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1.
La Paz; OPS; 2021-09-02. (OPS/BOL/21-0001).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-54783

RESUMO

Establecida en 1902 como el organismo independiente especializado en salud del sistema interamericano, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) ha desarrollado competencias y experiencia ampliamente reconocidas al brindar cooperación técnica a sus Estados Miembros para combatir las enfermedades transmisibles y no transmisibles y sus causas, fortalecer los sistemas de salud y responder a situaciones de emergencia y desastres en toda la Región de las Américas. Asimismo, en su calidad de oficina regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la OPS participa activamente en los equipos de las Naciones Unidas en los países, colaborando con otros organismos, fondos y programas del sistema de las Naciones Unidas para contribuir al logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) a nivel de país. En este informe anual se presenta la cooperación técnica de la OPS a nivel de país en el 2020, mediante la aplicación de la estrategia de cooperación con el país, la respuesta a las necesidades y prioridades nacionales, y el desarrollo de las actividades en el marco de los mandatos regionales y mundiales de la Organización y los ODS. En consonancia con el tema general de "la salud universal y la pandemia: sistemas de salud resilientes", se pone de relieve la respuesta de la OPS a la pandemia de COVID-19, así como sus esfuerzos continuos en esferas prioritarias como las enfermedades transmisibles, las enfermedades no transmisibles, la salud mental, la salud a lo largo del curso de vida y las emergencias de salud. También se presenta un resumen financiero del ejercicio examinado.


Assuntos
Cooperação Técnica , Sistemas de Saúde , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Políticas, Planejamento e Administração em Saúde , Cobertura de Serviços de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Saúde Mental , Administração Financeira , Administração em Saúde Pública , América do Sul , Bolívia
2.
Telemed J E Health ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382821

RESUMO

Background: There is currently little scientific evidence on the usefulness of implementing strategies against COVID-19 remotely with the help of telemedicine. Objective: Evaluate whether teleconsultation is helpful as an instrument of mediated care in the monitoring and follow-up of individuals with high suspicion of COVID-19 through early detection by the Call Center COVID-19 of the Ministry of Health and Sports, Bolivia. Methodology: Descriptive and cross-sectional observational study of patients captured by the Call Center-COVID-19, who were monitored and followed up in their homes through teleconsultations carried out by the National TeleHealth Program, remotely through information and communication technologies throughout the Bolivian territory during the first 100 days of its implementation. Results: A total of 3,278 patients were studied, recruited between March 16 and June 23, 2020; 49.4% were women, with an overall mean age of 37.5 years (standard deviation [SD] 15.2). The mean detection time was 7.6 days (SD 6.92); 93.8% required home isolation, and only 6.2% were transferred for hospitalization. The mean follow-up time for all patients was 6.7 days (SD 4.87; range 2-38). A total of 75.6% were discharged as recovered patients, and 1.9% died. Conclusions: Early detection of individuals with suspected COVID-19 was achieved, knowing their clinical evolution until their recovery or death. Teleconsultations showed good outcomes at discharge and low fatal outcomes. From these results, it can be inferred that teleconsultation is a valuable tool in the monitoring, evaluation, and follow-up of patients. The Ministry of Health and Sports through Call Center-COVID-19 reinforced the Epidemiological Surveillance System as a passive search tool for possible suspected cases at the national level and decongesting other services in charge of this task.

3.
Soc Sci Med ; 281: 114040, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144481

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Stress process theory considers that actual and perceived isolation, caused by mobility restrictions from attempted containment of the COVID-19 pandemic, deteriorates mental health. OBJECTIVE: We examine the relationship between the COVID-19 lockdowns and mental health-related Google searches in 11 Latin American countries. We include the following countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. We also explore how changes in search patterns relate to income support policies and to COVID-19 death rates. METHOD: Using Google Trends data and an event-study design, as well as a difference-in-differences analysis, we investigate the association between country specific stay-at-home orders and internet searches including the following words: insomnia, stress, anxiety, sadness, depression, and suicide. RESULTS: We find three main patterns. First, searches for insomnia peak but then decline. Second, searches for stress, anxiety, and sadness increase and remain high throughout the lockdown. Third, there is no substantial change in depression-related or suicide-related searches after the lockdown. In terms of potential mechanisms, our results suggest that searches declined for suicide and insomnia following the passage of each country's income support, while in countries with higher COVID-19-related death rates, searches for insomnia, stress, and anxiety increased by more. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that, in Latin America, Google searches for words associated with mild mental health disorders increased during the COVID-19 stay-at-home orders. Nonetheless, these conclusions should not be construed as a general population mental health deterioration, as we cannot verify that search indicators are accurately related to the users' current feelings and behaviors, and as internet users may not be representative of the population in this region.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Ferramenta de Busca , Argentina , Bolívia , Chile , Colômbia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Equador , Guatemala , Honduras , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , México , Pandemias , Peru , SARS-CoV-2 , Uruguai
4.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 292: 103709, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087493

RESUMO

Previous studies suggested that erythropoietin (EPO) may protect against severe COVID-19-induced injuries, ultimately preventing mortality. This hypothesis is based on the fact that, in addition to promoting the increase in red blood cells, EPO is an anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and protective factor in several non-erythropoietic tissues. Furthermore, EPO promotes nitric oxide production in the hypoxic lung and stimulates ventilation by interacting with the respiratory centers of the brainstem. Given that EPO in the blood is increased at high-altitude, we evaluated the serum levels of EPO in critical patients with COVID-19 at "Hospital Agramont" in the city of El Alto (4150 masl) in Bolivia. A total of 16 patients, 15 men, one woman, with a mean age of 55.8 ± 8.49 years, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit were studied. All patients were permanent residents of El Alto, with no travel history below 3000 masl for at least one year. Blood samples were collected upon admission to the ICU. Serum EPO concentration was assessed using an ELISA kit, and a standard technique determined hemoglobin concentration. Only half of the observed patients survived the disease. Remarkably, fatal cases showed 2.5 times lower serum EPO than survivors (2.78 ± 0.8643 mU/mL vs 7.06 ± 2.713 mU/mL; p = 0.0096), and 1.24 times lower hemoglobin levels (13.96 ± 2.56 g/dL vs 17.41 ± 1.61 g/dL; p = 0.0159). While the number of cases evaluated in this work is low, our findings strongly warrant further investigation of EPO levels in COVID-19 patients at high and low altitudes. Our results also support the hypothesis that exogenous EPO administration could help critically ill COVID-19 patients overcome the disease.


Assuntos
Altitude , COVID-19/sangue , Eritropoetina/sangue , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Bolívia , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Epilepsy Behav ; 118: 107917, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has put some health systems under pressure, especially in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed at evaluating the impact of COVID-19 emergency on the management of people with epilepsy (PWE) living in the rural communities of the Gran Chaco area of the Plurinational State of Bolivia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected a sample of PWE living in the rural communities of the Bolivian Chaco. A standardized questionnaire was developed, consisting of six questions addressing drug availability, drug discontinuation, personnel responsible for drug retrieval during the lockdown, and the presence of seizures in the two months preceding the interview. Questionnaires were administered by community health workers of the rural health centers in September 2020. RESULTS: Seventy PWE (38 men, 54.3%; mean age 26.9 ±â€¯16.7) were interviewed. During the lockdown the large majority of them (n = 51, 73.9%) reported an irregular medication intake mainly due to the lack of antiseizure medications in the local health posts, leading to an increase in seizure frequency. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has unmasked the frailty of the Bolivian health system, especially for the management of chronic diseases such as epilepsy in the rural communities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epilepsia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bolívia/epidemiologia , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Países em Desenvolvimento , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , População Rural , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245859, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association among social media exposure, risk perception, preventive behaviors, and attitudes toward the COVID-19 epidemic in Bolivia. METHODS: We launched an online survey in La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia, during April and May 2020. The questionnaire examined: Socio-demographic factors, Social media use, Risk Perception, Preventive behaviors, attitudes and the willingness to use a vaccine if it were available in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic. A logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with risk perception and a structural equation model (SEM) was performed to explore the pathway of the relationship among social media exposure, risk perception and preventive behaviors and attitudes. RESULTS: Among 886 participants, the most were young adults, between 18-25 years old (73.4%) and 577 (65.1%) were female. During the the week before the survey 387 (43.7%) reported be exposure to social media Covid-19 information almost always or always. Moreover 304 (34.3%) were categorized as with a high risk perception. The multivariable analyses show that being female (aOR = 1.5, CI 95% 1.1-2.1) and having high exposure to Covid-19 information on social media (aOR = 2.5, CI 95% 1.3-5.3) were associated with a higher risk perception for Covid-19. Furthermore, SEM results indicated that risk perception is associated with the adoption of preventive behaviors and attitudes (ß = 0.605, p < 0.001) including the acceptance of a vaccine if one were available (ß = 0.388, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Social media exposure to COVID-19 information influences the adoption of preventive attitudes and behaviors through shaping risk perception. Understanding the role of social media during the pandemic could help policymakers and communicators to develop better communication strategies that enable the population to adopt appropriate attitudes and behaviors.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Bolívia/epidemiologia , Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 16(1): 75, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298108

RESUMO

Household responses to COVID-19 in different corners of the world represent the primary health care that communities have relied on for preventing and mitigating symptoms. During a very complex and confusing time, in which public health services in multiple countries have been completely overwhelmed, and in some cases even collapsed, these first-line household responses have been quintessential for building physical, mental, and social resilience, and for improving individual and community health. This editorial discusses the outcomes of a rapid-response preliminary survey during the first phase of the pandemic among social and community contacts in five metropolises heavily affected by the COVID-19 health crisis (Wuhan, Milan, Madrid, New York, and Rio de Janeiro), and in twelve rural areas or countries initially less affected by the pandemic (Appalachia, Jamaica, Bolivia, Romania, Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, Georgia, Turkey, Pakistan, Cambodia, and South Africa). We summarized our perspectives as 17 case studies, observing that people have relied primarily on teas and spices ("food-medicines") and that there exist clear international plant favorites, popularized by various new media. Urban diasporas and rural households seem to have repurposed homemade plant-based remedies that they use in normal times for treating the flu and other respiratory symptoms or that they simply consider healthy foods. The most remarkable shift in many areas has been the increased consumption of ginger and garlic, followed by onion, turmeric, and lemon. Our preliminary inventory of food medicines serves as a baseline for future systematic ethnobotanical studies and aims to inspire in-depth research on how use patterns of plant-based foods and beverages, both "traditional" and "new", are changing during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Our reflections in this editorial call attention to the importance of ethnobiology, ethnomedicine, and ethnogastronomy research into domestic health care strategies for improving community health.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Plantas Medicinais , Bebidas/provisão & distribuição , Bolívia , Brasil , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Camboja , China , Alimentos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Itália , Jamaica , Lituânia , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Paquistão , Polônia , Romênia , População Rural , África do Sul , Espanha , Turquia , População Urbana
13.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-08-05. (PAHO/FPL/IM/COVID-19/20-0013).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52544

RESUMO

Both the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) have recommended that uninterrupted vaccination be maintained as an essential health service. To this end, PAHO's Comprehensive Family Immunization Unit of the Family, Health Promotion, and Life Course Department has worked assiduously with the countries of the Region to maintain sound national immunization programs on several fronts, such as the preparation of documents and guidelines for continuing vaccination in the context of COVID-19; monitoring the disease’s impact on vaccination coverage; assessing the effects of the postponement of measles vaccination campaigns (Plurinational State of Bolivia, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Paraguay) due to the pandemic; and strengthening vaccination against seasonal influenza. The data presented in this publication were collected through a survey, sent every two weeks to IM focal points and advisors in the at PAHO country offices in the Region. The SurveyMonkey virtual platform was used and the data were analyzed with MS Excel tools. All the variables included in the survey were described using the appropriate univariate statistics. Categorical variables were described using proportions and percentages. Ordinal variables were described using the mean and median. Work has also been carried out to monitor the functioning of immunization services and the main problems they face because of the pandemic. To date, five-country surveys have been conducted; the first was sent out on 16 April, the last on 6 July. This document summarizes the surveys' main findings and developments. The responses in this report represent the opinions of survey participants, and do not represent reports officially sent or solicited by PAHO; the data should, therefore, be interpreted with caution.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , COVID-19 , Imunização , Cobertura Vacinal , Prioridades em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Bolívia , Colômbia , República Dominicana , Honduras , Paraguai
14.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 129(2): 257-262, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702272

RESUMO

The emergence of COVID-19 infection (caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus) in Wuhan, China in the latter part of 2019 has, within a relatively short time, led to a global pandemic. Amidst the initial spread of SARS-CoV-2 across Asia, an epidemiologic trend emerged in relation to high altitude (HA) populations. Compared with the rest of Asia, SARS-CoV-2 exhibited attenuated rates of expansion with limited COVID-19 infection severity along the Tibetan plateau. These characteristics were soon evident in additional HA regions across Bolivia, central Ecuador, Nepal, Bhutan, and the Sichuan province of mainland China. This mini-review presents a discussion surrounding attributes of the HA environment, aspects of HA physiology, as well as, genetic variations among HA populations which may provide clues for this pattern of SARS-CoV-2 expansion and COVID-19 infection severity. Explanations are provided in the hypothetical, albeit relevant historical evidence is provided to create a foundation for future research.


Assuntos
Altitude , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Bolívia/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Infez Med ; 28(2): 238-242, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487789

RESUMO

The present study is aimed to assess the risk factors for mortality in the first 107 rRT-PCR confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Bolivia. For this observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study, the epidemiological data records were collected from the Hospitals and the Ministry of Health of Bolivia, obtaining the clinical and epidemiological data of the COVID-19 cases that were laboratory-diagnosed during March 2-29, 2020. Samples were tested by rRT-PCR to SARS-CoV-2 at the Laboratory of the National Center of Tropical Diseases (CENETROP), following the protocol Charite, Berlin, Germany. The odds ratio (OR) with respective 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for mortality as dependent variable was calculated. When we comparatively analyzed survivors and non-survivors in this first group of 107 cases in Bolivia, we found that at bivariate analyses, age (±60 years old), hypertension, chronic heart failure, diabetes, and obesity, as well as the requirement of ICU, were significantly exposure variables associated with death. At the multivariate analysis (logistic regression), two variables remained significantly associated, age, ±60 years-old (OR=9.4, 95%CI 1.8-104.1) and hypertension (OR=3.3, 95%CI 1.3-6.3). As expected, age and comorbidities, particularly hypertension, were independent risk factors for mortality in Bolivia in the first 107 cases group. More further studies are required to better define risk factors and preventive measures related to COVID-19 in this and other Latin American countries.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bolívia/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Criança , Intervalos de Confiança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/mortalidade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 291: 113174, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585436

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers are facing high workloads with resource constraints and risk of virus exposure, and healthcare organizations need to support their healthcare workers to reduce their anxiety. Based on a recent 8-point framework of COVID-19 specific organization support, we devised a measure of COVID-19 Organizational Support (COVID-OS). We tested the new measure with 712 healthcare workers in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru and found the new measure formed three factors to predict healthcare workers' anxiety and life satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic. We call for further studies to test COVID-OS in other countries and settings.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Estresse Ocupacional/terapia , Satisfação Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Apoio Social , Carga de Trabalho , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Bolívia , COVID-19 , Equador , Humanos , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Pandemias , Peru , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Lancet ; 395(10238): 1727-1734, 2020 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422124

RESUMO

Indigenous communities worldwide share common features that make them especially vulnerable to the complications of and mortality from COVID-19. They also possess resilient attributes that can be leveraged to promote prevention efforts. How can indigenous communities best mitigate potential devastating effects of COVID-19? In Bolivia, where nearly half of all citizens claim indigenous origins, no specific guidelines have been outlined for indigenous communities inhabiting native communal territories. In this Public Health article, we describe collaborative efforts, as anthropologists, physicians, tribal leaders, and local officials, to develop and implement a multiphase COVID-19 prevention and containment plan focused on voluntary collective isolation and contact-tracing among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists in the Bolivian Amazon. Phase 1 involves education, outreach, and preparation, and phase 2 focuses on containment, patient management, and quarantine. Features of this plan might be exported and adapted to local circumstances elsewhere to prevent widespread mortality in indigenous communities.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Grupos Populacionais , Isolamento Social , Betacoronavirus , Bolívia , COVID-19 , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Populações Vulneráveis
19.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 35: 101653, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247926

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) arrived in Bolivia. Here, we report the main clinical findings, and epidemiological features of the first series of cases, and a cluster, confirmed in Bolivia. METHODS: For this observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study, information was obtained from the Hospitals and the Ministry of Health for the cases that were laboratory-diagnosed and related, during March 2020. rRT-PCR was used for the detection of the RNA of SARS-CoV-2 following the protocol Charité, Berlin, Germany, from nasopharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: Among 152 suspected cases investigated, 12 (7.9%) were confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infected by rRT-PCR. The median age was 39 years (IQR 25-43), six of them male. Two cases proceed from Italy and three from Spain. Nine patients presented fever, and cough, five sore throat, and myalgia, among other symptoms. Only a 60 y-old woman with hypertension was hospitalized. None of the patients required ICU nor fatalities occurred in this group. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of surveillance of COVID-19 in Bolivia, with patients managed mainly with home isolation. Preparedness for a significant epidemic, as is going on in other countries, and the deployment of response plans for it, in the country is now taking place to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the population.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bolívia/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Análise por Conglomerados , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Tosse , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Febre , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Isolamento de Pacientes/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
20.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 277: 103443, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333993

RESUMO

In the present study we analyze the epidemiological data of COVID-19 of Tibet and high-altitude regions of Bolivia and Ecuador, and compare to lowland data, to test the hypothesis that high-altitude inhabitants (+2,500 m above sea-level) are less susceptible to develop severe adverse effects in acute SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Analysis of available epidemiological data suggest that physiological acclimatization/adaptation that counterbalance the hypoxic environment in high-altitude may protect from severe impact of acute SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Potential underlying mechanisms such as: (i) a compromised half-live of the virus caused by the high-altitude environment, and (ii) a hypoxia mediated down regulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is the main binding target of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the pulmonary epithelium are discussed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Altitude , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Bolívia/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Equador/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oxigênio , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Tibet/epidemiologia , Virulência
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