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2.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 277: 103443, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333993

RESUMO

In the present study we analyze the epidemiological data of COVID-19 of Tibet and high-altitude regions of Bolivia and Ecuador, and compare to lowland data, to test the hypothesis that high-altitude inhabitants (+2,500 m above sea-level) are less susceptible to develop severe adverse effects in acute SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Analysis of available epidemiological data suggest that physiological acclimatization/adaptation that counterbalance the hypoxic environment in high-altitude may protect from severe impact of acute SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Potential underlying mechanisms such as: (i) a compromised half-live of the virus caused by the high-altitude environment, and (ii) a hypoxia mediated down regulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is the main binding target of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the pulmonary epithelium are discussed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Altitude , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Bolívia/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Equador/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oxigênio , Pandemias , Tibet/epidemiologia , Virulência
4.
5.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203658, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248128

RESUMO

Diseases in introduced broilers can possibly spill over to wild birds on the Galapagos. Knowledge about the current burden of exposure to pathogens in broilers on the Galapagos is very limited. The objective of the study reported here was to measure the burden of exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and intestinal parasites in a sample of broiler chickens on 13 farms on Santa Cruz Island and San Cristobal Island in July 2017. Blood serum samples were tested for detection of antibodies to IBDV, IBV, NDV, and MG by using an IDEXX Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. In addition, fecal samples and pen bedding environmental samples were processed and analyzed for diagnosis of intestinal parasite eggs under a compound light microscope. The frequency of seropositive broilers to IBDV was 74/130 or 56% (95% CI = 48, 65%), to IBV was 27/130 or 20% (14, 28%), and to NDV was 1/130 or 0.7% (0.1, 4%). All broilers tested negative to MG antibodies. Eimeria spp. infection was common in study broilers. Finally, we observed interaction between broiler chickens and wild birds (finches) inside broiler pens, as well as the presence of backyard chickens inside property limits of study farms. This study produced evidence that exposure to IBDV, IBV, and intestinal parasites in broilers on Santa Cruz Island and San Cristobal Island is important. Study results are relevant because (i) they provide new baseline data on the burden of exposure to avian pathogens in broiler farms, (ii) justify the need to verify standard operating procedures in hatcheries that supply (non-vaccinated) day-old chicks to the Galapagos and (iii) to implement enhanced biosecurity standards on broiler chicken farms to mitigate risk of disease transmission between broilers, backyard poultry, and wild birds on the Galapagos.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Espécies Introduzidas , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Doença de Newcastle/transmissão , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/parasitologia , Aves/virologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Equador , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 2978718, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29379796

RESUMO

In 2010, new Chinese strains of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), clinically more severe than the classical strains, emerged. These strains were spread to United States in 2013 through an intercontinental transmission from China with further spreading across the world, evidencing the emergent nature of these strains. In the present study, an analysis of PEDV field sequences from Ecuador was conducted by comparing all the PEDV S gene sequences available in the GenBank database. Phylogenetic comparisons and Bayesian phylogeographic inference based on complete S gene sequences were also conducted to track the origin and putative route of PEDV. The sequence from the PED-outbreak in Ecuador was grouped into the clade II of PEDV genogroup 2a together with other sequences of isolates from Mexico, Canada, and United States. The phylogeographic study revealed the emergence of the Chinese PEDV strains, followed by spreading to US in 2013, from US to Korea, and later the introduction of PEDV to Canada, Mexico, and Ecuador directly from the US. The sources of imports of live swine in Ecuador in 2014 were mainly from Chile and US. Thus, this movement of pigs is suggested as the main way for introducing PEDV to Ecuador.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Filogenia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Equador/epidemiologia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/patogenicidade , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão
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