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1.
Immune Network ; : 311-315, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25613

ABSTRACT

A pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus strain was isolated from a pig farm in Korea in December 2009. The strain was propagated in and isolated from both the Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line and embryonated eggs. The partial and complete sequences of the strain were identical to those of A/California/04/2009, with >99% sequence similarity in the HA, NA, M, NS, NP, PA, PB1, and PB2 genes. The isolated strain was inactivated and used to prepare a swine influenza vaccine. This trial vaccine, containing the new isolate that has high sequence similarity with the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus, resulted in seroconversion in Guinea pigs and piglets. This strain could therefore be a potential vaccine candidate for swine influenza control in commercial farms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Agriculture , Cell Line , Eggs , Guinea Pigs , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Kidney , Korea , Orthomyxoviridae , Ovum , Pandemics , Seroconversion , Swine
2.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 27-32, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-31696

ABSTRACT

Among several diagnostic tests, a Helicobacter pylori stool antigen (HpSA) test may offer a useful noninvasive method for diagnosing infection without sacrificing animals. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice (n=6) were infected with H. pylori ATCC 49503 (1x10(8) CFU/mouse) by intragastric inoculation three times at 2-day intervals, and H. pylori infected stool specimens were collected 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 days after infection to assess reliability of the HpSA test. Five of six specimens were positive at 5-21 days after infection, and the sensitivity of the HpSA test was 83.33%. The presence of H. pylori infection was confirmed by the rapid urease test and genomic DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and showed the same results as the HpSA. However, the rapid urease test and genomic DNA PCR are invasive tests and require animal sacrifice to detect H. pylori in gastric biopsy samples. We suggest that an HpSA test kit would be useful and effective for monitoring H. pylori in various laboratory animals, as H. pylori can be easily monitored without sacrificing animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Animals, Laboratory , Biopsy , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , DNA , Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Urease
3.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 195-204, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181168

ABSTRACT

Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious, low pathogenic virus that is endemic all over the world and poses a potential threat to the poultry industry. Vaccination is a widely used effective method to prevent avian influenza virus. Here we employed a comparative proteomics approach [two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF)] to characterize proteome in the sera from the specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens, the vaccinated chickens, and the naturally infected chickens. We identified total 58 proteins that were differentially expressed in the sera of three groups. Among them ovotransferrin and vitamin D-binding protein were more expressed in the sera of naturally infected chickens compare with other groups. Our results suggested that the level of these two proteins in the serum may help to discriminate the naturally infected chicken from the vaccinated chicken.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens , Conalbumin , Electrophoresis , Influenza in Birds , Poultry , Proteins , Proteome , Proteomics , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Vaccination , Viruses , Vitamin D-Binding Protein
4.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 207-212, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68102

ABSTRACT

Avian influenza (AI) virus infects both animal and human. Low pathogenic AI virus infections (some H7 and H9 subtypes) have been reported all over the world and pose a potential threat to the poultry industry. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent virus infection. However, vaccination makes it difficult to differentiate between vaccinated chickens and infected chickens. In order to differentiate vaccinated chickens from naturally infected chickens, we adopted synthetic peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the peptide sequences from nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of H9N2. Five synthetic peptides were designed using Protein Variability Sever (http://imed.med.ucm.es/PVS/) and synthesized. NS1-1 ~ NS1-4 peptides failed to detect serum antibodies from both vaccinated and naturally infected chickens. NS1-5 peptide from the C-terminal NS1 protein detected serum antibody from naturally infected chickens but not vaccinated chickens. These results imply that NS1-5 peptide may be a useful tool to differentiate naturally infected chicken from vaccinated chicken as being used in the synthetic peptide-based ELISA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Antibodies , Chickens , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Influenza in Birds , Peptides , Poultry , Vaccination , Viruses
5.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 323-329, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67602

ABSTRACT

Active serologic surveillance is necessary to control the spread of the avian influenza virus (AIV). In this study, we evaluated a commercially-available cELISA in terms of its ability to detect AIV antibodies in the sera of 3,358 animals from twelve species. cELISA detected antibodies against reference H1- through H15-subtype AIV strains without cross reactivity. Furthermore, the cELISA was able to detect antibodies produced following a challenge of the AIV H9N2 subtype in chickens, or following vaccination of the AIV H9 or H5 subtypes in chickens, ducks and geese. Next, we tested the sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA with sera from twelve different animal species, and compared these results with those obtained by the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test, the "gold standard" in AIV sera surveillance, a second commercially-available cELISA (IZS ELISA), or the agar gel precipitation (AGP) test. Compared with the HI test, the sensitivities and specificities of cELISA were 95% and 96% in chicken, 86% and 88% in duck, 97% and 100% in turkey, 100% and 87% in goose, and 91% and 97% in swine, respectively. The sensitivities and specificities of the cELISA in this study were higher than those of IZS ELISA for the duck, turkey, goose, and grey partridge sera samples. The results of AGP test against duck and turkey sera also showed significant correlation with the results of cELISA (R-value >0.9). In terms of flock sensitivity, the cELISA correlated better with the HI test than with commercially-available indirect ELISAs, with 100% flock sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Birds , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Horses , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza in Birds/blood , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests , Species Specificity , Swine
6.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 349-352, 2005.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-96782

ABSTRACT

An indirect porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) virus (PEDV) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared with the serum neutralization (SN) test by testing 46 samples from experimentally infected sows, 73 samples from naive sows, and 1, 024 field sow samples from 48 commercial swine farms of undefined PED status. The SN test and the ELISA were performed using PEDV, KPEDV-9 strain. Viral proteins as a coating antigen of PEDV ELISA were extracted from the cytoplasm of PEDV-infected Vero cells using a non-ionic detergent, Triton X-100, and a simple protocol of PEDV ELISA was followed. The presence of antibodies in these experimental samples was confirmed by SN and ELISA in which the sensitivity of the ELISA was 89.1%, and the corresponding specificity was 94.5%. On testing 1, 024 field samples, an overall agreement of 84.2% was generated between the SN and ELISA. This study demonstrates that the PEDV ELISA is a useful serodiagnostic screening test at herd level for detecting swine antibodies against PEDV.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Neutralization Tests/veterinary , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis
7.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 353-357, 2004.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79777

ABSTRACT

A few members of coronavirus group I which includes porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) use porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN) as a cellular receptor. Cellular receptors play an important role in virus attachment and entry. However, the low permissiveness of PEDV to APN-expressing porcine cell lines has made it difficult to elucidate the role of pAPN in vitro. The purpose of this study was to prove whether the treatment of soluble pAPN could enhance the antibody production against PEDV in guinea pigs, rabbits and sows. The animals (20 guinea pigs, 8 rabbits and 20 sows) were divided into 4 groups. Group A was injected intramuscularly (IM) with soluble pAPN at one hour before intramuscular infection of PEDV on the same site, group B for IM simultaneous injection of pAPN and PEDV, and group C for IM injection of PEDV only. Group D served as a control of pAPN treatment or PEDV infection. Antibody production against PEDV was compared among groups at regular intervals. The results suggested that pAPN could enhance the antibody production against PEDV in guinea pigs and rabbits which are free of pAPN, however, the effect of pAPN treatment in sows was not clearly elucidated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rabbits , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , CD13 Antigens , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Guinea Pigs , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes , Injections, Intramuscular , Solubility , Swine , Swine Diseases/immunology , Vero Cells/virology
8.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 269-275, 2003.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103630

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes an acute enteritis in pigs of all ages, often fatality for neonates. PEDV occupies an intermediate position between two well characterized members of the coronavirus group I, human coronavirus (HCoV-229E)and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) which uses aminopeptidase N (APN), a 150 kDa protein, as their receptors. However, the receptor of the PEDV has not been identified yet. A virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) was used to identify PEDV binding protein in permissive cells. The binding ability of PEDV to porcine APN (pAPN) and the effects of pAPN on infectivity of PEDV in Vero cells were also investigated. VOPBA identified a 150 kDa protein, as a putative PEDV receptor in enterocytes and swine testicle (ST) cells. Further the PEDV binding to pAPN was blocked by anti-pAPN and pAPN enhanced PEDV infectivity in Vero cells. In conclusion, these results suggested that pAPN may act as a receptor of PEDV.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , CD13 Antigens/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Digestive System Diseases/metabolism , Enterocytes/enzymology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Swine , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Vero Cells
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