NOx in the morning rush hour (lockdown conditions), ozone production rates at 08:30-10:30 increased from 4.2 to 17 to 9.7-23 ppbv h-1, respectively. To test further the observed shift in chemical regime, ozone production was recalculated with post-lockdown NOx levels, but setting VOCs to pre-lockdown conditions. This change tripled ozone production rates in the mid-morning and stayed higher throughout the day. In light of these findings, practical scenarios that present the potential for ozone accumulation in the ambient air are discussed.

16.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e927304, 2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This case series describes 5 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 in Ecuador who had been treated with hydroxychloroquine for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) prior to their COVID-19 illness. CASE REPORT Case #1 reports a 29-year-old woman who had been treated with 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine per day for 1 year and presented with flu-like symptoms, chest pain, fever, odynophagia, asthenia, dry cough, and chills. Case #2 was a 34-year-old woman whose treatment for SLE included 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine per day since 2017. She arrived at the clinic with a dry cough, asthenia, and myalgias. Case #3 was a 24-year-old woman who had been using 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine per day since 2010. She presented with asthenia, myalgias, headaches, hypogeusia, and anosmia. Case #4 was a 39-year-old woman taking 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine every day for SLE who presented with dyspnea, chest pain, odynophagia, hypogeusia, anosmia, diarrhea, and fever. Case #5 was a 46-year-old woman who had been taking 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine since 2019. She came to our hospital complaining of chest pain, fever, and dyspnea. In all 5 patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed with a nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test using the Cepheid/GeneXpert system. CONCLUSIONS All 5 of our patients with SLE who were taking hydroxychloroquine presented with SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptoms of COVID-19. This case series provides support for a lack of prevention of COVID-19 by hydroxychloroquine.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia , Equador , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Medição de Risco , Amostragem , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0240008, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997705

RESUMO

Ecuador has been one of the most affected countries by the Corona Virus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, by April 2020 this country presented the highest rates of mortality in Latin America. The purpose of the present study was to identify behaviors during confinement and sociodemographic variables associated with the mental health status of confirmed or suspected COVID-19 patients who were part of the epidemiological surveillance program in Ecuador that included mandatory confinement and self-isolation. A cross-sectional study was performed from March 22th to April 18th, 2020 using an online survey. The survey collected socio-demographic information and severity of depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and anxiety symptoms through the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7. A total of 759 patients completed the questionnaire, 20.3% presented moderate to severe symptoms of depression and 22.5% moderate to severe symptoms of anxiety. Being a woman and from the Coastal region were risk factors. Exercising, maintaining daily routines, and keeping informed about the COVID-19 but limiting to an hour was associated with better mental health. Regression analysis indicated that the mentioned behaviors explained approximately 17% of the variance for depression sum scores and 11.8% of the variance for anxiety sum scores while controlling for gender and region. Understanding the association between sociodemographic variables and psychological states in patients with COVID-19 is relevant to tackle future public mental health problems and to implement health policies that are intended to palliate further psychiatric complications. Promotion of modifiable behaviors such as exercising, maintaining daily routines, and keeping informed about the COVID-19 but limiting to less than an hour is recommended.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Busca de Comunicante , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Quarentena , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Edumecentro ; 12(3): 277-283, jul.-set. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124715

RESUMO

RESUMEN Las autoras analizan el impacto social de la COVID-19 en Ecuador y Brasil como una muestra representativa de las tendencias de América Latina bajo las llamadas democracias capitalistas. El objetivo es valorar críticamente estas realidades a la luz de las teorías de las ciencias sociales y otros estudios previos.


ABSTRACT Authors analyze the social impact of COVID-19 on Ecuador and Brazil as a representative sample of Latin American trends under the so-called capitalist democracies. The purpose of the paper is to critically assess these realities in the light of social science theories and other previous studies.


Assuntos
População , Pobreza , Infecções por Coronavirus , Impacto de Calamidades
19.
Urban Clim ; 34: 100674, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834965

RESUMO

The negative effects on human health, along with the fatalities caused by the new coronavirus, have led governments worldwide to take strict measures. However, a reduction in air pollution has been found in many regions on a global scale. This study is focused on how the COVID-19 pandemic is impacting on the air quality in Ecuador, one of the most alarming cases of COVID-19 contagion in Latin America, occupying the first place as regards deaths per capita. The spatio-temporal variations in NO2 concentrations in 12 highly populated cities were evaluated by comparing the NO2 tropospheric concentrations before (2019) and after (2020) the COVID-19 lockdown. The atmospheric data was collected from the TROPOMI on the Sentinel-5P satellite of the European Space Agency. A reduction in NO2 concentrations (-13%) was observed as a consequence of the COVID-19 lockdown in Ecuador. However, this reduction occurred to the greatest extent in the cases of Guayaquil (-23.4%) and Quito (-22.4%), the two most highly populated cities. Linking NO2 levels to confirmed cases/deaths of COVID-19, a strong correlation between air NO2 concentrations and the cases/mortality caused by coronavirus (r = 0.91; p<0.001) was observed. This work highlights the crucial role played by air quality as regards human health.

20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1590-1592, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830642

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has emerged and rapidly evolved into a current global pandemic. Although bacterial and fungal coinfections have been associated with COVID-19, little is known about parasitic infection. We report a case of a COVID-19 patient who developed disseminated strongyloidiasis following treatment with high-dose corticosteroids and tocilizumab. Screening for Strongyloides infection should be pursued in individuals with COVID-19 who originate from endemic regions before initiating immunosuppressive therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/parasitologia , Diabetes Mellitus/parasitologia , Hipertensão/parasitologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/parasitologia , Pneumonia Viral/parasitologia , Strongyloides stercoralis/patogenicidade , Estrongiloidíase/parasitologia , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Coinfecção , Connecticut , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Equador , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/imunologia , Hipertensão/virologia , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pandemias , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estrongiloidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Estrongiloidíase/imunologia , Estrongiloidíase/virologia
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