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Infez Med ; 28(2): 238-242, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487789


The present study is aimed to assess the risk factors for mortality in the first 107 rRT-PCR confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Bolivia. For this observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study, the epidemiological data records were collected from the Hospitals and the Ministry of Health of Bolivia, obtaining the clinical and epidemiological data of the COVID-19 cases that were laboratory-diagnosed during March 2-29, 2020. Samples were tested by rRT-PCR to SARS-CoV-2 at the Laboratory of the National Center of Tropical Diseases (CENETROP), following the protocol Charite, Berlin, Germany. The odds ratio (OR) with respective 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for mortality as dependent variable was calculated. When we comparatively analyzed survivors and non-survivors in this first group of 107 cases in Bolivia, we found that at bivariate analyses, age (±60 years old), hypertension, chronic heart failure, diabetes, and obesity, as well as the requirement of ICU, were significantly exposure variables associated with death. At the multivariate analysis (logistic regression), two variables remained significantly associated, age, ±60 years-old (OR=9.4, 95%CI 1.8-104.1) and hypertension (OR=3.3, 95%CI 1.3-6.3). As expected, age and comorbidities, particularly hypertension, were independent risk factors for mortality in Bolivia in the first 107 cases group. More further studies are required to better define risk factors and preventive measures related to COVID-19 in this and other Latin American countries.

Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bolívia/epidemiologia , Criança , Intervalos de Confiança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/mortalidade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
Psychiatry Res ; 291: 113174, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585436


During the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers are facing high workloads with resource constraints and risk of virus exposure, and healthcare organizations need to support their healthcare workers to reduce their anxiety. Based on a recent 8-point framework of COVID-19 specific organization support, we devised a measure of COVID-19 Organizational Support (COVID-OS). We tested the new measure with 712 healthcare workers in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru and found the new measure formed three factors to predict healthcare workers' anxiety and life satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic. We call for further studies to test COVID-OS in other countries and settings.

Lancet ; 395(10238): 1727-1734, 2020 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422124


Indigenous communities worldwide share common features that make them especially vulnerable to the complications of and mortality from COVID-19. They also possess resilient attributes that can be leveraged to promote prevention efforts. How can indigenous communities best mitigate potential devastating effects of COVID-19? In Bolivia, where nearly half of all citizens claim indigenous origins, no specific guidelines have been outlined for indigenous communities inhabiting native communal territories. In this Public Health article, we describe collaborative efforts, as anthropologists, physicians, tribal leaders, and local officials, to develop and implement a multiphase COVID-19 prevention and containment plan focused on voluntary collective isolation and contact-tracing among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists in the Bolivian Amazon. Phase 1 involves education, outreach, and preparation, and phase 2 focuses on containment, patient management, and quarantine. Features of this plan might be exported and adapted to local circumstances elsewhere to prevent widespread mortality in indigenous communities.

Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Grupos Populacionais , Isolamento Social , Betacoronavirus , Bolívia , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , Populações Vulneráveis
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 277: 103443, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333993


In the present study we analyze the epidemiological data of COVID-19 of Tibet and high-altitude regions of Bolivia and Ecuador, and compare to lowland data, to test the hypothesis that high-altitude inhabitants (+2,500 m above sea-level) are less susceptible to develop severe adverse effects in acute SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Analysis of available epidemiological data suggest that physiological acclimatization/adaptation that counterbalance the hypoxic environment in high-altitude may protect from severe impact of acute SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Potential underlying mechanisms such as: (i) a compromised half-live of the virus caused by the high-altitude environment, and (ii) a hypoxia mediated down regulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is the main binding target of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the pulmonary epithelium are discussed.

Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Altitude , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Bolívia/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Equador/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oxigênio , Pandemias , Tibet/epidemiologia , Virulência
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 35: 101653, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247926


INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) arrived in Bolivia. Here, we report the main clinical findings, and epidemiological features of the first series of cases, and a cluster, confirmed in Bolivia. METHODS: For this observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study, information was obtained from the Hospitals and the Ministry of Health for the cases that were laboratory-diagnosed and related, during March 2020. rRT-PCR was used for the detection of the RNA of SARS-CoV-2 following the protocol Charité, Berlin, Germany, from nasopharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: Among 152 suspected cases investigated, 12 (7.9%) were confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infected by rRT-PCR. The median age was 39 years (IQR 25-43), six of them male. Two cases proceed from Italy and three from Spain. Nine patients presented fever, and cough, five sore throat, and myalgia, among other symptoms. Only a 60 y-old woman with hypertension was hospitalized. None of the patients required ICU nor fatalities occurred in this group. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of surveillance of COVID-19 in Bolivia, with patients managed mainly with home isolation. Preparedness for a significant epidemic, as is going on in other countries, and the deployment of response plans for it, in the country is now taking place to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the population.