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1.
Epidemiologia (Basel) ; 5(1): 122-136, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38534805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nurses are essential members of the healthcare workforce and were among the first-line carers for patients in community and hospital settings during the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, they were at a heightened risk of infection, resulting in several reported deaths among nursing staff. Several preventive measures were adopted to contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus. This study aims to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of nurses regarding hand hygiene, mask wearing, and social distancing measures in healthcare settings in Barbados during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: An online survey of nurses working in public hospitals and polyclinics (public primary care clinics) in Barbados from March 2021 to December 2021 was conducted. A nonsystematic convenience sampling method was employed to recruit nurses who were readily available and willing to participate. A questionnaire captured the sociodemographic information and knowledge and practices related to hand hygiene, the use of face masks, and social distancing. Each correct response received one mark. Overall knowledge scores were categorized as poor (<60%), average (60-80%), or good (>80-100%). RESULTS: Of the 192 participants, the majority were female (82.8%) and had >5 years of experience (82%). The findings revealed that 45.8% had poor knowledge of hand hygiene, and that the knowledge of 43.8% of respondents was average. Multivariable logistic regression showed that, after adjustment for age and gender, registered nurses had 2.1 times increased odds (95% confidence interval 1.0, 4.2) of having good knowledge compared to other nursing categories. Regarding mask wearing, 53.6% of nurses had average knowledge, and 27.1% had good knowledge. Multivariable logistic regression showed that, after adjustment for age and gender, registered nurses had 3.3 times increased odds (95% confidence interval 1.5, 7.4) of having good knowledge compared to nursing assistants. A total of 68.6% of respondents followed the correct steps of handwashing every time, and 98.3% wore a mask in public places. More than half of the nurses (51.2%) kept a safe distance from others to avoid spreading SARS-CoV-2; one-third were in a crowded place(s) in the past three months, and 55.8% usually followed guidelines for social isolation as recommended by the WHO. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified knowledge deficiencies related to hand hygiene and wearing masks among nurses. It is imperative to provide additional training on infection control measures.

2.
Res Sq ; 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38496638

RESUMO

Background: There is a high burden of chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes in small island developing states (SIDS). SIDS governments have committed to a range of public health, healthcare, and fiscal measures to reduce this burden including community-based health education in collaboration with civil society organizations. We sought to explore perceived acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility of implementing self-management health programs in 20 faith-based organizations in the small island developing state of Barbados. Methods: This was a concurrent mixed methods study - a quantitative online survey and a qualitative inquiry using semi-structured interviews. Acceptability, appropriateness and feasibility of the intervention were assessed using the following quantitative assessment tools: Acceptability of Intervention Measure (AIM), Intervention Appropriateness Measure (IAM) and Feasibility of Intervention Measure (FIM). Thirteen in-depth interviews were conducted virtually, recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis based on deductive codes from Proctor's implementation outcomes definitions. Results: From the 52 respondents of the survey, the median and interquartile ranges for the AIM, IAM and FIM scales were 16 (15-20), 16 (16-20) and 16 (15-17) (out of 20), respectively. We found high levels of acceptability, 82% (95% CI (69%, 95%)) of leaders indicating that health programs in churches met with their approval; and high levels of appropriateness-90% (95% CI (80%, 100%)) indicating health programs in churches were "fitting" and "a good match". Feasibility scores were lower, with 60% (95% CI (44%, 76%)) indicating that health programs in churches would be easy to use. In interviews, leaders expressed acceptance of healthy lifestyle programs in churches and described their appropriateness through alignment with church doctrines stating, "the body is the temple of God". They felt that economic impacts from COVID-19 were likely to be a barrier to the success of programs. Leaders expressed the need for support from healthcare providers who are sensitive and respectful of church culture. Conclusion: We found that health-based programs in churches align well with church doctrines, but the success of these programs will depend on establishing trust through the engagement of church-based champions, tailoring programming to include a biblical perspective and engaging entire households.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37947579

RESUMO

This paper tackles the question of how female leaders at national levels of government managed COVID-19 response and recovery from the first COVID-19 case in their respective countries through to 30 September 2021. The aim of this study was to determine which COVID-19 mitigations were effective in lowering the viral reproduction rate and number of new cases (per million) in each of the fourteen female presidents' countries-Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Bolivia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Lithuania, New Zealand, Norway, Serbia, and Taiwan. We first compared these countries by finding a mean case rate (29,420 per million), mean death rate (294 per million), and mean excess mortality rate (+1640 per million). We then analyzed the following mitigation measures per country: school closing, workplace closing, canceling public events, restrictions on gatherings, closing public transport, stay-at-home requirements, restrictions on internal movement, international travel controls, income support, debt/contract relief, fiscal measures, international support, public information campaigns, testing policy, contact tracing, emergency investment in healthcare, investment in vaccines, facial coverings, vaccination policy, and protection of the elderly. We utilized the random forest approach to examine the predictive significance of these variables, providing more interpretability. Subsequently, we then applied the Wilcoxon rank-sum statistical test to see the differences with and without mitigation in effect for the variables that were found to be significant by the random forest model. We observed that different mitigation strategies varied in their effectiveness. Notably, restrictions on internal movement and the closure of public transportation proved to be highly effective in reducing the spread of COVID-19. Embracing qualities such as community-based, empathetic, and personable leadership can foster greater trust among citizens, ensuring continued adherence to governmental policies like mask mandates and stay-at-home orders, ultimately enhancing long-term crisis management.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Idoso , Humanos , Feminino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Liderança , Bangladesh , Barbados
4.
J Registry Manag ; 50(1): 40-42, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37577281

RESUMO

Significant data is being produced on the impact of COVID-19 on aspects of clinical care. However, less is known about the impact on real-world health data. The US Food and Drug Administration defines real-world data as "data relating to patient health status and/or the delivery of health care routinely collected from a variety of sources," including disease registries.1 The methodology used by the Barbados National Registry (BNR)-active pursuit of first-hand clinical data using paper-based charts from multiple sources-makes it an ideal example of real-world data. Real-world data can overcome the barriers to clinical trials often present in small island developing states. This paper reviews the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the data of the BNR within the context of the real-world data cycle. Data collected retrospectively for 2016-2018, undergoing traceback during the pandemic, demonstrated a greater reliance on death certificate registration. A 38% reduction in the collection of new cases was noted in the postpandemic period compared to data collected in previous periods. The lack of access to source data delayed cancer registry reporting. We conclude that, given the challenges highlighted during the COVID-19 pandemic, more effort should be placed on providing timely access to real-world data for public health decision-making, particularly in small island developing states.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Barbados , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sistema de Registros
5.
Dialogues Health ; 2: 100111, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36778667

RESUMO

Purpose: Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) is a major health concern in Barbados. In 2013, the reported prevalence (18.7%) was double global levels, with diabetes accounting for 10.4% of total deaths in 2016. Barbados has a rapidly aging population and older adults living with diabetes are more at risk of developing complications. Poorly managed diabetes represents a high burden for individuals and society due to direct healthcare costs for treatment, and to indirect costs due to loss of productivity from disability and premature mortality. Good diabetes self-management promotes glycemic control. Self-management is enhanced by social support and challenged by external shocks. This study explored the role of social support in diabetes self-management among older people in Barbados during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Qualitative secondary thematic analysis of semi-structured individual telephone interviews with adults aged 65-84 years living with diabetes in Barbados during a partial COVID-19 lockdown period. Sampling was purposive, aided by gatekeepers who provide services to elderly people. Verbatim interview transcripts coded using an inductive method were subjected to thematic analysis by three qualitative researchers using NVIVO software. Results: Four organising themes: "Balance", "Social Capital", "Resilience", and "Adaptations to COVID-19", informed the global theme "Adaptive Diabetes Self-Management Response", which captures resilience mechanisms of older adults who balanced facilitators including self-reliance and religious faith, and barriers such as perceived ageist discrimination in workplace policies designed to reduce COVID-19 exposure. Accordingly, elderly Barbadians living with diabetes were resilient, selectively incorporating available social support mechanisms to maintain self-management and overall well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: The emergent evidence for resilience among older persons in this setting is important for informing health system interventions to improve quality of life for PLWD. The views of the elderly should be explicitly considered in policies designed to enhance the self-management of chronic health conditions.

6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 978590, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36304246

RESUMO

Background: The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) reduces the risk of transmission of infectious agents significantly among healthcare workers (HCWs). The study aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of PPE-related adverse skin reactions among HCWs working at the main COVID-19 isolation center in Barbados. Methods: A cross-sectional web-based online survey was conducted during April to June 2021 which recorded demographic information, details of PPE use and adverse skin reactions including severity and duration of onset of symptoms. Results: Most of the respondents used PPE for consecutive days (77.9%), 1-6 h/day (59.2%), and more than a year (62.5%). Fewer than half of the participants (45.6%) experienced adverse skin reactions from the use of PPE. The reactions were mostly observed in the cheeks (40.4%) and nose bridges (35.6%). Females had more reactions than their male counterparts (p = 0.003). The use of N95 masks and a combination of surgical and N95 masks produced adverse effects predominantly in the ears (60%) and cheeks (56.4%). Binary logistic regression showed that female HCWs (OR = 5.720 95% CI: 1.631, 20.063), doctors (OR = 5.215 95% CI: 0.877, 31.002), and longer duration of PPE use (>1 year) (OR = 2.902 95% CI: 0.958, 8.787) caused a significantly higher prevalence of adverse skin reactions. Conclusion: The PPE-related skin reactions were common among HCWs which mainly occurred due to prolonged use. Preventive measures inclusive of appropriate training of HCWs on the use of PPE are recommended to minimize these adverse events.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Barbados/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Pessoal de Saúde
7.
Bridgetown; PAHO; 2022-10-28. (PAHO/ECC/22-0001).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56337

RESUMO

In 2022 the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is celebrating its 120th anniversary. Operating as the independent specialized health agency of the inter-American system, PAHO provides technical cooperation to its Member States to address communicable and noncommunicable diseases and their causes, strengthen health systems, and respond to emergencies and disasters throughout the Americas. In addition, in its capacity as the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for the Americas, PAHO participates in the United Nations Country Team, collaborating with other United Nations agencies, funds, and programs to contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at country level. At the subregional level, PAHO works with integration mechanisms to position health and its determinants on the political agenda. The 2021 Country Annual Reports reflect PAHO’s technical cooperation in countries and territories in implementing the Country Cooperation Strategies, responding to their needs and priorities, and operating within the framework of PAHO’s regional and global mandates and the SDGs. Under the overarching theme of Responding to COVID-19 and Preparing for the Future, they highlight PAHO’s actions on the COVID-19 pandemic and its continuing efforts in priority areas such as health emergencies, health systems and services, communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases and mental health, health throughout the life course, and health equity. They also provide a financial summary for the biennium 2020-2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emergências , Sistemas de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Equidade , Equidade de Gênero , Diversidade Cultural , Cooperação Técnica , Região do Caribe , Barbados
9.
Prospects (Paris) ; 51(4): 611-625, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456380

RESUMO

The outbreak of Covid-19 worldwide has presented an unprecedented challenge for the equity-in-education agenda, especially in developing countries of the Global South (e.g., the English-speaking Caribbean). This article examines the impact school closures have had in Jamaica and Barbados, and highlights the emerging disparities the global pandemic has had on education. The central organizing questions are as follows: Who was affected by school closures in Barbados and Jamaica? How did the Ministries of Education (MOEs) support curriculum and instruction during the pandemic? What challenges does Covid-19 present for MOEs? What are the implications for education after Covid-19? School closure data suggest a gender disparity, with more males than females out of school due to Covid-19 from preprimary to secondary school in Barbados and Jamaica. MOEs in the region responded to school closures primarily by increasing access to technology to facilitate remote learning. Some of the challenges with continuing education for students during Covid-19 were due to a lack of infrastructure and amenities to support remote learning. Implications for education post-Covid-19 are considered.

10.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 14: 3309-3319, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34876817

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Due to increased exposure risk and the potential impact of COVID-19 infection, health care professionals (HCP) are a target group for COVID-19 vaccination. This study aimed to examine the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines among HCP at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Barbados. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of HCP was conducted between February 14 and 27, 2021 using an online questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic information, knowledge of novel coronavirus, intention to accept the COVID-19 vaccination, vaccine literacy (VL), and perceptions and attitudes regarding COVID-19 vaccines. Mean VL scores were calculated. The relationship between socio-demographic variables and vaccine intent was assessed using a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: Of 343 HCPs, 55.1% indicated they would accept the COVID-19 vaccine if it were available; 44.9% expressed hesitancy towards the COVID-19 vaccine. We assessed the impact of socio-demographic factors and previous vaccine behavior on vaccine intent; after adjustment of the multivariable logistic regression model, non-Barbadian nationality and previous flu vaccine uptake were statistically significant predictors of reported intent to take the COVID-19 vaccine. Persons who indicated that they would take the vaccine had a higher mean vaccine literacy score [3.46 95% CI (3.40, 3.52)] than those who were not ready to take the vaccine immediately [3.23 95% CI (3.15, 3.30)]. VL scores were higher among the 29.5% of HCPs who believed vaccines should be mandatory. CONCLUSION: This study highlighted vaccine hesitancy among HCPs in the sole public tertiary hospital of Barbados. As HCP perceptions may help or hinder the campaign to promote vaccine uptake in Barbados, vaccine promotion programs targeting HCPs are needed to ensure the success of the country's COVID-19 vaccination drive.

11.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e050548, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607863

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the COVID-19 environment of reduced patient interaction with the healthcare system, evidenced-based self-care of chronic disease is vital. We will evaluate the effect of an online chronic disease self-management programme (CDSMP) plus medication adherence tools on systolic blood pressure (SBP) (primary aim) and, seek to understand the barriers and facilitators to implementation of this modified CDSMP in faith-based organisations (FBOs) (secondary aim). METHODS: We will conduct an unblinded cluster randomised trial in FBOs throughout Barbados. Eligibility: Persons ages 35-70 years; a previous diagnosis of hypertension or currently on antihypertensive therapy and the occurrence of two or more blood pressure readings above 130 mm Hg (systolic) or 80 mm Hg (diastolic) on the day of recruitment. Persons not known to have hypertension but who have two or more blood pressure readings at or above 130 mm Hg (systolic) or 80 mm Hg (diastolic) on two recruitment days at least 1 week apart will also be eligible. The unit of randomisation is a church cluster which consists of 7-9 churches. We will perform block randomisation to assign 24 clusters to intervention or control. The intervention has three components: modified CDSMP workshops, distribution of medication pill boxes and use of social media (WhatsApp V.2.0) to encourage medication adherence. Controls will receive one didactic lecture only. We will determine the mean changes in SBP levels for the intervention group versus controls and compare differences in outcomes 6 months' post intervention using mixed effects regression models. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This project has received ethical approval from the Institutional Review Board of the University of the West Indies in Barbados. Dissemination will use peer-reviewed publications, policy briefs to government and guidelines to leaders of FBOs. We aim to increase the proportion of patients with controlled hypertension and inform implementation of self-management programmes in small populations. TRAIL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04437966.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Organizações Religiosas , Autogestão , Adulto , Idoso , Barbados , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Bridgetown; PAHO; 2021-10-19. (PAHO/ECC/21-0001).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-55054

RESUMO

Founded in 1902 as the independent specialized health agency of the inter-American system, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has developed recognized competence and expertise, providing technical cooperation to its Member States to fight communicable and noncommunicable diseases and their causes, to strengthen health systems, and to respond to emergencies and disasters throughout the Region of the Americas. In addition, acting in its capacity as the World Health Organization’s Regional Office, PAHO participates actively in the United Nations Country Team, collaborating with other agencies, the funds and programs of the United Nations system to contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at country level. This 2020 annual report reflects PAHO’s technical cooperation in the countries for the period, implementing the Multi-Country Cooperation Strategy, responding to the needs and priorities of the countries, and operating within the framework of the Organization’s regional and global mandates and the SDGs. Under the overarching theme of Universal Health and the Pandemic – Resilient Health Systems, it highlights PAHO’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic as well as its continuing efforts in priority areas such as communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases, mental health, health throughout the life course, and health emergencies. It also provides a financial summary for the year under review.


Assuntos
Cooperação Técnica , Prioridades em Saúde , Sistemas de Saúde , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Fatores de Risco , Gestão de Riscos , Administração Financeira , Saúde Mental , Fatores Socioeconômicos , COVID-19 , Região do Caribe , Barbados
13.
BMJ Support Palliat Care ; 11(3): 310-311, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513678

RESUMO

New ways of encouraging discussion and education around the topic of do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DNACPR) decisions in healthcare can prove challenging. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is still portrayed as an intervention that is successful even in people with multiple long-term conditions. In 2020, during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, a letter from a palliative care doctor to his patient was read out as part of an online campaign entitled #ReadALetter, organised by the organisation Letters Live. The letter addresses misconceptions regarding DNACPR decisions and encourages thoughtful dialogue. In particular, it promotes an individualised approach for clinicians, and investigates one patient's journey: from initially rejecting the concept, to later on fully embracing it as part of his holistic care. A journey that took him to Barbados, amongst other places.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Barbados , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Ordens quanto à Conduta (Ética Médica) , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 5(2)2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370128

RESUMO

Analysis of the temporal, seasonal and demographic distribution of dengue virus (DENV) infections in Barbados was conducted using national surveillance data from a total of 3994 confirmed dengue cases. Diagnosis was confirmed either by DENV-specific real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), or non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen or enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests; a case fatality rate of 0.4% (10/3994) was observed. The prevalence rate of dengue fever (DF) varied from 27.5 to 453.9 cases per 100,000 population among febrile patients who sought medical attention annually. DF cases occurred throughout the year with low level of transmission observed during the dry season (December to June), then increased transmission during rainy season (July to November) peaking in October. Three major dengue epidemics occurred in Barbados during 2010, 2013 and possibly 2016 with an emerging three-year interval. DF prevalence rate among febrile patients who sought medical attention overall was highest among the 10-19 years old age group. The highest DF hospitalisation prevalence rate was observed in 2013. Multiple serotypes circulated during the study period and Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) was the most prevalent serotype during 2010, whilst DENV-1 was the most prevalent serotype in 2013. Two DENV-1 strains from the 2013 DENV epidemic were genetically more closely related to South East Asian strains, than Caribbean or South American strains, and represent the first ever sequencing of DENV strains in Barbados. However, the small sample size (n = 2) limits any meaningful conclusions. DF prevalence rates were not significantly different between females and males. Public health planning should consider DENV inter-epidemic periodicity, the current COVID-19 pandemic and similar clinical symptomology between DF and COVID-19. The implementation of routine sequencing of DENV strains to obtain critical data can aid in battling DENV epidemics in Barbados.

15.
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