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1.
J Urban Health ; 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347274

RESUMO

Latinos have high rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) yet are characterized as having health-promoting social networks. The impacts of COVID-19 on personal networks were complex, especially in urban areas with high proportion of immigrants such as the Bronx in NYC. Our objective was to test the extent to which network characteristics increase vulnerability or resiliency for glycemic control based on data gathered from Mexican-origin Bronx dwellers. We used two-wave panel study analyzing self-reported personal social networks (n=30participants; 600network members) and HbA1c levels via dried blood spots in 2019, before the COVID-19 pandemic, and in 2021, a time after initial lockdowns and when the pandemic was still ravaging the community of study. Regression models adjusted for individual-level variables including sociodemographic and health indicators (i.e., physical health including COVID-19 and mental health). We found that an increase in the proportion of network members with diabetes predicted an increase in participant's HbA1c levels from 2019 to 2021 (ß=0.044, p < 0.05). Also, a greater proportion of network members consuming "an American diet" in 2019 predicted a decrease in participant's HbA1c levels (ß=-0.028, p < 0.01), while a greater proportion of network members that encouraged participants' health in 2019 predicted an increase in participant's HbA1c levels (ß=0.033, p < 0.05). Our study sheds light on specific social network characteristics relevant to individual diabetes outcomes, including potential longitudinal mechanistic effects that played out at the peak of the COVID-19 crisis.

2.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 12(3)2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338191

RESUMO

A spatial survival analysis was performed to identify some of the factors that influence the survival of patients with COVID-19 in the states of Guerrero, México, and Chihuahua. The data that we analyzed correspond to the period from 28 February 2020 to 24 November 2021. A Cox proportional hazards frailty model and a Cox proportional hazards model were fitted. For both models, the estimation of the parameters was carried out using the Bayesian approach. According to the DIC, WAIC, and LPML criteria, the spatial model was better. The analysis showed that the spatial effect influences the survival times of patients with COVID-19. The spatial survival analysis also revealed that age, gender, and the presence of comorbidities, which vary between states, and the development of pneumonia increase the risk of death from COVID-19.

3.
Health Educ Behav ; : 10901981241230492, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main goal of a health system is to maintain or improve people's health. The COVID-19 pandemic showed the fragility of health systems worldwide. In Mexico, the pandemic affected the performance of the health system, along with the presence of contextual conditions such as its segmentation and high prevalence of chronic diseases. AIMS: To analyze from an approach to the functions of the health system, the service delivery, human resources, financing, and stewardship/governance in the local health services of five states of Mexico, from the perspective of the staff working in health centers. METHODS: This is an exploratory qualitative study conducted from November 2020 to August 2021, involving 124 health professionals from 39 health facilities (18 rural and 21 urban). The technique used was the semi-structured interview. Interview guides were developed according to core topics. Subsequently, the thematic analysis method was used. RESULTS: The lack of financial resources delayed prevention efforts and made it difficult for health centers to adapt to the crisis. Inequity was found in the distributive efficiency of staff between rural and urban areas and levels of care. In addition, there was evidence of capacity for coordination, capacity sharing, and joint participation between health institutions, civil authorities, and the population to face the emergency. CONCLUSIONS: We identified relevant public health actions that showed the capacity of local health services to organize a response to the pandemic at the level of the actors responsible for these services.

4.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 30: 100688, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327277

RESUMO

Background: Post-acute sequelae after SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) remains a concerning long-term complication of COVID-19. Here, we aimed to characterize the epidemiology of PASC in Mexico during 2022 and identify potential associations of covariates with PASC prevalence using nationally representative data. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2022 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) from 24,434 participants, representing 85,521,661 adults ≥20 years. PASC was defined using both the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) definition and a PASC score ≥12. Estimates of PASC prevalence were stratified by age, sex, rural vs. urban setting, social lag quartiles, number of reinfections, vaccination status and periods of predominance of SARS-CoV-2 circulating variants. Determinants of PASC were assessed using log-binomial regression models adjusted by survey weights. Findings: Persistent symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported by 12.44% (95% CI 11.89-12.99) of adults ≥20 years in Mexico in 2022. The most common persistent symptoms were fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, headache, cough, loss of smell or taste, fever, post-exertional malaise, brain fog, anxiety, and chest pain. PASC was present in 21.21% (95% CI 19.74-22.68) of subjects with previously diagnosed COVID-19. Over 28.6% of patients with PASC reported symptoms persistence ≥6 months and 14.05% reported incapacitating symptoms. Higher PASC prevalence was associated with SARS-CoV-2 reinfections, depressive symptoms and living in states with high social lag. PASC prevalence, particularly its more severe forms, decreased with COVID-19 vaccination and for infections during periods of Omicron variant predominance. Interpretation: PASC remains a significant public health burden in Mexico as the COVID-19 pandemic transitions into endemic. Promoting SARS-CoV-2 reinfection prevention and booster vaccination may be useful in reducing PASC burden. Funding: This research was supported by Instituto Nacional de Geriatría in Mexico.

5.
Semergen ; 50(3): 102170, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306759

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality trends in Mexico. METHODS: An ecological study was conducted where deaths from CVD reported in Mexico under the ICD-10 classification with codes I10 to I99 for the period 2000-2022 were analyzed. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated at the national and state levels, then the annual percentage variation was estimated using joinpoint analysis to know the changes in the mortality trend in the period studied. RESULTS: There was an increase of 27.96 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants from 2000 to 2022 in Mexico. The joinpoint analysis shows in the period 2019-2021 an annual percentage change at the national level of 17,398 and subsequently a negative trend is presented between the years 2021-2022. The states of Guanajuato, Tlaxcala and Querétaro showed the largest increases in CVD mortality trends during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The trend in CVD mortality in Mexico increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Public Underst Sci ; : 9636625231220219, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305243

RESUMO

Research about science and publics in the COVID-19 pandemic often focuses on public trust and on identifying and correcting public attitudes. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 209 residents in six countries-Austria, Bolivia, Germany, Italy, Mexico, and Portugal-this article uses the concept of performativity to explore how participants understand, and relate to science, in the COVID-19 context. By performativity, we mean the ways by which participants understand themselves as particular sorts of publics through identification with, and differentiation from, various other actors in matters that are perceived as controversies surrounding science: COVID-19 vaccination, media communication of science, and the interactions between governments and scientists. The criteria used to construct the similarities and differences among publics were heterogeneous and fluid, showing how epistemic beliefs about the nature of, and trust in, scientific knowledge are intermingled with social and cultural memberships embedded in specific contexts and across disparate places.

7.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 30: 100682, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332937

RESUMO

Background: The underlying health status of populations was a major determinant of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly obesity prevalence. Mexico was one of the most severely affected countries during the COVID-19 pandemic and its obesity prevalence is among the highest in the world. It is unknown by how much the COVID-19 burden could have been reduced if systemic actions had been implemented to reduce excess weight in Mexico before the onset of the pandemic. Methods: Using a dynamic epidemic model based on nationwide data, we compare actual deaths with those under hypothetical scenarios assuming a lower body mass index in the Mexican population, as observed historically. We also model the number of deaths that would have been averted due to earlier implementation of front-of-pack warning labels or due to increases in taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages and non-essential high-energy foods in Mexico. Findings: We estimate that 52.5% (95% prediction interval (PI) 43.2, 61.6%) of COVID-19 deaths were attributable to obesity for adults aged 20-64 and 23.8% (95% PI 18.7, 29.1%) for those aged 65 and over. Had the population BMI distribution remained as it was in 2000, 2006, or 2012, COVID-19 deaths would have been reduced by an expected 20.6% (95% PI 16.9, 24.6%), 9.9% (95% PI 7.3, 12.9%), or 6.9% (95% PI 4.5, 9.5%), respectively. If the food-labelling intervention introduced in 2020 had been introduced in 2018, an expected 6.2% (95% PI 5.2, 7.3%) of COVID-19 deaths would have been averted. If taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy foods had been doubled, trebled, or quadrupled in 2018, COVID-19 deaths would have been reduced by an expected 4.1% (95% PI 2.5, 5.7%), 7.9% (95% PI 4.9, 11.0%), or 11.6% (95% PI 7.3, 15.8%), respectively. Interpretation: Public health interventions targeting underlying population health, including non-communicable chronic diseases, is a promising line of action for pandemic preparedness that should be included in all pandemic plans. Funding: This study received funding from Bloomberg Philanthropies, awarded to Juan A. Rivera from the National Institute of Public Health; Community Jameel, the UK Medical Research Council (MRC), Kenneth C Griffin, and the World Health Organization.

8.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2024: 8871439, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38384428

RESUMO

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is estimated that more than half of new infections are transmitted by asymptomatic people; therefore, the isolation of symptomatic people is not enough to control the spread of the disease. Methods: A total of 171 unvaccinated young adults (18-35 years) from Sonora, Mexico, who underwent a structured survey to identify prior COVID-19 infections, were included in this study. A qualitative determination of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in serum was performed by lateral flow immunoassay (Certum IgG/IgM Rapid Test™ cassette kit) and neutralizing antibodies were also determined (GenScript cPass assay). Results: A total of 36 people reported a history of COVID-19 infection, and 135 reported no history of COVID-19. In contrast, 49.6% (67/135) of individuals who had not reported a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were seropositive to the rapid anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody test, and 48.1% (65/135) of them had neutralizing antibodies. Conclusions: These results suggest that in young adults, SARS-CoV-2 infections could be asymptomatic in a high percentage of individuals, which could contribute in part to the slow control of the current pandemic due to the large number of asymptomatic cases that are contagious and that could be a silent spread of the virus.

9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 152: e30, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38312015

RESUMO

There is limited information on the antibody responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in subjects from developing countries with populations having a high incidence of co-morbidities. Here, we analysed the immunogenicity of homologous schemes using the ChAdOx1-S, Sputnik V, or BNT162b2 vaccines and the effect of a booster dose with ChAdOx1-S in middle-aged adults who were seropositive or seronegative to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein before vaccination. The study was conducted post-vaccination with a follow-up of 4 months for antibody titre using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and pseudovirus (PV) neutralization assays (PNAs). All three vaccines elicited a superior IgG anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) and neutralization response against the Alpha and Delta variants when administered to individuals with a previous infection by SARS-CoV-2. The booster dose spiked the neutralization activity among individuals with and without a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. The ChAdOx1-S vaccine induced weaker antibody responses in infection-naive subjects. A follow-up of 4 months post-vaccination showed a drop in antibody titre, with about 20% of the infection-naive and 100% of SARS-CoV-2 pre-exposed participants with detectable neutralization capacity against Alpha pseudovirus (Alpha-PV) and Delta PV (Delta-PV). Our observations support the use of different vaccines in a country with high seroprevalence at the vaccination time.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Vacinas , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , México/epidemiologia , Vacina BNT162 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunização , Vacinação , Imunidade , Anticorpos Antivirais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes
10.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 489, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of migrants and asylum seekers at the Mexico-US border has increased to historic levels. Our objective was to determine the medical diagnoses and treatments of migrating people seeking care in humanitarian clinics in Matamoros, Mexico. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patient encounters by migrating people through a humanitarian clinic in Matamoros, Mexico, from November 22, 2019, to March 18, 2021. The clinics were operated by Global Response Medicine in concert with local non-governmental organizations. Clinical encounters were each coded to the appropriate ICD-10/CPT code and categorized according to organ system. We categorized medications using the WHO List of Essential Medicines and used multivariable logistic regression to determine associations between demographic variables and condition frequency. RESULTS: We found a total of 8,156 clinical encounters, which included 9,744 diagnoses encompassing 132 conditions (median age 26.8 years, female sex 58.2%). People originated from 24 countries, with the majority from Central America (n = 5598, 68.6%). The most common conditions were respiratory (n = 1466, 15.0%), musculoskeletal (n = 1081, 11.1%), and skin diseases (n = 473, 4.8%). Children were at higher risk for respiratory disease (aOR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.61-2.10), while older adults had greater risk for joint disorders (aOR = 3.35, 95% CI: 1.73-6.02). Women had decreased risk for injury (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.40-0.63) and higher risk for genitourinary diseases (aOR = 4.99, 95% CI: 3.72-6.85) compared with men. Among 10,405 medications administered, analgesics were the most common (n = 3190, 30.7%) followed by anti-infectives (n = 2175, 21.1%). CONCLUSIONS: In this large study of a migrating population at the Mexico-US border, we found a variety of clinical conditions, with respiratory, musculoskeletal, and skin illnesses the most common in this study period which encompassed a period of restrictive immigration policy and the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Migrantes , Masculino , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , México/epidemiologia , Pandemias
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358414

RESUMO

In endemic regions, tuberculosis in children constitutes a bigger fraction of total cases as compared to those in low endemic regions, regardless of the implications, this phenomenon has been historically neglected. Pediatric tuberculosis has an insidious onset and quickly develops into disseminated disease and the young are at a special risk for dissemination. Some studies suggest that measures to contain adult tuberculosis are not enough to manage tuberculosis in children, meaning that pediatric tuberculosis needs dedicated attention. Children are harder to diagnose than adults, because collecting samples is difficult, and their bacterial yield is low. In endemic countries, such as Mexico, where contact with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is common, immunological tests are inconsistent, especially in immunocompromised children. With the disruption of Mexican healthcare services by the COVID-19 pandemic, there is an uncertainty of how the situation has evolved, current data about tuberculosis indicates a drop in the national report of cases: 15.4 per 100,000 persons in 2021, compared with pre-COVID 2019 17.7 per 100,000 persons, a small increase in mortality: 1.7 per 100,000 in 2021 compared with 2019 1.6 per 100,000, a drop in treatment success: 80.4% in 2021 compared with 85.4% in 2019, and a decrease in national vaccination rates: an estimate of 86.6% children between 1 and 2 years-old were vaccinated in 2021 compared with 97.3% reported national rate in 2018-2019. There is a need for new research on regions with high tuberculosis incidence, to clarify the current situation of pediatric tuberculosis and improve epidemiological surveillance.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324874

RESUMO

Currently, there are some concerns about the situation and, in particular, about the future of the COVID-19 pandemic and the new emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2. Rodents are an example of synanthropic animals in urban environments that harbor important zoonoses. Although the molecular identification of SARS-CoV-2 in Rattus norvegicus from New York City had been reported, in other studies, urban wild rodents infected with this virus have not been found. This study aimed to molecularly identify the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in urban wild rodents from Mexico City, trapped along a water channel of a public park as part of a pest control program, at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, during the fall and winter of 2020. Up to 33 Mus musculus and 52 R. norvegicus were captured and euthanized, large intestine samples with feces from the animals were obtained. RNAs were obtained and subjected to qRT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 identification and threshold cycle (Ct) values were obtained. Four mice (12.1%) and three rats (5.8%) were positive, three rodents exhibited Ct<30. Our results on the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 in urban rats are in line with other previous reports. Thus, similar to other authors, we suggest that surveillance for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in urban wild rodents, as sentinel animals, should be maintained.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Roedores , Ratos , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , México/epidemiologia , Pandemias
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338795

RESUMO

The protection of the neonate against pathogens depends largely on the antibodies transferred placentally from the mother; for this reason, maternal vaccination against emerging viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, is of vital importance. Knowing some of the immunogenic factors that could alter the placental transfer of antibodies could aid in understanding the immune response and neonatal protection after maternal vaccination. In this study, we analyzed the efficiency of the placental transfer of binding and neutralizing antibodies, as well as some factors that could alter the passive immune response, such as the trimester of gestation at the time of immunization, the number of doses received by the mother and the type of vaccine. Binding IgG antibodies were detected by ELISA, and the detection of neutralizing antibodies was carried out using flow cytometry. Our results show efficient transfer rates (>1), which are higher when maternal vaccination occurs during the third trimester of gestation. Antibodies are detectable in mothers and their neonates after 12 months of maternal immunization, suggesting than the vaccination against COVID-19 before and during pregnancy in the Mexican population induces a lasting neutralizing response in mothers and their newborns.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , COVID-19 , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Placenta , Vacinação , Mães , Anticorpos Antivirais
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(11): 16696-16709, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326683

RESUMO

People spend most of their time indoors, especially during the coronavirus disease. Prolonged exposure to heavy metal-contaminated dust can be harmful to human health. The objectives of this study were to identify the contamination level in outdoor and indoor dust, compare contamination in both environments, and assess the human health risk. Two-hundred thirty-nine samples of dust were taken by Mexico City citizens in 38 homes on the weekends of May 2020. Heavy metal concentrations were measured through XRF. The contamination level was set using the contamination factor with a local and global background value, mixed linear models were used to identify indoor and outdoor differences, and USEPA human health risk methodology was used. Pb, Zn, and Cu had the highest contamination levels, followed by Sr and Mn, using both the local and global background values. The Pb, Zn, and Cu contamination was greater indoors, while higher Mn, Sr, and Fe were detected outdoors. According to the outdoor/indoor ratios, the main sources of Ca, Pb, Zn, and Cu must be indoors, while the main sources of Fe, Mn, Sr, Y, and Ti are outdoors. A human health risk was not detected, as the hazard index was lower than one. However, ailments can be developed due to exposure to Pb, Mn, and Fe in children (hazard index > 0.1). A higher risk due to Pb exposition was found indoors. Indoor environments in Mexico City were more contaminated by heavy metals and represented a higher risk to human health than outdoors during the pandemic isolation.

16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 97, 2024 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mexico is one of the countries with the greatest excess death due to COVID-19. Chiapas, the poorest state in the country, has been particularly affected. Faced with an exacerbated shortage of health professionals, medical supplies, and infrastructure to respond to the pandemic, the non-governmental organization Compañeros En Salud (CES) implemented a COVID-19 infection prevention and control program to limit the impact of the pandemic in the region. We evaluated CES's implementation of a community health worker (CHW)-led contact tracing intervention in eight rural communities in Chiapas. METHODS: Our retrospective observational study used operational data collected during the contract tracing intervention from March 2020 to December 2021. We evaluated three outcomes: contact tracing coverage, defined as the proportion of named contacts that were located by CHWs, successful completion of contact tracing, and incidence of suspected COVID-19 among contacts. We described how these outcomes changed over time as the intervention evolved. In addition, we assessed associations between these three main outcomes and demographic characteristics of contacts and intervention period (pre vs. post March 2021) using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: From a roster of 2,177 named contacts, 1,187 (54.5%) received at least one home visit by a CHW and 560 (25.7%) had successful completion of contact tracing according to intervention guidelines. Of 560 contacts with complete contact tracing, 93 (16.6%) became suspected COVID-19 cases. We observed significant associations between sex and coverage (p = 0.006), sex and complete contact tracing (p = 0.049), community of residence and both coverage and complete contact tracing (p < 0.001), and intervention period and both coverage and complete contact tracing (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis highlights the promises and the challenges of implementing CHW-led COVID-19 contact tracing programs. To optimize implementation, we recommend using digital tools for data collection with a human-centered design, conducting regular data quality assessments, providing CHWs with sufficient technical knowledge of the data collection system, supervising CHWs to ensure contact tracing guidelines are followed, involving communities in the design and implementation of the intervention, and addressing community member needs and concerns surrounding stigmatization arising from lack of privacy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Busca de Comunicante , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , México/epidemiologia , Pobreza
17.
Diseases ; 12(1)2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38248379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The development of severe COVID-19 is related to the preexistence of comorbidities and an inadequate nutritional status. The latter is a critical factor for the development of infection and the progression of the disease. Notably, optimal nutrition impacts immune system function, as malnutrition is related to high cytokine levels in the late phase of the disease, correlating with a poor prognosis. In this sense, omega-3 fatty acids (O3FAs) have anti-inflammatory properties that may reduce morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 infection. O3FAs are linked to a better prognosis in COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind clinical trial, we evaluate the administration of O3FAs to unvaccinated Mexican patients for two weeks starting after the first two hours of hospitalization. RESULTS: The findings support the notion that O3FAs (in a dose high enough to satisfy human physiological requirements in a short time, one capsule of 1.4 g O3FAs daily) exert a comprehensive multi-systemic modulatory influence, affecting inflammatory and metabolic pathways. Significant perturbations in biomarkers, including absolute neutrophil count, hematocrit, and platelet indices, underscore the compound's anti-inflammatory effect. Concurrently, the intervention modulates pivotal metabolic and hepatic parameters, attenuating cardiovascular risk profiles and expediting patient convalescence. These multifarious effects are likely orchestrated through intricate biochemical mechanisms and are subject to individual variations predicated on metabolic factors. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this trial support the notion that O3FA supplementation has beneficial effects on COVID-19 patients with moderate presentation by regulating metabolism and limiting inflammation.

18.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 186, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38270725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the companion animals which tested positive in Mexico for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Due to this, it is that we have documented the infection of companion animals, via an exploratory approach in two localities of the Valley of Mexico, in which the companion animal owners tested positive for COVID-19. METHODS: Oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 21 companion animals. Also, a Reverse-Transcription Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to test five probes in three SARS-CoV-2 genes. More than one-third (5/14) of these samples were positive for SARS CoV-2 corresponding to dogs. RESULTS: This research translates into the first available report on companion animals with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the most populated area of Mexico. Samples were added chronologically to previous reports prepared in other areas of the country, from February through November 2022. CONCLUSION: Although SARS-CoV-2 infection in dogs is not as common as in other animals, our results suggest that it can be transmitted to dogs by their owners to a greater extent than previously reported.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Animais , Cães , COVID-19/veterinária , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais de Estimação , México/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente
19.
J Fish Dis ; : e13921, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38270561

RESUMO

The present study investigates molecular-based PCR techniques to estimate the prevalence of fish pathogens in southwest Mexico where recurrent mortality in the tilapia cultures has been observed. Sample of internal organs and lesions of Nile tilapia were taken and analysed in 2018, 2019, 2020 and 2022 to detect bacterial pathogens using PCR. No samples were taken in 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The real-time PCR conditions were optimized to allow a qualitative reliable detection of the bacteria from fixed fish tissue. A total of 599 pond- and cage-cultured tilapia from the southwestern Mexican Pacific (Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas states) were analysed. In this tropical region, during 2018 and 2019 water temperatures of the tilapia cultures were generally with the optimal range to grow Nile tilapia, although extreme values were recorded on some farms. Most of the tilapia sampled were apparently healthy. No Francisella sp. was detected in any sample, and Staphylococcus sp. was the most prevalent (from 0% to 64%) bacteria from the three states over time. Low prevalence of Aeromonas sp. was found, from 0% to 4.3%, although the fish pathogen Aeromonas dhakensis was not detected. Sterptococcus iniae was only detected in Chiapas in 2019 at a low prevalence (1.4%), while the major tilapia pathogen S. agalactiae was detected at a high prevalence (from 0% to 59%) in the three Mexican states. This is the first detection of these pathogenic bacteria in rural farms using real-time PCR and constitutes a great risk for tilapia aquaculture in Mexico, as well as a potential dispersion of these pathogens to other aquaculture areas.

20.
Mycoses ; 67(1): e13693, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38214372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Damage due to respiratory viruses increases the risk of bacterial and fungal coinfections and superinfections. High rates of invasive aspergillosis are seen in severe influenza and COVID-19. This report describes CAPA cases diagnosed during the first wave in the biggest reference centre for severe COVID-19 in Mexico. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical, microbiological and radiological characteristics of patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis associated with critical COVID-19, as well as to describe the variables associated with mortality. METHODS: This retrospective study identified CAPA cases among individuals with COVID-19 and ARDS, hospitalised from 1 March 2020 to 31 March 2021. CAPA was defined according to ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria. Prevalence was estimated. Clinical and microbiological characteristics including bacterial superinfections, antifungal susceptibility testing and outcomes were documented. RESULTS: Possible CAPA was diagnosed in 86 patients among 2080 individuals with severe COVID-19, representing 4.13% prevalence. All CAPA cases had a positive respiratory culture for Aspergillus species. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most frequent isolate (64%, n = 55/86). Seven isolates (9%, n = 7/80) were resistant to amphotericin B (A. fumigatus n = 5/55, 9%; A. niger, n = 2/7, 28%), two A. fumigatus isolates were resistant to itraconazole (3.6%, n = 2/55). Tracheal galactomannan values ranged between 1.2 and 4.05, while serum galactomannan was positive only in 11% (n = 3/26). Bacterial coinfection were documented in 46% (n = 40/86). Gram negatives were the most frequent cause (77%, n = 31/40 isolates), from which 13% (n = 4/31) were reported as multidrug-resistant bacteria. Mortality rate was 60% and worse prognosis was seen in older persons, high tracheal galactomannan index and high HbA1c level. CONCLUSIONS: One in 10 individuals with CAPA carry a resistant Aspergillus isolate and/or will be affected by a MDR bacteria. High mortality rates are seen in this population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva , Aspergilose Pulmonar , Superinfecção , Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , México/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , COVID-19/complicações , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/complicações , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/epidemiologia , Bactérias , Hospitais
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