Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 517
Filtrar
1.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491360

RESUMO

New Mexico Department of Health (NMDOH) conducted a matched case-control study to compare 315 persons (cases) with and 945 persons (controls) without SARS-CoV-2 secondary detection (i.e., positive SARS-CoV-2 test ≥90 days after first detection as of December 10, 2020). Compared with controls, cases had greater odds of higher SARS-CoV-2 testing frequency (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.2), being female (aOR = 1.6), being non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native (aOR = 2.3), having diabetes mellitus (aOR = 1.8), and residing/working in detention/correctional facilities (aOR = 4.7). Diagnostic tools evaluating infectiousness at secondary detection are urgently needed to inform infection control practices.

3.
Am J Public Health ; : e1-e4, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499539

RESUMO

Objectives. To estimate all-cause excess deaths in Mexico City (MXC) and New York City (NYC) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. We estimated expected deaths among residents of both cities between March 1 and August 29, 2020, using log-linked negative binomial regression and compared these deaths with observed deaths during the same period. We calculated total and age-specific excess deaths and 95% prediction intervals (PIs). Results. There were 259 excess deaths per 100 000 (95% PI = 249, 269) in MXC and 311 (95% PI = 305, 318) in NYC during the study period. The number of excess deaths among individuals 25 to 44 years old was much higher in MXC (77 per 100 000; 95% PI = 69, 80) than in NYC (34 per 100 000; 95% PI = 30, 38). Corresponding estimates among adults 65 years or older were 1263 (95% PI = 1199, 1317) per 100 000 in MXC and 1581 (95% PI = 1549, 1621) per 100 000 in NYC. Conclusions. Overall, excess mortality was higher in NYC than in MXC; however, the excess mortality rate among young adults was higher in MXC. Public Health Implications. Excess all-cause mortality comparisons across populations and age groups may represent a more complete measure of pandemic effects and provide information on mitigation strategies and susceptibility factors. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print September 9, 2021: e1-e4. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306430).

4.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; : 21501351211040739, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468229

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019, has caused more than 160 million infections globally. The experience of our department showed that the execution of a strict surgery protocol, universal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 screening, surgical prioritization, and an orderly reactivation of the cardiac surgery program is a feasible way to keep congenital heart diseases surgery program.

5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(9)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470746

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted health systems around the world. The objectives of this study are to estimate the overall effect of the pandemic on essential health service use and outcomes in Mexico, describe observed and predicted trends in services over 24 months, and to estimate the number of visits lost through December 2020. METHODS: We used health information system data for January 2019 to December 2020 from the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), which provides health services for more than half of Mexico's population-65 million people. Our analysis includes nine indicators of service use and three outcome indicators for reproductive, maternal and child health and non-communicable disease services. We used an interrupted time series design and linear generalised estimating equation models to estimate the change in service use and outcomes from April to December 2020. Estimates were expressed using average marginal effects on the risk ratio scale. RESULTS: The study found that across nine health services, an estimated 8.74 million patient visits were lost in Mexico. This included a decline of over two thirds for breast and cervical cancer screenings (79% and 68%, respectively), over half for sick child visits and female contraceptive services, approximately one-third for childhood vaccinations, diabetes, hypertension and antenatal care consultations, and a decline of 10% for deliveries performed at IMSS. In terms of patient outcomes, the proportion of patients with diabetes and hypertension with controlled conditions declined by 22% and 17%, respectively. Caesarean section rate did not change. CONCLUSION: Significant disruptions in health services show that the pandemic has strained the resilience of the Mexican health system and calls for urgent efforts to resume essential services and plan for catching up on missed preventive care even as the COVID-19 crisis continues in Mexico.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Cesárea , Criança , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , México/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Oncologist ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulated evidence indicates that patients with lung cancer are a vulnerable population throughout the pandemic. Limited information is available in Latin America regarding the impact of the pandemic on medical care. The goal of this study was to describe the clinical and social effect of COVID-19 on patients with thoracic cancer and to ascertain outcomes in those with a confirmed diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cohort study included patients with thoracic neoplasms within a single institution between March 1, 2020, and February 28, 2021. All variables of interest were extracted from electronic medical records. During this period, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 (DASS-2) was applied to evaluate and identify more common psychological disorders. RESULTS: The mean age for the total cohort (n = 548) was 61.5 ± 12.9 years; non-small cell lung cancer was the most frequent neoplasm (86.9%), advanced stages predominated (80%), and most patients were under active therapy (82.8%). Any change in treatment was reported in 23.9% of patients, of which 78.6% were due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Treatment delays (≥7 days) were the most frequent modifications in 41.9% of cases, followed by treatment suspension at 37.4%. Patients without treatment changes had a more prolonged progression-free survival and overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.21, p < .001 and HR 0.28, p < .001, respectively). The mean DASS-21 score was 10.45 in 144 evaluated patients, with women being more affected than men (11.41 vs. 9.08, p < .001). Anxiety was reported in 30.5% of cases, followed by depression and distress in equal proportions (18%). Depressed and stressed patients had higher odds of experiencing delays in treatment than patients without depression (odds ratio [OR] 4.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.53-13.23, p = .006 and OR 3.18, 95% CI 1.2-10.06, p = .006, respectively). CONCLUSION: Treatment adjustments in patients with thoracic malignancies often occurred to avoid COVID-19 contagion with detrimental effects on survival. Psychological disorders could have a role in adherence to the original treatment regimen. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The pandemic has placed an enormous strain on health care systems globally. Patients with thoracic cancers represent a vulnerable population, with increased morbidity and mortality rates. In Mexico, treatment modifications were common during the pandemic, and those who experienced delays had worse survival outcomes. Most treatment modifications were related to a patient decision rather than a lockdown of health care facilities in which mental health impairment plays an essential role. Moreover, the high case fatality rate highlights the importance of improving medical care access. Likewise, to develop strategies facing future threats that may compromise health care systems in non-developed countries.

7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 686700, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485216

RESUMO

Mexico is one of the countries most affected by the COVID-19 disease. Although there is vast information on the disease, there still are unknown data on the societal and economic cost of the pandemic. To estimate this impact, the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) can be a useful tool. Objective: To assess the DALYs due to COVID-19 in Mexico. Methods: We used the data released by the Mexican Ministry of Health to estimate the DALYs by the sum of the years of life lived with disability (YLDs) and the years of life lost (YLLs). Results: A total of 1,152,885 confirmed cases and 324,570 suspected cases of COVID-19 have been registered. Half of the cases were men, with a median age of 43.4 ± 16.9 years. About 8.3% died. A total of 39,202 YLDs were attributable to COVID-19. The total YLLs caused by COVID-19 were 2,126,222. A total of 2,165,424.5 DALYs for COVID-19 were estimated. The total DALYs were the highest in people between 50 and 59 years. The DALYs for each COVID-19 case were the highest in individuals between 60 and 79 years. Conclusion: The DALYs generated by the COVID-19 represent a more significant disease burden than that reported for other causes, such as the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Although it impacts all age groups in terms of disability, the most affected group are people over 50 years of age, whose risk of death is higher.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Community Psychol ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473355

RESUMO

This study proposes that, given the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, its sanitary restrictions, and the associated economic effects, citizens perceive higher uncertainty and tend to reduce their willingness to cooperate with others. Community social capital refers to a set of norms of reciprocity, trust, and civic engagement networks that promote trust, reciprocal help, and cooperation for mutual benefits. It is also suggested that it can help alleviate negative effects of the pandemic in communities, by reducing uncertainty and its harmful effects on cooperation. These hypotheses were tested in a sample of 565 inhabitants of Mexico, who answered an online survey with measurements of social capital, uncertainty, and willingness to cooperate in the face of the pandemic. The relationships between variables were analyzed in two structural equation models, which show adequate goodness of fit, where higher levels of uncertainty generated by the pandemic were associated with a greater disposition to noncooperation with others, while social capital moderated this relation decreasing negative effects of uncertainty on noncooperation. The value of social capital is discussed as a resource worth preserving and promoting in communities to strengthen them, so that they are better able to face health or economic contingencies.

9.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500592

RESUMO

Lippia graveolens is a traditional crop and a rich source of bioactive compounds with various properties (e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, UV defense, anti-glycemic, and cytotoxicity) that is primarily cultivated for essential oil recovery. The isolated bioactive compounds could be useful as additives in the functional food, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Carvacrol, thymol, ß-caryophyllene, and p-cymene are terpene compounds contained in oregano essential oil (OEO); flavonoids such as quercetin O-hexoside, pinocembrin, and galangin are flavonoids found in oregano extracts. Furthermore, thermoresistant compounds that remain in the plant matrix following a thermal process can be priced in terms of the circular economy. By using better and more selective extraction conditions, the bioactive compounds present in Mexican oregano can be studied as potential inhibitors of COVID-19. Also, research on extraction technologies should continue to ensure a higher quality of bioactive compounds while preventing an undesired chemical shift (e.g., hydrolysis). The oregano fractions can be used in the food, health, and agricultural industries.


Assuntos
Lippia/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Cosméticos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 709410, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497792

RESUMO

People can increase their use of psychoactive substances in response to stressful situations as a maladaptive mechanism for reducing negative affective states. It is therefore necessary to examine changes in the use of such substances and their relationship to mental health in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: Evaluate the relationship between psychoactive substances and stress, emotional state, and symptomatology during the COVID-19 lockdown in Mexico. Method: A national survey was conducted, using the free Google Forms platform, of residents of Mexico aged 18 and older. The survey was disseminated through social media. Results: The sample comprised 4,122 individuals, mostly women (71.8%), with an age range of 18-81 years (M = 37.08, SD = 12.689), of which 46.8% were single, and 42.9% married. In general, there was a reduction in substance use during the first 2 months of the quarantine; the most commonly used substances were alcohol, tobacco, and tranquilizers. Respondents who described having greater use than before the pandemic presented greater stress, depressive symptomatology, and perceived threat than those who did not use substances. Conclusions: Respondents who did not use substances reported lower levels of stress, depressive symptomatology, impact of the coronavirus pandemic, and perception of its threat. Women reported greater stress, depressive symptomatology, and emotional intensity than men.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Angústia Psicológica , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Health Policy Open ; : 100052, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514375

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted systemic inequities in the United States and resulted in a larger burden of negative social outcomes for marginalized communities. New Mexico, a state in the southwestern US, has a unique population with a large racial minority population and a high rate of poverty that may make communities more vulnerable to negative social outcomes from COVID-19. To identify which communities may be at the highest relative risk, we created a county-level vulnerability index. After the first COVID-19 case was reported in New Mexico on March 11, 2020, we fit a generalized propensity score model that incorporates sociodemographic factors to predict county-level viral exposure and thus, the generic risk to negative social outcomes such as unemployment or mental health impacts. We used four static sociodemographic covariates important for the state of New Mexico-population, poverty, household size, and minority population-and weekly cumulative case counts to iteratively run our model each week and normalize the exposure score to create a time-varying vulnerability index. We found the relative vulnerability between counties varied in the first eight weeks from the initial COVID-19 case before stabilizing. This framework for creating a location-specific vulnerability index in response to an ongoing disaster may be used as a quick, deployable metric to inform health policy decisions such as allocating state resources to the county-level.

12.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356272

RESUMO

(1) Background: Latin America has been harshly hit by SARS-CoV-2, but reporting from this region is still incomplete. This study aimed at identifying and comparing clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 at different stages of disease severity. (2) Methods: Cross-sectional multicentric study. Individuals with nasopharyngeal PCR were categorized into four groups: (1) negative, (2) positive, not hospitalized, (3) positive, hospitalized with/without supplementary oxygen, and (4) positive, intubated. Clinical and laboratory data were compared, using group 1 as the reference. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to compare adjusted odds ratios. (3) Results: Nine variables remained in the model, explaining 76% of the variability. Men had increased odds, from 1.90 (95%CI 0.87-4.15) in the comparison of 2 vs. 1, to 3.66 (1.12-11.9) in 4 vs. 1. Diabetes and obesity were strong predictors. For diabetes, the odds for groups 2, 3, and 4 were 1.56 (0.29-8.16), 12.8 (2.50-65.8), and 16.1 (2.87-90.2); for obesity, these were 0.79 (0.31-2.05), 3.38 (1.04-10.9), and 4.10 (1.16-14.4), respectively. Fever, myalgia/arthralgia, cough, dyspnea, and neutrophilia were associated with the more severe COVID-19 group. Anosmia/dysgeusia were more likely to occur in group 2 (25.5; 2.51-259). (4) Conclusion: The results point to relevant differences in clinical and laboratory features of COVID-19 by level of severity that can be used in medical practice.

13.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e045190, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344672

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 infection in Mexico has caused ~2.7 million confirmed cases; around 20%-25% of health workers will be infected by the virus at their workplace, with approximately 4.4% of mortality. High infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 is related with cell entry mechanism, through the ACE receptor. SARS-CoV-2 requires transmembrane protease serine 2 to cleave its spike glycoprotein and ensure fusion of host cell and virus membrane. We propose studying prophylactic treatment with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and bromhexine (BHH), which have been shown to be effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection progression when administered in early stages. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of HCQ and BHH as prophylactic treatments for SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthy health workers exposed to the virus. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Double-blind randomised clinical trial, with parallel allocation at a 1:1 ratio with placebo, of low doses of HCQ plus BHH, for 60 days. Study groups will be defined as follows: (1) HCQ 200 mg/day+BHH 8 mg/8 hours versus (2) HCQ placebo plus BHH placebo. Primary endpoint will be efficacy of both interventions for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection, determined by the risk ratio of infected personnel and the absolute risk. At least a 16% reduction in absolute risk is expected between the intervention and placebo groups; a minimum of 20% infection is expected in the placebo group. The sample size calculation estimated a total of 214 patients assigned: two groups of 107 participants each. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol has been approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee (National Institute of Rehabilitation 'Luis Guillermo Ibarra Ibarra', approval number INRLGII/25/20) and by the Federal Commission for Protection against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS, approval number 203 300 410A0058/2020). The results of the study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated through conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04340349.


Assuntos
Bromoexina , COVID-19 , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , México , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Int J Ment Health Addict ; : 1-12, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366729

RESUMO

The world is social distancing, and compulsory confinement has caused stress, psychological instability, stigmatization, fear, and discrimination in the general population. In this cross-sectional survey study, we administered the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) to hospital medical and nonmedical personnel. A total of 1216 participants were surveyed from May 25 to May 29 of 2020. We asked all the staff for their participation in the study, and physical copies of the survey were distributed to the staff willing to participate. All surveys were answered anonymously. We found that the global FCV-19S mean score was 16.4 ± 6.1, with a significant difference between women and men's scores. Medical students presented higher scores than experienced medical personnel. Additionally, the medical and nursing personnel presented a higher level of fear than hospital staff who did not work directly with COVID-19 patients. Our findings suggest that greater knowledge of medicine or infectious diseases could decrease the overall psychological impact of the pandemic disease.

15.
Cir Cir ; 89(4): 435-442, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352870

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: en la actual pandemia de COVID-19, existe evidencia creciente que ha identificado el neurotropismo del virus SARS-CoV-2 y sus complicaciones neurológicas, incluida la enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica y escasamente hemorragia cerebral (HC). OBJETIVO: describir las características clínicas, radiológicas, de laboratorio y pronósticas de los pacientes con HC asociada al SARS-CoV-2. MÉTODOS: se incluyeron pacientes consecutivos con prueba de PCR confirmatoria para infección por SARS-CoV-2 y HC. RESULTADOS: en un período de 90 días, en un centro de referencia COVID-19 en México, de 1108 pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2, se encontraron 4 pacientes (0.36%) con HC. Tenían una edad de 71(±12.2) años, 2 eran mujeres. Se encontró que dos tenían factores de riesgo cardiovascular previos. En dos casos se encontró el origen en el núcleo dentado mientras que los otros dos correspondieron al tálamo. Tres de los cuatro pacientes murieron. Postulamos que el descontrol hipertensivo, coagulopatía, trombocitopenia y la respuesta inmune inducida por el virus SARS-CoV-2 podrían desencadenar HC en un paciente con riesgo previo. CONCLUSIONES: la HC se asocia a la infección por SARS-CoV-2 con mal pronóstico cuando se presenta. Los equipos de neurocirugía deben estar preparados para el tratamiento oportuno de estos pacientes. INTRODUCTION: In the current COVID-19 pandemic, there is a growing body of evidence that has identified the neurotropism of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its neurological complications, including cerebrovascular disease, focusing mainly in ischemic and scarcely about hemorrhagic stroke (HS). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe clinical, radiological, laboratory tests, and prognostic characteristics of patients with SARS-CoV-2 associated HS. METHODS: Consecutive patients with a confirmatory PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 infection and a HS demonstrated by head CT were included in the study. RESULTS: Over a period of 90 days, in a COVID-19 reference center in Mexico, out of a total of 1108 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, it found 4 patients (0.36%) who meet criteria. They had an age of 71 (±12.2) years, 2 were women. It was found that two had prior cardiovascular risk factors. Two of the HS originated in the dentate nucleus while the other two corresponded to the thalamus. Three of the four patients died. We suggest that catastrophic uncontrolled blood pressure, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, and immune response induced by SARS-CoV-2 could in a specific patient trigger HS. CONCLUSIONS: HS is associated to SARS-CoV-2 infection with poor prognosis when it presented. Neurosurgery teams should prepare for the timely and appropriate treatment of this patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , AVC Hemorrágico/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , AVC Hemorrágico/diagnóstico , AVC Hemorrágico/diagnóstico por imagem , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 656036, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368044

RESUMO

Background: The health crisis associated with the COVID-19 pandemic is causally linked to negative mental health symptoms in the same way as other diseases such as Ebola. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to describe the relationship between mental health symptoms, binge drinking, and the experience of abuse during the COVID-19 lockdown. Method: We surveyed 9,361 participants, all Mexican, with an average age of 33 years old (SD = 10.86). In this group of people, we found out that 59% were single (5,523), 71% were women (6,693). Forty-six percentage were complying with lockdown procedures (4,286), 50% were partially complying (4,682), and 4% were not complying at all (393). The invitation to participate was open from April 24th to April 30th during the second stage of the pandemic in Mexico, in 2020, characterized by voluntary complete lockdown staying at home. Thus, we used a cross-sectional online survey design to assess mental health risk factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was available on a WebApp designed by Linux®, PHP®, HTML®, CSS®, and JavaScript®. We calculated descriptive and inferential analysis to describe the mental health average distribution as a function of the lockdown, binge drinking, and experience of abuse. To calculate the reliability and validation of the subscales, we used Cronbach's Alpha and Factor Loading. We run the confirmatory factor loading analysis, and we described the relationship between each latent variable and its item factor load, obtained through structural modeling equations, derived from 179 iterations and 207 parameters (t [1,171] = 28,079.418, p < 0.001). We got a CFI of 0.947, a TLC of 0.940, an RMSEA of 0.049 (0.049-0.050), and an SRMR of 0.048. Findings: The results indicated that reported attitudes such as avoidance, sadness, withdrawal, anger, and anxiety were associated with acute stress, which was linked to an anxiety condition caused by uncertainty about achieving or maintaining overall good health. Discussion and Prospects: People in lockdown mentioned a sudden increase in alcohol consumption. They lived episodes of physical and emotional abuse, in contrast with those who stated that they did not go into lockdown or consume alcohol, or experienced abuse. Limitations: Further studies should diagnose mental health conditions as part of the impact of COVID-19, ensure their follow-up, and assess the effect of providing remote psychological care. There is a need to explore methods to curb the increase in the number of people affected by post-traumatic stress disorder.


Assuntos
Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , COVID-19 , Adulto , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , México/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Food Environ Virol ; 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415553

RESUMO

The presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in wastewater has been reported as a result of fecal shedding of infected individuals. In this study, the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was explored in primary-treated wastewater from two municipal wastewater treatment plants in Quintana Roo, Mexico, along with groundwater from sinkholes, a household well, and submarine groundwater discharges. Physicochemical variables were obtained in situ, and coliphage densities were determined. Three virus concentration methods based on adsorption-elution and sequential filtration were used followed by RNA isolation. Quantification of SARS-CoV-2 was done by RT-qPCR using the CDC 2020 assay, 2019-nCoV_N1 and 2019-nCoV_N2. The Pepper mild mottle virus, one of the most abundant RNA viruses in wastewater was quantified by RT-qPCR and compared to SARS-CoV-2 concentrations. The use of three combined virus concentration methods together with two qPCR assays allowed the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in 58% of the wastewater samples analyzed, whereas none of the groundwater samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater were from 1.8 × 103 to 7.5 × 103 genome copies per liter (GC l-1), using the N1 RT-qPCR assay, and from 2.4 × 102 to 5.9 × 103 GC l-1 using the N2 RT-qPCR assay. Based on PMMoV prevalence detected in all wastewater and groundwater samples tested, the three viral concentration methods used could be successfully applied for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in further studies. This study represents the first detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater in southeast Mexico and provides a baseline for developing a wastewater-based epidemiology approach in the area.

19.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256447, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 testing capacity is important to monitor epidemic dynamics and as a mitigation strategy. Given difficulties of large-scale quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) implementation, rapid antigen tests (Rapid Ag-T) have been proposed as alternatives in settings like Mexico. Here, we evaluated diagnostic performance of Rapid Ag-T for SARS-CoV-2 infection and its associated clinical implications compared to qRT-PCR testing in Mexico. METHODS: We analyzed data from the COVID-19 registry of the Mexican General Directorate of Epidemiology up to April 30th, 2021 (n = 6,632,938) and cases with both qRT-PCR and Rapid Ag-T (n = 216,388). We evaluated diagnostic performance using accuracy measures and assessed time-dependent changes in the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUROC). We also explored test discordances as predictors of hospitalization, intubation, severe COVID-19 and mortality. RESULTS: Rapid Ag-T is primarily used in Mexico City. Rapid Ag-T have low sensitivity 37.6% (95%CI 36.6-38.7), high specificity 95.5% (95%CI 95.1-95.8) and acceptable positive 86.1% (95%CI 85.0-86.6) and negative predictive values 67.2% (95%CI 66.2-69.2). Rapid Ag-T has optimal diagnostic performance up to days 3 after symptom onset, and its performance is modified by testing location, comorbidity, and age. qRT-PCR (-) / Rapid Ag-T (+) cases had higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes (HR 1.54 95% CI 1.41-1.68) and were older, qRT-PCR (+)/ Rapid Ag-T(-) cases had slightly higher risk or adverse outcomes and ≥7 days from symptom onset (HR 1.53 95% CI 1.48-1.59). Cases detected with rapid Ag-T were younger, without comorbidities, and milder COVID-19 course. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid Ag-T could be used as an alternative to qRT-PCR for large scale SARS-CoV-2 testing in Mexico. Interpretation of Rapid Ag-T results should be done with caution to minimize the risk associated with false negative results.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/análise , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444524

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine changes in depression, stress and social support levels before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in women living in Mexico City. We studied 466 women enrolled in the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors (PROGRESS) study who completed the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) questionnaire prior (2018-2019) and during the lockdown period of the pandemic (May-November 2020). Psychosocial stress and social support for both time periods were ascertained using the Crisis in Family Systems (CRISYS) questionnaire and the Social Support Network (SSN) Scale, respectively. Associations between stress, social support and change in EDS score/depression were analyzed using generalized linear models adjusting for covariates. Higher stress (>median) during the pandemic was associated with an increase in EDS score (ß: 2.13; 95% CI (1.06, 3.19), p < 0.001), and higher odds of depression (OR: 3.75; 95% CI (2.17, 6.50), p < 0.001), while social support was associated with lower odds of depression (OR: 0.56, 95% CI (0.32, 0.97), p = 0.037). Higher levels of stress during the pandemic were associated with depression. Social support may act as a buffer for the effects of psychosocial stress. Future studies should examine the long-term effects of stress associated with the pandemic on mental and overall health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoio Social
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...