Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 69
Filter
1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-222307

ABSTRACT

An 8-year-old girl with a rash and high-grade fever for 6 days arrived at the emergency room. She had an erythematous macular rash on the face, trunk, arms, and legs. Further interrogation called attention to the presence of close contact with stray dogs. Her town had been recognized as a site of a rickettsiosis outbreak in the past year. Spotted fever rickettsiosis was suspected, and doxycycline treatment was initiated. Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) secondary to Rickettsia rickettsii infection was diagnosed according to the Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and EULAR/PRINTO/PRES 2016 criteria. As there are no clear guidelines on the treatment of MAS secondary to R. rickettsii. the course of action taken by the pediatric intensive care unit team was to avoid disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and treat MAS, both life-threatening conditions. Directed therapy with high doses of methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy was initiated. The patient recovered, regaining her functional state before the illness. Few articles have described the association between MAS and rickettsiosis, an illness with high mortality, which makes it paramount to detect and treat promptly.

2.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 7(1): 96-102, 20230300. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1509636

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) is a systemic hyperinflammatory disease that occurs in a small number of children after being infected with SARS-CoV-2. Macrophage activation syndrome, an aggressive condition characterized by the excessive inflammation and activation of well-differentiated macrophages, has been shown to occur in patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. Considering the clinical and pathophysiological similarities between these diseases, our main objective was to determine whether gene polymorphisms associated with macrophage activation syndrome were also present in patients with PIMS-TS. Methods: DNA from 10 pediatric patients with PIMS-TS (case group) and ten COVID-19 patients without PIMS-TS (control group) were genotyped by Real-time PCR analysis (TaqMan®) for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in four genes associated with macrophage activation syndrome: perforin 1 (PRF1), granzyme B (GZMB), syntaxin 11 (STX11), and syntaxin binding protein 2 (STXBP2). The SNP analysis was performed using the additive, dominant, and recessive models. Results: A significantly higher frequency of an SNP (C wild allele in rs6573910) in the GZMB gene was observed in both the additive and dominant models in the PIMS-TS group than controls. A borderline significant difference was also observed for the G allele in rs7764017 of the STX11 gene in the PIMS-TS group in the additive model. Conclusions: This study indicated the presence of two polymorphisms in genes associated with macrophage activation syndrome (GZMB and STX11) in patients who developed PIMS-TS. If the presence of these SNPs is validated in a larger number of PIMS-TS cases, they can be used as potential biomarkers for early identification of pediatric patients with a higher probability of developing PIMS-TS associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Introdução: A síndrome multissistêmica inflamatória pediátrica temporariamente associada ao SARS-CoV-2 (SIMP-TS) é uma doença hiperinflamatória sistêmica que ocorre em um pequeno número de crianças após serem infectadas pelo SARS-CoV-2. A síndrome de ativação de macrófagos (SAM), uma condição agressiva caracterizada pela inflamação excessiva e ativação de macrófagos bem diferenciados, demonstrou ocorrer em pacientes infectados por SARS-CoV-2. Considerando as semelhanças clínicas e fisiopatológicas entre essas doenças, neste estudo o nosso principal objetivo foi determinar se polimorfismos gênicos associados à SAM também estavam presentes em pacientes com SIMP-TS. Métodos: DNA de dez pacientes pediátricos com SIMP (grupo caso) e dez pacientes COVID-19 sem SIMP (grupo controle) foram genotipados por análise de PCR em tempo real (tecnologia TaqMan®) para polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único (SNPs) em quatro genes selecionados associados com SAM: perforina 1 (PRF1), granzima B (GZMB), sintaxina 11 (STX11) e proteína de ligação de sintaxina 2 (STXBP2). A análise dos SNPs foi realizada utilizando o modelo aditivo, dominante e recessivo. Resultados: Uma frequência significativamente maior de um SNP (alelo selvagem C em rs6573910) no gene GZMB foi observada pelos modelos aditivo e dominante no grupo SIMP quando comparado aos controles. Além disso, uma significância limítrofe foi observada para o alelo G em rs7764017 do gene STX11 no grupo SIMP pelo modelo aditivo. Conclusões: Nosso estudo indicou a presença de dois polimorfismos em genes associados à SAM (GZMB e STX11) em pacientes que desenvolveram SIMP-TS. Uma vez validada a presença desses SNPs em um número maior de casos de SIMP-TS, eles podem ser usados como potenciais biomarcadores para a identificação precoce de pacientes pediátricos com maior probabilidade de desenvolver SIMP-TS associado à infecção por SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child
3.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 1111-1117, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010176

ABSTRACT

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is clinically severe, with a high mortality rate and rare neuropsychiatric symptoms. In the course of diagnosis and treatment, it is necessary to actively determine whether the neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients are caused by neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) or macrophage activation syndrome. This paper retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 2 cases of SLE associated MAS with neuropsychiatric lesions, Case 1: A 30-year-old female had obvious alopecia in 2019, accompanied by emaciation, fatigue and dry mouth. In March 2021, she felt weak legs and fell down, followed by fever and chills without obvious causes. After completing relevant examinations, she was diagnosed with SLE and given symptomatic treatments such as hormones and anti-infection, but the patient still had fever. The relevant examinations showed moderate anemia, elevated ferritin, elevated triglycerides, decreased NK cell activity, and a perforin positivity rate of 4.27%, which led to the diagnosis of "pre-hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS)". In May 2021, the patient showed mental trance and babble, and was diagnosed with "SLE-associated MAS"after completing relevant examinations. After treatment with methylprednisolone, anti-infection and psychotropic drugs, the patient's temperature was normal and mental symptoms improved. Case 2: A 30-year-old female patient developed butterfly erythema on both sides of the nose on her face and several erythema on her neck in June 2019, accompanied by alopecia, oral ulcers, and fever. She was diagnosed with "SLE" after completing relevant examinations, and her condition was relieved after treatment with methylprednisolone and human immunoglobulin. In October 2019, the patient showed apathy, no lethargy, and fever again, accompanied by dizziness and vomiting. The relevant examination indicated moderate anemia, decreased NK cell activity, elevated triglycerides, and elevated ferritin. The patient was considered to be diagnosed with "SLE, NPSLE, and SLE-associated MAS". After treatment with hormones, human immunoglobulin, anti-infection, rituximab (Mabthera), the patient's condition improved and was discharged from the hospital. After discharge, the patient regularly took methylprednisolone tablets (Medrol), and her psychiatric symptoms were still intermittent. In November 2019, she developed symptoms of fever, mania, and delirium, and later turned to an apathetic state, and was given methylprednisolone intravenous drip and olanzapine tablets (Zyprexa) orally. After the mental symptoms improved, she was treated with rituximab (Mabthera). Later, due to repeated infections, she was replaced with Belizumab (Benlysta), and she was recovered from her psychiatric anomalies in March 2021. Through the analysis of clinical symptoms, imaging examination, laboratory examination, treatment course and effect, it is speculated that the neuropsychiatric symptoms of case 1 are more likely to be caused by MAS, and that of case 2 is more likely to be caused by SLE. At present, there is no direct laboratory basis for the identification of the two neuropsychiatric symptoms. The etiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms can be determined by clinical manifestations, imaging manifestations, cerebrospinal fluid detection, and the patient's response to treatment. Early diagnosis is of great significance for guiding clinical treatment, monitoring the condition and judging the prognosis. The good prognosis of the two cases in this paper is closely related to the early diagnosis, treatment and intervention of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Lupus Vasculitis, Central Nervous System , Fever/drug therapy , Erythema/drug therapy , Hormones/therapeutic use , Anemia , Alopecia/drug therapy , Triglycerides/therapeutic use , Ferritins/therapeutic use
4.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 966-974, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010155

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze and compare the clinical and laboratory characteristics of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD), and to evaluate the applicability of the 2016 European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology/Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organization classification criteria for MAS complicating systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) in different auto-immune diseases contexts and to propose new diagnostic predictive indicators.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical and laboratory data of 24 SLE patients with MAS (SLE-MAS) and 24 AOSD patients with MAS (AOSD-MAS) who were hospitalized at Peking University People's Hospital between 2000 and 2018. Age- and sex-matched SLE (50 patients) and AOSD (50 patients) diagnosed in the same period without MAS episodes were selected as controls. The cutoff values for laboratory indicators predicting SLE-MAS and AOSD-MAS were determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Furthermore, the laboratory diagnostic predictive values for AOSD-MAS were used to improve the classification criteria for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated MAS (sJIA-MAS), and the applicability of the revised criteria for AOSD-MAS was explored.@*RESULTS@#Approximately 60% of SLE-MAS and 40% of AOSD-MAS occurred within three months after the diagnosis of the underlying diseases. The most frequent clinical feature was fever. In addition to the indicators mentioned in the diagnosis criteria for hemophagocytic syndrome revised by the International Society for Stem Cell Research, the MAS patients also exhibited significantly elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, along with a significant decrease in albumin. Hemophagocytosis was observed in only about half of the MAS patients. ROC curve analysis demonstrated that the optimal discriminative values for diagnosing MAS was achieved when SLE patients had ferritin level≥1 010 μg/L and lactate dehydroge-nase levels≥359 U/L, while AOSD patients had fibrinogen levels≤225.5 mg/dL and triglyceride levels≥2.0 mmol/L. Applying the 2016 sJIA-MAS classification criteria to AOSD-MAS yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 62%. By replacing the less specific markers ferritin and fibrinogen in the 2016 sJIA-MAS classification criteria with new cutoff values, the revised criteria for classifying AOSD-MAS had a notable increased specificity of 86%.@*CONCLUSION@#Secondary MAS commonly occurs in the early stages following the diagnosis of SLE and AOSD. There are notable variations in laboratory indicators among different underlying diseases, which may lead to misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis when using uniform classification criteria for MAS. The 2016 sJIA-MAS classification criteria exhibit high sensitivity but low specificity in diagnosing AOSD-MAS. Modification of the criteria can enhance its specificity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Child , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/complications , Arthritis, Juvenile/diagnosis , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Fibrinogen , Ferritins
5.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 23-30, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994384

ABSTRACT

Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), which is currently named as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), is a hyperinflammatory syndrome characterized by persistent fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia and hemophagocytosis found in bone marrow, liver, spleen and lymph nodes due to excessive activation of macrophages and cytotoxic T cells. Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a specific form of HLH induced by autoinflammatory/autoimmune disorders which can be life-threatening and requires multiple disciplines. In order to improve clinicians′ understanding of MAS and standardize the clinical diagnosis and treatment practice of MAS, the rheumatology branch of Chinese Rheumatology Association organized domestic experts to formulate the diagnosis and treatment standard, in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment level of MAS and improve the prognosis of patients.

6.
Chinese Journal of Rheumatology ; (12): 85-90, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992917

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the efficacy of liposomal doxombicin combined with etoposide and high dose methylprednisolone (DEP) as a salvage therapy for refractory macrophage activation syndrome (MAS).Methods:Totally 38 patients with refractory MAS were enrolled in this study from January 2016 to January 2022 in Beijing Friendship Hospital, including clinical characteristics and laboratory test results before and after DEP treatment, were retrospectively collected. The efficacy was evaluated every 2 weeks according to the United States Midwest Cooperative HLH Group. Relevant samples were statistically analyzed using non-parametric tests.Results:Of 38 refractory MAS patients, 8 males and 30 females were included into this study.The median age was 30(15-69) years old. The underlying disease were adult onset Still's disease in 29 cases, Systemic lupus erythematosus in 6 cases, Rheumatoid arthritis in 1 case and Undifferentiated Connective-Tissue disease in 2. The overall response rate was 95% (36/38), including 9 patients (24%) achieved complete remission and 27 patients (71%) achieved partial remission after 2 weeks of treatment. The overall response rate was 97% (34/35), including 16 (46%) complete remission and 18 (51%) partial remission after 4 weeks of treatment(due to lack of data in some patients). The overall response rate was 97% (34/35), including 17 (49%) complete remission and 17 (49%) partial remission after 6 weeks of treatment. Patients who achieved partial remission or complete remission were actively treated for the underlying diseases after induction, and their conditions were in persistent remission.Conclusion:The DEP regimen may be an effective salvage therapy for the treatment of refractory MAS.

7.
Clinical Medicine of China ; (12): 96-100, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992473

ABSTRACT

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis is one of the common rheumatic and immune diseases in children. It has a sudden onset, obvious systemic symptoms, and lung involvement. However, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis with an early manifestation of pulmonary ground-glass opacities combined with macrophage activation syndrome is rare. The clinical data of a child with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis with pulmonary ground-glass shadow and macrophage activation syndrome who was admitted to Hubei Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital affiliated to Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology in December 2021 were analyzed retrospectively in order to improve the understanding of rheumatic diseases and pulmonary lesions. The child was admitted to the hospital for 10 days due to rash and fever. Thoracic CT showed scattered ground glass like shadows in both lungs due to the prevention and control screening of COVID-19 pneumonia epidemic situation. After admission, the child was still repeatedly flaccid with high fever, accompanied by dysfunction of both lower limbs. The knee joint MRI found that there was synovitis in the knee joint, and various laboratory indicators suggested macrophage activation syndrome. After that, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis was diagnosed. After being treated with methylprednisolone, cyclosporine and topzumab, the clinical remission and the ground-glass shadow of the lung basically disappeared. Through the analysis of this case, it is suggested that clinicians should not ignore other diseases that cause ground glass shadow in the lung during the current epidemic of COVID-19.

8.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 615-618, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990091

ABSTRACT

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis(sJIA) is one of the most serious critical illnesses in childhood, characterized by high fever, recurrent rash, and arthritis, etc.Children with sJIA associated-lung disease(sJIA-LD) are more severely ill and have a worse prognosis, the correlation between the mechanism and age, disease activity, anti-rheumatic drug therapy, applications of biologics, infection and other factors is worth exploring.This article reviews the research progress on the mechanism, risk factors, treatment methods and prognosis of sJIA-LD, so as to provide a theoretical basis for improving the diagnosis and treatment of sJIA and improving the prognosis.

9.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 1846-1852, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013684

ABSTRACT

Aim To observe the inhibitory effect of Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) on the inflammatory cytokine storm of Ml-type inflammatory macrophages induced by LPS and explore its possible targeting mechanism. Methods Western blot was used to detect the expression of WIL2-S B lymphocytes, H9 T lymphocytes, THP-1 monocytes and M0 macrophages LRP1 receptor protein. CCK-8 method was used to detect the survival rate of the four cells. ELISA was used to detect the expression level of inflammatory cytokines in Ml macrophages. Western blot was used to detect the expression of TLR4 signaling pathway-related protein in Ml macrophages. Results Macrophages had a high density of LRP1 receptors consistent with monocytes; the survival rate of α-MMC on the four cells was positively correlated with the density of this receptor; α-MMC inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokinesTNF-α, IL-lβ, IL-6, IL-8, MlP-lα and MCP-1 in Ml macrophages in a dose-and time-dependent manner; α-MMC showed significant inhibition to TAKl/pTAK1, p-JNK, p-APl and p-p65 signaling proteins of the TLR4 signaling pathway, and this inhibition could be blocked by the LRP1 receptor blocker RAP. Conclusions α-MMC selectively inhibits macrophage inflammatory cytokine synthesis by inhibiting TAK1 of the TLR4 signaling pathway, which in turn inhibits the downstream NF-ΚB and MAPK pathways, mediated by the LRP1 receptor. The selective immunosuppressive effect of α-MMC on macrophages may make it a very promising agent for the treatment of acute infectious macrophage activation syndrome (MAS).

10.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 572-578, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981996

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the clinical manifestations and laboratory examination results of children with Kawasaki disease complicated by macrophage activation syndrome (KD-MAS), and to provide a basis for identifying early warning indicators for the early diagnosis and treatment of KD-MAS.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was performed on 27 children with KD-MAS (KD-MAS group) and 110 children with KD (KD group) who were admitted to Wuhan Children's Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, from January 2014 to January 2022. Clinical and laboratory data were compared between the two groups. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to investigate the value of laboratory markers with statistical significance in the diagnosis of KD-MAS.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the KD group, the KD-MAS group had significantly higher incidence rates of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, incomplete KD, no response to intravenous immunoglobulin, coronary artery damage, multiple organ damage, and KD recurrence, as well as a significantly longer length of hospital stay (P<0.05). Compared with the KD group, the KD-MAS group had significantly lower levels of white blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, hemoglobin, platelet count (PLT), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum albumin, serum sodium, prealbumin, and fibrinogen (FIB), a significantly lower incidence rate of non-exudative conjunctiva, and significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and serum ferritin (SF) (P<0.05). The ROC curve analysis showed that SF, PLT, FIB, and LDH had high value in the diagnosis of KD-MAS, with areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.989, 0.966, 0.932, and 0.897, respectively (P<0.001), and optimal cut-off values of 349.95 μg/L, 159×109/L, 3.85 g/L, and 403.50 U/L, respectively. The combination of SF, PLT, FIB, and LDH had a larger AUC than PLT, FIB, and LDH alone in the diagnosis of KD-MAS (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the AUC between the combination of SF, PLT, FIB, and LDH and SF alone (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#KD-MAS should be considered when children with KD have hepatosplenomegaly, no response to intravenous immunoglobulin, coronary artery damage, and KD recurrence during treatment. SF, PLT, FIB, and LDH are of high value in the diagnosis of KD-MAS, especially SF is of great significance in the diagnosis of KD-MAS.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Blood Sedimentation , Hepatomegaly
11.
International Journal of Pediatrics ; (6): 129-134, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989052

ABSTRACT

Macrophage activation syndrome is a life-threatening syndrome of multiple causes secondary to rheumatic immune diseases.It is characterized by the continuous activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes and macrophages that leads to overwhelming immune response and excessive release of pro-inflammatory mediators, which eventually causes cytokine storm and multiple organ failure.The main clinical manifestations and laboratory abnormalities include fever, hemocytopenia, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, lymph node enlargement, coagulation disorders, liver function damage, hyperferritinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and the phenomenon of phagocytosis of blood cells in bone marrow.This article reviews the progress of epidemiology, pathogenesis and biomarkers in macrophage activation syndrome to provide new insights for early diagnosis and identification of the complication which has a rapid progress and high fatality rate.

12.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(4): 485-490, Oct.-dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421541

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis comprises a systemic hyperactivation of macrophages that requires prompt recognition of symptoms and early treatment. Objective and Method: In this context, we described clinical and laboratory characteristics, therapeutic modality and outcome of 21 patients with HLH treated at a pediatric oncology hospital between January 2000 and February 2019. Results: HLH mainly affected females, fever was the most frequent clinical sign and hyperferritinemia was the most prevalent laboratory abnormality. All patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at some point. Fifteen (71.4%) patients presented resolution criteria and eight (53.3%) of them presented reactivation. The mortality rate was 57.1% and the mean time between diagnosis and death was 9.98 months. The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 36.7%. We observed a significant difference in prognosis associated with reactivation of HLH. These patients demonstrated an estimated 5-year OS of 25%, while all patients that did not reactivate were alive until the end of the follow-up. Conclusion: In conclusion, HLH is a rare disease with a high mortality rate, especially in patients with disease reactivation and those with familial- or immunodeficiency-associated forms, which makes early recognition and genetic testing crucial for appropriate management and prompt SCT indication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Hyperferritinemia
13.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2022 Sept; 89(9): 879–884
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223729

ABSTRACT

Objectives To know the clinical presentation and outcome of children with pediatric infammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV- 2 (PIMS-TS) at a pediatric tertiary care center in Chennai. Methods Clinical and biochemical parameters of 65 children with PIMS-TS treated between July and October 2020 were studied. All children had their COVID RT-PCR and IgG COVID antibodies tests done. Results Mean age of the study group was 5.65±3.68 y. Fever with red eyes, rash, vomiting, abdominal pain, and shock were common presenting features. Sixty percent of the study group had Kawasaki/incomplete Kawasaki features. Sixty-seven percent of the study group had coronary dilatation, 41% presented with shock, and 25% had left ventricular dysfunction. Coronary aneurysms were documented in 58% of the study group (z score more than 2.5). Respiratory presentation with pneumonia was seen in 10%. Four children presented with acute abdomen. Acute kidney injury, acute liver failure, hemolysis, pancytopenia, macrophage activation syndrome, encephalopathy, and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) were other features. Forty-three percent required noninvasive oxygen support and 15.4% required mechanical ventilation. Intravenous immunoglobulin (73.8%) and methylprednisolone (49.8%) were used for therapy. Mortality in the study was 6%, which was due to MODS. Conclusions Acute febrile illness with mucocutaneous and gastrointestinal manifestations should have PIMS-TS as a possible diferential diagnosis and needs evaluation with infammatory markers and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.

14.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 28(3): 221-226, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357275

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El síndrome de activación macrofágica (SAM) es una grave complicación de varias entidades reumáticas entre las que se encuentran la artritis idiopática juvenil sistémica, enfermedad de Still y lupus eritematoso sistémico. Este síndrome forma parte de las linfohistiocitosis hemofagocíticas adquiridas y constituye una enfermedad potencialmente mortal, con difi cultad en su identificación y carencia de consensos en cuanto a su manejo. Describimos una serie de casos de pacientes con SAM, exponiendo su proceso diagnóstico, su relación con las enfermedades reumáticas de base, su seguimiento y tratamiento, así como los resultados de diferentes esquemas de manejo.


ABSTRACT Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a serious complication of several rheumatic disor ders, among which are the systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Still's disease and systemic lupus erythematosus. This syndrome is part of the Acquired Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytoses, and is a potentially fatal disease, with difficulty in its identification and a lack of consensus regarding its management. A series of cases are describe of patients with macrophage activation syndrome, explaining their diagnostic process, their relationship with rheumatic diseases, their monitoring, and treatment, as well as the results of different management schemes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Skin and Connective Tissue Diseases , Autoimmune Diseases , Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Immune System Diseases , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Lymphoproliferative Disorders
15.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 23(2)ago. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409167

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La artritis idiopática juvenil sistémica, también conocida como enfermedad de Still, se considera un trastorno autoinflamatorio y suele ser la más compleja y grave entre todas las formas clínicas de la enfermedad. Cursa generalmente en forma de brotes de actividad repetidos, intercalados por periodos de remisión. Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 4 años de edad, con diagnóstico de enfermedad de Still a los 2 años. Actualmente tiene tratamiento con triple terapia de inducción: cloroquina, metotrexato y salazosulfapiridina con actividad de la enfermedad persistentemente alta por JADAS 27. Acudió a consulta por presentar fiebre, toma del estado general y manifestaciones respiratorias de tres días de evolución que se interpretó como una infección respiratoria baja. Se prescribió tratamiento con antibióticos sin signos de mejoría. A los 7 días se agravó el cuadro clínico y se planteó el diagnóstico de síndrome de activación macrofágica. Se comenzó protocolo de tratamiento con esteroides en combinación con otros fármacos de probada eficacia para esta situación clínica (etopósido, ciclosporina, metotrexato). Se revaloró política de antibióticos sin lograrse respuesta satisfactoria y se decidió introducir el rituximab que aporta excelentes resultados. Después de 3 meses de difícil manejo, la paciente egresó del hospital recuperada de esta complicación y con bajo nivel de actividad de la enfermedad de base.


ABSTRACT Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis, also known as Still's disease, is considered an autoinflammatory disorder and is often the most complex and severe of all clinical forms of the disease. It usually takes the form of repeated bouts of activity, interspersed with periods of remission. We present the case of a 4-year-old female patient, diagnosed with Still's disease at 2 years of age. Currently undergoing treatment with triple induction therapy: chloroquine, methotrexate and salazosulfapyridine with persistently high disease activity due to JADAS 27. He comes to the clinic due to fever, general condition, and respiratory manifestations of three days of evolution interpreted as an infectious respiratory process under. Antibiotic treatment is started without signs of improvement. At 7 days the clinical picture worsens, and the diagnosis of Macrophage Activation Syndrome is raised. A steroid treatment protocol is started in combination with other drugs of proven efficacy for this clinical situation (ethopside, cyclosporine, methotrexate). Antibiotic policy was reassessed without achieving a satisfactory response and it was decided to introduce rituximab, which provides excellent results. After three months of difficult management, the patient was released from the hospital recovered from this complication and with a low level of activity of the underlying disease.

16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(2): 271-278, abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388230

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La liberación excesiva de citoquinas en COVID-19 grave se asemeja a la linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica secundaria (sHLH). OBJETIVO: Comparar las características clínicas y de laboratorio entre sHLH y el síndrome de liberación de citoquinas (CRS) en COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una revisión de artículos en la base de datos PubMed, a través de las siguientes palabras clave "HLH and COVID", "HScore in COVID". Se incluyeron las publicaciones disponibles hasta el 16 julio 2020. RESULTADOS: Se elaboró un cuadro comparativo basado en los criterios diagnósticos del protocolo HLH 2004, HScore y características del CRS-COVID-19. Se utilizaron 18 variables para la comparación. DISCUSIÓN: El CRS en COVID-19 grave presenta similitud con el CRS del sHLH; sin embargo, no se puede afirmar que se traten de la misma entidad. Los reportes de sHLH en COVID-19 son escasos. HScore es una herramienta que podría orientar el diagnóstico de HLH secundario a COVID-19 de una manera más práctica que los criterios HLH-2004; sin embargo, su aplicación en COVID-19 se encuentra limitada debido a la ausencia de características claves del estado hiperinflamatorio de COVID-19 que sí destacan en HLH. CONCLUSIONES: El CRS-COVID-19 no es sinónimo de sHLH. Aunque esta última entidad podría o no estar presente en COVID-19 grave.


BACKGROUND: Excessive release of cytokines in severe COVID-19 resembles secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). AIM: To compare the clinical and laboratory characteristics between sHLH and cytokine release syndrome (CRS) in COVID-19. METHODS: A review of articles in the PubMed database was performed, using the following keywords "HLH and COVID", "HScore in COVID". Articles available until July 16, 2020 were included. RESULTS: A comparative table was prepared based on the diagnostic criteria of the HLH 2004 protocol, HScore and characteristics of the CRS-COVID-19. Eighteen variables are used for comparison. DISCUSSION: The CRS in COVID-19 presented similarity with the CRS of sHLH; however, it cannot be stated that they are the same entity. Case reports of sHLH in COVID-19 are small. HScore is a tool that could guide the diagnosis of sHLH in the context of CRS-COVID-19, in a more practical way than the classic criteria described in HLH-2004; however, its application in COVID-19 is limited due to the absence of key features of the hyperinflammatory state of COVID-19 that are included in HLH. CONCLUSIONS: CRS-COVID-19 is not synonymous with sHLH. Although this last entity may or may not be present in the severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Chinese Journal of Postgraduates of Medicine ; (36): 987-990, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908712

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze cytokine pattern of systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SOJIA) combined with macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) in children, and study the early diagnostic value in MAS.Methods:The clinical data of 157 children with SOJIA from January 2013 to March 2018 in Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, SOJIA combined with MAS was in 15 cases (SOJIA combined with MAS group), and simple SOJIA was in 142 cases (simple SOJIA group). The peripheral blood levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ were measured by flow cytometry cytometric beads array. The characteristics of cytokine pattern was analyzed.Results:The IL-10 and IFN-γ in SOJIA combined with MAS group were significantly higher than those in simple SOJIA group: 40.5 (7.9, 236.9) ng/L vs. 4.1 (2.0, 98.7) ng/L and 55.8 (18.5, 500.0) ng/L vs. 4.4 (1.4, 30.1) ng/L, and there were statistical differences ( P<0.01); there were no statistical difference in IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α between 2 groups (P>0.05). Pearson correlation analysis result showed that IL-10 was positive correlated with IFN-γ in SOJIA children with MAS ( r = 0.638, P = 0.011). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis result showed that the area under the curve (AUC) of IFN-γ in predicting MAS was 0.991, 95% CI 0.974 to 1.000, the optimal critical value was 18.45 ng/L, the sensitivity was 92.5%, and the specificity was 95.1%; the AUC of IL-10 in predicting MAS was 0.944 (95% CI 0.893 to 0.996), the optimal critical value was 7.75 ng/L, the sensitivity was 91.7%, and the specificity was 81.7%. Conclusions:The significant increased IL-10 and IFN-γ is helpful for the early diagnosis MAS in children with SOJIA.

18.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 1407-1411, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907979

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the disease outcome, quality of life score [evaluated by child health assessment questionnaire - disability index(CHAQ-DI)] and medical expenses of children with systemic juvenile idiopathic (sJIA) combined with macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) diagnosed by two different criteria.And to analyze the impacts of early MAS diagnosis criteria on the prognosis of sJIA combined with MAS in children.Methods:From January 2016 to December 2020, children with high disease activity of sJIA who were diagnosed and initially treated in the Department of Rheumatology of Beijing Children′s Hospital were enrolled in this study.Clinical characteristics on admission were recorded as baselines.Patients were divided into 2 groups according to different diagnostic criteria.Children diagnosed as MAS based on the 2016 The European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology/Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation MAS diagnostic criteria were included in MAS control group(38 cases), and those diagnosed as early MAS based on the sJIA combined MAS early warning scale but did not meet the 2016 diagnostic criteria were included in MAS early warning group(38 cases). Basic information, clinical manifestations and laboratory test results were collected.According to the clinical manifestations and laboratory results in different periods of follow-up at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks, 6 months and 12 months after treatments, the di-sease activity, CHAQ-DI and medical expenses were compared between the two groups.Results:There were no signi-ficant differences in the disease activity, duration of sJIA and medical expenses between the two groups (all P>0.05). In terms of laboratory results, serum ferritin in MAS early warning group were significantly lower than that of MAS control group at 4 weeks after treatment[(333.97±186.66) μg/L vs.(389.66±221.76) μg/L]( t=-83.47, P<0.05). In terms of disease activity, after 12 months of treatment, the evaluation of American College of Rheumatology pediatric indexes 70 in MAS early warning group was better than that in MAS control group [34.2%(13/38 cases) vs.7.9% (3/38 cases)]( χ2=6.067, P<0.05). In terms of CHAQ-DI, at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks and 6 months of treatment, CHAQ-DI in MAS early warning group were better than those in MAS control group, and the difference were statistically significant ( t=-0.34, -0.27, -0.23, -0.09; all P<0.05). In terms of cumulative medical expenditure at 12 months of treatment, the MAS early warning group was lower than the MAS control group [(114.3±80.7) thousand yuan vs.(157.9±111.7) thousand yuan]( t=-3.97, P<0.05). Conclusions:Quickly judge the condition through the quantitative integral of clinical examination and test indexes, screening and treatment of MAS in early stage are helpful to improve the prognosis and reduce the medical consumption.

19.
International Journal of Pediatrics ; (6): 525-528, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907271

ABSTRACT

Macrophage activation syndrome(MAS)is a rare and fatal complication of Kawasaki disease.So far, many possible causative factors have been explored, including infectious agents and immunologic mechanisms, but the exact etiology remains unclear.Early diagnosis and timely and reasonable treatment are needed for it, because of its insidious onset, rapid progression, multiple organ system involvement, critical clinical symptoms and high mortality.There is no international unified diagnostic criteria and treatment regimen for Kawasaki disease complicated with macrophage activation syndrome at present, many children have the missed diagnosis and miss the best time for treatment.This review aims to analyze Kawasaki disease complicated with macrophage activation syndrome in detail in terms of epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment in order to establish the more specific diagnostic criteria and the more standardized treatment to enable children with such severe KD to receive timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

20.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136755

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the case of a child who presented hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) associated with acute monocytic leukemia after chemotherapy, with hemophagocytosis caused by leukemic cells. Case description: In a university hospital in Southern Brazil, a 3-year-old female was diagnosed with acute monocytic leukemia with normal karyotype. The chemotherapy regimen was initiated, and she achieved complete remission six months later, relapsing after four months with a complex karyotype involving chromosomes 8p and 16q. The bone marrow showed vacuolated blasts with a monocytic aspect and evidence of hemophagocytosis. The child presented progressive clinical deterioration and died two months after the relapse. Comments: HLH is a rare and aggressive inflammatory condition characterized by cytopenias, hepatosplenomegaly, fever, and hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Although rare, malignancy-associated HLH (M-HLH) is fatal. The patient in this case report met five out of the eight established criteria for HLH. The evolution of the patient's karyotype, regardless of the diagnostic profile, seemed secondary to the treatment for acute monocytic leukemia. In this case, the cytogenetic instability might have influenced the abnormal behavior of leukemic cells. This is a rare case of HLH in a child with acute monocytic leukemia.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever um caso de um paciente pediátrico que apresentou linfo-histiocitose hemofagocítica (LHH) associada à leucemia monocítica aguda pós-quimioterapia, com hemofagocitose causada pelas próprias células leucêmicas. Descrição do caso: Em um hospital universitário do Sul do Brasil, uma menina de três anos foi diagnosticada com leucemia monocítica aguda com cariótipo normal. Após receber protocolo quimioterápico, atingiu remissão seis meses depois do início do tratamento, recaíndo quatro meses após com um cariótipo complexo envolvendo ambos os cromossomos, 8p e 16q. A medula óssea mostrava-se infiltrada por células blásticas vacuolizadas com aspecto monocítico, com evidências de hemofagocitose. A criança apresentou um declínio clínico progressivo e dois meses após a recaída foi a óbito. Comentários: A LHH é uma condição inflamatória rara e agressiva caracterizada por citopenias, hepatoesplenomegalia, febre e hemofagocitose na medula óssea, linfonodos, baço e fígado. A LHH associada a doenças malignas, embora seja uma condição rara, é potencialmente fatal. A paciente deste caso apresentou cinco dos oito critérios estabelecidos para o diagnóstico de LHH. A evolução do cariótipo do paciente, independentemente do perfil do diagnóstico, pareceu ser secundária ao tratamento da leucemia monocítica aguda, sendo que a instabilidade citogenética pode ter influenciado o comportamento atípico observado nas células leucêmicas. Este é um dos raros casos de LHH em uma criança com leucemia monocítica aguda.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute/drug therapy , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Brazil , Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute/diagnosis , Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute/genetics , Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL