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1.
Biomedica ; 41(Sp. 2): 180-187, 2021 Oct 15.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669288

RESUMEN

Introducción. La aparición de enterobacterias multirresistentes y productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en pacientes de consulta externa con infecciones urinarias, representa un problema de salud pública en Perú. Objetivos. Caracterizar molecularmente enterobacterias multirresistentes aisladas de pacientes con diagnóstico de infección urinaria y procedentes de dos departamentos de la selva peruana. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo, observacional y retrospectivo de 61 aislamientos de urocultivo procedentes de la selva peruana durante 2017 y 2018. Los perfiles de resistencia se identificaron utilizando el sistema automatizado MicroScan™ y para la detección de los genes blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaSHV se empleó una reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) convencional. Resultados. Las enterobacterias positivas para BLEE más frecuentes por departamento fueron Escherichia coli en Madre de Dios (25 %, 10/40) y Ucayali (76,2 %, 16/21). En ambos departamentos, el gen blaCTX-M fue el más frecuente (25/61; 41 %), seguido por blaTEM (15/61; 24,6 %) y blaSHV (10/61; 16,4 %). En el perfil de sensibilidad antimicrobiana, se detectó 72,6 % de resistencia contra ampicilina, 82,3 % contra cefalotina y 88,7 % contra nitrofurantoína. Conclusiones. El porcentaje de cepas de enterobacterias multirresistentes productoras de BLEE en ambos departamentos fue del 57,4 % y el gen bla CTX-M fue el más frecuente.

2.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436792

RESUMEN

Dengue virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 coexist in dengue-endemic countries; therefore, the adoption of preventive measures is essential to control the spread of both viruses. We conducted an ecological study to compare the temporal patterns of the incidence of dengue before and during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Peru. A time-series analysis comparing the incidence of dengue using a Student's t test with variance correction was performed. Poisson regression was applied to determine the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of dengue before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The incidence of dengue was found to be increased in all endemic regions of Peru during the COVID-19 pandemic, with the highest incidences registered in Ica (IRR = 90.14), Huánuco (IRR = 38.6), and Ucayali (IRR = 23.78), with the exception of Piura (IRR = 0.83). The highest increases in the number of dengue cases per million inhabitants were in Ucayali (393.38), Tumbes (233.19), Ica (166.08), and Loreto (129.93). The gradient of dengue cases was positive in all endemic regions during the COVID-19 pandemic. The number of dengue cases per million increased during the COVID-19 pandemic throughout Peru and in several endemic regions, with the exception of Piura.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250445, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956829

RESUMEN

The African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) is a crop that is widely distributed in tropical regions around the world; however, this crop is subject to limitations such as rapid trunk growth and susceptibility to bud rot and red ring diseases particularly in South America. To overcome these limitations, national breeding and conservation programs have been established, and there is a need to identify parental palms from natural populations of the American oil palm (E. oleifera H.B.K. Cortes) with desirable yield and morphological traits (i.e., yield production and bunch number) and with high genetic diversity. However, in Peru the morphological and genetic data related to this important crop is limited. In this study, we characterized the morphological and yield and estimated the genetic diversity using 12 neutral microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) across 72 oil palm individuals belonging to the E. oleifera germplasm collection located in the tropical region of Ucayali, Peru. Our results showed that morphological and yield traits explained approximately 40.39% of the variability within the Peruvian germplasm. Furthermore, Yield Production was highly correlated with two yield traits: Bunch Number (0.67) and Average weight per bunch (0.78). Based on the yield and morphological traits, a clustering analysis was performed and three phenotypic groups were identified (1, 2 and 3) in which groups 1 and 3 showed high scores associated primarily with yield traits. Microsatellite markers revealed 143 alleles, 11.92 ± 4.72 alleles per locus (A) and an expected heterozygosity (He) of 0.69 ± 0.045. A structural analysis identified three populations (k = 3), that were not related to the phenotypic groups. Interestingly, a multiple allele background was identified within the groups using multilocus and phylogenetic relationship analyses. This is the first Peruvian report regarding E. oleifera that shows preliminary data of the morphological and yield traits and genetic data, and highlight the importance of this information to set up future steps to national breeding strategies and improve the conservation of genetic material of E. oleifera. Overall, these novel findings could contribute to the development of the local oil palm industry in Peru.


Asunto(s)
Arecaceae/anatomía & histología , Arecaceae/genética , Filogenia , Alelos , Arecaceae/citología , Genotipo , Repeticiones de Microsatélite , Perú , Fenotipo , Fitomejoramiento
6.
Mol Ecol ; 2021 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949023

RESUMEN

The Amazon basin holds the world's largest freshwater fish diversity. Information on the intensity and timing of reproductive ecology of Amazonian fish is scant. We use a metabarcoding method by capture using a single probe to quantify species-level ichthyoplankton dynamics. We sampled the Marañón and the Ucayali rivers in Peru monthly for 2 years. We identified 97 species that spawned mainly during the flood start, the flood end or the receding periods, although some species had spawning activity in more than one period. This information was new for 40 of the species in the Amazon basin and 80 species in Peru. Most species ceased spawning for a month during a strong hydrological anomaly in January 2016, demonstrating the rapidity with which they react to environmental modifications during the breeding season. We also document another unreported event in the Amazon basin, the inverse phenology of species belonging to one genus (Triportheus). Overall larval flow in the Marañón was more than twice that of the Ucayali, including for most commercial species (between two and 20 times higher), whereas the Ucayali accounts for ~80% of the fisheries landings in the region. Our results are discussed in the light of the main anthropogenic threats to fishes, hydropower dam construction and the Hidrovía Amazónica, and should serve as a pre-impact baseline.

7.
Zootaxa ; 4948(2): zootaxa.4948.2.2, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757024

RESUMEN

A new Corydoras is described from the Blanco and Ucayali river basins in Peru. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by having the following features: (I) posterior margin of dorsal-fin spine with laminar serrations directed towards the origin of the spine; (II) a long, wide, arched, and continuous black stripe, which runs parallel to the dorsal profile of the body, extending at least from the region below anterior origin of dorsal fin to the anterior half of the ventral caudal-fin lobe; (III) a black stripe transversally crossing the eye, forming the typical mask-like blotch; mask clearly not fused to arched stripe in most specimens; some specimens with mask separated from arched stripe by a thin line around the suture between neurocranium (in the region composed by the posteroventral margin of parieto-supraoccipital plus the posterodorsal margin of the compound pterotic) and first dorsolateral body plate; (IV) posterior margin of pectoral-fin spine with laminar serrations directed towards the origin of the spine; (V) pointed snout, presenting a long mesethmoid, with anterior tip larger than 50% of the entire length of the bone; and (V) ventral surface of trunk covered by small, non-coalescent platelets. A discussion on the possible positive adaptive value of the arc-striped color pattern is also provided.


Asunto(s)
Bagres , Animales , Color , Perú , Ríos , Cráneo
8.
Preprint en Inglés | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21250859

RESUMEN

ObjectiveThis study examined the laboratory results of COVID-19 patients from a hospital in the Peruvian Amazon and their clinical prognosis. MethodsAn analytical cross-sectional study was carried out whose purpose was to identify the laboratory tests of patients with COVID-19 and mortality in a hospital in Ucayali, Peru during the period from March 13 to May 9, 2020, selecting a total of 127 with Covid-19. Mean and the standard deviation was described for age, leukocytes, neutrophils, platelets, RDW-SD; median and interquartile range for the variables lymphocyte, RN / L, fibrinogen, CRP, D-dimer, DHL, hematocrit, monocytes, eosinophils. ResultsNo differences were observed in this population regarding death and sex (OR: 1.31; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.87), however, it was observed that, for each one-year increase, the probability of death increased by 4% (PR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.05). The IRR (Incidence Risk Ratio) analysis for the numerical variables showed results strongly associated with hematological values such as Leukocytes (scaled by 2500 units) (IRR: 1.08, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.13), neutrophils (scaled by 2500 units) (IRR: 1.08; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.13), on the contrary, it is observed that the increase of 1000 units in lymphocytes, the probability of dying decreased by 48% (IRR: 0.52; 95% CI 0.38 to 071). ConclusionParameters such as leukocytes and neutrophils were statistically much higher in patients who died.

9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 219, 2021 01 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499858

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among Latin American women. Peru has the sixth highest mortality rate for cervical cancer in the region with regional variations. We aimed to determine overall and regional cervical cancer mortality rates and trends in Peru between 2008 and 2017. METHODS: We performed an ecological study on the number of deaths by cervical cancer in Peru. Deaths were extracted from the Peruvian Ministry of Health mortality database. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) were estimated per 100,000 women-years using the world standard Segi population. We computed mortality trends using the Joinpoint regression program, estimating the annual percent change (APC). For spatial analysis, GeoDA software was used. RESULTS: Peru showed downward trends in the last decade (from 11.62 in 2008 to 9.69 in 2017 (APC = - 2.2, 95% CI: - 4.3, - 0.1, p < 0.05). According to regional-specific analysis, the highest ASMR was in the rainforest region, although this declined from 34.16 in 2008 to 17.98 in 2017 (APC = - 4.3, 95% CI: - 7.2, - 1.3, p < 0.01). Concerning spatial analysis and clustering, the mortality rates from 2008 to 2017 showed a positive spatial autocorrelation and significant clustering (Moran's I: 0.35, p < 0.001) predominantly in the neighboring North-East departments (Loreto, Ucayali, and San Martin). CONCLUSIONS: Although mortality trends in the entire population are decreasing, mortality rates remain very high, mainly in the rainforest region. Our results encourage a need for further development and improvement of the current health care delivery system in Peru.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Análisis por Conglomerados , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Mortalidad , Perú/epidemiología , Análisis Espacial
11.
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340679

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Introducción: La selva peruana es un área geográfica con una alta tasa de natalidad, a su vez se encuentra la mayor proporción de madres adolescentes; ENDES reveló que en el país solo el 28,4% de las mujeres adolescentes ha usado alguna vez métodos anticonceptivos. Objetivo: Identificar cual es la percepción de las madres adolescentes respecto al uso de métodos anticonceptivos en comunidades anexas al distrito de Masisea-Ucayali en el 2018. Material y Métodos: Estudio cualitativo de tipo "fenomenológico". La población estudiada estuvo conformada por las madres adolescentes de entre 12-19 años. Se obtuvo una muestra de 13 personas mediante un muestreo teórico cualitativo. Se utilizó un análisis comparativo constante para analizar y sacar conclusiones de los datos de la entrevista. Resultados: La mayoría de las mujeres participantes del estudio tienen conocimientos básicos sobre los métodos anticonceptivos; por otro lado, la perspectiva que tienen frente a estos se ve influenciada por diversos factores. Uno de los factores de mayor relevancia en la percepción es la experiencia de las participantes referida a los efectos secundarios de los anticonceptivos sobretodo hormonales; un segundo factor de relevancia es la opinión de la pareja frente a su uso, ya que el 100% de las mujeres con pareja refirieron consultar a su pareja antes de usar algún anticonceptivo. Conclusiones: Nuestro estudio concluye que la perspectiva de las participantes es influida por el contexto socio cultural; asimismo, se reconoce al centro de salud de la localidad como principal difusor de información referente a métodos anticonceptivos.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The Peruvian jungle is a geographical area with a high birth rate, and it has the highest proportion of teenage mothers; DHS revealed that only 28.4% of teenage women in the country have ever used contraception. Objective: To identify the perception of adolescent mothers regarding the use of contraceptive methods in communities annexed to the district of Masisea-Ucayali in 2018. Materials and Methods: Qualitative study of the "Phenomenological" type The population studied was made up of adolescent mothers between 12-19 years of age. A sample of 13 people was obtained by means of a qualitative theoretical sampling. A constant comparative analysis was used to analyze and draw conclusions from the interview data. Results: Most of the women participating in the study have basic knowledge about contraceptive methods; on the other hand, their perspective on these methods is influenced by various factors. One of the most relevant factors in the perception is the experience of the participants regarding the side effects of contraceptives, especially hormonal ones; a second relevant factor is the opinion of the couple regarding their use, since 100% of the women with a partner referred to consult their partner before using any contraceptive. Conclusions: Our study concludes that the perspective of the participants is influenced by the socio-cultural context; likewise, the local health center is recognized as the main disseminator of information regarding contraceptive methods.

16.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(3): 510-515, 2020 Dec 02.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295554

RESUMEN

A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies and the factors associated with it, in the province of Coronel Portillo (Ucayali) during 2013. A total of 917 surveys were carried out among household heads in three districts of the province (Callería, Manantay and Yarinacocha), in which the proportion of CAM use was calculated and the relationship with sociodemographic variables (age, sex, educational level, marital status, occupation and income) was analyzed. From the total, 179 respondents (19.5%) mentioned that they used CAM in the last 12 months. A statistically significant relationship was found between the use of CAM therapies and educational level (p < 0.001), respondent's occupation (p < 0.001) and monthly income (p < 0.001). Future research will define the found associations and the variables involved.


Asunto(s)
Terapias Complementarias , Terapias Complementarias/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Humanos , Perú , Factores Socioeconómicos
17.
Odontol. pediatr. (Lima) ; 19(2): 5-12, 20201231.
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291073

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Reportar el uso crema dental en niños peruanos menores de 12 años, durante el periodo del 2016 - 2018. Materiales y métodos: El estudio fue descriptivo, longitudinal y retrospectivo, utilizándose los registros de la base de datos ENDES, Perú, durante 2016-2018. La muestra fue multietápico, probabilística y estratificada, formada por 118 716 registros de niños menores de 12 años de edad. Las variables fueron: uso de crema dental, concentración de flúor, departamento, ámbito geográfico y región natural. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de las frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: De los participantes, se cepillaban los dientes, el 88%; se cepillan los dientes 2 veces al día, el 40%; utilizaban crema dental, el 98%; usaban crema dental con una concentración de flúor de 1000ppm o más, el 44,6% (n=15 376), 43,2% (n=14 545) y 44% (n=16 227), para los años 2016, 2017 y 2018, respectivamente. En los departamentos de Piura, Loreto, San Martin y Ucayali usan crema dental ≥1000ppm de flúor, en mayor porcentaje, en un 55% a 74,9%. Las cremas dentales con ≥1000ppm de flúor fueron más utilizadas en la región de la selva y zonas urbanas. Conclusión: Se encontró que la población se cepilla los dientes, con una frecuencia de 2 veces al día y utilizan crema dental; sin embargo, menos de la mitad de peruanos menores de 12 años de edad, utiliza crema dental fluorada con 1000 ppm o más. Estos resultados se podrían relacionarse con las políticas preventivas actuales contra la caries dental.

18.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177957

RESUMEN

Objetivo. Analizar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas preventivas de la población peruana femenina sobre VIH-SIDA según Encuesta Demográfica y De Salud Familiar (ENDES) 2013-2017. Material y métodos: Se utilizaron los resultados de la Encuesta Nacional Demográfica En Salud (ENDES) continua 2013-2017. Las variables dependientes fueron los conocimientos, las actitudes y las practicas preventivas frente a la enfermedad. Resultados: Los departamentos con mayor conocimiento alto fueron para el 2013: Tumbes (26,7%) y Ucayali (26,7%), Tacna (23,5%), Junín (19,1%), Lima (19,0%) y Lambayeque (18,7%), y para el año 2017 se encontró mayor conocimiento alto en: Callao (16,8%), Tacna (16,4%), Tumbes (16,0%) y Lambayeque (16,0%), Lima (15,6%) e Ica (13,1%). El mayor porcentaje de conocimiento alto (>80%) del grupo etario fueron 30-34 años para el año 2013 y 2017, y 40-44 años para el año 2014, 2015, 2016. El tipo de lugar de residencia fue el Urbano; y Rural en el año 2014. La región natural fue Lima Metropolitana. El lugar de residencia habitual fue la Capital. El nivel educativo fue el nivel postgrado, y Superior- Universitario para el año 2017. El estrato socioeconómico fue el Muy rico. La pregunta con mayor porcentaje de acierto de conocimientos respondida con mayor frecuencia fue la numero 11º ¿Conoce algún lugar donde se realiza la prueba para el VIH? La pregunta con menor porcentaje de acierto de actitudes fue la numero 5 º Si un médico tiene infección por VIH, ¿se le debe permitir que siga con su trabajo en el establecimiento de salud?'. La pregunta con menor porcentaje de acierto de prácticas fue la número 1º ¿Uso de condón en su última relación sexual?'. Conclusiones: El conocimiento de la población peruana femenina sobre VIH-SIDA según Encuesta Demográfica y De Salud Familiar (ENDES) 2013-2017 más frecuente es el conocimiento medio, las actitudes adecuadas se ubican en el percentil 63% en su mayoría, y las practicas preventivas globales son incorrectas.


Objetive. To analyze the knowledge, attitudes and preventive practices of the Peruvian female population on HIV-AIDS according to Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES) 2013-2017. Material and methods: The results of the National Demographic Survey on Health (ENDES) continued 2013-2017 were used. The dependent variables were knowledge, attitudes and preventive practices against the disease. Results: The departments with the highest knowledge were for 2013: Tumbes (26.7%) and Ucayali (26.7%), Tacna (23.5%), Junín (19.1%), Lima (19.0 %) and Lambayeque (18.7%), and by 2017, higher knowledge was found in: Callao (16.8%), Tacna (16,4%), Tumbes (16.0%) and Lambayeque (16.0%), Lima (15,6%) and Ica (13.1%). The highest percentage of high knowledge (> 80%) of the age group were 30-34 years for 2013 and 2017, and 40-44 years for 2014, 2015, 2016. The type of place of residence was the Urban; and Rural in 2014. The natural region was Metropolitan Lima. The usual place of residence was the Capital. The educational level was the postgraduate level, and Higher-University level for 2017. The socioeconomic stratum was the Very rich. The question with the highest percentage of correctness of knowledge answered most frequently was the number 1º, Do you know where the HIV test is performed? The question with the lowest percentage of correct attitude was the number 5º If a doctor has infection due to HIV, should he be allowed to continue his work in the health facility? The question with the lowest percentage of practice success was number 1º Used Condom use in your last sexual relationship?. Conclusions: The knowledge of the Peruvian female population on HIV-AIDS according to Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES) 2013-2017 is the most common knowledge, the appropriate attitudes are located in the 63% percentile, and the practices Global preventives are incorrect.

19.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 37(3): 510-515, jul-sep 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145023

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Se realizó un estudio transversal con el objetivo de evaluar el uso de terapias de medicina alternativa y complementaria (MAC) y sus factores asociados, en la provincia de Coronel Portillo (Ucayali), durante el 2013. Se realizaron 917 encuestas a los jefes de hogar, residentes en tres distritos de la provincia (Callería, Manantay y Yarinacocha), en las que se calculó la proporción de uso de MAC y se analizó la relación con variables sociodemográficas (edad, sexo, grado de instrucción, estado civil, ocupación e ingreso económico). 179 encuestados (19,5%) mencionaron que utilizaron MAC en los últimos doce meses. Se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre el uso de terapias de MAC y el grado de instrucción (p < 0,001), la ocupación de la persona encuestada (p < 0,001) y su ingreso económico mensual (p < 0,001). Futuras investigaciones definirán las asociaciones encontradas y las variables intervinientes.


ABSTRACT A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies and the factors associated with it, in the province of Coronel Portillo (Ucayali) during 2013. A total of 917 surveys were carried out among household heads in three districts of the province (Callería, Manantay and Yarinacocha), in which the proportion of CAM use was calculated and the relationship with sociodemographic variables (age, sex, educational level, marital status, occupation and income) was analyzed. From the total, 179 respondents (19.5%) mentioned that they used CAM in the last 12 months. A statistically significant relationship was found between the use of CAM therapies and educational level (p < 0.001), respondent's occupation (p < 0.001) and monthly income (p < 0.001). Future research will define the found associations and the variables involved.

20.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(1): 25-31, 2020.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520188

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In Peru, despite the small number of cases, there is evidence of late diagnosis and hidden prevalence of leprosy. In this context the objective of the study was to know the interpretation systems on leprosy, itineraries and therapeutic repertoires of patients diagnosed with leprosy who are in treatment or who have finished treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative study was carried out, applying se mi-structured interviews to patients diagnosed with leprosy from the Loreto and Ucayali regions. RESULTS: 30 patients were interviewed. Most did not know the mechanism of leprosy transmission. In relation to therapeutic itineraries, patients generally went to health facilities on the recommendation of third parties who knew the disease. In some cases, health personnel made a bad diagnosis. The importance of the treatment indicated by the "Ministerio de Salud" (Ministry of Health) is recognized; however, economic factors and the distance to health facilities negatively affect adherence to treatment. In addition, it was evidenced that stigma persists towards the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Patients recognize the importance of treatment; however, they express misconceptions about the pathogenesis of leprosy, and weaknesses in the health system are also identified. These problems would lead to delay in diagnosis and treatment. It is recommended to strengthen control strategies and decentralize the care of leprosy with the participa tion of the community, patients, health personnel and healers, considering the identified barriers and a probable underdiagnosis in women.


Asunto(s)
Lepra , Diagnóstico Tardío , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Lepra/diagnóstico , Lepra/epidemiología , Lepra/terapia , Perú/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Investigación Cualitativa
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