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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5241, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347208

RESUMO

Serosurveillance helps establish reopening guidelines and determine the immunity levels in different populations to reach herd immunity. Then, there is an urgent need to estimate seroprevalence population wide. In Mexico, information about COVID-19 cases and related deaths is scarce. Also, there is no official serosurveillance, limiting our knowledge of the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Here, we report the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 522,690 unvaccinated people from July 5th to December 31st, 2020. The overall seroprevalence was 32.8% and highest in adults aged 30-39 years (38.5%) than people under 20 years (33.0%) or older (28.9%). Moreover, in a cohort of 1655 individuals confirmed COVID-19 by PCR, we found that symptomatic people (HR = 2.56) increased seroconversion than presymptomatic. Also, we identified that the most discriminative symptoms for COVID-19 that could predict seroconversion were anosmia and ageusia (HR = 1.70), fever, myalgia/arthralgia, and cough (HR = 1.75). Finally, we found that obese people had lower seroconversion (HR = 0.53) than healthy people, but the opposite happens in diabetic people (HR = 1.39). These findings reveal that around one-third of Mexican outpatients had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies before vaccination. Also, some symptoms improve empirically COVID-19 diagnosis and seroconversion. This information could help fine-tune vaccination schemes and the reopening and back-to-work algorithms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Soroconversão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
2.
An. psicol ; 38(3): 448-457, Oct-Dic. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-208816

RESUMO

Una de las consecuencias de la pandemia es el aumento de la prevalencia de alteraciones mentales como la ansiedad, la depresión y el estrés. En este estudio transversal y observacional se evaluó la prevalencia de estrés, ansiedad y depresión en pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19 así como la probable asociación con el impacto emocional recibido por familiares de pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19. Cuarenta y cinco pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19 con una edad promedio de 54.4 ± 9.6 años y cincuenta y cinco familiares de pacientes hospitalizados con una edad promedio de 43.2 ± 11.8 años respondieron una batería de preguntas y la encuesta DASS-21. Nuestros resultados revelaron una alta prevalencia de depresión, ansiedad y estrés identificados por DASS-21. En este estudio identificamos factores de riesgo asociados a la salud emocional como la edad (< 50 años: depresión RM = 2.99 [1.31, 6.80] p < .05 y ansiedad RM = 2.83 [1.15, 6.93], p < .05), el género (mujeres: ansiedad RM = 4.13 [1.57, 10.89], p < .05 y estrés RM = 5.38 [2.27, 12.8], p < .05) y el grupo de estudio (familiares: depresión RM = 3.83 [1.63, 8.96]; p < .05 , ansiedad RM = 3.60 [1.46, 8.88]; p < .05 y estrés RM = 3.30 [1.41, 7.70]; p < .05). Además, el género femenino y el nivel socioeconómico bajo de los pacientes (β = 3.23; 1.96) y familiares (β = 1.86; 2.31) se asociaron con puntuaciones más altas en ansiedad (p < .05) y estrés (p < .05). Concluimos que la muestra de pacientes con COVID-19 mantiene una alta prevalencia de alteraciones mentales y que algunos factores sociodemográficos se asocian con la magnitud de estos trastornos.(AU)


One of the consequences of pandemic is the increase in the prevalence of mental alterations such as anxiety, depression and stress. Since here, we aimed to determinate through a transversal and observa-tional studyprevalence of stress, anxiety and depression within hospital-ized patients by COVID-19 as well as their likely association with the emo-tional impact received by relatives with hospitalized patients by COVID-19. Forty-five COVID-19 hospitalized patients with mean age of 54.4 ± 9.6 yearsand fifty-five relatives with mean age of 43.2 ± 11.8 yearsan-swered a questions battery and DASS-21 survey. Our resultsrevealed high prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress assessed by DASS-21 sub-scales. We also identified risk factors associated with the emotional health such as age (<50 years: depression OR=2.99 [1.31, 6.80], p< .05 and anxiety OR=2.83 [1.15,6.93], p< .05), by gender (female: anxiety OR = 4.13 [1.57, 10.89], p< .05 and stress OR = 5.38 [2.27, 12.8], p< .05), by group of study (relatives: depression OR = 3.83 [1.63, 8.96]; p< .05, anxie-ty OR = 3.60 [1.46, 8.88]; p< .05 and stress OR = 3.30 [1.41, 7.70]; p< .05). Additionally, female gender and low socioeconomic status in patients (β= 3.23; 1.96) and relatives (β= 1.86; 2.31) were associated with higher scores in anxiety (p< .05) and stress (p <.05). We concluded that our sample of COVID-19 patients maintain a high prevalence of mental altera-tions and age, gender and socioeconomic status modify the magnitude of these disorders.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Internados , Saúde Mental , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico , Depressão , Pandemias , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , México , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Medicina do Comportamento , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações
3.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; : 1-7, 2022 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination on seroprevalence in a cohort of healthcare workers (HCW) at an ophthalmic medical center. METHODS: IgG antibodies against the N, S1, and S2 antigens of SARS-CoV-2 as well as their serum neutralizing activity were determined. RESULTS: In the present study, we observed that 98.4% of HCW were seropositive for S1/S2 proteins of SARS-CoV-2 due to the national vaccination program. Interestingly, 78.4% of the participants had anti-N protein antibodies, suggesting previous COVID-19 infection. We also evaluated the neutralizing antibodies and found that the mean value was high (90.7%). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that our HCWs cohort presented a robust hybrid humoral response owing to the massive national vaccination program and natural infections.

4.
Drugs Context ; 112022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36188636

RESUMO

Anxiety-related disorders are one of the most common mental health issues worldwide. Mexico has reported an increase in the prevalence of these ailments secondary to the confinement derived from the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the limitations of commonly used treatments for these disorders, a need arises to develop new pharmacological treatments for these patients. This paper has the primary objective of evaluating the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol isolate in drug compounding used as a personalized treatment in patients with anxiety disorders through the presentation of four clinical cases.

5.
J Crim Justice ; 82: 101992, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36193334

RESUMO

Objectives: This study examined whether Covid-19 virus containment measures moderated the relationship between community strain and homicide rates in Mexico City neighborhoods and police quadrants. Methods: We tested the moderation effects hypothesis with the use of a mixed-effects regression to estimate fixed effects with random effects at different levels of aggregation. A sensitivity analysis was used to assess whether results of the moderation effects were affected by changes in the unit of analysis. Results: We found no evidence that virus containment measures moderated the relationship between community strain and observed changes in homicide rates. Moreover, although community strain measures were found to be statistically associated with homicide rates, the results were seemingly affected by the Modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP). Conclusions: First, the link being made in the literature between the homicide drop and the Covid-19 pandemic based on strain theory premises has no universal empirical basis. Second, although homicide rates dropped on average after containment measures were implemented, these had different effects across places, making arguments based on overall average change inexact. Third, we find evidence that community strain can predict homicide rates, but results are sensitive to the MAUP. Thus, community strain explanations of homicide rates may only apply in some areas of cities and conditional on the unit of analysis.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1853, 2022 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination against COVID-19 is a primary tool for controlling the pandemic. However, the spread of vaccine hesitancy constitutes a significant threat to reverse progress in preventing the disease. Studies conducted in Mexico have revealed that vaccination intention in Mexico among the general population ranges from 62 to 82%. OBJECTIVE: To know the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and associated factors among academics, students, and administrative personnel of a public university in Mexico City. METHODS: We administered an online survey investigating sociodemographic aspects, knowledge, attitudes, practices, and acceptance/hesitancy regarding the COVID-19 vaccine. Using generalized linear Poisson models, we analyzed factors associated with vaccine hesitancy, defined as not intending to be vaccinated within the following six months or refusing vaccination. RESULTS: During May and June 2021, we studied 840 people, prevalence of vaccine hesitancy was 6%. Hesitancy was significantly associated with fear of adverse effects, distrust of physician's recommendations, lack of knowledge regarding handwashing, age younger than 40 years, refusal to use face masks, and not having received influenza vaccination during the two previous seasons. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine hesitancy in this population is low. Furthermore, our results allowed us the identification of characteristics that can improve vaccine promotion.

7.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 4(5): dlac094, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36196443

RESUMO

Background: Evidence shows limited adherence to antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) principles. Objectives: To identify educational gaps and systemic barriers obstructing adherence to AMS principles. Methods: A mixed-methods study combining a thematic analysis of qualitative interviews (January-February 2021) and inferential analysis of quantitative surveys (May-June 2021) was conducted. Participants from France, the USA, Mexico and India were purposively sampled from online panels of healthcare professionals to include infectious disease physicians, infection control specialists, clinical microbiologists, pharmacologists or pharmacists expected to apply AMS principles in their practice setting (e.g. clinic, academic-affiliated or community-based hospital). A gap analysis framework guided this study. Results: The final sample included 383 participants (n = 33 interviews; n = 350 surveys). Mixed-methods findings indicated suboptimal knowledge and skills amongst participants to facilitate personal and collective application of AMS principles. Survey data indicated a gap in ideal versus current knowledge of AMS protocols, especially amongst pharmacologists (Δ0.95/4.00, P < 0.001). Gaps in ideal versus current skill levels were also measured and were highest amongst infectious control specialists (Δ1.15/4.00, P < 0.001), for convincing hospital executives to allocate resources to AMS programmes. Already existing systemic barriers (e.g. insufficient dedicated time/funding/training) were perceived as being aggravated during the COVID-19 pandemic (72% of survey participants agreed). Reported gaps were highest in India and France. Conclusions: The educational needs of professionals and countries included in this study can inform future continuous professional development activities in AMS. Additional funding should be considered to address perceived systemic barriers. Local assessments are warranted to validate results and suitability of interventions.

8.
Iran J Immunol ; 19(3): 311-320, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36190384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emergent viral disease in which the host inflammatory response modulates the clinical outcome. Severe outcomes are associated with an exacerbation of inflammation in which chemokines play an important role as the attractants of immune cells to the tissues. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship of the chemokines IL-8, RANTES, MIG, MCP-1, and IP-10 with COVID-19 severity and outcomes in Mexican patients. METHODS: We analyzed the serum levels of IL-8, RANTES, MIG, MCP-1 and IP-10 in 148 COVID-19 hospitalized patients classified as mild (n=20), severe (n=61), and critical (n=67), as well as in healthy individuals (n=10), by flow cytometry bead array assay. RESULTS: Chemokine levels were higher in patients than in the healthy individuals, but only MIG, MCP-1, and IP-10 increased according to the disease severity, showing the highest levels in the critical group. MIG, MCP-1, and IP-10 levels were also higher in COVID-19 patients with comorbidities such as renal disease, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. Moreover, elevated MIG levels seem to be related to organic failure/shock, and an increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the increased levels of MCP-1, IP-10, and especially MIG might be useful in predicting severe COVID-19 outcomes and could be promising therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Quimiocina CCL5 , Quimiocina CXCL10 , Quimiocina CXCL9 , Humanos , Interleucina-8
10.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079845

RESUMO

In this study, we explore how to use household expenditures and income surveys (HEIS) to provide replicable and comparable measures of nutrients availability at the population level. Our method formalizes the common practice in the literature and consists of three steps: identification of relevant food categories, pairing of food contents food groups in HEIS data, and calculation of the typical amount of nutrients by food group. We illustrate the usage of the method with Mexican data and provide a publicly available data set to readily convert food purchases into six nutrients: calories, proteins, vitamins A and C, iron, and zinc. We perform a descriptive analysis of the evolution of nutrients intake among Mexican households between 2008 and 2020, considering differences by income level. Our results reflect the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on nutrient availability in Mexican households, mainly driven by a substantial reduction in the expenditure in food consumed away from home, although for most nutrients the trend was stable over most of the period.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gastos em Saúde , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , México , Pandemias , Vitaminas
11.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 60(5): 533-539, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048744

RESUMO

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020. The health personnel were the first line of action, so detecting the presence of burnout and work engagement allows us to have an overview of the perspective on the work environment of these workers. Objective: To identify the presence of high levels of work engagement and burnout in COVID-19 response teams (RT) during the COVID-19 pandemic in a secondary care level. Material and methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational, discretionary study. Data from 156 workers belonging to the COVID-19 RT were collected. It was administered a survey-type instrument, which collected sociodemographic data, as well as the UWES-9 and the MBI-HSS scales. Data analysis was performed with measures of central tendency and inferential statistics. Results: High levels of work engagement were identified in 55.1% of the COVID-19 RT members, while the high levels of burnout were 3.2%. Conclusions: The prevalence of work engagement was higher than burnout, but this did not imply protection against exhaustion.


Introducción: la enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19) fue declarada pandemia el 11 de marzo de 2020. El personal de salud fue la primera línea de acción, por lo que detectar la presencia de desgaste profesional y compromiso laboral nos permite tener un panorama de la perspectiva que se tiene del entorno laboral de estos trabajadores. Objetivo: identificar la presencia de altos niveles de compromiso laboral y desgaste profesional en equipos de respuesta COVID-19 (ERC), durante la pandemia por COVID-19 en un segundo nivel de atención médica. Material y métodos: el tipo de estudio fue transversal, descriptivo y observacional, discrecional. Se recabaron datos de 156 trabajadores pertenecientes a los ERC. Se aplicó un instrumento, el cual recogió datos sociodemográficos, así como las escalas UWES-9 y MBI-HSS. Se realizó el análisis de datos con medidas de tendencia central y estadística inferencial. Resultados: se identificaron niveles altos de compromiso laboral en un 55.1% de los integrantes de los ERC, mientras que los niveles de alto desgaste profesional fueron de 3.2%. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de alto compromiso laboral fue superior a la de alto desgaste profesional, pero no implicó protección contra el agotamiento.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , COVID-19 , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/etiologia , Esgotamento Psicológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Engajamento no Trabalho
12.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(Supplement_1): i43-i50, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the biggest threats to global public health. Selection of resistant bacteria is driven by inappropriate use of antibiotics, amongst other factors. COVID-19 may have exacerbated AMR due to unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Country-level knowledge is needed to understand options for action. OBJECTIVES: To review AMR in Mexico and initiatives addressing it. Identifying any areas where more information is required will provide a call to action to minimize any further rises in AMR and to improve patient outcomes. METHODS: National AMR initiatives in Mexico, antibiotic use and prescribing, and availability of susceptibility data, particularly the key community-acquired respiratory tract infection (CA-RTI) pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, were identified. National and international antibiotic prescribing guidelines commonly used in Mexico for specific CA-RTIs (community-acquired pneumonia, acute otitis media and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis) were also reviewed, along with local antibiotic availability. Insights from a local clinician were sought to contextualize this information. CONCLUSIONS: The Mexican national AMR strategy was published in 2018. This comprised similar objectives to the Global Action Plan from the World Health Assembly (2015) and was compulsory, requiring full compliance from members of the National Health System. Historically, antibiotic consumption in Mexico has been high, however, between 2000 and 2015, consumption fell, in sharp contrast to the majority of countries. Mexico lacks a national surveillance network for AMR, however there are several ongoing global surveillance studies providing local antibiotic susceptibility data. International and local antibiotic prescribing guidelines for CA-RTIs are used. A more standardized inclusive approach in developing local guidelines, using up-to-date local surveillance data of isolates from community-acquired infections, could make guideline use more locally relevant. This would pave the way for a higher level of appropriate antibiotic prescribing and improved adherence. This would, in turn, potentially limit AMR development in Mexico and improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Pneumonia , Infecções Respiratórias , Doença Aguda , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia
13.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 6(1)2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine parents' and school-aged children's mental well-being after experiencing confinement and prolonged school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Using a cross-sectional design, an online survey was applied to parents of school-aged children inquiring about their mental well-being and COVID-19 pandemic changes in their home and working lives. To assess the presence of depression, anxiety and stress in parents, the participants responded to the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale - 21 scale. To assess psychosocial dysfunction and sleep disturbances in children, participants responded to the Pediatric Symptom Checklist and the Children Sleep Habits Questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 209 parents answered the questionnaire, most of them were female (87.1%) with a mean age of 40 years. The prevalence of anxiety, stress and parental depression symptoms were 35.9%, 28.2% and 25.4%, respectively. Children's mean age was 8.9 years, the prevalence of children's psychosocial dysfunction was 12%, while their sleep disturbance symptoms were 59.8%. 10.5% of children were suffering both outcomes. We found a bidirectional relationship between parents' and children's mental health outcomes. Parental depression symptoms were associated with experiencing COVID-19 infection within the household, having children with pre-existing medical diagnoses, children's psychosocial dysfunction and sleep disturbances. Children's psychosocial dysfunction was associated with parental depression and changes in their school routine. Children's sleep disturbances were associated with parental anxiety, younger age, increased use of electronic devices, night-time awakenings and shorter sleep time. CONCLUSION: Our results support the impact of long confinement and school closure due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexican children and parents' mental well-being. We advocate for specific mental health interventions tailored to respond to parents and children at risk of mental well-being distress.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , México/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pais/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274322, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112642

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the moderating effects of sociodemographic and work-related variables on levels of burnout and mental health among medical residents. METHOD: A cross-sectional online survey was administered at the beginning of the second wave of COVID-19 at different public teaching hospitals where medical residents practiced in Mexico City. A total of 201 medical residents of different years completed the survey. RESULTS: Different univariate inferential analyses on the level of burnout and mental health indices showed significant differences between sex, marital status, previous reports of physical illness or psychological conditions, and residency ranking. However, the effect sizes of those differences were of low to medium size. A predictive path analysis revealed that the three stages of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and achievement dissatisfaction) negatively affect psychological wellbeing and positively affect psychological distress. Finally, even though sociodemographic variables showed some significant variation, the effect sizes were small and did not moderate the direct effect of burnout on mental health indices. CONCLUSIONS: Medical residents deling with every day medical situations, will be exposed to stressors that might increase the probability to experience emotional exhaustion. This would negatively affect levels of wellbeing and positively affect distress, despite their sociodemographic characteristics.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , COVID-19 , Internato e Residência , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico , Estudos Transversais , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , México/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275216, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36173956

RESUMO

In this paper we model the spreading of the SARS-CoV-2 in Mexico by introducing a new stochastic approximation constructed from first principles, where the number of new infected individuals caused by a single infectious individual per unit time (a day), is a random variable of a time-dependent Poisson distribution. The model, structured on the basis of a Latent-Infectious-(Recovered or Deceased) (LI(RD)) compartmental approximation together with a modulation of the mean number of new infections (the Poisson parameters), provides a good tool to study theoretical and real scenarios.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecção Latente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Distribuição de Poisson , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1010256, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36176536

RESUMO

Mexico, one of the countries severely affected by COVID-19, accumulated more than 5. 1 all-cause excess deaths/1,000 inhabitants and 2.5 COVID-19 confirmed deaths/1,000 inhabitants, in 2 years. In this scenario of high SARS-CoV-2 circulation, we analyzed the effectiveness of the country's vaccination strategy that used 7 different vaccines from around the world, and focused on vaccinating the oldest population first. We analyzed the national dataset published by Mexican health authorities, as a retrospective cohort, separating cases, hospitalizations, deaths and excess deaths by wave and age group. We explored if the vaccination strategy was effective to limit severe COVID-19 during the active outbreaks caused by Delta and Omicron variants. Vaccination of the eldest third of the population reduced COVID-19 hospitalizations, deaths and excess deaths by 46-55% in the third wave driven by Delta SARS-CoV-2. These adverse outcomes dropped 74-85% by the fourth wave driven by Omicron, when all adults had access to vaccines. Vaccine access for the pregnant resulted in 85-90% decrease in COVID-19 fatalities in pregnant individuals and 80% decrease in infants 0 years old by the Omicron wave. In contrast, in the rest of the pediatric population that did not access vaccination before the period analyzed, COVID-19 hospitalizations increased >40% during the Delta and Omicron waves. Our analysis suggests that the vaccination strategy in Mexico has been successful to limit population mortality and decrease severe COVID-19, but children in Mexico still need access to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to limit severe COVID-19, in particular those 1-4 years old.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , México/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vacinação
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 931306, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36148330

RESUMO

Background: SARS-CoV-2 prevalence is elevated among people who inject drugs (PWID). In Tijuana, Mexico, COVID-19 vaccines became available to the general population in June 2021, but uptake among PWID was <10%. We studied COVID-19 vaccine uptake among PWID in Tijuana following implementation of a pop-up vaccination clinic. Methods: Beginning in October, 2020, PWID in Tijuana aged ≥18 years were enrolled into a longitudinal cohort study. At baseline and semi-annually, participants underwent interviewer-administered interviews on health behaviors and COVID-19 exposures through April 5, 2022. From June 21-September 20, 2021, staff referred PWID to a temporary COVID-19 vaccine pop-up clinic that was coincidentally established near the study office. Participants attending the clinic completed a short interview on barriers to vaccination and were offered facilitated access to free Janssen® COVID-19 vaccine. All participants were reimbursed $5 for this interview, regardless of whether or not they chose to be vaccinated. Poisson regression was used to evaluate the effect of the pop-up clinic on COVID-19 vaccination uptake, controlling forpotential confounders. Results: Of 344 participants, 136 (39.5%) reported having received at least one COVID-19 vaccine dose during the 10 months follow-up period, of whom 113 (83.1%) received vaccine at the pop-up clinic and 23 (16.9%) elsewhere. One third of those receiving COVID-19 vaccine during the pop-up clinic were previously vaccine hesitant. Attending the pop-up clinic was independently associated with higher rates of COVID-19 vaccination Adjusted Rate Ratio (AdjRR: 9.15; 95% CI: 5.68-14.74). Conclusions: We observed a significant increase in COVID-19 vaccine uptake associated with attending a temporary pop-up vaccine clinic in Tijuana suggesting that efforts to improve vaccination in this vulnerable population should include convenient locations and staff who have experience working with substance using populations. Since COVID-19 vaccination rates remain sub-optimal, sustained interventions to increase uptake are needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Usuários de Drogas , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , México/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273923, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza cause a clinical and economic burden for health systems and society. It is necessary to know the cost of the disease in order to perform cost-effectiveness assessments of preventive or treatment interventions. OBJECTIVE: Assess the costs of the care of children with influenza in a third level hospital in Mexico. METHODS: Longitudinal retrospective study based on the review of clinical files of children hospitalized with influenza. The use of resources used during their hospitalization in the emergency room, general ward, or PICU was logged, and the amount of supplies were multiplied by their corresponding prices to calculate the direct medical expenses. Descriptive statistics were used, and a GLM was adjusted in order to assess the effect of the clinical characteristics of the patients on the cost. Goodness of fit tests were performed. RESULTS: 132 files were reviewed, out of which 95% were of subjects who had comorbidities. Subjects admitted at the PICU generates the highest cost (mean $29,608.62 USD), when analyzing the total cost summarizing the three clinical areas (Emergency room, general ward and PICU) by age group, the highest cost was for patients over age 10 (mean $49,674.53 USD). Comorbidities increase the cost of hospitalization by $10,000.00 USD. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza causes a significant financial burden on the health system. Children with comorbidities increase the costs and children over 10 years uses a significant amount of resources and they are not a priority in immunization program. It is necessary to perform studies on the use of resources in the first and second attention levels, which represent the highest incidence of the disease.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Pneumonia , Criança , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Hospitalização , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , México/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Salud Publica Mex ; 64(5, sept-oct): 453-463, 2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130351

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Analizar la asociación de la concentración de con-taminantes atmosféricos y los indicadores epidemiológicos de Covid-19 en la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México (ZMVM). Material y métodos. Se diseñó un estudio epidemiológico ecológico. Se utilizaron modelos lineales tipo Poisson para variables de conteo y modelos lineales de efectos aleatorios en variables continuas para cuantificar la asociación entre los contaminantes atmosféricos y los indicadores de Covid-19. Los datos obtenidos fueron del 28 de febrero de 2020 al 30 de junio de 2021. La exposición a contaminantes se estratificó por estaciones climáticas. RESULTADOS: Los contaminantes que tuvieron asociación significativa con indicadores de morbilidad y mortalidad fueron CO, NOX, O3 y PM10. En la estación seca fría el CO y el NOX tuvieron efecto sobre los casos diarios confirmados y las defunciones diarias. Las PM10 se asociaron con efecto en los indicadores de casos diarios confirmados, incidencia diaria, porcentaje de hospitalizados y la tasa de letalidad. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados sugieren una asociación entre el comportamiento epidemiológico de Covid-19 y la exposición a CO, NOX, O3 y PM10, en la que se encontró un mayor efecto en la estación seca-fría en la ZMVM.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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