Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 25
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Filtros aplicados
  • País/Região como assunto
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35785016

RESUMO

It has been proposed that as SARS-CoV-2 transitions to endemicity, children will represent the greatest proportion of SARS-Co-V-2 infections as they currently do with endemic coronavirus infections. While SARS-CoV-2 infection severity is low for children, it is unclear if SARS-CoV-2 infections are distinct in symptom presentation, duration, and severity from endemic coronavirus infections in children. We compared symptom risk and duration of endemic human coronavirus (HCoV) infections from 2011-2016 with SARS-CoV-2 infections from March 2020-September 2021 in a Nicaraguan pediatric cohort. Blood samples were collected from study participants annually in February-April. Respiratory samples were collected from participants that met testing criteria. Blood samples collected in were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and a subset of 2011-2016 blood samples from four-year-old children were tested for endemic HCoV antibodies. Respiratory samples were tested for each of the endemic HCoVs from 2011-2016 and for SARS-CoV-2 from 2020-2021 via rt-PCR. By April 2021, 854 (49%) cohort participants were ELISA positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Most participants had antibodies against one alpha and one beta coronavirus by age four. We observed 595 symptomatic endemic HCoV infections from 2011-2016 and 121 symptomatic with SARS-CoV-2 infections from March 2020-September 2021. Symptom presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection and endemic coronavirus infections were very similar, and SARS-CoV-2 symptomatic infections were as or less severe on average than endemic HCoV infections. This suggests that, for children, SARS-CoV-2 may be just another endemic coronavirus. However, questions about the impact of variants and the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 remain.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2218794, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35759261

RESUMO

Importance: The impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on children remains unclear. Better understanding of the burden of COVID-19 among children and their risk of reinfection is crucial, as they will be among the last groups vaccinated. Objective: To characterize the burden of COVID-19 and assess how risk of symptomatic reinfection may vary by age among children. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prospective, community-based pediatric cohort study conducted from March 1, 2020, to October 15, 2021, 1964 nonimmunocompromised children aged 0 to 14 years were enrolled by random selection from the Nicaraguan Pediatric Influenza Cohort, a community-based cohort in District 2 of Managua, Nicaragua. Additional newborn infants aged 4 weeks or younger were randomly selected and enrolled monthly via home visits. Exposures: Prior COVID-19 infection as confirmed by positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (receptor binding domain and spike protein) or real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 infection at least 60 days before current COVID-19 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Symptomatic COVID-19 cases confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and hospitalization within 28 days of symptom onset of a confirmed COVID-19 case. Results: This cohort study assessed 1964 children (mean [SD] age, 6.9 [4.4] years; 985 [50.2%] male). Of 1824 children who were tested, 908 (49.8%; 95% CI, 47.5%-52.1%) were seropositive during the study. There were also 207 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases, 12 (5.8%) of which were severe enough to require hospitalization. Incidence of COVID-19 was highest among children younger than 2 years (16.1 cases per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 12.5-20.5 cases per 100 person-years), which was approximately 3 times the incidence rate in any other child age group assessed. In addition, 41 symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 episodes (19.8%; 95% CI, 14.4%-25.2%) were reinfections. Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective, community-based pediatric cohort study, rates of symptomatic and severe COVID-19 were highest among the youngest participants, with rates stabilizing at approximately 5 years of age. In addition, symptomatic reinfections represented a large proportion of symptomatic COVID-19 cases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nicarágua/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Reinfecção
4.
IJID Reg ; 2: 110-117, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35721440

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in selected health clinics in the three largest urban areas in Nicaragua, where data regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) testing, morbidity and mortality is severely limited. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and were tested for antibodies using immunoassays. A questionnaire recorded subjects' COVID-19-associated symptoms and risk factors. Data were collected from 22 February to 19 March 2021, 1 year after the first confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 in Nicaragua. Study participants were enrolled while attending routine check-ups or seeking care unrelated to COVID-19. Study participation was random and voluntary. All patients were eligible to participate. Symptom history was not part of the eligibility criteria. Results: The prevalence of current SARS-CoV-2 infection was high (14%, LAMP-positive/seronegative). Antibody testing showed higher overall seroprevalence (38%). Cough was the symptom most strongly associated with being LAMP-positive (odds ratio 3.57, 95% confidence interval 2.65-4.81). Loss of smell had the highest positive predictive value, and was significantly associated with being LAMP-positive. Conclusion: The prevalence of current SARS-CoV-2 infection and seropositivity were fairly high. More than half of the sample population had evidence of current or past infection. Knowledge of this previously unknown elevated level of infection is crucial for healthcare providers and policy makers.

5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 5, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Salud Mesoamérica Initiative (SMI) is a public-private collaboration aimed to improve maternal and child health conditions in the poorest populations of Mesoamerica through a results-based aid mechanism. We assess the impact of SMI on the staffing and availability of equipment and supplies for delivery care, the proportion of institutional deliveries, and the proportion of women who choose a facility other than the one closest to their locality of residence for delivery. METHODS: We used a quasi-experimental design, including baseline and follow-up measurements between 2013 and 2018 in intervention and comparison areas of Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Honduras. We collected information on 8754 births linked to the health facility closest to the mother's locality of residence and the facility where the delivery took place (if attended in a health facility). We fit difference-in-difference models, adjusting for women's characteristics (age, parity, education), household characteristics, exposure to health promotion interventions, health facility level, and country. RESULTS: Equipment, inputs, and staffing of facilities improved after the Initiative in both intervention and comparison areas. After adjustment for covariates, institutional delivery increased between baseline and follow-up by 3.1 percentage points (ß = 0.031, 95% CI -0.03, 0.09) more in intervention areas than in comparison areas. The proportion of women in intervention areas who chose a facility other than their closest one to attend the delivery decreased between baseline and follow-up by 13 percentage points (ß = - 0.130, 95% CI -0.23, - 0.03) more than in the comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that women in intervention areas of SMI are more likely to go to their closest facility to attend delivery after the Initiative has improved facilities' capacity, suggesting that results-based aid initiatives targeting poor populations, like SMI, can increase the use of facilities closest to the place of residence for delivery care services. This should be considered in the design of interventions after the COVID-19 pandemic may have changed health and social conditions.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Promoção da Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Guatemala , Instalações de Saúde , Honduras , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicarágua , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
6.
medRxiv ; 2022 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35075460

RESUMO

It has been proposed that as SARS-CoV-2 transitions to endemicity, children will represent the greatest proportion of SARS-Co-V-2 infections as they currently do with endemic coronavirus infections. While SARS-CoV-2 infection severity is low for children, it is unclear if SARS-CoV-2 infections are distinct in symptom presentation, duration, and severity from endemic coronavirus infections in children. We compared symptom risk and duration of endemic human coronavirus (HCoV) infections from 2011-2016 with SARS-CoV-2 infections from March 2020-September 2021 in a Nicaraguan pediatric cohort. Blood samples were collected from study participants annually in February-April. Respiratory samples were collected from participants that met testing criteria. Blood samples collected in were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and a subset of 2011-2016 blood samples from four-year-old children were tested for endemic HCoV antibodies. Respiratory samples were tested for each of the endemic HCoVs from 2011-2016 and for SARS-CoV-2 from 2020-2021 via rt-PCR. By April 2021, 854 (49%) cohort participants were ELISA positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Most participants had antibodies against one alpha and one beta coronavirus by age four. We observed 595 symptomatic endemic HCoV infections from 2011-2016 and 121 symptomatic with SARS-CoV-2 infections from March 2020-September 2021. Symptom presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection and endemic coronavirus infections were very similar, and SARS-CoV-2 symptomatic infections were as or less severe on average than endemic HCoV infections. This suggests that, for children, SARS-CoV-2 may be just another endemic coronavirus. However, questions about the impact of variants and the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 remain.

7.
Lancet ; 398(10311): 1555-1556, 2021 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756170
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e051836, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to capture key epidemiological data on SARS-CoV-2 infection in Nicaraguan children (≤18 years) seeking medical care, between 6 October and 16 November 2020. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, 418 children were recruited: 319 with symptoms characteristic of COVID-19 and 99 with no symptoms of illness. Children were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. A questionnaire was employed to identify symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities and COVID-19 prevention measures. SETTING: Research was carried out in four hospitals and two clinics in Managua, Nicaragua, where schools and businesses remained open throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. PARTICIPANTS: Children were enrolled into a possible COVID-19 group if presenting with clinical symptoms. A comparison group included children lacking any COVID-19 symptoms attending routine check-ups or seeking care for issues unrelated to COVID-19. RESULTS: A high prevalence (43%) of SARS-CoV-2 infection was found, which was relatively equivalent in symptomatic and non-symptomatic children. Age distribution was similar between symptomatic and non-symptomatic children testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Symptomatic children who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were 2.7 times more likely to have diarrhoea (26.7% in positive vs 12.0% in negative; OR=2.7 (95% CI 1.5 to 4.8), p=0.001) and were 2.0 times more likely to have myalgia (17.8% in positive vs 9.8% in negative; OR=2.0 (95% CI 1.0 to 3.8), p=0.04). Children with COVID-19 symptoms, who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, were more likely to be under age 5 years and to have a pre-existing comorbid condition than children who tested positive but did not have symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first paediatric study to provide laboratory-confirmed data on SARS-CoV-2 infection in Nicaragua, crucial for paediatric health services planning and a successful COVID-19 response. The high prevalence of the virus suggests widespread and sustained community transmission, underscoring the urgent need for robust data on the true extent of SARS-CoV-2 infection throughout Nicaragua.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Nicarágua/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Pandemias , Prevalência , RNA Viral , Fatores de Risco
10.
Managua; OPS; 2021-09-21. (OPS/NIC/21-0001).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-54866

RESUMO

Establecida en 1902 como el organismo independiente especializado en salud del sistema interamericano, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) ha desarrollado competencias y experiencia ampliamente reconocidas al brindar cooperación técnica a sus Estados Miembros para combatir las enfermedades transmisibles y no transmisibles y sus causas, fortalecer los sistemas de salud y responder a situaciones de emergencia y desastres en toda la Región de las Américas. Asimismo, en su calidad de oficina regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la OPS participa activamente en los equipos de las Naciones Unidas en los países, colaborando con otros organismos, fondos y programas del sistema de las Naciones Unidas para contribuir al logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) a nivel de país. En este informe anual se presenta la cooperación técnica de la OPS a nivel de país en el 2020, mediante la aplicación de la estrategia de cooperación con el país, la respuesta a las necesidades y prioridades nacionales, y el desarrollo de las actividades en el marco de los mandatos regionales y mundiales de la Organización y los ODS. En consonancia con el tema general de "la salud universal y la pandemia: sistemas de salud resilientes", se pone de relieve la respuesta de la OPS a la pandemia de COVID-19, así como sus esfuerzos continuos en esferas prioritarias como las enfermedades transmisibles, las enfermedades no transmisibles, la salud mental, la salud a lo largo del curso de vida y las emergencias de salud. También se presenta un resumen financiero del ejercicio examinado.


Assuntos
Cooperação Técnica , Políticas, Planejamento e Administração em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Cobertura de Serviços de Saúde , Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Saúde Mental , Administração em Saúde Pública , COVID-19 , América Central , Nicarágua
11.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 37(10): 3083-3087, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427745

RESUMO

With respect to the tremendous deficit in surgical care plaguing developing nations, it is critical that medical outreach models be organized in such a fashion that sustainable advancements can be durably imparted beyond the duration of targeted missions. Using a didactic framework focused on empowering host neurosurgeons with an enhanced surgical skillset, a mission was launched in Managua, Nicaragua, after previous success in Kiev, Ukraine, and Lima, Peru. Unfortunately, the failure to critically assess the internal and external state of affairs of the region's medical center compromised the outreach mission. Herein lies the visiting team's lessons from failure and insights on facilitating effective communication with host institutions, circumventing geopolitical instability, and utilizing digital collaboration and video-conferencing tools in the post-COVID-19 era to advance the surgical care of developing regions in a fashion that can be generationally felt.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neurocirurgia , Humanos , Neurocirurgiões , Nicarágua , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Clim Chang Health ; 3: 100019, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235501

RESUMO

The 2020 Atlantic hurricane season was notable for a record-setting 30 named storms while, contemporaneously, the COVID-19 pandemic was circumnavigating the globe. The active spread of COVID-19 complicated disaster preparedness and response actions to safeguard coastal and island populations from hurricane hazards. Major hurricanes Eta and Iota, the most powerful storms of the 2020 Atlantic season, made November landfalls just two weeks apart, both coming ashore along the Miskito Coast in Nicaragua's North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region. Eta and Iota bore the hallmarks of climate-driven storms, including rapid intensification, high peak wind speeds, and decelerating forward motion prior to landfall. Hurricane warning systems, combined with timely evacuation and sheltering procedures, minimized loss of life during hurricane impact. Yet these protective actions potentially elevated risks for COVID-19 transmission for citizens sharing congregate shelters during the storms and for survivors who were displaced post-impact due to severe damage to their homes and communities. International border closures and travel restrictions that were in force to slow the spread of COVID-19 diminished the scope, timeliness, and effectiveness of the humanitarian response for survivors of Eta and Iota. Taken together, the extreme impacts from hurricanes Eta and Iota, compounded by the ubiquitous threat of COVID-19 transmission, and the impediments to international humanitarian response associated with movement restrictions during the pandemic, acted to exacerbate harms to population health for the citizens of Nicaragua.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071535

RESUMO

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has created a great impact on mental health in society. Considering the little attention paid by scientific studies to either students or university staff during lockdown, the current study has two aims: (a) to analyze the evolution of mental health and (b) to identify predictors of educational/professional experience and online learning/teaching experience. (2) Methods: 1084 university students and 554 staff in total from four different countries (Spain, Colombia, Chile and Nicaragua) participated in the study, affiliated with nine different universities, four of them Spanish and one of which was online. We used an online survey known as LockedDown, which consists of 82 items, analyzed with classical multiple regression analyses and machine learning techniques. (3) Results: Stress level and feelings of anxiety and depression of students and staff either increased or remained over the weeks. A better online learning experience for university students was associated with the age, perception of the experience as beneficial and support of the university. (4) Conclusions: The study has shown evidence of the emotional impact and quality of life for both students and staff. For students, the evolution of feelings of anxiety and depression, as well as the support offered by the university affected the educational experience and online learning. For staff who experienced a positive professional experience, with access to services and products, the quality-of-life levels were maintained.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Chile , Colômbia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Nicarágua , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha , Estudantes , Universidades
14.
medRxiv ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948604

RESUMO

New information is emerging about SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology and immunity, but little of this information comes from low- and middle-income countries or from patients receiving care in the outpatient setting. The current study investigated the SARS-CoV-2 infection status and antibody responses in 157 patients seeking care for a respiratory disease suggestive of COVID-19 in private healthcare clinics during the first wave (June-October 2020) of infections in Nicaragua. We examined nasal swabs for the presence of viral RNA via RT-PCR and longitudinally collected sera for the changes in SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibody levels over six months. Among patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, we evaluated if clinical symptoms were associated with age, hematological parameters and co-morbidities. The combination of PCR and paired serology identified 60 (38%) of the 157 outpatients as acute COVID-19. While both PCR and serology identified the majority (n = 38, 64%) of the acute infections, a notable number of outpatients were identified by RT-qPCR (n = 13, 22%) or by serology (n = 9, 14%) only. During the longitudinal study, we identified 6 new infections by serology among the 97 non-COVID-19 subjects. In conclusion, this study report that more than one third of the outpatients seeking care for acute respiratory disease during the first epidemic wave of SARS-CoV-2 in Nicaragua had an acute mild COVID-19 infection that correlate with prolonged humoral response. This immune response to the RBD antigen, more likely IgG dependent, significantly increased between the acute to convalescent and decay in the late convalescent but still remained seropositive.

15.
medRxiv ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688687

RESUMO

In a Nicaraguan population-based cohort, SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was 34%, with higher prevalence in children compared to adults. Having a seropositive household member was associated with a two-fold probability of individual seropositivity, suggesting a role for household transmission. Co-morbidities and preventive behaviors were not associated with SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence.

16.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246084, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503071

RESUMO

The Nicaraguan COVID-19 situation is exceptional for Central America. The government restricts testing and testing supplies, and the true extent of the coronavirus crisis remains unknown. Dozens of deaths have been reported among health-care workers. However, statistics on the crisis' effect on health-care workers and their risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 are lacking. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in health-care workers and to examine correlations with risk factors such as age, sex and comorbidities. Study participants (N = 402, median age 38.48 years) included physicians, nurses and medical assistants, from public and private hospitals, independent of symptom presentation. SARS-CoV-2 was detected on saliva samples using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay. A questionnaire was employed to determine subjects' COVID-19-associated symptoms and their vulnerability to complications from risk factors such as age, sex, professional role and comorbidities. The study was performed five weeks into the exponential growth period in Nicaragua. We discovered that 30.35% of health-care workers participating in our study had been infected with SARS-CoV-2. A large percentage (54.92%) of those who tested positive were asymptomatic and were still treating patients. Nearly 50% of health-care workers who tested positive were under 40, an astonishing 30.33% reported having at least one comorbidity. In our study, sex and age are important risk factors for the probability of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 with significance being greatest among those between 30 and 40 years of age. In general, being male resulted in higher risk. Our data are the first non-governmental data obtained in Nicaragua. They shed light on several important aspects of COVID-19 in an underdeveloped nation whose government has implemented a herd-immunity strategy, while lacking an adequate healthcare system and sufficient PPE for health-care workers. These data are important for creating policies for containing the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicarágua/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/virologia
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e247, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35172912

RESUMO

In a Nicaraguan population-based cohort, SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence reached 28% in the first 6 months of the country's epidemic and reached 35% 6 months later. Immune waning was uncommon. Individuals with a seropositive household member were over three times as likely to be seropositive themselves, suggesting the importance of household transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicarágua/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...