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3.
Buenos Aires; OPS; 2021-08-13. (OPS/ARG/21-0001).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-54660

RESUMO

Establecida en 1902 como el organismo independiente especializado en salud del sistema interamericano, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) ha desarrollado competencias y experiencia ampliamente reconocidas al brindar cooperación técnica a sus Estados Miembros para combatir las enfermedades transmisibles y no transmisibles y sus causas, fortalecer los sistemas de salud y responder a situaciones de emergencia y desastres en toda la Región de las Américas. Asimismo, en su calidad de oficina regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la OPS participa activamente en los equipos de las Naciones Unidas en los países, colaborando con otros organismos, fondos y programas del sistema de las Naciones Unidas para contribuir al logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) a nivel de país. En este informe anual se presenta la cooperación técnica de la OPS a nivel de país en el 2020, mediante la aplicación de la estrategia de cooperación con el país, la respuesta a las necesidades y prioridades nacionales, y el desarrollo de las actividades en el marco de los mandatos regionales y mundiales de la Organización y los ODS. En consonancia con el tema general de "la salud universal y la pandemia: sistemas de salud resilientes", se pone de relieve la respuesta de la OPS a la pandemia de COVID-19, así como sus esfuerzos continuos en esferas prioritarias como las enfermedades transmisibles, las enfermedades no transmisibles, la salud mental, la salud a lo largo del curso de vida y las emergencias de salud. También se presenta un resumen financiero del ejercicio examinado.


Assuntos
Cooperação Técnica , Sistemas de Saúde , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Políticas, Planejamento e Administração em Saúde , Cobertura de Serviços de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis , Fatores de Risco , Saúde Mental , Administração Financeira , América do Sul , Argentina
4.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(4): 496-507, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453791

RESUMO

Our objective was to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes, and practices against COVID-19. A total of 3774 persons were surveyed between September 18 and October 16, 2020. Eighty% resided in Buenos Aires City or Buenos Aires Province: 58% had completed tertiary education; 72% worked either independently or as employees in the public or the private sector; 51% used a prepaid health care plan, 34% were covered by a trade union-based health system, and near 10% used the public health services. According to the socio-demographic variables analyzed, the population studied was representative of the middle class. A total of 7% had been diagnosed with COVID-19. There was a high level of knowledge about the disease, judging by the high proportion of correct answers (80-90%). Regarding the measures taken by the government, the answers varied widely ("correct", "inadequate", "harmful", "unnecessary", etc.). The medical staff was the preferred source of information; 44% of respondents felt protected by their health system; 28% would only seek healthcare when feeling very sick. There was a high degree of compliance with most protection measures, except for attendance to social events in poorly ventilated spaces (50%). The results of these studies contribute to establishing communication strategies for the prevention and control of COVID-19 and thus deal more efficiently with eventual outbreaks of the disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Argentina/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(4): 536-545, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453794

RESUMO

Individuals with malignancies and COVID-19 have a lower survival compared with the general population. However, the information about the impact of COVID-19 on the whole hematological population is scarce. We aimed to describe the 30th day overall survival (OS) after COVID-19 infection in patients with a hematological disease in Argentina. A completely anonymous survey from the Argentine Society of Hematology was delivered to all the hematologists in Argentina; it started in April 2020. A cut-off to analyze the data was performed in December 2020 and, finally, 419 patients were reported and suitable for the analysis (average age: 58 years, 90% with malignant diseases). After the COVID-19 diagnosis, the 30-day OS for the whole population was 80.2%. From the entire group (419), 101 (24.1%) individuals required intensive care unit admission, where the 30-day OS was 46.6%. Among allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients, the 30-day OS was 70.3%. Factors associated with a low OS were two or more comorbidities, an active hematological disease and history of chemotherapy. In individuals with the three factors, the 30-day OS was 49.6% while the 30-day OS in those without those factors was 100%. Patients with hematological diseases have a higher mortality than the general population. This group represents a challenge and requires careful decision-making of the treatment in order not to compromise the chances of cure.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hematologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-4, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With the intention to try to contain the spread of the viral disease, several measures were taken in Argentina for long periods of time. METHODS: The lack of labor activity, social constraints, and a strong sense of helplessness, combined with a complex economic scenario with recession, inflation, and devaluation, led to the emergence of a dense climate of discontent. RESULTS: After a second wave hit the country, several measures were reinstalled. The Argentine society, polarized in many aspects, was further divided between those who supported the re-establishment of strict measures to help prevent further infections and those who desperately claimed for the urgent need to return to work to sustain their livings. CONCLUSIONS: The preexisting problems to which developing countries are usually exposed have been sharpened over the last year, determining a very complex scenario where every decision is important for the country's future. An updated report of the current situation and its management in different countries is of vital importance regarding global health issues and may serve for feedback and decision-making.

7.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 28(3): 869-874, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346995

RESUMO

This article describes the emergence of health concerns relating to the epidemics that occurred during the twentieth century in La Pampa, a province in Argentina. Epidemics such as smallpox drove such policies, which frequently originated in Buenos Aires, the country's capital. The spread of many epidemics was due to shortages: water, sewage and adequate refuse disposal, an insufficient number of health care workers, the presence of disease transmission vectors such as mosquitos, and, ultimately, poverty. The historical experience described in this text highlights the importance of analyzing the impact of SARS-CoV-2 beyond the big cities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/história , Epidemias/história , Varíola/história , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Cidades/epidemiologia , Cidades/história , Erradicação de Doenças/história , Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/história , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde/história , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , História do Século XX , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/história , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Insetos Vetores , Masculino , Militares/história , Pobreza/história , Eliminação de Resíduos/história , Esgotos , Varíola/epidemiologia , Varíola/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/história , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Abastecimento de Água/história
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453361

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to examine longitudinal changes on suicidal risk levels, adjusting for impulsivity-related traits, quarantine duration, main demographic factors, mental disorder history, and loneliness, in young Argentinean college students with (ideation; attempt) and without suicidal behavior history, during a quarantine of up to 103-day duration of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A longitudinal design with two-repeated measures was used (N = 1202). Follow-up was a month later from the first measurement. Three groups were analyzed: with suicidal ideation history, with suicide attempt history, and without suicidal behavior history. RESULTS: Percentages of college students with high or moderate suicidal risk were alarming (accumulated: 62.23% first measurement, 57.65% second measurement). Multilevel analysis on the three groups showed that suicidal risk diminished from the first measurement to the follow-up, having mental disorder history predicted higher suicidal risk, and negative urgency had the largest increasing effects on suicidal risk which persisted over time. CONCLUSIONS: Suicidal risk widely affects college students during lengthy quarantines of the COVID-19 pandemic and it should be tracked in those having pre-existing vulnerabilities, but also in those without. Education on managing negative emotions may help decrease suicide risk in college students during the COVID-19 pandemic.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 800: 149578, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426365

RESUMO

In the current pandemic of COVID-19, sewage surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 genome has been used to complement viral epidemiology in different countries. The aim of this work was to introduce and evaluate this wastewater-based tool in the metropolitan region of Buenos Aires, Argentina. As a pilot study, surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater from three districts of this area was performed for more than nine months from June 2020 to April 2021. Viruses present in the samples were concentrated using polyethylene glycol precipitation and quantified using RT-qPCR CDC N1 assay. Virus recovery for SARS-CoV-2 and a potential surrogate, bovine coronavirus Mebus strain, that shares the Betacoronavirus genus and structural characteristics with SARS-CoV-2, were evaluated after concentration and detection procedures. Recovery of both viruses did not differ significantly, with a median for SARS-CoV-2 and BCoV of 0.085 (95% CI: 0.021-0.179) and 0.262 (95% CI: 1.18 × 10-5-0.564) respectively. The concentration of SARS-CoV-2 genome in wastewater ranged from 10 -1 to 10 3 cg/ml, depending on the wastewater treatment plant, type of collection site, viral recovery of the concentration method and the epidemiological situation of the outbreaks. Significant correlations were observed between SARS-CoV-2 concentration in wastewater and reported clinical cases, reinforcing the utility of this approach to monitor the epidemiological status of populations.

11.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-20, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the results of a nationwide critical-care course for non-intensivists to increase staff capacity of intensive care units (ICU) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Argentina. METHODS: Three academic organizations, with special funding from 55 private companies, developed a short virtual course comprised of web-based videos, virtual tutorials, and a forum chat. Each state assigned scholarships to non-ICU staff from public hospitals. Students received active follow-up for the completion of the course and took a survey upon course completion. RESULTS: After four months, there were 10,123 students registered from 661 hospitals in 328 cities. Of these, 67.8% passed the course, 29.1% were still ongoing and 3.1% were inactive. Most students were female (74.2%) with a median of 37 years old (IQR 31-44). The group was composed of 56.5% nurses, 36.2% physicians, and 7.4% physiotherapists, of whom 48.3% did not have any experience in critical care. Mean overall satisfaction was 4.4/5 (SD 0.9), and 90.7% considered they were able to apply the contents to their practice. CONCLUSIONS: This course was effective for rapid training of non-ICU personnel. The assignment strategy, the educational techniques, and the close follow-up led to low dropout and high success rates and satisfaction.

12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S107-S122, agosto 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281045

RESUMO

La Subcomisión de Derechos del Niño y el Comité de Pediatría Social, de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría, realizaron un trabajo de campo que permitiera dar voz a nuestros niños, niñas y adolescentes (NNA) durante la cuarentena y el aislamiento social obligatorio impuestos en nuestro país por la pandemia mundial por la enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19). Los objetivos fueron relevar el impacto sobre sus sentimientos, emociones y deseos; evaluar y comparar las repercusiones personales, familiares y sociales antes, durante y después de la cuarentena; e identificar las necesidades de apoyo y contención.Los resultados de la investigación permiten afirmar que los niños han sido los más afectados y los menos escuchados. La cuarentena ha tenido un enorme impacto individual, social y familiar en los NNA, y reclama un abordaje holístico, comprometido y mancomunado de la sociedad civil, las familias, los profesionales de la salud, los docentes y las autoridades políticas.


The Subcommittee on the Rights of the Child and the Social Pediatrics Committee of the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría carried out a fieldwork that allowed us to give a voice to our children and adolescents (NNA), during quarantine and social isolation mandatory imposed in our country by the global pandemic COVID-19. The objectives were to analyze the impact on their feelings, emotions and desires; evaluate and compare personal, family and social repercussions pre, intra and post quarantine; and identify support and containment needs.The results of the research allow us to affirm that children have been the most vulnerable and the least listened to. The quarantine has had an enormous individual, social and family impact on children and adolescents and calls for a holistic, committed and joint approach from civil society, families, health professionals, teachers and political authorities


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Percepção , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Proteção da Criança/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Emoções , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde da Criança , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Entrevistas como Assunto , Saúde do Adolescente , Distanciamento Físico , Direitos Humanos
13.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): 266-270, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1280929

RESUMO

Objetivo. Describir el impacto de la pandemia por COVID-19 en el programa de cirugía cardiovascular pediátrica y estimar el tiempo para reducir la lista de espera quirúrgica. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo. Se compararon resultados quirúrgicos del período preCOVID versus el período COVID. Se utilizó un modelo matemático para estimar el tiempo para reducir la lista de espera. Resultados. Entre el 23 de marzo y el 31 de agosto de 2020 se operaron 83 pacientes, que representan una reducción del 60 %, respecto al período preCOVID. La mediana de edad fue de 6 meses (rango intercuartílico [RIC]: 25-75, 1,8 meses a 2,9 años; p = 0,0023. El tiempo para eliminar la lista de espera varía entre 10 y 19 meses. Conclusiones. El programa tuvo una reducción del 60 %. El tiempo de resolución de la lista de espera puede ser al menos 10 a 19 meses


Objective. To describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on a pediatric cardiovascular surgery program and estimate the necessary time to reduce the surgery waiting list. Methods. Retrospective, descriptive study. Surgical outcomes from the pre-COVID-19 period and COVID-19 period were compared. A mathematical model was used to estimate the time necessary to reduce the waiting list. Results. Between March 23rd and August 31st, 2020, 83 patients underwent surgery, accounting for a 60 % reduction compared to the pre-COVID-19 period. Their median age was 6 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 25-75, 1.8 months to 2.9 years; p = 0.0023). The time necessary to eliminate the waiting list ranges from 10 to 19 months. Conclusions. There was a 60 % reduction in the program. The time required to clear the backlog of cases may range from, at least, 10 to 19 month


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardiovasculares/tendências , Listas de Espera , Tempo para o Tratamento/tendências , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Hospitais Públicos/tendências , Argentina/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pandemias , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): 224-229, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1280889

RESUMO

Introducción. La apendicitis constituye la principal causa de abdomen agudo quirúrgico en pediatría. Durante la pandemia por COVID-19, se replantearon las estrategias de manejo ydisminuyeron las consultas en las guardias, lo que podría asociarse a diagnósticos tardíos y complicaciones. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el impacto de la pandemia en los niños con apendicitis aguda. Métodos. Estudio analítico retrospectivocomparativo de pacientes pediátricos conapendicitis aguda durante los cinco meses del confinamiento por COVID-19 versus los meses equivalentes del año previo. Se analizaron la incidencia, la clínica, el estadio, el abordajequirúrgico y las complicaciones. Resultados. Los casos totales de apendicitisse redujeron un 25 % (n = 67 versus n = 50 en 2020). El tiempo medio hasta la consulta fue de 24 horas en ambos períodos (p = 0,989). La incidencia de peritonitis fue del 44 % (n = 22) versus el 37 % (n = 22) (p = 0,22) en 2019. No se evidenció diferencia en los estadios deenfermedad de acuerdo con lo informado en los partes quirúrgicos. En 2019, todas las cirugías se realizaron por vía laparoscópica; en 2020, solo un42 % (n = 21). La incidencia de complicaciones fue del 6 %, contra 7,5 % en el período previo (p = 0,75). Un paciente fue COVID-19 positivo. Conclusión. A pesar de la reducción en el númerode casos de apendicitis, no se evidenció una demora en la consulta en nuestra población. El mayor impacto se asoció a la readecuación del manejo, evitando el abordaje laparoscópico para reducir la diseminación del virus.


Introduction. Appendicitis is the leading cause of surgical acute abdomen in pediatrics. During the COVID-19 pandemic, management strategies were reassessed and the number of visits to the emergency department dropped down, which may be associated with delayed diagnoses and complications. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of the pandemic on children with acute appendicitis. Methods. Analytical, retrospective, comparative study of pediatric patients with acute appendicitis in the 5 months of COVID-19 lockdown versus the same period in the previous year. Incidence, clinical data, stage, surgical approach, and complications were analyzed. Results. The total number of appendicitis cases went down by 25 % (n = 67 versus n = 50 in 2020). The mean time to consultation was 24 hours in both periods (p = 0.989). The incidence of peritonitis was 44 % (n = 22) versus 37 % (n = 22) (p = 0.22) in 2019. No differences were  observed in terms of appendicitis stage based on surgery reports. In 2019, all surgeries were laparoscopic; while in 2020, only 42 % (n = 21). The incidence of complications was 6 % versus 7.5 % in the previous period (p = 0.75). One patient was COVID-19 positive. Conclusion. Although in our population the number of appendicitis cases dropped down, consultation was not delayed. The greater impact was associated with the reformulation of management strategies, in which the laparoscopic approach is avoided to reduce virus transmission.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Apendicectomia/tendências , Apendicite/cirurgia , Apendicite/diagnóstico , Apendicite/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Diagnóstico Tardio/tendências , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Apendicectomia/métodos , Argentina/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Laparoscopia/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Centros de Atenção Terciária , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitais Gerais
15.
J Ment Health ; : 1-10, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Argentinean quarantine is among the strictest and longest quarantines in the world. To determine if a worsening pattern on mental health would emerge with a prolonged quarantine duration, a longitudinal analysis pertaining to the lengthy mandatory Argentinean quarantine was conducted. AIM: To examine depression and anxiety changes in college students, as a function of quarantine duration, demographic and health-related factors, during successive time cuts of the lengthy mandatory quarantine in Argentina. METHODS: We used a longitudinal design, N = 1492 college students. For the first measurement, successive samplings were carried out across quarantine sub-periods of up to 106-days duration. The follow-up was one month later. RESULTS: Particularly women, young, and having a history of mental disorder and suicidal behavior, were more depressed and anxious under mandatory restrictive quarantine conditions. Repeated measures of both depression and anxiety scores remained constantly high during the more restrictive quarantine sub-periods of up to 13 and 53-days duration, and decreased during the less restrictive quarantine sub-period of up to 106-days duration, but with small effect sizes (0.10-0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Restrictive quarantine has negative effects on mental health outcomes. Partial spontaneous remissions of depression and anxiety symptoms may be expected with further quarantine relaxations.

16.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 33(2): 188-195, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the usual practice of mobility therapy in the adult intensive care unit for patients with and without COVID-19. METHODS: Online survey in which physical therapists working in an adult intensive care unit in Argentina participated. Sixteen multiple-choice or single-response questions grouped into three sections were asked. The first section addressed personal, professional and work environment data. The second section presented questions regarding usual care, and the third focused on practices under COVID-19 pandemic conditions. RESULTS: Of 351 physical therapists, 76.1% answer that they were exclusively responsible for patient mobility. The highest motor-based goal varied according to four patient scenarios: Mechanically ventilated patients, patients weaned from mechanical ventilation, patients who had never required mechanical ventilation, and patients with COVID-19 under mechanical ventilation. In the first and last scenarios, the highest goal was to optimize muscle strength, while for the other two, it was to perform activities of daily living. Finally, the greatest limitation in working with patients with COVID-19 was respiratory and/or contact isolation. CONCLUSION: Physical therapists in Argentina reported being responsible for the mobility of patients in the intensive care unit. The highest motor-based therapeutic goals for four classic scenarios in the closed area were limited by the need for mechanical ventilation. The greatest limitation when mobilizing patients with COVID-19 was respiratory and contact isolation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Fisioterapeutas/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Argentina , Estado Terminal/reabilitação , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Força Muscular , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Math Biosci ; : 108664, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271015

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged authorities at different levels of government administration around the globe. When faced with diseases of this severity, it is useful for the authorities to have prediction tools to estimate in advance the impact on the health system as well as the human, material, and economic resources that will be necessary. In this paper, we construct an extended Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered model that incorporates the social structure of Mar del Plata, the 4°most inhabited city in Argentina and head of the Municipality of General Pueyrredón. Moreover, we consider detailed partitions of infected individuals according to the illness severity, as well as data of local health resources, to bring predictions closer to the local reality. Tuning the corresponding epidemic parameters for COVID-19, we study an alternating quarantine strategy: a part of the population can circulate without restrictions at any time, while the rest is equally divided into two groups and goes on successive periods of normal activity and lockdown, each one with a duration of τ days. We also implement a random testing strategy with a threshold over the population. We found that τ=7 is a good choice for the quarantine strategy since it reduces the infected population and, conveniently, it suits a weekly schedule. Focusing on the health system, projecting from the situation as of September 30, we foresee a difficulty to avoid saturation of the available ICU, given the extremely low levels of mobility that would be required. In the worst case, our model estimates that four thousand deaths would occur, of which 30% could be avoided with proper medical attention. Nonetheless, we found that aggressive testing would allow an increase in the percentage of people that can circulate without restrictions, and the medical facilities to deal with the additional critical patients would be relatively low.

18.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(9): 989-998, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although COVID-19 has greatly affected many low-income and middle-income countries, detailed information about patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) is still scarce. Our aim was to examine ventilation characteristics and outcomes in invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19 in Argentina, an upper middle-income country. METHODS: In this prospective, multicentre cohort study (SATICOVID), we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 who were on invasive mechanical ventilation and admitted to one of 63 ICUs in Argentina. Patient demographics and clinical, laboratory, and general management variables were collected on day 1 (ICU admission); physiological respiratory and ventilation variables were collected on days 1, 3, and 7. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. All patients were followed until death in hospital or hospital discharge, whichever occurred first. Secondary outcomes were ICU mortality, identification of independent predictors of mortality, duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, and patterns of change in physiological respiratory and mechanical ventilation variables. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04611269, and is complete. FINDINGS: Between March 20, 2020, and Oct 31, 2020, we enrolled 1909 invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19, with a median age of 62 years [IQR 52-70]. 1294 (67·8%) were men, hypertension and obesity were the main comorbidities, and 939 (49·2%) patients required vasopressors. Lung-protective ventilation was widely used and median duration of ventilation was 13 days (IQR 7-22). Median tidal volume was 6·1 mL/kg predicted bodyweight (IQR 6·0-7·0) on day 1, and the value increased significantly up to day 7; positive end-expiratory pressure was 10 cm H2O (8-12) on day 1, with a slight but significant decrease to day 7. Ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) to fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) was 160 (IQR 111-218), respiratory system compliance 36 mL/cm H2O (29-44), driving pressure 12 cm H2O (10-14), and FiO2 0·60 (0·45-0·80) on day 1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in 1672 (87·6%) of patients; 1176 (61·6%) received prone positioning. In-hospital mortality was 57·7% (1101/1909 patients) and ICU mortality was 57·0% (1088/1909 patients); 462 (43·8%) patients died of refractory hypoxaemia, frequently overlapping with septic shock (n=174). Cox regression identified age (hazard ratio 1·02 [95% CI 1·01-1·03]), Charlson score (1·16 [1·11-1·23]), endotracheal intubation outside of the ICU (ie, before ICU admission; 1·37 [1·10-1·71]), vasopressor use on day 1 (1·29 [1·07-1·55]), D-dimer concentration (1·02 [1·01-1·03]), PaO2/FiO2 on day 1 (0·998 [0·997-0·999]), arterial pH on day 1 (1·01 [1·00-1·01]), driving pressure on day 1 (1·05 [1·03-1·08]), acute kidney injury (1·66 [1·36-2·03]), and month of admission (1·10 [1·03-1·18]) as independent predictors of mortality. INTERPRETATION: In patients with COVID-19 who required invasive mechanical ventilation, lung-protective ventilation was widely used but mortality was high. Predictors of mortality in our study broadly agreed with those identified in studies of invasively ventilated patients in high-income countries. The sustained burden of COVID-19 on scarce health-care personnel might have contributed to high mortality over the course of our study in Argentina. These data might help to identify points for improvement in the management of patients in middle-income countries and elsewhere. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATION: For the Spanish translation of the Summary see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Midwifery ; 102: 103072, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19) required strict confinement measures that differentially impacted the individual's daily life. Thus, this work aimed to study postpartum women's mental health in Argentina during mandatory social isolation. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from May to July 2020, which included five validated questionnaires to assess postpartum depression (Postpartum Depression Screening Scale-Short Form), insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index), memory complaints (Memory Complaint Scale), metacognition (Brief Metamemory and Metaconcentration Scale), and breastfeeding self-efficacy (Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form). Sociodemographic variables, social isolation characteristics, and breastfeeding practices were also collected. This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Statistical analysis included zero-order correlations, multiple logistic regressions, and a set of structural equation models (SEM) to test direct and indirect effects. Goodness-of-fit indices were calculated for SEM. SETTING: Postpartum women were recruited from public hospitals, private health clinics, and online community recruitment in the Cordoba province (Argentina). PARTICIPANTS: 305 postpartum women from Argentina. MEASUREMENTS AND FINDINGS: 37% of women reported postpartum depression, 46% insomnia, 42% memory impairment, 60% low metaconcentration, 50% low metamemory, and 23% low breastfeeding efficacy. Also, significant associations were found demonstrating that social isolation promoted postpartum depression and insomnia were reciprocally related, which compromised female cognition and efficacy. This situation was aggravated in women during late postpartum, with previous children, and by low social support (e.g., family, health professionals), with non-exclusive breastfeeding being increased. KEY CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study addressing postpartum women's mental status during social isolation in Argentina, which was a promoting factor for postpartum depression and insomnia that were reciprocally related. This situation was also aggravated by reproductive factors, such as late postpartum, multiparity, breastfeeding frequency, and non-exclusive breastfeeding. Additionally, breastfeeding self-efficacy depended on mental health status, and euthymia therefore favoured the practice of exclusive breastfeeding.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148887, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274669

RESUMO

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an emerging tool that gives temporal and spatial information on a population's health status. Here, we report the epidemiological dynamics of a population of ~1.2 million residents in the metropolitan region of Mendoza province, Argentina, within the period July 2020 to January 2021. We combined the use of WBE of two wastewater treatment plants with epidemiological surveillance of the corresponding populations. We applied two viral concentration methods (polyethylene glycol precipitation and aluminum-based adsorption-flocculation) and RNA isolation methods in each wastewater sample to increase the possibility of detection and quantification of nucleocapsid markers (N1 and N2) of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-qPCR. Overall, our results allowed us to trace the rise, exponential growth, plateau, and fall of SARS-CoV-2 infections for 26 weeks. Individual analysis for each wastewater treatment plant showed a positive correlation between the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 genetic markers and COVID-19 cases that were diagnosed per week. Our findings indicate that WBE is a useful epidemiological indicator to anticipate the increase in COVID-19 cases and monitor the advance of the pandemic and different waves of infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Águas Residuárias , Argentina/epidemiologia , Humanos , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2
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