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Healthcare (Basel) ; 12(3)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338256


BACKGROUND: Is pharmacovigilance at a moment of prominence for science, and in relation to governments' responsibilities towards their nations, as the new coronavirus pandemic has surprised everyone in a negative and lethal way? OBJECTIVE: Evaluate pharmacovigilance as a resource for controlling and understanding adverse events caused by vaccines in use. METHODS: This is a narrative review of the literature. Scientific articles available in databases, government bulletins and similar bodies were used. The search was carried out using the descriptors: "Pharmacovigilance AND COVID-19 in Brazil", "Vaccine Development AND COVID-19", "Vaccination Hesitancy AND COVID-19", "Public Health Surveillance AND COVID-19". The period from May 2021 to June 2022 was covered. RESULTS: The occurrence of some adverse events was observed, including cases of allergy, myocarditis and rheumatoid arthritis. It is important to highlight that these adverse events were identified as rare, occurring in a small percentage of the vaccinated population. Despite these adverse events, the benefits of vaccines proved to be essential for controlling the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The information presented highlights the importance of pharmacovigilance to continuously monitor and evaluate the safety of vaccines, identifying any potential adverse events early. This balance between risk and benefit emphasizes the need for a careful and informed approach when making decisions about vaccination policies, prioritizing public health and population safety.

Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 257: 114325, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330729


Post-COVID-19, schools urgently need to enhance infection control and prevention (IPC) measures, including water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), to prepare for future outbreaks and pandemics. Particularly in Brazil, that is of particular concern, as students are still recovering from the 20th longest school closure in the world. Hence, the current study had two goals: (i) to describe WASH solutions outlined in policies released at the federal, state, and capital city levels in Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic for the safe reopening of schools and (ii) to discuss their potential to enhance school's capacity to remain operational during a new pandemic or outbreak. With a qualitative exploratory approach, we performed content analysis to discuss the direction (what, where, how and for whom?) of 66 public policies by integrating four frameworks. Solutions were discussed in the light of the principles of human rights and the human rights to water and sanitation, international guidelines for WASH and IPC in schools and the Sphere minimum standards for humanitarian aid. One hundred and fifty-nine solutions, spanning five thematic areas and five population groups, including software and hardware interventions, were compiled for potential use in Brazil and beyond. While suggested solutions have the potential to provide a cleaner and safer learning environment, it is essential to exercise caution when implementing these measures and adapt them to the specific circumstances of each school.

Respir Res ; 25(1): 71, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317218


PURPOSE: Since the worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2, different strategies have been followed to combat the pandemic and limit virus transmission. In the meantime, other respiratory viruses continued to circulate, though at decreased rates. METHODS: This study was conducted between June and July 2022, in a hospital in the metropolitan region of Rio Grande do Sul state, in the southernmost state of Brazil. The 337 hospitalized patients included those with respiratory symptoms without delimitation of age. Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detected 15 different respiratory viruses and confirmed coinfections in the samples. Different statistical tests were applied to evaluate the association between associations of clinical characteristics and coinfection. RESULTS: Sampling corresponds to 337 selected and 330 patients analyzed. The principal clinical outcome found was hospital discharge in 309 (94%) cases, while 21 (6%) resulted in death. The principal viral agents related to coinfections were Human rhinovirus, Human enterovirus, and Respiratory syncytial virus. The most frequent viral agent detected was SARS-CoV-2, with 60 (18%) infections, followed by 51 (15%) cases of Respiratory syncytial virus B (15%) and 44 (13%) cases of Human rhinovirus 1. Coinfection was mainly observed in children, while adults and the elderly were more affected by a single infection. Analyzing COVID-19 vaccination, 175 (53%) were unvaccinated while the remainder had at least one dose of the vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents information to update the understanding of viral circulation in the region. Furthermore, the findings clarify the behavior of viral infections and possible coinfections in hospitalized patients, considering different ages and clinical profiles. In addition, this knowledge can help to monitor the population's clinical manifestations and prevent future outbreaks of respiratory viruses.

COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias , Vírus , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2
Cad Saude Publica ; 40(1): e00074723, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324862


Brazil has seen a decrease in vaccination coverage since 2016. This study analyzes the immunization status of children born during the COVID-19 pandemic in Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil. This is a longitudinal analysis that included vaccination data of 313 children aged 12 and 18 months. Vaccination cards were checked for dose application considering the schedule of immunization recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Factors associated with no retention of vaccination cards and incomplete immunization by 18 months were identified by Tobit regression analysis. About 73% of mothers presented their child's vaccination card. Non-availability of vaccination cards was associated with maternal age < 25 years and mothers with paid jobs. Only 33% and 45% of the children aged 12 and 18 months had all vaccines up to date, respectively. For 3-dose vaccines, the delay rate was around 10% for the first dose application, but 40% for the third dose. Despite delays, most children with available vaccine cards had coverage above 90% by 18 months of age. Adjusted factors associated with incomplete vaccination included living in a household with more than one child (p = 0.010) and monthly income of less than one minimum wage (p = 0.006). Therefore, delays in child vaccine application were high during the COVID-19 pandemic but a considerable uptake by 18 months of age was found. Poorer families with more than one child were particularly at risk of not fully immunizing their children and should be the target of public policies.

COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , Criança , Lactente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 27: e240005, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324869


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors associated with hospitalization in the ward and intensive care unit (ICU), and with death from COVID-19 in pregnant women with confirmed cases. METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional study, carried out with data from pregnant women with a confirmed case of COVID-19 from the Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance Information System and the Paraná's state COVID-19 notification system. The association between the independent and dependent variables (hospitalization in the ward and ICU, and death) was investigated using the Poisson regression model with robust variance. RESULTS: 4,719 pregnant women comprised the study population. 9.6 and 5.1% were hospitalized in wards and ICU, respectively. 1.9% died. There was an association between advanced maternal age and hospitalization in wards (PR=1.36; 95%CI 1.10-1.62) and ICU (PR=2.25; 95%CI 1.78-2.71), and death (PR=3.22; 95%CI 2.30-4.15). An association was found between the third trimester and hospitalization in wards (PR=5.06; 95%CI 2.82-7.30) and ICU (PR=6.03; 95%CI 3.67-8.39) and death (PR=13.56; 95%CI 2.90-24.23). The second trimester was associated with ICU admission (PR=2.67; 95%CI 1.36-3.99). Pregnant women with cardiovascular disease had a higher frequency of hospitalization in wards (PR=2.24; 95%CI 1.43-3.05) and ICU (PR=2.66; 95%CI 1.46-3.87). Obesity was associated with ICU admission (PR=3.79; 95%CI 2.71-4.86) and death (PR=5.62; 95%CI 2.41-8.83). CONCLUSIONS: Advanced maternal age, the end of the gestational period and comorbidities were associated with severe COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Gestantes , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Hospitalização
J Adolesc Health ; 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310505


PURPOSE: There is great interest in examining the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent mental health, but most studies were conducted in high-income countries. The identification of overall effects and protective factors is essential to understand the determinants of mental wellbeing in contexts of stress. We aimed to study changes in adolescent mental health during the pandemic and the risk and protective factors associated with these changes in a Brazilian birth cohort. METHODS: One thousand nine hundred forty nine adolescents from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort were assessed prepandemic (T1, November 2019 to March 2020, mean age 15.69 years) and mid-pandemic (T2, August to December 2021, mean age 17.41 years). Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Prepandemic and pandemic-related predictors were examined as predictors of change in multivariate latent change scores models. RESULTS: There was a mean increase in adolescent total mental health difficulties (M = 1.071, p < .001), hyperactivity/inattention (M = 0.208, p < .001), emotion symptoms (M = 0.409, p < .001), and peer problems (M = 0.434, p < .001) during the pandemic. This increase was associated with several negative family context variables, including harsh parenting and maternal depressive symptoms at T2. Higher emotion regulation levels protected against increases in adolescent mental health difficulties related to the COVID-19 pandemic. DISCUSSION: Family-context variables emerged as important risk factors for the deterioration of adolescent mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interventions promoting emotion regulation strategies are a promising approach to protecting adolescent wellbeing in periods of stress.

Vaccine X ; 17: 100430, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299202


Introduction: The coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 has had a great impact on several aspects related to the population's health, including the vaccination adherence rate. This study describes how childhood vaccination coverage (CVC) in Brazil was affected by the pandemic in the period from 2020 to 2022 and explores the relationship between this data and the Human Development Index (HDI), and the number of votes received in the government with a right-wing political ideology. Methods: An ecological analysis of CVC was carried out including 12 vaccines. The HDI was evaluated considering the HDI-General, HDI-Income, HDI-Longevity, and HDI-Education. The percentage of valid votes received by the former president (right-wing political ideology) was also obtained. Spearman correlation tests were applied to compare markers. Results: During the period analyzed, it was observed a linear growth trend in CVC between 2015 and 2018 regarding all vaccines. However, from 2018 onwards, after the presidential elections in Brazil, the CVC reduced significantly, showing an even more pronounced decrease with the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. This reduction in CVC observed for some vaccines was related to the higher percentage of votes for the government with a right-wing political ideology, especially in relation to the BCG (bacillus Calmette and Guerin) and pentavalent (protecting against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria) vaccines. In addition, when analyzing the HDI, it was observed that the lowest values of this indicator were associated with a more expressive reduction in CVC, mainly related to yellow fever, pentavalent, 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate, Human rotavirus, and triple viral (protecting against measles, mumps, and rubella - MMR) vaccines. Conclusion: Although Brazil has a successful and exemplary record in combating several diseases, mainly due to the high rate of CVC, the continuous reduction in this coverage must be thoroughly evaluated by health managers.

Braz J Microbiol ; 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305952


Infectious diseases are one of the most concerning threats to maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) due to the potential impact on free-ranging populations. The species is currently classified as vulnerable according to the national list of threatened species and occurs mainly in open habitats, such as the Cerrado, a tropical savannah, which comprises its main distribution area in Brazil. In the northeastern region, it occurs in the Cerrado of Bahia, Piauí, Maranhão, and Tocantins states. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the occurrence of infectious agents in Chrysocyon brachyurus through an epidemiological assessment of free-ranging individuals in western Bahia, specifically in the Barreiras microregion, a Cerrado area intensely fragmented and anthropized by agricultural activity. Eleven specimens were evaluated for serological titration, antigen research, and genetic material research for canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), adenovirus-canine-type 1 (CAdV-1), canine coronavirus (CCoV), Leptospira interrogans and Toxoplasma gondii from 2020 to 2022. In addition to maned wolves, domestic dogs were also evaluated and tested. All maned wolves (100%) evaluated by the dot-ELISA technique exhibited immunoglobulin M (IgM) and seven (64%) exhibited immunoglobulin G (IgG) against CDV and CPV, while 100% exhibited IgG against CDV when using the immunochromatographic technique. Regarding CAdV-1, 90% were seropositive for IgG, while 64% exhibited IgG against T. gondii. Nine dogs from the region were also sampled, and all (100%) exhibited IgM and IgG against CDV and CPV. For IgG against T. gondii and against CAdV-1, 90% of the animals were seropositive. Molecular evaluation yielded negative results for all maned wolves and dogs assessed for CAdV-1, CDV, and T. gondii, as well as the CCoV antigen. These data indicate the occurrence of viral agents and Toxoplasma gondii in maned wolves and dogs, suggesting circulation in both populations.

Microbiol Spectr ; : e0383123, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315011


The SARS-CoV-2 XBB is a group of highly immune-evasive lineages of the Omicron variant of concern that emerged by recombining BA.2-descendent lineages and spread worldwide during 2023. In this study, we combine SARS-CoV-2 genomic data (n = 11,065 sequences) with epidemiological data of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases collected in Brazil between October 2022 and July 2023 to reconstruct the space-time dynamics and epidemiologic impact of XBB dissemination in the country. Our analyses revealed that the introduction and local emergence of lineages carrying convergent mutations within the Spike protein, especially F486P, F456L, and L455F, propelled the spread of XBB* lineages in Brazil. The average relative instantaneous reproduction numbers of XBB* + F486P, XBB* + F486P + F456L, and XBB* + F486P + F456L + L455F lineages in Brazil were estimated to be 1.24, 1.33, and 1.48 higher than that of other co-circulating lineages (mainly BQ.1*/BE*), respectively. Despite such a growth advantage, the dissemination of these XBB* lineages had a reduced impact on Brazil's epidemiological scenario concerning previous Omicron subvariants. The peak number of SARI cases from SARS-CoV-2 during the XBB wave was approximately 90%, 80%, and 70% lower than that observed during the previous BA.1*, BA.5*, and BQ.1* waves, respectively. These findings revealed the emergence of multiple XBB lineages with progressively increasing growth advantage, yet with relatively limited epidemiological impact in Brazil throughout 2023. The XBB* + F486P + F456L + L455F lineages stand out for their heightened transmissibility, warranting close monitoring in the months ahead.IMPORTANCEBrazil was one the most affected countries by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, with more than 700,000 deaths by mid-2023. This study reconstructs the dissemination of the virus in the country in the first half of 2023, a period characterized by the dissemination of descendants of XBB.1, a recombinant of Omicron BA.2 lineages evolved in late 2022. The analysis supports that XBB dissemination was marked by the continuous emergence of indigenous lineages bearing similar mutations in key sites of their Spike protein, a process followed by continuous increments in transmissibility, and without repercussions in the incidence of severe cases. Thus, the results suggest that the epidemiological impact of the spread of a SARS-CoV-2 variant is influenced by an intricate interplay of factors that extend beyond the virus's transmissibility alone. The study also underlines the need for SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance that allows the monitoring of its ever-shifting composition.

Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 162(4): 163-169, Feb. 2024. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230572


Objectives: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has spread around the world since 2019. In severe cases, COVID-19 can lead to hospitalization and death. Systemic arterial hypertension and other comorbidities are associated with serious COVID-19 infection. Literature is unclear whether antihypertensive therapy with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors affect COVID-19 outcomes. We aim to assess whether ACEI/ARB therapy is a risk factor for worse respiratory outcomes related to COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. Methods: Retrospective study enrolling admitted COVID-19-diagnosed patients by RT-PCR at the Hospital Geral de Fortaleza, Brazil, during 2021. Patient medical records, sociodemographic, and clinical data were analyzed. Chest CT images were analyzed using CAD4COVID-CT/Thirona™ software. Results: A total of 294 patients took part in the study. A cut-off point of 66% of pulmonary involvement was found by ROC curve, with patients having higher risk of death and intubation and lower 60-day survival. Advanced age (RR 1.025, P=0.001) and intubation (RR 16.747, P<0.001) were significantly associated with a higher risk of death. Advanced age (RR 1.023, P=0.001) and the use of noninvasive ventilation (RR 1.548, P=0.037) were associated with a higher risk of intubation. Lung involvement (>66%) increased the risk of death by almost 2.5-fold (RR 2.439, P<0.001) and by more than 2.3-fold the risk of intubation (RR 2.317, P<0.001). Conclusions: Altogether, our findings suggest that ACEI or ARB therapy does not affect the risk of death and disease course during hospitalization.(AU)

Objetivos: La COVID-19, causada por el SARS-CoV-2, se ha extendido por todo el mundo desde 2019. En casos graves, la COVID-19 puede provocar hospitalización y muerte. La hipertensión arterial sistémica y otras comorbilidades se asocian con una infección grave por COVID-19. La literatura no está clara si la terapia antihipertensiva con bloqueadores de los receptores de angiotensina (BRA) e inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (ECA) afecta los resultados de la COVID-19. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar si la terapia BRA/ECA es un factor de riesgo de peores resultados respiratorios relacionados con COVID-19 en pacientes hospitalizados. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo que incluyó pacientes ingresados con diagnóstico de COVID-19 mediante RT-PCR en el Hospital General de Fortaleza, Brasil, durante 2021. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de los pacientes, datos sociodemográficos y clínicos. Las imágenes de TC de tórax se analizaron utilizando el software CAD4COVID-CT/ThironaTM. Resultados: Participaron en el estudio un total de 294 pacientes. Mediante curva ROC se encontró un punto de corte del 66% de afectación pulmonar, teniendo los pacientes mayor riesgo de muerte e intubación y menor supervivencia a 60 días. La edad avanzada (RR 1,025; P=0,001) y la intubación (RR 16,747; P<0,001) se asociaron significativamente con un mayor riesgo de muerte. La edad avanzada (RR 1,023; P=0,001) y el uso de ventilación no invasiva (RR 1,548; P=0,037) se asociaron con un mayor riesgo de intubación. La afectación pulmonar (>66%) aumentó el riesgo de muerte casi 2,5 veces (RR 2,439; P<0,001) y más de 2,3 veces el riesgo de intubación (RR 2,317, P<0,001). Conclusiones: Se concluyó que el tratamiento con BRA o ECA no afecta el riesgo de muerte y el curso de la enfermedad durante la hospitalización.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , /diagnóstico , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão , Comorbidade , /epidemiologia , Medicina Clínica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Brasil , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Inteligência Artificial
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 82(1): 1-8, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316427


BACKGROUND: The post-COVID-19 condition is a major modern challenge in medicine and has a high global impact on the health of the population. OBJECTIVE: To determine the main neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations after acute COVID-19 infection in South American countries. METHODS: This is a systematic review study, registered on the PROSPERO platform following the PRISMA model. 4131 articles were found with the search strategies used. Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations were investigated in individuals three months or more after acute COVID-19 infection, and older than 18 years, including studies conducted in South American countries published between 2020 and 2022. RESULTS: Six studies (four from Brazil and two from Ecuador) were analyzed. Regarding the type of study: three were cohorts, two were case reports, and one was cross-sectional. The main outcomes found were new pain (65.5%) and new chronic pain (19.6%), new headache (39.1%), daily chronic headache (13%), paresthesia (62%), in addition to neuropsychiatric diseases, such as generalized anxiety disorder (15.1%), post-traumatic stress syndrome (13.4%), depression and anxiety (13.5%), suicidal ideation (10.1%), and several cognitive disorders. CONCLUSION: Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations related to depression and anxiety, and cognition disorders are reported during the post-COVID-19 condition in South America. Symptoms associated with chronic pain appear to be associated with the condition. More studies on post-COVID-19 conditions are needed in the South America region.

ANTECEDENTES: A condição pós-COVID-19 é um grande desafio moderno na medicina e tem alto impacto global na saúde da população. OBJETIVO: Determinar as principais manifestações neurológicas e neuropsiquiátricas após a infecção aguda da COVID-19 nos países da América do Sul. MéTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo de revisão sistemática, registrado na plataforma PROSPERO seguindo o modelo PRISMA. Foram encontrados 4131 artigos com as estratégias de buscas empregadas. Investigaram-se manifestações neurológicas e neuropsiquiátricas em indivíduos com três meses ou mais desde a infecção aguda por COVID-19, maiores de 18 anos, incluindo estudos realizados em países da América do Sul publicados entre 2020 e 2022. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados seis estudos (quatro do Brasil e dois do Equador). Em relação ao tipo de estudo: três eram coortes, dois relatos de casos e um transversal. Os principais desfechos encontrados foram em relação à dor nova (65,5%) e dor crônica nova (19,6%), cefaleia nova (39,1%), cefaleia crônica diária (13%), parestesia (62%), além de doenças neuropsiquiátricas como transtorno de ansiedade generalizada (15,1%), síndrome do estresse pós-traumático (13,4%), depressão e ansiedade (13,5%), ideação suicida (10,1%) e diversos distúrbios cognitivos. CONCLUSãO: Manifestações neurológicas e neuropsiquiátricas relacionadas à depressão e ansiedade e distúrbios de cognição são relatados durante a condição pós-COVID-19 na América do Sul. Os sintomas associados a quadros de dor crônica parecem estar associados à condição. Mais estudos sobre condições pós COVID-19 são necessários na região da América do Sul.

COVID-19 , Dor Crônica , Humanos , Depressão , COVID-19/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Doença Crônica , Brasil/epidemiologia
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330394


Pandemic-related disruptions led to lower BCG vaccine coverage in Brazil. This study highlights a link between reduced vaccinations and increased tuberculosis pulmonary and extrapulmonary cases in infants. Addressing vaccine hesitancy and ensuring healthcare stability are vital for mitigating impacts.

Microorganisms ; 12(2)2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399805


Despite the introduction of the pneumococcal vaccine, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a cause of invasive diseases in Brazil. This study provides the distribution of serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for pneumococcal isolates before and during the years of the COVID-19 pandemic in two age groups, <5 and ≥50 years. This is a national laboratory-based surveillance study that uses data from the Brazilian national laboratory for invasive S. pneumoniae from the pre-COVID-19 (January 2016 to January 2020) and COVID-19 (February 2020 to May 2022) periods. Antimicrobial resistance was evaluated by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration. The year 2020 was marked by a 44.6% reduction in isolates received and was followed by an upward trend from 2021 onwards, which became evident in 2022. No differences were observed in serotypes distribution between the studied periods. The COVID-19 period was marked by the high prevalence of serotypes 19A, 3, and 6C in both age groups. Serotypes 19A and 6C were related to non-antimicrobial susceptibility. We observed a reduction in S. pneumoniae, without changes in serotypes distribution and epidemiological capsular switch during the COVID-19 period. We observed elevated resistance rates, mainly to penicillin and ceftriaxone for non-meningitis cases in children under 5 years of age.

Infect Dis Rep ; 16(1): 116-127, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38391587


The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the notification of new VL cases in Brazil in 2020. It is an ecological and time-series study (2015-2020) with spatial analysis techniques, whose units of analysis were the 5570 Brazilian municipalities. The study population consisted of all new cases of VL recorded between 2015 and 2020. The P-score was calculated to estimate the percentage variation in new VL cases. Global and local univariate Moran's Indices and retrospective space-time scan statistics were used in spatial and space-time analyses, respectively. It was expected that there would be 3627 new cases of VL in Brazil in 2020, but 1932 cases were reported (-46.73%). All Brazilian regions presented a negative percentage variation in the registration of new VL cases, with the Southeast (-54.70%), North (-49.97%), and Northeast (-44.22%) standing out. There was spatial dependence of the disease nationwide in both periods, before and during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a significant reduction in the incidence of new VL cases in Brazil during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings reinforce the need for better preparedness of the health system, especially in situations of new epidemics.

Pathogens ; 13(2)2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38392852


The role of Mycoplasma bovirhinis in the development of pulmonary disease in cattle is controversial and was never evaluated in cattle from Latin America. This study investigated the respiratory infection dynamics associated with M. bovirhinis in suckling calves from 15 dairy cattle herds in Southern Brazil. Nasal swabs were obtained from asymptomatic (n = 102) and calves with clinical manifestations (n = 103) of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and used in molecular assays to identify the specific genes of viral and bacterial disease pathogens of BRD. Only M. bovirhinis, bovine coronavirus (BCoV), ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 (OvGHV2), Histophilus somni, Pasteurella multocida, and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected. M. bovirhinis was the most frequently diagnosed pathogen in diseased (57.8%; 59/102) and asymptomatic (55.3%; 57/103) calves at all farms. BCoV-related infections were diagnosed in diseased (52%; 53/102) and asymptomatic (51.4%; 53/103) calves and occurred in 93.3% (14/15) of all farms. Similarly, infectious due to OvGHV2 occurred in diseased (37.2%; 38/102) and asymptomatic (27.2%; /28/103) calves and were diagnosed in 80% (12/15) of all farms investigated. Significant statistical differences were not identified when the two groups of calves were compared at most farms, except for infections due to OvGHV2 that affected five calves at one farm. These results demonstrated that the respiratory infection dynamics of M. bovirhinis identified in Southern Brazil are similar to those observed worldwide, suggesting that there is not enough sufficient collected data to consider M. bovirhinis as a pathogen of respiratory infections in cattle. Additionally, the possible roles of BCoV and OvGHV2 in the development of BRD are discussed.

PLoS One ; 19(2): e0269515, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394233


The pandemic caused millions of deaths around the world and forced governments to take drastic measures to reduce the spread of Coronavirus. Understanding the impact of social distancing measures on urban mobility and the number of COVID-19 cases allows governments to change public policies according to the evolution of the pandemic and plan ahead. Given the increasing rates of vaccination worldwide, immunization data may also represent an important predictor of COVID-19 cases. This study investigates the impact of urban mobility and vaccination upon COVID-19 cases in Belo Horizonte, Brazil using Prophet and ARIMA models to predict future outcomes. The developed models generated projections fairly close to real numbers, and some inferences were drawn through experimentation. Brazil became the epicenter of the COVID-19 epidemic shortly after the first case was officially registered on February 25th, 2020. In response, several municipalities adopted lockdown (total or partial) measures to minimize the risk of new infections. Here, we propose prediction models which take into account mobility and vaccination data to predict new COVID-19 cases.

Cad Saude Publica ; 40(2): e00022623, 2024.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381867


The persistent symptoms of post-COVID-19 syndrome negatively impact health, quality of life, and productivity. This study aimed to describe the persistent symptoms of post-COVID-19 syndrome (especially neurological ones) and their 12-month post-infection cognitive, emotional, motor, quality of life, and indirect cost repercussions. Patients showing the first symptoms of COVID-19 from January to June 2021 who developed post-COVID-19 syndrome and sought care at the Fortaleza Unit (Ceará, Brazil) of the SARAH Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals were included in this study. Information was obtained at the baseline follow-up and by telephone interview 12 months post-infection. In total, 58 people participated in this study with an average age of 52.8±10.5 years, of which 60% required an ICU. The most frequent symptoms on admission included fatigue (64%), arthralgia (51%), and dyspnea (47%), whereas, after 12 months, fatigue (46%) and memory impairment (39%). The following scales/functional tests showed alterations: PCFS, MoCA, HAD, FSS, SF-36, TLS5x, timed up and go, 6-minute walk, and handgrip. Indirect costs totaled USD 227,821.00, with 11,653 days of absenteeism. Moreover, 32% of patients were unable to return to work. Better TLS5x and higher SF-36 scores in the functional capacity, physical functioning, vitality, and pain dimensions were associated with return to work (p ≤ 0.05). The most frequent persistent symptoms referred to fatigue, arthralgia, dyspnea, anxiety, and depression, which negatively affected cognitive, emotional, and motor function and quality of life. These symptoms lasted for over a year, especially fatigue and memory alteration, the latter of which being the most reported after COVID-19 infections. Results also show a significant difficulty returning to work and indirect costs of USD 4,847.25 per person/year.

Os sintomas persistentes da síndrome pós-COVID-19 acarretam impactos negativos na saúde, qualidade de vida e produtividade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os sintomas persistentes da síndrome pós-COVID-19, principalmente neurológicos, e as repercussões cognitivas, emocionais, motoras, de qualidade de vida e de custos indiretos, 12 meses após a infecção. Pacientes com primeiros sintomas entre janeiro e junho de 2021 evoluíram com síndrome pós-COVID-19 e procuraram atendimento na unidade da Rede SARAH de Hospitais de Reabilitação em Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. As informações foram obtidas no início do acompanhamento e por entrevista telefônica após 12 meses da infecção. Participaram do estudo 58 pessoas, com idade média de 52,8 anos (±10,5) e 60% permaneceram em UTI. Os sintomas mais frequentes na admissão foram: fadiga (64%), artralgia (51%) e dispneia (47%); e após 12 meses: fadiga (46%) e alteração de memória (39%). Foram identificadas alterações nas escalas/testes funcionais: PCFS, MoCA, HAD, FSS, SF-36, TLS5x, Timed up and go, caminhada de 6 minutos e preensão manual. Os custos indiretos totais foram de USD 227.821,00, com 11.653 dias de absenteísmo; 32% dos pacientes não voltaram a trabalhar. Melhores resultados de TLS5x e SF-36, nas dimensões capacidade funcional, aspecto físico, vitalidade e dor, demonstraram associação com retorno laboral (p ≤ 0,05). Os sintomas persistentes mais frequentes foram: fadiga, artralgia, dispneia, ansiedade e depressão, com repercussões negativas na funcionalidade cognitiva, emocional, motora e qualidade de vida. Esses sintomas perduraram por mais de um ano, principalmente fadiga e alteração de memória, sendo esta última mais relatada tardiamente. Houve dificuldade importante de retorno laboral e custos indiretos de USD 4.847,25 por pessoa/ano.

Síntomas persistentes del síndrome post-COVID-19 provocan impactos negativos en la salud, calidad de vida y productividad. El objetivo fue describir los síntomas persistentes del síndrome post-COVID-19, sobre todo neurológicos, y las repercusiones cognitivas, emocionales, motoras, de calidad de vida y los costos indirectos, 12 meses tras la infección. Pacientes que tuvieron los primeros síntomas entre enero y junio de 2021, desarrollaron síndrome post-COVID-19 y buscaron atención en la unidad de la Red SARAH de Hospitales de Rehabilitación en Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. Las informaciones se obtuvieron al inicio del seguimiento y por entrevista telefónica 12 meses tras la infección. Participaron 58 personas, con edad de 52,8±10,5 años y el 60% permaneció en la UTI. Los síntomas más frecuentes al ingreso fueron: fatiga (64%), artralgia (51%) y disnea (47%); tras 12 meses fueron: fatiga (46%) y alteración de memoria (39%). Se identificaron alteraciones en las escalas/testes funcionales: PCFS, MoCA, HAD, FSS, SF-36, TLS5x, timed up and go, caminar por 6 minutos y prensión manual. Los costos indirectos totales fueron USD 227.821,00, con 11.653 días de absentismo. El 32% de los pacientes no volvió a trabajar. Mejor TLS5x y SF-36 en las dimensiones capacidad funcional, aspecto físico, vitalidad y dolor demostraron una asociación con el retorno al trabajo (p ≤ 0,05). Los síntomas persistentes más frecuentes fueron fatiga, artralgia, disnea, ansiedad y depresión, con repercusiones negativas en la funcionalidad cognitiva, emocional, motora y calidad de vida. Estos síntomas continuaron por más de un año, sobre todo la fatiga y la alteración de la memoria, siendo esta última reportada con más frecuencia tardíamente. Hubo una dificultad importante en el retorno al trabajo y costos indirectos de USD 4.847,25 persona/año.

COVID-19 , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Força da Mão , Síndrome Pós-COVID-19 Aguda , Retorno ao Trabalho , Artralgia , Dispneia , Fadiga/etiologia
Cad Saude Publica ; 40(2): e00027423, 2024.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381868


Post-COVID-19 syndrome involves a variety of symptoms that last more than 12 weeks after COVID diagnosis. This study aimed to analyze post-COVID-19 syndrome among hospitalized COVID-19 patients 6 and 12 months after hospital discharge. This is an ambidirectional cohort study conducted with individuals who were discharged from three main hospitals in the capital of Mato Grosso State, Brazil, between October and December 2021 and January and March 2022. After data collection from medical records, the individuals were interviewed by telephone 6 and 12 months after hospital discharge, when they were asked about the presence of ongoing or new symptoms and when symptom frequency was evaluated according to sociodemographic and economic characteristics hospitalization, and health conditions. Of all 277 medical records evaluated, 259 patients were eligible to participate in the study, 190 patients six months after discharge and 160 patients 12 months after hospital discharge. At six months, 59% were female patients, 40% were aged 60 years or older, and 87.4% reported at least one symptom. At 12 months, 58.7% were female patients, 37.5% were aged 30 to 49 years, and 67.5% reported at least one symptom. Fatigue was the most common symptom 6 and 12 months after hospital discharge (55.3% and 40.6%, respectively), followed by memory problems (36.8%; 20%), and hair loss (26.8%; 11.2%). The prevalence of post-COVID-19 syndrome was higher among patients of older age, lower income, with hypertension, diabetes, and more severe infection during hospitalization. The risk factors for post-COVID-19 syndrome help understand the long-term effects and the importance of monitoring after the acute phase of the disease.

A síndrome pós-COVID-19 é um termo usado para descrever um conjunto diversificado de sintomas que persistem por mais de 12 semanas da infecção diagnosticada. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a síndrome pós-COVID-19 entre hospitalizados por COVID-19 após 6 e 12 meses da alta hospitalar. Trata-se de estudo de coorte ambidirecional, realizado com indivíduos que receberam alta em três dos principais hospitais da capital de Mato Grosso, Brasil, entre outubro e dezembro de 2021 e janeiro e março de 2022. Após coleta de dados em prontuários, os indivíduos foram entrevistados por telefone após 6 e 12 meses da alta hospitalar, sendo questionados sobre a presença de sintomas persistentes ou novos, para a avaliação de sua frequência segundo características sociodemográficas, econômicas, relativas à internação e condições de saúde. Dos 277 prontuários avaliados, 259 pacientes foram elegíveis para o estudo, 190 aos seis meses e 160 após 12 meses da alta hospitalar. Aos seis meses, 59% eram mulheres, 40% com 60 anos ou mais de idade e 87,4% referiram a presença de pelo menos um sintoma. Aos 12 meses, 58,7% eram mulheres, 37,5% com 30 a 49 anos e 67,5% referiram a presença de pelo menos um sintoma. A fadiga foi o sintoma mais comum após 6 e 12 meses de alta hospitalar (55,3% e 40,6%, respectivamente), seguido de problemas de memória (36,8%; 20%) e perda de cabelo (26,8%; 11,2%). Foi maior a prevalência de síndrome pós-COVID-19 entre indivíduos de maior faixa etária, menor renda, hipertensos, diabéticos e com maior gravidade durante a internação. Os fatores de risco da síndrome pós-COVID-19 contribuem para a compreensão dos efeitos a longo prazo e da importância do acompanhamento após a fase aguda da doença.

El síndrome post-COVID-19 es un término utilizado para describir un conjunto diversificado de síntomas que persisten durante más de 12 semanas de la infección diagnosticada. El objetivo fue analizar el síndrome post-COVID-19 entre hospitalizados por COVID-19 tras 6 y 12 meses del alta hospitalaria. Se trata de un estudio de cohorte ambidireccional, realizado con individuos que fueron dados de alta en tres de los principales hospitales de la capital de Mato Grosso, Brasil, entre octubre y diciembre de 2021 y enero y marzo de 2022. Tras recolectar los datos en registros médicos, se entrevistaron los individuos por teléfono tras 6 y 12 meses del alta hospitalaria, cuestionándoles sobre la presencia de síntomas persistentes o nuevos y evaluando su frecuencia conforme las características sociodemográficas, económicas, relacionadas con la hospitalización y condiciones de salud. De los 277 registros médicos evaluados, se eligieron 259 pacientes para el estudio, 190 a los 6 meses y 160 tras 12 meses del alta hospitalaria. A los 6 meses, el 59% eran mujeres, el 40% tenían 60 años o más y el 87,4% refirieron la presencia de al menos un síntoma. A los 12 meses, el 58,7% eran mujeres, el 37,5% tenían entre 30 y 49 años y el 67,5% refirieron la presencia de al menos un síntoma. La fatiga fue el síntoma más común tras 6 y 12 meses del alta hospitalaria (el 55,3% y el 40,6%, respectivamente), seguido de los problemas de memoria (el 36,8% y el 20%) y caída del pelo (el 26,8% y el 11,2%). La prevalencia de síndrome post-COVID-19 fue más alta entre los individuos de mayor edad, menor renta, hipertensos, diabéticos y con mayor gravedad durante la hospitalización. Los factores de riesgo del síndrome post-COVID-19 contribuyen para la comprensión de los efectos a largo plazo y de la importancia del seguimiento tras la fase aguda de la enfermedad.

COVID-19 , Alta do Paciente , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos de Coortes , Síndrome Pós-COVID-19 Aguda , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Hospitais
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 33: e2023214, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381873


OBJECTIVE: to analyze the vaccine effectiveness in preventing deaths attributed to severe acute respiratory syndrome due to COVID-19 (SARS/COVID-19) in adults and the elderly, in Blumenau, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2021.this was a population-based study conducted among individuals aged 20 years and older hospitalized with SARS/COVID-19; each death due to SARS/COVID-19 was considered a "case", and every survivor was considered a "control"; the association between vaccination status and the outcome of "death" was estimated using logistic regression, and vaccine effectiveness was estimated as (1-OR)*100.The study included 1,756 cases of SARS/COVID-19 (59.2% male, mean age of 56 years, 50.4% with elementary education, 68.4% with comorbidities and 39.1% in intensive care), of whom 398 died (cases) and 1,358 survived (controls); vaccine effectiveness was 74% and 85% (20-59 years old) and 72% and 75% (≥ 60 years old), respectively, for those who were partially vaccinated and fully vaccinated. CONCLUSION: vaccines proved to be effective in reducing case fatality ratio due to SARS/COVID-19 in individuals ≥ 20 years old.

COVID-19 , Eficácia de Vacinas , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Feminino , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Críticos